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Four men stand out as the penultimate figures of Post-Impressionism, namely, Georges Suerat (1859-1891), Paul Cezanne (1839-1906), Paul Gauguin (1843-1903) and Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890), all of whom at first accepted the Impressionist methods and then moved away from it toward a new type of painting.
In the case of Cezanne, the basis of his art had much to do with studying nature in a new way, for his aim was not to represent truth or reality but to seek some kind of lasting structure behind the formless and the fleeting shades of color that the human eye usually misses. His Still Life (1890, oil on canvas) represents this ambiguity by having the forms in this painting appear out-of-sync with their true appearances.
Unlike Cezanne who used an almost scientific approach for ordering color, Vincent Van Gogh did exactly the opposite, for he exploited new color to express his emotions…
Holt, Elizabeth G. From the Classicist to the Impressionists: Art and Architecture in the 19th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1966.
Needham, Gerald. 19th Century Realist Art. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.
Peillex, Georges. History of Art: 19th Century Painting. New York: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1964.
Pioch, Nicolas. "Classicism." Internet. 2002. WebMuseum. Accessed May 16, 2005. http://www.ibiblio.org /wm/paint/gio/classicism.
In Braque's "oman with a Guitar we can see the foreshadowing of the Synthetic Cubism period, when he introduces stenciling and lettering, a practice that Picasso was soon to imitate.
Figure 7: Picasso, Le Guitariste"(1910
Figure 8: Braque "oman with a Guitar" (1913
Synthetic Cubism/Collage 1912-1914:
Braque was beginning to experiment further now by mixing materials such as sand and sawdust into his paint to create a more textured, built- up look and what Chilvers (Cubism ¶ 7) describes as further emphasizing that the pictures were objects in and of themselves and had their own integrity rather than representing something. Picasso took this a step further when he began to create "collages." This was a major turning point in the evolution of Cubism, according to Greenberg, in his classic essay on "Collage" in "Art and Culture." Many art critics, according to Greenberg say that Picasso and Braque used collage as…
Chilvers, Ian. "Constructivism." The Oxford Dictionary of Art. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. 2004. 24 May 2006 http://wwwhighbeam.com/library
Cubism." A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art. Oxford: Oxford
University Press. 1999. 24 May 2006 http://www.highbeam.com/library
De La Croix, 865-66. Artists in the nineteenth century were confronted by three innovations that fatefully affected their craft: the camera, the mass produced print, and the printed reproduction. The collective techniques of an industrial age forced nineteenth century artists to analyze their function and to study closely the physical nature of their medium.
Hyde, Minor, Art History's History. 32-35. Baroque Art emerged in Europe around 1600, as a reaction against the intricate and formulaic Mannerist style that dominated the late Renaissance. Baroque art is less complex, more realistic and more emotionally affecting than Mannerism. This movement was encouraged by the Catholic Church, the most important patron of the arts at that time, as a return to tradition and spirituality.
Rosenblum, Robert, 19th Century Art, 17-38.
The goal of self-determination that Napoleon imported to Holland, Italy, Germany and Austria affected not only nations but also individuals. Heightened sensibility and intensified…
Courbet's the Sleepers is thus one of the first honest depictions of lesbian love in the history of Western art. There is no distortion of either of the two women's bodies, as we find in Ingres's painting. All of the details look nearly photographic in their authenticity. That is not to say that the image is crude, or inharmonious in its depiction of forms. The curvature of the women's bodies, particularly the leg of the woman on the left as she wraps it around her lover's waist, is highly stylized - but not stylized to the point of distraction.
Stylization would take precedence over faithful representation in the ongoing development of modernism, which would reach a critical peak in the work of Pablo Picasso. In his painting Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, which was completed in the summer of 1907, Picasso rendered five nude prostitutes in a brothel in a style that…
In Spirit of the Dead Watching, Gaugin also depicts a Tahitian woman with open sexuality. The woman in Spirit of the Dead Watching lays prostrate on a bed, exposing her naked buttocks while gazing directly at the viewer. Her position is submissive, in spite of the alluring look in the woman's eyes. The spirit of the dead represents traditional Tahitian religious beliefs, which would have been in direct conflict with the Christianity imposed upon the island nation by the French.
