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We have over 178 essays for "19th Amendment"

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Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78787461

It is interesting to note that members of Congress would introduce this bill every year for 41 years, with exactly the same wording, until it finally passed (Linder).

One big step in the process were the states in the West who allowed women to vote. In 1890, Wyoming joined the union, and women had been voting there for many years. It is also interesting to note that it was the Senator from a western state, California, who first introduced the bill in 1878 (Kobach). In 1912, Theodore oosevelt, running for the Bull Moose Party, included women's voting rights in his party platform, which brought more positive attention to the matter. oosevelt lost the election, but the idea of women's rights had become to seem less offensive to many, and so, in 1920 the measure finally became law.

Thousands of women worked throughout that time to help gain support and understanding…… [Read More]

References

Editors. "Nineteenth Amendment." Archives.gov. 2007. 28 Feb. 2007.  http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/constitution_amendment_19.html 

Kobach, Kris. "Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment." University of Missouri. 2007. 28 Feb. 2007. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/nineteenthkobach.html

Linder, Doug. "Women's Fight for the Vote: The Nineteenth Amendment." University of Missouri. 2007. 28 Feb. 2007. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/nineteentham.htm
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Supreme Court Second Amendment Case

Words: 1678 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92259243

District of Columbia v. Heller Case Brief

Case Facts: The District of Columbia Code prohibited carrying an unregistered firearm and banned the registration of handguns through its provisions. However, the provisions granted the chief of police the liberty to grant one-year licenses for handguns. Additionally, the Code required individuals owning legitimately registered firearms to keep them unloaded and disassembled or with locked trigger unless they were in business places or being utilized for legalized recreational activities.

A special police officer in Washington, D.C., Dick Anthony Heller, was permitted to carry a handgun while on duty. He applied for a one-year registration license from the city of Washington for a handgun he wanted to keep at home. Based on the provisions of the District of Columbia Code, Heller's application was rejected. Consequently, he sued the District of Columbia on the premise that the provisions of this Code violated the Second Amendment.…… [Read More]

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States Power and the 17th Amendment Why States Lost

Words: 1216 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87001033

17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified in 1913. It altered the way in which Senators of the Congress were elected. Previously, under Article 1 of the Constitution, it was the state legislature's responsibility to elect senators to Congress. ith the 17th Amendment, however, the voting power was placed directly into the hands of the public. The Amendment also provided a way for states to allow governors to fill vacancies in their state's appointed seats in Congress by temporarily appointing a senator until a time in which a special election could be conducted.

The text of the Amendment states specifically that "two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years" shall be the manner in which senators are now voted into office. This effectively made the process of electing senators more democratic and less representational, in the sense that that the voting public had the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bybee, Jahy. "Ulysees at the Mast." Northwestern University Law Review, vol. 91, no. 1

(1997): 530-564.

Zwicki, Todd. "Beyond the Shell and Husk of History." Cleveland State Law Review, vol. 45, no. 1 (1997): 1021-1034.
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Slavery Was the Major Force in the 19th Century American Politics

Words: 1813 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40536244

Slavery

The so-called peculiar institution of slavery would come to define America in the 19th century, and set the stage for effects that until the current day. It was a critical, destructive error to leave the issue of slavery unresolved at the time of American independence.

Attempts to econcile the Slavery Issue

3/5 Compromise

What was the 3/5 Compromise?

elevance of the 3/5 Compromise

Significance of the 3/5 Compromise for the issue of slavery

Missouri Compromise of 1820

Define (MO as slave state, ME as free state)

Louisiana territory

Significance of the 1820 compromise

3.Compromise of 1850

Define the compromise of 1850

Significance of this compromise iii. Fugitive Slave Act and DC

Shift in power dynamic on the issue

Nebraska-Kansas Act

Define the Nebraska-Kansas Act

Describe the bleeding of Kansas iii. Show how the violence was a precursor to the Civil War

Dred Scot

What was the Dred Scott case?…… [Read More]

References

Foner, E. (1974). The causes of the American Civil War: recent interpretations and new directions. Civil War History. Vol. 20 (3) 197-214.

Laws.com (2015). What was the three-fifths compromise? Laws.com. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from  http://constitution.laws.com/three-fifths-compromise 

Library of Congress (2015). Primary documents in American history. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from  http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/Missouri.html 

Library of Congress (2015, 2). Kansas-Nebraska Act. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from  http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/ourdocs/kansas.html
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Timeline Gendered Movements Over the Centuries the

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76160945

Timeline Gendered Movements

Over the centuries, the women's rights movement has been continually evolving based upon the examples set by others. This has enabled them to make significant changes in the way they are treated and viewed within everyday society. To fully understand these transformations requires examining different events and their influence on future generations. This will be accomplished by looking at: four major events and how they are related to one another. Together, these elements will illustrate the influence of different organizations and the changes that occurred.

There are number of events which had a major impact on the women's rights movement. The most notable include:

1869 to 1890 the establishment of the National Woman Suffrage Association: In 1869 Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton formed the National Women's Suffrage Association. Their goal was to achieve voting rights through a constitutional amendment. They merged with the American Women Suffrage…… [Read More]

References

DuBois, E. (1999). Feminism and Suffrage. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Farber, D. (1994). The Age of Great American Dreams. New York, NY: Hill and Wang.

Wright, S. (2005). The Civil Rights Act of 1964. New York, NY: Rosen Publishing.
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Religion Entered the 18th Century and With

Words: 8434 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77108254

religion entered the 18th Century and with it a revival. The growth of the revival was overwhelming.More people attended church than in previous centuries. Churches from all denominations popped up throughout established colonies and cities within the United States. Religious growth also spread throughout England, Wales and Scotland. This was a time referred to as "The Great Awakening" where people like Jarena Lee got her start preaching.

Evangelism, the epicenter of the movement, preached the Old and New Testament summoned forth parishioners. Churches were erected, both grand and small by the rich and poor, however at this time, it did not matter which class system was inside; everyone was finding comfort in church attendance and the hearing of the word. The largest Protestant groups consisted of Presbyterians, aptists and Methodists. Those denominations (Anglicans, Quakers, and Congregationalists) established earlier were unable to keep up with this growing Protestant revolution.

In 1787…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Albanese, Catherine, and Stephen Stein, eds. Sisters of the Spirit: Three Black Women's Autobiographies of the Nineteenth Century. Edited by William L. Andrews. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986.

Bell, D.. "Allowed Irregularities: Women Preachers in the Early 19th-Century Maritimes" Acadiensis [Online], Volume 30 Number 2 (3 March 2001)

Brekus, Catherine A. Strangers and Pilgrims: Female Preaching in America, 1740-1845. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 1998.