Sexuality was also a favorite theme of Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec. The artist was well-known for his escapades in Montmartre, Paris's cabaret district. Toulouse-Lautrec's work depicts a seedy underbelly of Parisian life rather than idealizing the bourgeoisie. Like Gaugin's work, the paintings of Toulouse-Lautrec embody the social changes taking place in European society during the late nineteenth century.
In Stocking, Toulouse-Lautrec depicts two dancers, one of which is just getting dressed.…
Hill, a. (2001). Gauguin's erotic Tahiti idyll exposed as a sham. Guardian. October 7, 2001. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2001/oct/07/arts.highereducation
Pioch, N. (2002). Gauguin, (Eugene-Henri-) Paul. WebMuseum. Retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.ibiblio.org /wm/paint/auth/gauguin/
Roskill, M. (1997). Paul Gaugin. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, Release 9.01. Cited online and retrieved May 2, 2010 from http://www.discoverfrance.net/France/Art/Gauguin/Gauguin.shtml
Laura Auricchio is an art historian teaching at the Parsons School for Design as part of The New School in New York City. In the piece to be critiqued, Auricchio focuses upon techniques, styles, and subject matter of eighteenth century paintings. Auricchio's focus in her article is upon the female painter, Adelaide Labille-Guiard. Though Auricchio examines several of Labille-Guiard's major works, her primary examination is of the painting Self-Portrait with Two Students (1785). Auricchio argues that Labille-Guiard makes deliberate politically motivated choices in content and composition in the painting that express and reflect upon European female artistry and experience of the eighteenth century. This paper will briefly describe and critique Auricchio's main ideas and themes in her interpretation of the work and of the artist.
Auricchio, as an art historian and as a woman, is interested in female artists. She is interested in female artists primarily because their…
Auricchio, Laura. "Self-Promotion in Adelaide Labille-Guiard's 1785 Self-Portrait with Two Students." Art Bulletin, Volume 89, Number 1, March 2007.
Women's oles Then And Now:
Societies have continued to change in every century because of influences of cultures in that time period. As these societies grow and develop, the role of various people in the family structure and unit also changes. The changes in the role of women in the society are mainly influenced by societal perception regarding women. As a result, there are significant differences in the role of women in the 19th Century and the roles of women in the 18th Century. One of the main reasons for these differences is that the modern society has is so fast-paced because of increased technological advancements unlike the 18th Century society. An understanding of the changing role of women in the 18th and 19th centuries can be seen from the conversation between two notable women i.e. Maria Elisabeth of Austria and Queen Victoria of Great Britain.
Biographic Information for Each…
Radek, M. (2008, April 21). Women in the Nineteenth Century. Retrieved from Illinois Valley
Community College website: http://www2.ivcc.edu/gen2002/women_in_the_nineteenth_century.htm
Sebellin, T., Woods, K. & Grove, A. (2006, February 20). Queen Victoria. Retrieved from King's College website: http://departments.kings.edu/womens_history/victoria.html
"The Role of the Woman: 18th, 19th, and 20th Centuries." (1997, April 17). My English ISP.
Starting from 19th century psychology, school of thought of behaviorist shared commonalities and as well ran concurrently with the 20th century psychology of psychoanalytic and Gestalt movements, however it was different from Gestalt psychologists' mental philosophy in significant ways. Psychologists who had major influences in it were Edward Lee Thorndike, John B. atson, they opposed method of introspective and advocated to use of experimental methods: Ivan Pavlov, investigated classical conditioning, but he was not to the idea of behaviorists or behaviorism: B.F. Skinner, he did his research on operant conditioning.
During second half of the 20th century, it was widely eclipsed that behaviorism was due to cognitive revolution. Even though behaviorism as well as cognitive schools of psychological thought tends to disagree in terms of theory, they have gone a head to compliment one another within applications of practical therapeutic, for example, cognitive-behavioral therapy has shown utility in treating some…
Arntzen, E., Lokke, J., Kokke, G. & Eilertsen, D-E. (2010). On misconceptions about behavior analysis among university students and teachers. The Psychological Record, 60(2), 325- 327.