Ditmire, Susan. "Cape May County." usgennet.org. http://www.usgennet.org/usa/nj/county/capemay/Jarena.htm  (accessed May 2, 2013). (primary source)
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Turning Points in American History Two Turning

Words: 1524 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3602326

Turning Points in American History

Two Turning Points and Current Impact on Cultural, Social, Economic and Political Life

Two historical turning points are the Social Security Act and the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The Social Security Act, passed in 1935, was intended to provide a "safety net" for people who could not support themselves (Schultz, 2010, p. 399). This "social welfare" was a significant departure from the federal government's prior tendency to let citizens fend for themselves financially. The strength of the Social Security Act's impact on our history is at least partially proven by the fact that it expanded significantly and endures to this day. The Social Security Act currently influences several facets of American life: society and culture, in that the responsibility of the federal government for the welfare of its citizens is now a commonly accepted idea; economy, in that Social Security is now a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

A&E Television Networks. LLC. (2013). Wyoming grants women the vote. Retrieved from www.history.com Web site:  http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/wyoming-grants-women-the-vote 

Federal Reserve. (2011, August 24). FRB: The Federal Reserve System Purposes and Functions. Retrieved from www.federalreserve.gov Web site:  http://www.federalreserve.gov/pf/pf.htm 

Federal Reserve. (n.d.). History of the Federal Reserve - Federal Reserve Education. Retrieved from www.federalreserveeducation.org Web site:  http://www.federalreserveeducation.org/about-the-fed/history/ 

League of Women Voters. (2011). Our Work | League of Women Voters. Retrieved from www.lwv.org Web site:  http://www.lwv.org/our-work
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Nineteenth Century Reform

Words: 1948 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 1976691

Nineteenth Century Reform

The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/

Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.

Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842.  http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm 

Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.

Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.

U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.
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United States Operates as an Indirect or

Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54966308

United States operates as an indirect or representative democracy meaning that a select group is elected by the whole to serve as representatives while attending to public matters. This is in contrast to a direct democracy which holds that all eligible members of a society can personally direct public affairs. This distinction is often overlooked by most Americans who believe that the term democracy has no qualifications.

In order to fully grasp American government, it is essential to understand the Framers of the Constitution referred to it as republic in form. Their intention was to have representatives direct government operations. In other words, voters select representatives who in turn carry out government business. The reasons for this procedure are manifold. Most notably, the Framers foresaw the electorate making poor decisions based on transitory emotions thereby leading the country in an unwise direction. Given such predispositions, the Framers felt that minority…… [Read More]

References

Wilson, James Q. & Dilulio, John J. (1998). American Government. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Company.
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Women's History

Words: 1214 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 85937293

U.S. Women in 1930s-1940s

Women's History and 19th Amendment

On August 26, 1920, Secretary of State Bainbridge Colby quietly signed the Nineteenth Amendment into law. By guaranteeing all Americans the right to vote "irrespective of sex," the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment capped more than half a century's worth of struggle by finally recognizing a woman's right to vote.

The Nineteenth Amendment was an important milestone in women's rights. However, the suffragettes who thought that equality would be achieved through the vote were sadly mistaken.

This paper examines how despite the passage of the right to vote, the structures of sexual and gender-based inequity continued. It examines women's experiences from the Great Depression through the Second World War, giving particular focus on the activism and experiences of poor women and women of color.

Working Women in the 1930s

In the book Gender and Jim Crow, Glenda Gilmore points to a…… [Read More]

References

Bernikow, Louise. 1997. The American Women's Almanac: An Inspiring and Irreverent Women's History. New York: Berkley.

Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth. 1996. Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896-1920. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Ito, Leslie. 2000. "Japanese-American women and the student relocation movement, 1942-1945."

Frontiers. 21(3). Proquest Database.
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Progress of Women After 25

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12931078

The "Highlander Center," a group advocating rights for African-Americans, "were labeled as subversive and subjected to investigation, and their members were harassed," which sounds a bit more like fascism than democracy.

But were the hearings fair? No, they were highly unfair; from the very beginning, the lack of fairness was obvious to any objective observer; they were called "Hearings egarding the Communist Infiltration of the Motion Picture Industry" (held October 20-30, 1947). The proof was in prior to any fair hearing of the issues or the accused, which is a denial of democratic justice to begin with.

And meantime, the witnesses were classified as "friendly" or "unfriendly." If you were "friendly," that meant you already had cooperated with the HUAC, and had indicated a willingness to point fingers, name names, of suspected "communists," so the members of the committee (which included Congressman ichard Nixon) would look like they were doing…… [Read More]

References

Wheels and Becker. "The Second Red Scare: HUAC vs. Hollywood, 1947."

McClellan, Jim R. "Women's Suffrage: The Nineteenth Amendment is Ratified." Historical

Moments: Changing Interpretations of America's Past, Vol. 2, the Civil War Through the 20th Century. Chapter 15. New York: Cushkin/McGraw-Hill, 2000.

McClellan, Jim R. "Prohibition: The Eighteenth Amendment Takes Effect." Historical Moments:
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The development of women rights

Words: 1390 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25465261

Women Activists Dilemma to support or Oppose the 15th Amendment as evidenced by the split in the Women’s suffrage Movement
Introduction
After the Civil war, three amendments were passed which massively transformed the women’s rights movement. These were the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments. The thirteenth amendment approved in the year 1865 declared slavery illegal (Parker, 1849). Thus, all the women who were previously enslaved became free and acquired protection by human rights. The fourteenth amendment declared that everyone born in the U.S was a legal U.S citizen and should not be deprived off their rights including all slaves. Moreover, the law added that all male American citizens had the right to vote (Anderson, 590).
Finally, there was the controversial Fifteenth Amendment, passed in 1870. The amendment granted black American men the right to vote by stating that the rights of U.S citizens to participate in elections must not be…… [Read More]

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U S Census Bureau Projected That

Words: 4517 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4786269



The 16th Amendment was the first to be passed in the 20th century. It allowed incomes to be taxed as a clear response to the Supreme Court decision in the Pollock v Farmers' Loan and Trust Company (Fonder and Shaffrey 2002). Congress previously passed an income tax law in 1894, which the Supreme Court found to be unconstitutional, not being divided among the states by population. efore the 16th Amendment, the Constitution protected citizens in Article 1, Section 9, which provided that no capitation, or other direct tax chall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration. This protection was eliminated with the passage and ratification of the 16th Amendment, which gave Congress the power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the States and without regard to census or enumeration. efore the 16th Amendment, taxation was based on consumption and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Baker, J. (2000). United States (Government). MSN Encarta Online Encyclopedia: Microsoft Corporation. http://encarta.msn.com/text_1741500781_44/United_Sttes_(government

Collins, R.A. (1993). Gibbon, D., ed. The History of America. New York: CLB Publishing.

Fonder, M. And Shaffrey, M. (2002). American Government. Pearson Education Company

Francese, P. (2002). The Exotic Travel Boom - Leisure Travel Market Will Benefit from Aging American Population. American Demographics: Media Central, Inc.  http://www.findarticles.com/articles/mi_m4021/is_2002_June_1/a_8867
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Civil Rights African-Americans and Women's

Words: 2487 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23336181



Much like African-American leaders and reformers that brought about the end of racial discrimination and segregation via the Civil Rights Movement, in 1866, Stanton created the American Equal Rights Association, aimed at organizing women in the long fight for equal rights. In 1868, the U.S. Congress ratified the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution which "defined citizenship and voters as male" and excluded women; in 1870, Congress ratified the Fifteenth Amendment which also excluded women in favor of African-American males ("The History of Women's Suffrage," Internet).

At this point, the women's movement split into two factions, the National Woman

Suffrage Association, headed by Stanton and Susan . Anthony, and the American Woman Suffrage Association, a more conservative organization headed by Julia Ward Howe and Lucy Stone. y 1890, these two opposing factions joined forces to create the National American Woman Suffrage Association under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Gurko, 145).…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Berkeley, Kathleen C. The Women's Liberation Movement in America. New York:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999.