Chiesa, M. (2004).Radical Behaviorism: The Philosophy and the Science ISBN
Claus, C.K. (2007) B.F. Skinner and T.N. Whitehead: A brief encounter, research similarities, Hawthorne revisited, what next? The Behavior Analyst, 30(1), 79-86. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223160/?tool=pmcentrez
Diller, J.W. And Lattal, K.A. (2008). Radical behaviorism and Buddhism: complementarities and conflicts. The Behavior Analyst, 31(2), 163-177. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2591756/?tool=pmcentrez
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…
"REVIEW & OUTLOOK (Editorial, b) -- Asides: Tilting with the Arc." Wall Street Journal: 1. Sep 04, 1987. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Doss, Erika. "Public Art Controversy: Cultural Expression and Civic Debate," Americans for the Arts, October 2006. Web. 20 Feb. 2013.
Drescher, Timothy. "The Harsh Reality: Billboard Subversion and Graffiti," Wall Power, Philadelphia: Institute of Contemporary Art, University of Pennsylvania, 2000.
Fleming, Ronald Lee. "Public Art for the Public." Public Interest.159 (2005): 55-76. ABI/INFORM Complete. Web. 21 Feb. 2013.
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org /toah/hd/anti/hd_anti.htm
"Greek Art," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.ancient-greece.org/art.html
"Jacques-Louis David," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.jacqueslouisdavid.org/
In this regard, Nead notes that because she was an art lover, Richardson experienced a moral dilemma in her decision to attack "The Rokeby Venus," but she felt compelled to do so anyway based on her perception that the government was failing to act responsibility towards women in general and the suffragettes in particular. "In her statement during her trial, Richardson appears calm and articulate and nothing is said explicitly about any objections that she might have had to a female nude. Indeed, it was not until an interview given in 1952 that Richardson gave an additional reason for choosing the Velazquez: 'I didn't like the way men visitors to the gallery gaped at it all day'" (emphasis added) (Nead 36).
Figure 1. Velazquez, The Rokeby Venus.
Source: The Social Construction of Gender, 2006.
According to Mann (2002), functionalism could help explain the attack by Richardson on "The Rokeby…
Bartley, Paula. (2003). "Emmeline Pankhurst: Paula Bartley Reappraises the Role of the Leader of the Suffragettes." History Review, 41.
Damon-Moore, Helen. Magazines for the Millions: Gender and Commerce in the Ladies' Home Journal and the Saturday Evening Post, 1880-1910. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1994.
Harris-Frankfort, Enriqueta. "Velazquez, Diego." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. 31 May 2006 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-222892 .
Mallory, Nina Ayala. El Greco to Murillo: Spanish Painting in the Golden Age, 1556-1700. New York: HarperCollins, 1990.
Impressionism in art developed in the 19th century. Impressionist paintings were characterized by visible brush strokes, and subject was drawn from ordinary life and outdoors, rather than being confined to still life, or portraits and landscapes drawn in studios. Emphasis was laid on the effect of light changing its qualities as well as movement. These characteristics of impression can be well observed in the works of art by Gustave Caillebotte, Edgar Degas and Edouard Manet in their paintings Paris: A ainy Day, The Absinthe Drinker and The Bar at the Folies Bergere respectively.
Paris: A ainy Day is an oil painting drawn in 1877 encompasses the Impressionist use of landscape scene. The curator of the Art Institute of Chicago was quoted describing the painting by Hedy Weiss in the Chicago Sun-Times (December 12, 1995) as "the great picture of urban life in the late 19th century." The masterpiece gives…
1. Gaustave Caillebotte, Paris Street: A Rainy Day, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://sites.google.com/site/beautyandterror/Home/bourgeoisie-and-proletariat
2. L' Absinthe-Degas, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://labsinthedegas.blogspot.com/
3. Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, retrieved on July 9, 2012 from http://sites.google.com/site/beautyandterror/Home/capitalism-and-the-death
The figures of people, carriages, etc. are "washed-out," they are as small as ants are. The method of reflecting motion and dynamics of routine life by "washed-out effect" was borrowed "from a new invention of photography" (Schapiro 81). Photographic cameras of that epoch were not sensitive for picturing motion, so all objects in motion were "washed-out."
Some impressionists, for example Edgar Degas (1834-1917), were influenced by ethnic painting techniques such as Chinese and Japanese graphics, characterized by striking representation of shape and figures. Degas continued Monet's experiments with light and reflection of motion. Many of his paintings were influenced by other methods similar to photography: uncommon visual angles and asymmetric perspectives, which can be observed in such paintings as a Carriage at the aces (1872), Ballet ehearsal (1876) characterized by unusual visual solution and geometric interpretation.
Auguste enoir (1841-19191), father of Impressionism, became famous for his mass portraits. enoir's Impressionism…
Sayre, Henry M.A world of art Prentice Hall; 4 thedition 2004
Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller
The Impressionists, Article from web resource: http://www.biography.com/impressionists/artists_morisot.html
Pool, Phoebe Complete Paintings of Monet. New York: Abrams,1967
In essence, this painting "mixes a toothpaste smile with the grimace of a death's head" and symbolizes the true work of an American "action" painter (de la Croix & Tansey, 774).
Another great example of an American abstract expressionist master is Mark Rothko (1903 to 1973), who emigrated to the United States in 1914 from Latvia with his family to escape Czarist Russia and its strict policies towards Jews. Although Rothko was a friend and contemporary of Pollack, Kline and de Kooning, his paintings exhibit none of the aggressive attack or slashing brushwork one finds in the works of these artists. Rothko's Four Darks on Red does not exhibit the usual traits of "action" painting, for it shows a calm and contemplative mood with soft color variations, yet it also shows "a mysterious effect of forms and images occupying an ambiguously-defined space," much like Kline and Pollack (de la Croix…
Paul, Stella. "Abstract Expressionism." Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org /TOAH/hd/abex/hd_abex.htm.
De la Croix, Horst and Richard G. Tansey, eds. Gardner's Art Through the Ages. 10th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, 2003.
My letters to my brother Theo often touch upon this theme."
Q: hat was your relationship like in Arles?
Gaugin: "I would say that Vincent definitely needed me more than I needed him. Vincent was always looking for a friend, you know -- a kindred spirit. His brother Theo was sympathetic but separate from him. In me he found someone who shared his passion for art and who understood what he was trying to accomplish. But Vincent was unstable and our relationship was often frustrated by his inability to reconcile himself to the artist's lonely lot. I, certainly, was more comfortable being a loner."
Van Gogh: "My sojourn in Arles in a rented yellow house, which I depicted on canvas in my typically thickly-applied, brightly colored 1888 painting, would end in a kind of portentous delirium. Gauguin's stay and my increasing reliance upon the Frenchman proved a misstep. Gauguin's insufferable…
Gayford, M. The Yellow House. NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008. Print.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2003. Print.
Kyziridis, T. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." 2005. Web.
Art in Cultural Context
Cybele is an ancient figure who represented the mother goddess and in her was granted the ability to create and populate the world according to her desires. She was both the most powerful of the gods and also an amalgamation of the most powerful of the goddesses. In both Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, cults which worshipped Cybele were established and elaborate temples were constructed in her honor which lasted throughout centuries. The woman was not just another goddess in the pantheon of deities established by the ancient empires, but was a uniquely powerful entity that people would worship and pray to in times of difficulty and suffering. She had within her the powers of many of the goddesses, including the Earth goddess Gaia, the Minoan goddess Rhea, and the goddess of the harvest Demeter, taking the role of each of these mythological mothers. So strong…
British Archaeology (2003). Dish fit for the gods. Retrieved from http://www.staffsmetaldetectors.co.uk/staffs_moorlands_patera.htm
Metropolitan Museum of Art (1943). Bronze Cybele. The Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum
of Art: Volume 1. New York, NY. 145-46.