Frederick Powledge. We Shall Overcome: Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993.

Gurko, Miriam. Ladies of Seneca Falls: The Birth of the Women's Rights Movement.
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On Liberty and the US Constitution

Words: 2791 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 1296870

Mill and U.S. Constitution

None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy all Street (OS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Dahl, Robert Alan. How Democratic is the American Constitution? Yale University Press, 2003.

Kaplan, Lawrence. S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2002.

Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. University of North Carolina Press, 1989, 2004.

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London, 1859.
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Women's Isolation Despite Representing Half of the

Words: 1982 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 28863694

Women's Isolation

Despite representing half of the human population, until very recently women were not afforded the same rights and freedoms as men. Furthermore, in much of the world today women remain marginalized, disenfranchised, and disempowered, and even women in the United States continue to face undue discrimination, whether in the workplace, at home, or in popular culture. However, this should not be taken as a disregarding of the hard-fought accomplishments of women since 1865, because over the course of intervening years, women have managed to gain a number of important rights and advantages. In particular, after spending the nineteenth century largely isolated within the domestic sphere, over the course of the twentieth century women won the right to vote, the right to equal pay and housing, and freedom over their own bodies in the form of birth control. By examining the history of these important developments, one is able…… [Read More]

References

Adams, C. (2003). Women's suffrage: A primary source history of the women's rights movement in america. New York: Rosen Publishing Group.

Chen, L.Y., & Kleiner, B.H. (1998). New developments concerning the equal pay act.

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, 17(1), 13-20.

Gordon, L. (2002). The moral property of women: A history of birth control politics in america.
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Sagebrush State the Political History

Words: 1410 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54820504



The Nevada state constitution also emphasizes freedom of religion as one of the most important rights. The second statement of the constitution's opening Ordinance states: "That perfect toleration of religious sentiment shall be secured, and no inhabitant of said state shall ever be molested, in person or property, on account of his or her mode of religious worship." That this freedom should be listed so prominently in the state constitution makes perfect sense within the context of the historical development of state history.

One of the reasons that the residents of what would become Nevada desired statehood was that they were looking for a sanctuary from the Mormons who were the majority of the population in the Utah Territory. The non-Mormons were directly aware of the costs of living in what was in some ways a theocratic state and wanted to ensure that they, as members of minority communities of…… [Read More]

As was true on the national level, not all groups of citizens living in Nevada received comparable rights at the same time. Women in Nevada, like most of their sisters across the nation, were denied the franchise for generations after statehood. Although attempts to grant women their rightful franchise date back at least to 1869, when the state legislature debated whether to remove the word "male" from the section of the constitution that defined suffrage rights.

Although there was no national suffrage for women in 1869 -- and would not be until 1920, when the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted to women their equal status as full citizens -- there were at the time no federal laws prohibiting female suffrage. The Nevada Legislature could have moved to amend the state constitution to allow women to vote. The legislators declined to do so, and women in Nevada would have to wait until 1914. At that point, Article Two, Section One of the state constitution was amended to read: "There shall be no denial of the elective franchise at any election on account of sex."

Six years later, the federal government would follow in the footsteps of a number of Western localities with the ratification of the 19th Amendment: "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation."
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American Foreign Policy Change From 1940 to

Words: 2017 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75317844

American foreign policy change from 1940 to the present?

Before the 20th century, the U.S. had a strong tradition of isolationism and non-interventionism. Beginning with American participation in World War I and continuing with its involvement in World War II after the invasion of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. increasingly began to conceive of itself as not only a player on the international stage, but also the ideological promoter and protector of democracy. When World War II ended with the U.S. bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was clear that America had taken a position of power in the world, both militarily and politically.

In the decade that followed World War II, American foreign policy pitted itself against Soviet Communism through the pursuit of "containment:" limiting the expansion of Soviet power and Communist ideology to other nations. This policy of containment was the primary driving force behind the "Cold War" and…… [Read More]

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History of the League of Women Voters

Words: 4175 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19333396

history of the League of Women Voters rightly begins with the very inception of the Women's Movement and the fight for liberation in the United States. During the early history of the United States there was little, if any respect for the principles of women's rights. In an intensely patriarchal society a man " ... virtually owned his wife and children as he did his material possessions. If a poor man chose to send his children to the poorhouse, the mother was legally defenseless to object." (Women's History in America) The history of women's movements in the United States is largely a reaction to this system of exclusion and male-dominance.

The start of the history of the fight for women's rights begins with a tea party hosted by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, in New York. Mrs. Stanton expressed her feelings of discontent at the situation of women in society. This meeting…… [Read More]

Bibliography

A biography of America: The sixties. learner. February 13, 2005..  http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog24/feature/ 

Eisenberg B. And Ruthsdotter M. Living the Legacy:

The Women's Rights Movement 1848 -- 1998. February 12, 2005. http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html

LEAGUE OF WOMEN VOTERS. Houghton Mifflin. February 13, 2005.
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Women's Rights in America What

Words: 980 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51806289

S. Constitution, and Susan B. Anthony was very upset at that.

For one thing, the women's suffrage movement had vigorously supported the abolition of slavery well prior to (and, of course, during the Civil War); and now that blacks were free, and were given the right to vote (although many blacks in America didn't really get to vote until the Voting ights Act of 1965 guaranteed their right to cast votes) prior to the women in American having the right to vote.

For another thing, many women were already stretched to the maximum in terms of the patience over their lack of voting rights.

According to an article in www.About.com (Women's History: Susan B. Anthony), "Some of Susan B. Anthony's writings were...quite racist by today's standards." She made the point that "educated white women would be better voters than 'ignorant' black men or immigrant men." In the late 1860s, she…… [Read More]

References

About.com. "Women's History: Susan B. Anthony; Seneca Falls Convention;

Declaration of Sentiments." 2004. Available

 http://www.about.com .

History of the American Suffragist Movement (2004). "Timeline: 1861-1867,"
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History and Development of Feminism

Words: 1352 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40480944

Feminism

The concept of feminism is not new, although it is often associated with the latter half of the twentieth century. However, assuming this is correct is an error. The aim of this paper is to look at the concept of feminism, first defining what it is, and then looking at how it is developed and how it may be seen today.

Feminism refers to an ideology in which the position of women is advanced with the aim of gaining equality; meaning that they are able to gain the same rights as men (Offen, 1988). The concept of equality refers to political, economic, and legal rights (Offen, 1988). The underlying concept is that women also need to have equal access to resources, such as education and health care, as well as equal opportunities in the workplace (Freedman, 2003; Offen, 1988).

While the movement and progress of the ideas may be…… [Read More]

References

Baruch, Elaine Hoffman, (1988), "Women in Men's Utopias" Rohrlich, Ruby, Baruch Elaine Hoffman, (eds.), Women in Search of Utopia, New York, Oxford University Press

Brody, Miriam (1983), "Mary Wollstonecraft: Sexuality and Women's Rights (1759-1797)." In Spender, Dale,(1983), Feminist Theorists: Three Centuries of Key Women Thinkers, Pantheon Books

Crawford, Elizabeth, (2006), The women's suffrage movement in Britain and Ireland: a regional survey, Taylor & Francis

de Beauvoir, Simone, English translation 1953 (1989). The Second Sex. Vintage Books
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Women's Rights Cases for Gender

Words: 4162 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 90558822

The United States Supreme Court ruled in favor of Illinois and argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was designed to protect against race discrimination only…" Gibson, 2007, Background to Muller v. Oregon section ¶ 1). The Court ruled that the Fourteenth Amendment did not include the protection of women's rights.