Roman myth, religion, and the afterlife. (2011). 73-125.
medieval romance has inspired literature for generations. The magic of the Arthurian romance can be traced to Celtic origins, which adds to it appeal when we look at it through the prism of post-medieval literature. The revival of the medieval romance can be viewed as an opposition against modern and intellectual movement that became vogue in modern Europe. These romances often emphasized the human emotions rather than the human intellect and a return to more classical traditions. Poets and writers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries did not want to feel the oppression from the constraints of their time. Instead, they looked beyond the intellectual to a more mystical and emotional realm. They wanted to achieve another level in their writing -- one that allowed them to stretch their imaginations and their knowledge. The medieval aspects that we find in literature from this era accentuates a different type of thinking…
Carlyle, Thomas. "Past and Present." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol. II
New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 157-70.
Carl Woodring, "The Eve of St. Agnes: Overview." Reference Guide to English Literature.
2nd ed. 1991. Gale Resource Database. Site Accessed April 20, 2005.
Balzac and Kafka: From Realism to Magical Realism
French author Honore de Balzac defined the genre of realism in the early 19th century with his novel Old Man Goriot, which served as a cornerstone for his more ambitious project, The Human Comedy. Old Man Goriot also served as a prototype for realistic novels, with its setting of narrative parameters which included plot, structure, characterization, and point-of-view. The 20th century, however, digressed considerably from the genre of realism. Franz Kafka, for example, has been considered as one of the forerunners of the genre known as Magical Realism. endy B. Faris defines the genre of Magical Realism as the combination of "realism and the fantastic so that the marvelous seems to grow organically within the ordinary, blurring the distinction between them… [including] different cultural traditions" (1). Faris finds magical realism to exist at the crossroads of modernism and post-modernism, as a kind…
Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. New York, NY: Vintage, 2010. Print.
Faris, Wendy B. Ordinary Enchantments: Magical Realism and the Remystification of Narrative. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press, 2004. Print.
Nabokov, Vladimir. "The Metamorphosis." Victorian. Web. 8 May 2012. <
Color Me Three
The use of color by artists depends on both personal predilections as well as environmental and social circumstances. This paper will use the works from three well-known artists to illustrate the assumption that the use of color and the style of each artist is combination of these various factors. An important issue that will be dealt with is the artistic climate and the predominant view on art and art theory at the time. Another important aspect is the artist's personal creative aims and views as they relate to color and art in general.
The use of color is part of the artist's creative process and forms an important part of the works of the following three artists: Claude Monet, Pierre onnard and Paul Signac. Specific woks by these artists will be referred to in this discussion.
Color, while not the only element that constitutes their works is…
Beetem R.. Discover Master Artist Pierre Bonnard at the Denver Art Museum March 1 - May 25, 2003. Accessed June 1, 2005.
Blanshard, F.B. (1949). Retreat from Likeness in the Theory of Painting. New York: Columbia University Press.
BONNARD Pierre. June 2, 2005. http://www.londonfoodfilmfiesta.co.uk/Artmai~1/Bonnard.htm
The painter's choice of a pictorial vantage point creates the apparent symmetry of the bridge and the woven flower garlands. The point of the painting is not that such symmetry literally exists in nature, but that in the impression of the painter, such symmetry was evident to his eyes, at a particular moment in time and in his life.
This painting would be especially useful to teach young children how to create meaningful pictures out of common, every day images. The teacher could point out to the students that the painting is of Monet's garden, something that he saw everyday, and painted many times. Monet painted many paintings water lilies, but every picture was different, because the French artist brought a different perspective to the work of art, during different times of his life.