The following depicts Justice Bradley's concurring opinion regarding Bradwell's

Man is, or should be, woman's protector and defender. The natural and proper timidity and delicacy which belongs to the female sex evidently unfits it for many of the occupations of civil life. The constitution of the family organization, which is founded in the divine ordinance, as well in the nature of things, indicates the domestic sphere as that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood.... The paramount destiny and mission of woman are to fulfill the noble and benign offices of wife and mother. This is the law…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Babcock, Barbara Allen. (1975). Sex Discrimination and the Law: Causes. Retrieved April 3,

2009, from  http://books.google.com/books?id=pi5AAAAAIAAJ&q=Liberti+v.+York&dq=Li 

erti+v.+York&lr=&ei=ub3YScLeEIqKNKT3vIAD&pgis=1

The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York.
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Stanton's Solitude of Self Elizabeth Cady Stanton's

Words: 1331 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 23298467

Stanton's Solitude Of Self

Elizabeth Cady Stanton's speech before the United States Senate in 1892 was the first major awakening of women receiving the right to vote, thus validating the equal rights for all people as written in the United States Constitution. The actual seed for the first omen's Rights Convention was actually planted when Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a well-known anti-slave and equal rights activist, met Lucretia Mott at the orld Anti-Slavery Convention in London; the conference that refused to allow Mott and other women delegates from the United States because of their gender. This refusal only infuriated the cause, many finding extreme commonality in anti-slavery and omen's Suffrage Movement (DuBois). In 1851, Stanton met temperance advocate Susan B. Anthony around 1851, found that they had a great deal in common and joined together in a three pronged approach to repeal or limit the sale of alcohol, emancipate the slaves,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, J. Sisters: The Lives of America's Suffragists. New York: Hill and Wang, 2005. Print.

Banner, L. Elizabeth Cady Stanton: A Radical for Women's Rights. New York: Addison-Wesley, 1997. Print.

DuBois, E. Woman Suffrage and Women's Rights. Albany, NY: New York University Press, 1998. Print.

"Elizabeth Cady Stanton's "Solitude" Speech." January 1892. Milestone Documents. Web. March 2012. .
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Racism in Birmingham Alabama

Words: 1677 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 48090864

Birmingham Campaign of 1963 and the Civil Rights Movement
Since the end of the Civil War and the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which abolished slavery in America, equal rights for African Americans was one of the anticipated outcomes. Yet, the law did not swing entirely in favor of equality; rather, it offered freedom and segregation. Jim Crow laws were essentially institutionalized with the Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) decision, which affirmed that blacks were “separate but equal” to whites—i.e., they were “equal” in the eyes of the law (after all, the 14th Amendment had affirmed their equality, and the 15th had affirmed their right to vote—even women were not granted that right until the 19th Amendment), but as far as the law was concerned blacks were not permitted to mingle with whites in public. Thus, blacks had to sit in their own sections in a theatre (the balcony—referred to…… [Read More]

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Women's Movement Triumph Over History

Words: 2200 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3844246

Support like this was not uncommon. omen were demonstrating how useful they could become and by asserting their knowledge along with their feminine nature, they were showing men they could be a positive influence on society. As the effort grew, it became more organized and it gained momentum. In 1869, Lucy Stone helped establish the American oman Suffrage Association (ASA), which worked for women's right to vote. The association became a powerful force behind the women's movement. Its main goal was to force individual states to grant women the right to vote to women. In 1890, the ASA joined with the National oman Suffrage Association, which Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Stanton formed in 1869. The new organization was called the National American oman Suffrage Association, and it held conventions, waged voting campaigns and distributed literature in support of women's voting rights.

The Equal Rights amendment was passed in 1972.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anthony, Susan B. "Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States 4 July 1876."

Rutgers University Online Database. 06 May, 2010. Web.

http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/docs/decl.html

Binder, Frederick. The Way We Lived D.C. Heath and Company. 1994. Print.
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Susan B Anthony on February 15 1820

Words: 1466 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51956833

Susan B. Anthony

On February 15, 1820, Susan B. Anthony was born in Adams Massachusetts to Lucy and Daniel Anthony. Susan out of eight children was raised in a strict Quaker family. Her father, Daniel Anthony, was a very rigid man, a Quaker cotton manufacturer and abolitionist. He believed in making sure children were guided right, not targeting them. Her father did not let his kids experience the childish enjoyments of toys, games, and music, because all of those above were seen as distractions from the Inner Light. Instead her father imposed self-discipline.

At the age of three, Susan learned to read and write. In 1826, the Anthony's made a move from Massachusetts to Battensville, New York (McAllister, E.A.,2011). At his new place, Susan attended a district school, when the teacher had made a refusal to teach Susan long division, she was then pulled out of school and lectured in…… [Read More]

References:

Susan B. Anthony list commemorates namesakes birthday; group honors suffragist's legacy by working to elect pro-life women. (2002, Feb 14). U.S.Newswire, pp. 1-1. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/450944217?accountid=34899 

Garland, L. (2005). "Irrespective of race, color or sex:" Susan B. Anthony and the New York state constitutional convention of 1867. Magazine of History, 19(2), 61-64.

Hartmann, S.M. (2001). Not for ourselves alone: The story of Elizabeth cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. Journal of Women's History, 13(2), 222-222.

Hassell, G. (2000, Mar 26). Sacagawea guides Americans back to dollar coin / Susan B. Anthony fiasco finally has been overcome. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-D.1.
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Poem Fair and Unfair

Words: 1324 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43680247

Cassandra

Louise Bogan was an American poet whose work "Cassandra" analyzes the impact that a curse has on the titular character. Born in Maine in 1897, Bogan led a tumultuous life that was often shrouded in secrecy and one in which she frequently battled personal demons. Through her poetry, Bogan analyzed and deconstructed the issues that haunted her. "Cassandra" is based on the Greek myth of Cassandra and the curse Apollo put on her when she rejected his advances and maintained that she wanted to stay a virgin. As a result, Apollo transformed the gift of foresight he had bestowed upon her because she was beautiful into a curse by having her predictions shrugged off by anyone that would hear them. Through the use of allusion, tone, and dualities, Bogan not only illustrates Cassandra's curse and personal struggle, but simultaneously comments on the prevailing social inequalities between men and women.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Alcmene (Alcmena)." Ancient/Classical History. About.com. Web. 18 October 2012.

Bogan, Louise. "Cassandra." The Blue Estuaries: Poems 1923-1968. Poetry Foundation. Web.

18 October 2012.

Discovery Education. "Women of the Century." Web. 18 October 2012.
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Women in American History

Words: 2642 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19581890

omen in American History

The contribution woman have made to the United States over the years is profoundly important, and probably not recognized to the degree that it should be recognized. This paper reviews and critiques the contributions of women from five periods in history: from 1865 to 1876; from 1877 to 1920; from 1921 to 1945; from 1946 to 1976; and from 1976 to the present day.

omen in America -- 1865 to 1876 -- Sojourner Truth

One of the brightest lights in the movement to free the slaves was Sojourner Truth, likely the best-known person in the abolitionist movement. She was actually very active in the movement to free the slaves before and during the Civil ar, and she helped organize and lead the Underground Railroad movement. The Underground Railroad shepherded runaway slaves away from Southern slave states and up into New York State, Pennsylvania, isconsin, Minnesota and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Sara Josephine. (2007). Sara Josephine Baker: Physician and Public Health Worker.

Harvard Square Library / Notable American Unitarians. Retrieved June 11, 2011, from  http://www.harvardsquarelibrary.org/unitarians/baker.html .

Encyclopedia Britannica. (2006). Hull House. Retrieved June 12, 2011, from  http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/275272/Hull-House .

Jewish Virtual Library. (2006). Golda Meir. Retrieved June 13, 2011, from  http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/meir.html .
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Argument on a Theme of Book

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12403784

guarantee of stability in the country and in society? Of course they are rights, freedoms and liberties which are common for every democratic society where justice is guaranteed to everyone not looking on his heritage, gender and social status. It was stated in the constitution; it was stated in the declaration of independence and in other documents which are considered to execute nearly the same role for modern society as Ten Commandments told by Moses to Hebrew people. But in reality is it so perfect as it's written and as it seems to be? Or as we want it to be? The answer of course is no. Different kinds of discrimination exist in nowadays society, in one of the most democratic and liberal in free world. It refers to any issue, which distinguishes a person from the rest of the crowd by his qualities that do not have any reference…… [Read More]

Reference:

French, Merlyn The women's room Ballantine Books 1988
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Psychology of Gender in Business

Words: 2497 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 37458156

Psychology of Gender in usiness

Traditional gender roles have defined the business lives as well as the home lives of families and breadwinners for numerous generations. Certain expectations were put in place at what seems to be the dawn of time. The evolution of these decided obligations went on to shape the traditional family and the roster of the traditional workplace. Expansions and millenniums of progression in this historical framework then gave way to what the modern world still often considers gender specific job roles. Though, without question, this segregative and selective approach to the business world is surely archaic. Nevertheless, over the last decade or so there has been a revolution that is gaining steam in the business community. The idea of equality is becoming more and more popular among businesses and government agencies. Such powerful and influential entities have finally realized that the furthering and promotion of gender…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, S.M., Gupta, A., Haughton, D.M., & Leeth, J.D. (2007). Gender Differences in CEO Compensation: Evidence from the U.S.A. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 22 (3), 208-224.

Altbach, P.G., Reisberg, L., & Rumbley, L.E. (2009). Trends in Global Higher Education: Tracking an Academic Revolution. UNESCO 2009 World Conference on Higher Education. Paris, France.

Blau, F.D., & Kahn, L.M. (2000). Gender Differences in Pay. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14 (4), 75-99.

Bowling, N.A., & Beehr, T.A. (2006). Workplace Harassment from the Victim's Perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91 (5), 998-1012.
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Flapper Movement the Effect of the Flappers

Words: 8916 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71316040

Flapper Movement

The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women

The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.

Evolution of the Flapper

Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…… [Read More]

References

Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:

Harper and Row.

Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.

Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.
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Women First Wave Susan B

Words: 1812 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 15247087

She is the daughter of Alice Walker, who wrote the Color Purple. She took her mother's maiden name at the age of 18. Rebecca graduated cum laude from Yale University in 1993, and moved on to co-found the Third Wave Foundation. She is considered to be one of the founding leaders of third-wave feminism. In addition to her contributing editorship for Ms. Magazine, Walker's work has also been published by Harper's, Essence, Glamour, Interview, Buddhadharma, Vibe, Child, and Mademoiselle magazines. Her relationship with her mother has been strained because of various public indictments the younger Walker made against her. Nevertheless, some believe that Rebecca might not have been as famous or powerful today without her ties to the illustrious Alice Walker.

Jennifer Baumgardner is a prominent voice for women and girls. She works as a writer, speaker and activist. During 1993-1997, she worked as the youngest editor at Ms. Magazine,…… [Read More]

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Emma Goldman the Interesting Thing

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98463666

When she died in Toronto, after having a stroke while playing cards, her last words were "oddamn it, why did you lead that?" (Falk 315).

Until the end, she was strong, feisty and a true role model for all humans who strongly believe in and want to promote a cause. In oldman's biography, Falk clearly recognizes that oldman is no saint or a andhi, and will never be remembered as such. However, "Emma oldman provided an example for all women in the affirmation of her sexuality and her internal struggle with gender norms; she provided an example for all human beings in her total disrespect for the evil of institutions. She advocated freedom, which is admirable. But she lived freely in a world enslaved, which is heroic."

American Civil Liberties Union. News Reports. 7 August, 2007. http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nsaspying/31194prs20070804.html

Falk, Serena. Love, Anarchy and Emma oldman New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers

University Press,…… [Read More]

Goldman, Emma. Anarchism and Other Essays. New York: Mother Earth Publishing,

Jewish Women's Archive. Emma Goldman. 6 August, 2007  http://www.jwa.org/exhibits/wov/goldman/deport.html 

 http://www.aclu.org/safefree/nsaspying/31194prs20070804.html
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History of the 1920's

Words: 1472 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 72964786

history of the 1920's, a colorful era of tycoons, gangsters, bohemians and inventors. Areas covered include the arts, news and politics, science and humanities, business and industry, society fads and sports. The bibliography includes fives sources, with five quotations from secondary sources, and footnotes.

The 1920's are commonly referred to as the 'Roaring Twenties', an appropriate title for a decade that did indeed roar out of the Victorian Era. Gone were the corsets and up went the skirt hems as flapper girls bared their legs and speakeasies with bathtub gin dominated the nightlife.

Tycoons became America's royalties while bohemian lifestyles bore the twentieth century's most influential era of art and literature. Inventions brought us into the modern age of convenience and history making events.

The twenties began with a serious but short-lived post-war recession, following World War 1.

Yet, by the mid-twenties, business and industry had created legends that have…… [Read More]

Bryer, Jackson R. Edited. F. Scott Fitzgerald: Novels and Stories 1920-1922.

Library of America. September 2000.

 http://classiclit.about.com/library/weekly/aa100100a.htm . (accessed 02-14-2002).
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Wave of Feminism Took Place

Words: 841 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99169611



This is similar to third wave thinking; however, post modern feminists tend to embrace academic writing and academic feminism, and third wave feminists generally reject academic feminism (Frederick, 2004). In addition, postmodern feminists are considered more grounded in theory, and very specific with regard to their intent and vocalizations, whereas third wave are also seen as appealing more to the masses (Frederick, 2004; Tong, 1998). Postmodern feminism is also viewed as embracing the idea of 'disruptive sexuality' without analysis (Frederick, 2004).