Asking students to name different everyday things that look different at different times of the year,…
Impressions of the Ohr-O'Keefe Museum of Art
The non-profit Ohr-O'Keefe Museum of Art -- located in Biloxi, Mississippi -- was recently commissioned and constructed to honor the legacy of ceramic artist George E. Ohr. According to the museum's website, "the self-proclaimed 'Mad Potter of Biloxi' created a body of ceramic work which defied the aesthetic conventions of 19th century America & #8230;while today Ohr is considered an early leader in the modernist movement and it is his creative spirit which informs the mission of the Ohr-O'Keefe Museum." Among the exhibits on display during my recent visit were a gallery of African-American art by Carl Joe illiams titled "Shades of Perception," a historical pottery exhibit sponsored by the Mississippi Sound elcome Center, which featured the work of Biloxi transplant and Master Potter Joseph Fortune Meyer, and a gallery of clay and bronze sculptures by Rod Moorhead titled "Entropy." The diverse nature…
Getlein, Mark. Living with art. McGraw Hill, 2008.
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…
Coburn, F.W. "Mr. Benson's Birds," The Boston Herald, November 16, 1913, 28.
Encyclopedia of Visual Art. Grolier Educational Corp., 1984 printing. Danbury, CT: 1983.
Gardiner, Debbi. Japan, Inc., January 2003. Anime in America. http://www.japaninc.net/article.php?articleID=972.Visited 8/03/03.
Japan Economic Society, November/December 2002. Impact of the Kimono on Modern Fashion. http://www.jef.or.jp/en/jti/200211_016.html . Visited 8/04/03.
In this regard, Frye notes that, "The social changes appeared most profoundly to the majority of citizens not in the statistics of gross national product or the growth of technological inventions but in the dramatic occupational changes that faced fathers and sons and mothers and daughters" (1999, p. 4).
The innovations in technology that followed the Industrial evolution also served to shift the emphasis on education for agricultural jobs to more skilled positions as demand for these workers increased (Frye, 1999). In other words, as American society changed, so too did the requirements for American education and the process can be seen to be mutually reinforcing and iterative by Frye's observations concerning the effects of these trends on U.S. society during this period in American history. In this regard, Frye notes that, "With the change in types and numbers of occupations and their focus in towns and cities, other elements…
Coffey, a. (2001). Education and social change. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Frye, J.H. (1999). The vision of the public junior college, 1900-1940: Professional goals and popular aspirations. New York: Greenwood Press.
Kaminsky, J.S. (1999). A new history of educational philosophy. Westport, CT: Greenwood
Art to Tanzania people
Art and Culture of Tanzania
Every country has its special features and certain interesting facts about its history and legacy. This paper discusses the unique country of Tanzania in the continent of Africa and describes its culture and history. Certain doctrine point out that the mainland of Tanzania was named by a ritish civil servant in the year 1920 and its name was derived from the words in Swahili language, tanga, meaning sail and nyika, meaning bright and plain. This place had a very intriguing and unique culture of people, who had a long history of existence and had preserved their identity. This place came to be known as a Tanganyika Territory, which was formerly a German East African area. Later in 1964, Tanganyika was joined with Zanzibar, which was an archipelago of islands off the coast of eastern Africa1.
This was a very interesting development…
1. Countries and their culture. n.d. http://www.everyculture.com/Sa-Th/Tanzania.html (accessed January 17, 2015).
2. Jahn, Reuster Uta, and Gabriel Hacke. The Bongo Flava industry in Tanzania and artists' strategies for success. Germany: Johannes Gutenberg University, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.ifeas.uni-mainz.de/Dateien/AP127.pdf
3. Caves, Richard E., Creative Industries. Contracts between Art and Commerce. Cambridge, Mass.:Harvard University Press, 2000.
4. Vavrus, F. (2004). The referential web: Externalization beyond education in Tanzania. In G. Steiner-Khamsi (Ed.), The Global Politics of Educational Borrowing and Lending, New York: Teachers College Press
Age of Extremes
The ise of the evolutionary Arts
The chapter under review is set in the context of the troubled times that Eric Hobsbawm describes in his book "The Age of Extremities" -- a time which saw two world wars, the greatest economic depressions in world history and the communist revolution in ussia and elsewhere. There was an environment of revolution in Europe and elsewhere -- in India for example where the fight for independence from British rule was at its height during the later part of this period. Therefore according to Eric Hobsbawm, the time period from 1914 to 1945 was one where the socio-political scenario had a deep impact on the arts and culture and their expression.