People say that Feminism is messier today (third wave) than in the first and second wave because feminists have complicated the very nature of feminism. In the second wave women were dealing with traditional things such as basic human rights, but now most women don't know what is happening. Women already have many basic freedoms thus don't know where to turn. Feminists in the third wave still attempt to…… [Read More]

References

Bailey, Cathryn. (1997). "Making waves and drawing lines: The politics of defining the vicissitudes of feminism." Hypatia: A Journal of Feminist Philosophy 12(3) 17-28

Frederick, J. "Breaking the Waves: Continuities and Discontinuities between Second and Third Wave Feminism." (2004). Available:

 http://home.comcast.net/~thennead/bean/waves.htm 

Rosen, R. (2001). "The world split open: How the modern women's movement changed
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Oppression MLK Jr Iron Jawed

Words: 1176 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28788199

"

The second way to resist oppression listed by Martin Luther King in his essay is the violent way, a way he disapproves of and a way against which he speaks. "A second way that oppressed people sometimes deal with oppression is to resort to physical violence and corroding hatred. Violence often brings about momentary results. Nations have frequently won their independence in battle. But in spite of temporary victories, violence never brings permanent peace. It solves no social problem; it merely creates new and more complicated ones. " This type of resistance is the most striking of all, and the easiest to recognize in real life, and also in this film. It is a type of resistance that both the oppressed and the oppressor sometimes use. A march of protest sometimes turns violent, and by doing so it serves no goal and brings no deliverance to the suffering. In…… [Read More]

Sources:

Author not available, "Martin Luther King Jr.," Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia, Sept. 26, 2006. Retrieved: Sept 27th, 2006.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King_Jr .

Nobel Lectures, Peace 1951-1970," Editor Frederick W. Haberman, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1972, copyright the Nobel Foundation, nobelprize.org, Retrieved: Sept 27th, 2006.  http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html 

Author not available, "HBO films Iron Jawed Angels-Synopsis," Copyright © 2006 Home Box Office, Inc. All Rights Reserved, Retrieved: Sept 27th, 2006.  http://www.hbo.com/films/ironjawedangels/synopsis /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Scarface Is the Nickname Which Was Given

Words: 1033 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92580057

Scarface is the nickname which was given to one of the most famous and infamous members of organized crime. Scholars and crime-buffs throughout the United States know all about Alphonse "Scarface" Capone and how he grew to head the mafia in Chicago, Illinois in the 1920s. Capone was able to achieve his success in the underworld by being smarter and perhaps luckier than his enemies. He was a strategist, as focused on the destruction of his opposition as any general of any army. Although his actions were nefarious and his endeavors only intended to his financial betterment, it cannot be denied that the likes of Capone served an important role in the formation of American history. The original film Scarface is based on the life of Al Capone, gangster films being very popular in the 1930s and early 1940s while the 1980s remake of Scarface tells a similarly themed story…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

"Al Capone." 2012. Biography.com 11 Feb 2012,

http://www.biography .com/people/al-capone-9237536

"Organized Crime." United States History.

Raab, Selwyn. Five Families. New York, NY. Thomas Dunne. 2005. Print.
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Virginia Woolf and Maxine Hong Kingston

Words: 2015 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29649960

Shakespeare's Sister," and Maxine Hong Kingston's story, "No Name oman," reveal the theme of silencing women within literature, resurrection by the female author, while the lives of the authors' provide a dramatic contrast to the suppression of women depicted in their works. Ultimately, female writers like Hong Kingston are the fulfillment of oolf's dream for Shakespeare's sister, and represent the death of the tradition of silencing women's voices within the estern world.

The Silencing of omen Depicted in oolf and Hong Kingston

oolf's essay, "Shakespeare's Sister" is a clear portrait of the silencing of women by larger society. ithin "Shakespeare's Sister," Virginia oolf describes the fictional life of Judith, the sister of Shakespeare. She begins this analysis by noting the lack of women's presence in either history books or within literature. rites oolf, "what I find deplorable, I continued, looking about the bookshelves again, is that nothing is known about…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cross, Edwina Peterson. 2003. Shakespeare's Sister. Outback Online. Made in Australia Advent Cross. 05 May 2004. http://www.outbackonline.net/Advent%20Calendar/Cross_ShakespeareSister.asp

Ling, Amy. Maxine Hong Kingston (b. 1940). Houghton Mifflin Company. 05 May 2004. http://college.hmco.com/english/heath/syllabuild/iguide/kingston.html

Kingston, Maxine Hong. No Name Woman. The Modern World. 05 May 2004. http://www.cis.vt.edu/modernworld/d/kingston.html

Ockerbloom, Mary Mark, Editor. 2000. Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) - in full Adeline Virginia Woolf, original surname Stephen.
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Democracy in Athens Compared to Today

Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64874337

Ancient Greece

Democracy: Ancient Athens and Today

The democratic process of ancient Athens as compared to today was much different. The most obvious difference is simply the scale of the process. Ancient Athens was a relatively small city-state compared to the enormous country that is the United States. There are many millions more people in today's U.S. than there were in ancient Athens. Today's elections are also much less direct than they were in Athens. The U.S. uses an electoral and representative system of democracy -- but Athens practiced direct democracy: every participating citizen was able to vote directly for or against a law or policy. In today's world, citizens are very far removed from the process for the most part and must rely on their elected representatives to represent them fairly. Given the sheer number of people in the U.S. and the many differences of our people, fair representation…… [Read More]

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Development of Northern and Southern Colonies Before the Civil War

Words: 2623 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88275499

Northern and Southern Colonies before the Civil War

In the middle of the 19th century, the industrial revolution that was growing depicted the presence of the two countries all of the most progressive independent states. The symbolic status in England laid the foundation of working class exploitation, urbanization and industrialization and the other one based on village, farmhouse, agriculture, and trustworthy relations between tenants and squires in 1845. egarding the census of the 1850, the population of the United States was about twenty-three million; this was a rise from thirteen million in the year 1830. As of 1850, the North saw increased populations of immigrants incoming. The census that was carried out in 1860 showed the population of the United States to be about thirty-one million. This represented a thirty-nine percent increase in a span of ten years where the South only had eighth million whites compared to twenty million…… [Read More]

Reference List

Fitzhugh, George. Cannibals All! Or, Slaves Without Master. (Port Royal, Caroline, VA: 1857). A. Morris, Publisher, chapter 1, 1-4

Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon "Commercial development and immigration in the North at midcentury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 11, 304-334

Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs, and Gjerde Jon. "Agriculture and Slavery in the South at Midcetury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 12, 335-360

McPherson James M. "The United States at Midcetury" in McPherson James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. (Oxford: 1988). Oxford University Press, Chapter 1, 7-46
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Women's Suffrage the Suffrage Question

Words: 933 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2385106

They argued that women would not have any reforming effect on the country because they would vote with their husbands (opposite of what they argued earlier). In states where they already had the vote, they had made no difference. Finally, they argued that women didn't really want the vote, anyway. This last charge had some truth to it. Susan . Anthony observed that the apathy of most women about the vote was the biggest obstacle for the movement. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1912 said that women would get the vote when "women as a whole show any special interest in the matter" (Woloch 242).

Terborg-Penn (113) points out that between 1910 and 1920 middle-class black women became active in the cause. She states that black feminists could never overlook the issue of racism; for them, it wasn't just a matter of being women; their color was a major cause of…… [Read More]

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Constitution the Court and Race

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35394178

However, the doctrine of "states' rights," also stemming from the Constitution, encouraged the southern states to believe that they could deal with their Negro residents as they chose, as only slavery had been specifically banned. They began imposing more and more restrictive rules on their lack residents. The Ku Klux Klan formed after the federally managed "Reconstruction" ended. The KKK terrorized lacks who violated the views of the local Whites regarding how lacks should behave and conduct themselves.