The ise of the evolutionary Arts
During the period from 1914 to 1945, Eric Hobsbawm notes that in the established world of arts and culture the only two innovations that…
Hobsbawm, E. (1994). The age of extremes. New York: Pantheon Books.
Asia and Africa in estern European Art
Globalization is generally associated as a modern phenomenon, however, it is a global movement that began with the Greeks and did not accelerate until the renaissance era. The est, going back to Alexander the Great, has a long history of interactions with Asia and Africa. Ideas and goods were consistently traded. This trend of globalization accelerated with the age of exploration in the 16th century when Europeans came into further contact with Africa, Asia, and the Americas. Driven by the quest for gold and natural resources estern European traders navigated the world. This had a profound effect back home, as Europeans developed an interest in the exotic. The interest blossomed during the 18th and 19th century, during the height of estern power and colonialism. Curiosity into the foreign permeated all levels of society. Artists incorporated Asian and African artistic styles into their…
Soltes, Ori. "They All Came to Paris." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
Soltes, Ori. "Asia and Africa in the Western Mind." YouTube. YouTube, 11 Oct. 2011. Web. 2 Apr. 2014. .
Expressionism: This movement was launched in the early 20th century and it used exaggeration, alteration and "primitivism" (www.ibiblio.org). Expressionism alludes to art works that "emphasize the extreme expressive properties of pictorial form," according to the Guggenheim Museum. Expressionism departed from the "appearance of reality" and promoted idealistic values that oppose the "constricting forces and repressive materialism of bourgeois society" (Guggenheim). The example used is "Paris Society" by Max Beckmann: given that this painting was finished on the eve of the Third Reich, all the people appear foreboding and depressed (perhaps for good reason); it's a black-tie party but people are exaggeratedly solemn. This could be a response to materialism as party-goers are supposed to be gay and enthusiastic.
Symbolism: This movement actually began as a literary concept, but came to be a part of the style of younger painters as well, who, like the writers, rejected "…the conventions of Naturalism"…
Guggenheim (2012). Movements > Symbolism. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from http://www.guggnheim.org.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2010). Impressionism: Art and Modernity. Retrieved March 21,
2014, from http://www.metmuseum.org .
WebMuseum. (2009). Expressionism. Retrieved March 21, 2014, from http://www.ibiblio.org .
Unknown artist. Unknown date. This is a painting of Vedic art, depicting Krishna eating lunch with his friends. It was commissioned for an Indian monastery. Culturally, this form of art depicts a story from the life of Krishna. Krishna is usually depicted as an adult, so this is somewhat unusual, but in this case as a child from folklore. The story would probably be well-known to the audience at the monastery.
Artist: Rabi Behera. ate: Unknown. This is a modern interpretation of folk art from Orissa, depicting Hanuman as Eleventh Rudra. Hanuman here has five heads. In this incarnation, Hanuman battles Ravana, an antagonist in the Ramayana who sought to overpower the gods. This story is well-known as part of the Indian national epic the Ramayana.
Artist: Unknown ate: 18th century
This landscape is traditional in Korean art. Nature is considered sacred in Korean…
This is a playbill from a kabuki show in 1849. So the art itself illustrates a scene from the play. The art still has the straight lines common in Japanese art, but certainly looks more cluttered than the finest classical art from that period, because this is not something that would have been done by a top artist for display.
I think friends back home will find these to be fairly classical images. None of these would really surprise, I do not think. Art from these countries has tended to focus on the same themes, at least until the mid-20th century, and these images reflect that. As these societies have evolved with industrialization, their art has become a lot more varied, if nothing else.
Art has always been used as a means of expression and of confirmation of events and movements that take place in the society in that respective period of time. The Neo-Classical and Romanticist art makes no exception to this rule and the two periods have been considered in the history of artistic art as two of the most representative for the expressivity they brought to the world of the arts as well as through the painters they inspired. Jacques-Louis David and Eugene Delacroix are two of the most representative painters of the New Classical period and the Romanticist art and their paintings are significant for the symbols and ideals these two periods provided for the artistic world.