At the end of the 19th century, in the ruling Plessy vs. Ferguson (p. 133), the Supreme Court ruled that a court ruling could not force equality if one race were inferior to the other, and refused to reverse segregation rules. This ruling justified all sorts of horrific practices, including segregated schools, which were separate but often not equal. Typically these schools did not have libraries, and typically the textbooks were outdated…… [Read More]

Bibliography

PBS, no date. "Dredd Scott case: The Supreme Court Decision, in Judgment Day. Accessed via the Internet 12/1/04.  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2933.html 

Russell, Thomas D.. 2003. "Slavery Under the Constitution," in American Legal History -- Russell. University of Denver College of Law. Accessed via the Internet 12/1/04.  http://www.law.du.edu/russell/lh/alh/docs/slaverycon.html
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Role and Evolution of the American Prison

Words: 3536 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27365626

ole and Evolution of the American Prison System

Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime

The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…… [Read More]

References

Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921

Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727

Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.

Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
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Status of Women in the Pre and

Words: 1682 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50979994

status of women in the pre and post revolutionary days. The paper also touches upon the current status of women to show how the changes that took place in the 19th century finally affected the life of American women in the 20th century.

THE STATUS OF WOMEN IN AMEICA IN THE 17TH AND 19TH CENTUIES

Women in the United States have worked hard to achieve some sort of equality to their male counterparts in every field of activity. Social economic and political conditions have undergone a massive change since the country attained freedom in 1776. Women were a significantly oppressed section of the society in the 17th and 18th centuries, there were no voting rights for them and they were kept out of armed forces and other businesses. This resulted in lack of economic resources for women, which further lowered their position in the country, as they had to depend…… [Read More]

References

VIRGINIA ROHAN, Staff Writer, AMERICAN HISTORY'S GLASS CEILING., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 11-07-1999, pp y01

Turshen, Meredith, Missing the miracle. Vol. 14, Women's Review of Books, 01-01-1997, pp 19-20

BEST AND WORST STATES FOR WOMEN EMPHASIZE ECONOMIC & POLITICAL DISPARITIES AMONG STATES., U.S. Newswire, 11-19-2002

Status of women in America,  http://www.iwpr.org
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Wetlands Regulation in USA

Words: 8001 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63050849

Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States

Regulation of etlands in the United States

Defining etlands and their Value

A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Beermann, Jack. Administrative law. Texas: Aspen Publishers Online, Jul 2, 2010

Connolly, Kim Diana, Johnson, Stephen, Williams, Douglas. Wetlands law and policy:

Understanding. New York: American Bar Association, Dec 30, 2005.

Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Regens, James. Regulating wetlands protection: Environmental federalism and the states. New York: SUNY Press, 2000.
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Polygamous Revolt the Response of

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48514235

S. Congress' prohibition of the practice and the Court's refusal to allow the practice, conflicted with the rights of individuals engaged in such practice. The actions of a religious group which are normally protected under the First Amendment and the laws of states like Utah that might wish to turn a blind eye to the practice were not allowed.

The states claim the social contract has been broken because the U.S. government has infringed upon individuals' liberty to marry more than one person and the states' rights to regulate matters not specifically delineated in the Bill of Rights. However, if this were the case that a state could secede every time the federal government disagreed with a state's definition of individual liberties. Virtually every constitutional dispute in the history of the nation, regarding the Bill of Rights, from abortion, to affirmative action, to gay marriage, to free speech, could justify…… [Read More]

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violence related to guns in america

Words: 2948 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Chapter Paper #: 63936658

Gun Violence in the United States

According to the Gun Violence Archive, which keeps track of gun-related violence in the United States, 2016 has had 53,602 known incidents, resulting in 13,854 deaths and 28,505 injuries. There have been 363 mass shooting incidents in 2016. In 2015, there were 372 mass shootings killing a total of 475 people and wounding 1,870, according to the Mass Shooting Tracker ("Guns in the U.S.: The statistics behind the violence" 2016). Defensive use accounts for 1683 of all gun-related incidents in 2016, and 1,988 gun incidents in 2016 were classified as being accidental (Gun Violence Archive, 2016).

In 2015 alone, there were 64 school shootings. Some of those incidents did not involve casualties, but the numbers still prove alarming, revealing the extent of the problem ("Guns in the U.S.: The statistics behind the violence" 2016). Even more mass shootings take place in ordinary businesses --…… [Read More]

References

Barry, C.L., Mcginty, E.E. Vernick, J.S. & Webster, D.W. (2015). Two years after Newtown -- public opinion on gun policy revisited. Preventative Medicine 79,pp. 55-58.

Barzilay, Julie and Mohney, Gillian, 2016. "Why the CDC Hasn't Launched a Comprehensive Gun Study in 15 Years."

DeFilippis, E. & Hughes, D. (2015). The Myth Behind Defensive Gun Ownership. Retrieved online:  http://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2015/01/defensive-gun-ownership-myth-114262#.VLhsjS42d6I 

"Firearm Access is a Risk Factor for Suicide," (n.d.). Harvard School of Public Health. Retrieved online:  https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/means-matter/means-matter/risk/
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Freedom of the Press and

Words: 5379 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 31422897

Authors Donald Lively and ussell Weaver describe Hustler Magazine as Falwell's "antagonist (p. 79)," no doubt representing for Falwell abuses of our Constitutional freedoms.

"In 1983, Hustler Magazine decided to parody Falwell using a Campari Liqueur advertisement. The actual Campari ads portrayed interviews with various celebrities about their 'first times.' Although the advertisement actually focused on the first time that the celebrities had sampled Campari, the ads portrayed the double entendre of the first time that the interviewees had engaged in sex. Hustler mimicked the Campari format and created a fictional interview with Falwell in which he stated that his 'first time' was during a drunken incestuous rendezvous with his mother in an outhouse (p. 79)."

The Oregon Commentator, May, 2007

There is probably no limit to the outrage that was felt by Falwell, and by his support base, both of which would have been offended, first, by using Falwell…… [Read More]

References

Block, H. (Artist) (1979). Spiritual Leader, Washington Post, Field Newspaper

Syndicate, April 8, 1979. Found online at Pop Art Machine,  http://popartmachine.com/item/pop_art/LOC+1158615/SPIRITUAL-LEADER-/-HERBLOCK.-UNPROCESSED-%5BITEM%5D-%5BP&P%5DREPRODUCTION ..., retrieved March 1, 2010.

Chunovic, L. (2000). One Foot on the Floor: The Curious Evolution of Sex on Television

From I Love Lucy to South Park. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI.
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Child Abuse From All Angles

Words: 4974 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44047446

The victim is often put into situations where they are physically deprived of the things they need to make appropriate decisions. For instance they may be deprived of sleep or food so that they can be more easily manipulated. Mental abuse may also involve teasing or name calling. In many cases the perpetrator is very aware of the victim's weaknesses and uses them to humiliate or subjugate the victim.

Sexual Abuse

The sexual abuse of children is increasing throughout the world and has increased drastically in recent years. Sexual abuse can include the molestation and/or rape of a child. In many cases children are sexually abused by someone that they know, rather it be a neighbor, a parent or an acquaintance. Sexual abuse can also have lasting effects on the psyche of an individual. Studies have found that children who experience sexual abuse are more likely to become promiscuous as…… [Read More]

References

Bolen, Rebecca M. 2003. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?. Social Work 48, no. 2: 174+.

Cochrane, John, Gaynor Melville, and Ian Marsh. 2004. Criminal Justice: An Introduction to Philosophies, Theories and Practice. London: Routledge. Book online.

Child Abuse. National Institutes of Health. Available at  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/childabuse.html 

Child Abuse Statistics. Available at http://www.childhelp.org/resources/learning-center/statistics.Internet
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Government Changes Post-Revolution War vs Post-Civil War

Words: 1520 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 39980527

Government Changes post-Revolution ar vs. post-Civil ar

Close examination of the reasons for and the results of the Revolutionary ar and the Civil ar forces me to disagree with McPherson's position that more radical change in government occurred due to the Civil ar than the Revolutionary ar. In order to understand how this is true, one must look at several issues, such as the causes of each of the wars, the purposes and intentions, and the ultimate results.

The Revolutionary ar was based on the struggle to become independent from Great Britain and this struggle began due to a series of taxes forced upon the citizens. So "taxation without representation" was the initial call to arms however, it grew to include other freedoms as well.

The Civil ar was utterly a different process of situation. hile claims by the South of freedom it was always an economic issue tightly woven…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abraham Lincoln, Cooper Union Address, New York City Presidential Campaign

Confederate States of America-Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union, December 1860, South Carolina

Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address." Washington D.C. Mar. 1861. Address.

Ordinance of 1787
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Abolitionist Movement Played a Crucial

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16203353



The hierarchical society, which characterized the new nation, was another aspect, which would soon be transformed. "The political rulers had come largely from the social elites. The churches were supported by those elites. and, in most cases, the churches had been officially sanctioned by the political structures of the states. Social, political, and religious authority had been tightly interwoven in the same small group of elite leaders." [

Ira Chernus] the Electoral voting system and the cultural changes initiated by the new political situation created a new wave of social and moral reforms.

Racial amity

Another major social change that started to happen was the dissolution of apartheid. Though it must be understood that racial segregation continued in existence much long after the abolition of slavery, the cause for desegregation was initiated in the 1830's. Oberlin College, started in 1833, became the first ever College in the U.S. To admit…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Howard Cincotta, "An Outline of American History," USIA, May 1994,  http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch6_p4.htm 

Bonnie Eisenberg & Mary Ruthsdotter, "Living the Legacy: The Women's Rights Movement 1848-1998," Accessed Sep 10th 2006, available at http://www.legacy98.org/move-hist.html

James Brewer Stewart, 'Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at  http://afgen.com/abmovement.html 

NPS, 'National Abolitionist Movement', Accessed Sep 9th 2006, available at http://www.cr.nps.gov/nr/travel/amistad/connecticutabolitionists.htm
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Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism Counterterrorism

Words: 1353 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51099893

S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.

4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?

The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…… [Read More]

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Defense Authorization Act of 1916

Words: 4387 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 39128135

The National Guard, as anticipated by the Constitution's framers, was now a military reserve ready to serve the national interest. The National Guard, while getting large amounts of federal funds and growing in size, continued to struggle to find its true role in military operations and readiness. The natural disasters and civil disorder incidents in which Guardsmen were called to help supported their cause. These included such events as the San Francisco earthquake in 1906; over 21 times" (Smith 1990 P. 11-12).

In Florida, National Guard served the role of preventing the lynching of black, and they maintained order during worker strike in several states. Despite the Dick Act, the National Guard became less favorable before many Americans. Typically, when citizens went into labor strikes across the country and action taken by the undisciplined National Guard against the strikers was very questionable. Typically, National Guard underwent massive massacre of citizens…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bowman, S. Kapp, L. & Belasco, a. Hurricane Katrina: DOD Disaster Response. CRS Report for Congress.2005.

Doubler, M.D. Listman, J.W., & Goldstein, D.M. "An Illustrated History of America's Citizen-Soldiers the National Guard".. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books. 2007.

Doubler. M.D. The Guard Century Series: 1900-1920 Century of Change, Century of Contribution: A Militia Nation Comes of Age. National Guard Association of the United States. 2011.

Coasts, J.A. Base Closure and Realignment: Federal Control over the National Guard. University of Cincinnati Law Review. Vol 75. P 343-370. 2006.
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Silhouette of America's Dream Negro

Words: 6280 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93705310

")

hen Johnson defeated Jeffries, however, it unleashed white violence against blacks nationwide. "In ashington, D.C., the ashington Bee reported, 'hite ruffians showed their teeth and attacked almost every colored person they saw upon the public streets'."

Similar events occurred in New York City and tiny towns in the deep South. By the time Jackie Robinson left the Negro Leagues, the backlash was not nearly so pronounced. Arguably, the Negro Leagues kept violence at bay, while producing athletes of exceptional quality without risking Jim Crow law violence.

That, of course, is shining a favorable light on a tradition that is not worthy of accolade, and that arguably prevented numerous black ballplayers from receiving a fraction of their worth.

Today, few people understand the sociological factors that prevented black and white baseball players from competition with each other, as opponents or as members of racially mixed teams. They therefore know even…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ayers, Edward L. 1993. The Promise of the New South: Life after Reconstruction. New York: Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: New York.

Bennett, Lerone, Jr. 1994. "Jack Johnson and the great white hope: historic boxer. Ebony, April. Available from www.findarticles.com. Accessed 7 February 2005.

Big Labor Day Celebration," (original document) Norfolk Journal and Guide, 8 September, 1917; available at  http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5054/ . Accessed 7 February 2005.

Bill 'Bojangles' Robinson." 2004. International Tap Association, 13 December. Available from.  http://www.tapdance.org/tap/people/bojangle.htm . Accessed 9 February 2005.
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Modern-Day Corruption and Graft the Watergate Incident

Words: 2937 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 92642275

Modern-Day Corruption and Graft

The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.

Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?

Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…… [Read More]

References

Brunner, B. (2011a). Civil Rights Timeline. Accessed 29-12-11 from:  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html 

Brunner, B. (2011b). Heroes of Civil Rights Movement. Accessed 29-12-11 from:  http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html 

Digital History. (2011). Hypertext History: Our Online American History Textbook -- Interactive Timelines. Accessed 25-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/hyper_titles.cfm

Digital History. (2011b). Guided Readings: America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/subtitles.cfm?titleID=65
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Evolution of the Racial Exclusion

Words: 1434 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38409379

S. further supporting exclusion of targeted populations.

During this time frame many states passed laws that prohibited certain nationalities from owning land in that state or any other real property as well.

The 14th amendment which provides equal protection under the law was used to begin chipping away at the exclusionary policies, not only for Asians but for African-Americans.

The relationship between Chinese exclusion and the revolutionary improvements for African-Americans during econstruction often goes ignored, even though pre-Civil War state laws regulating the migration of slaves served as precursors to the Chinese exclusion laws. It was no coincidence that greater legal freedoms for African-Americans were tied to Chinese misfortunes. As one historian observed, "with Negro slavery a dead issue after 1865, greater attention was focused on immigration from China." Political forces quickly reacted to fill the racial void in the political arena (Johnson, 1998 pp 1112-1148)."

As racial exclusionary laws…… [Read More]

References

Chinese Exclusion Act (Accessed 5-20-07)

http://sun.menloschool.org/~mbrody/ushistory/angel/exclusion_act/

Davis, Ronald Ph.D. Creating Jim Crow: In-Depth Essay (Accessed 5-20-07)

http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/creating2.htm