Neo-classical art must be seen in the wider context of the 18th century and the era of Enlightenment when the new perceptions on the role of reason were redefined against the concepts of…
Art through the Ages
1. (Ch. 27) What is the interpretation of Goya's Saturn Devouring his Children?
The interpretation of Goya’s Saturn Devouring his Children is based on the myth of Saturn who feared that his children would overthrow him, so he devoured them one by one to avoid that risk. Goya lived many centuries after this ancient myth of antiquity originated. However, his own contemporary situation reflected the old myth in terms of the way the powerful rulers of the time were frantically lashing out, trying to preserve their own power by destroying the least possible threat. The wild-eyed and frenzied look of Saturn in Goya’s painting, produced between the years of 1819 and 1823, reflects what was happening in his own time. The effects of the French Revolution had spread throughout Europe and Spain had gotten to enjoy the Napoleon’s conquests. Goya’s painting reflected the insane frenzy for…
omen in Higher Education -- 1785-1890
Higher educational opportunities for women in the U.S. were scarce in the late 18th century through the nineteenth century, and even into the 20th century as well. omen were expected to stay in the home, raise the children, cook and clean for the husband, not go out and get an advanced education. This paper reflects the few opportunities that were available to women and how those opportunities were seized upon by women eager to better themselves and pursue careers -- notwithstanding firm resistance by society and by colleges and universities run by men.
omen and Higher Education by 1860
In his book A History of American Higher Education, author John Thelin points out that by 1860, just before the Civil ar, there were "…at lease forty-five institutions" that were offering college and university degrees to women (Thelin, 2012). Those higher education institutions were referred…
Norgren, J. (2010). Ladies of Legend: The First Generation of American Women Attorneys
Journal of Supreme Court History, 35(1), 71-90.
Spillman, S. (2012). Institutional Limits: Christine Ladd-Franklin, Fellowships, and American Women's Academic Careers, 1880-1920. History of Education Quarterly,
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…
Edgerton, S. ( 2006). Picturing the Mind's Eye. Tampa University. Journal of Art History,
1. Retrieved from http://journal.utarts.com/articles.php?id=4&type=paper
Op Art History Part I: A History of Perspective in Art. Retrieved from http://www.op-
La Berceuse (Woman Rocking
Pellicot Roulin, 1851-1930), 1889.
incent van Gogh
Dutch, 1853-1890). Oil on canvas. The Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg Collection,
Partial Gift of Walter H. And Leonore Annenberg, 1996
The world of art is diverse and rich coming together for appreciation overcoming all cultural barriers. The story of an Gogh and his astounding genius while creating canvases has captivated the interest and attention of millions around the world. Even when people cannot afford art they appreciated the creativity and charm that each of his pictures brings forth. Each of his strokes has a life of its own and the lifelike creation gives an illusion of perfection that is hard to imitate.
The Metropolitan Museum boasts one of his best creative efforts done late in his artistic life. ery near the time of his breakdown at Arles.
La Berceuse or a Woman Rocking a Cradle…
Van Gogh, V. 1958. The complete letters of Vincent van Gogh. Vol.
3. London: Thames and Hudson.
Fry, R. 1998. Cezanne. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
We are a company at the head of the fashion industry. Our image is crucial to our success. The appearance, the environment, the overall decor, and the ambiance of our office space is what sends the first messages to our clients. If we expect consumers to value their appearance, then it is up to us to be role models for fashion sense and sensibility.
Therefore, I propose the installation of six major works of art in our corporate office space. Each of these six works of art is carefully selected because it reflects the vibe and mission of our company. The colors, the tone, and the style of the artwork matches our corporate vision. In this memorandum, I will list and describe the six works of art, telling you why these pieces reflect our image.
Camille Pissarro's "Apple Tree at Eragny"
This richly textured painting conveys a sense…
The Metropolitan Museum of Art (2011). Impressionism: Art and Modernity. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org /toah/hd/imml/hd_imml.htm
Pioch, N. (2006). Impressionism. Retrieved online: http://www.ibiblio.org /wm/paint/glo/impressionism/
"Welcome to Impressionism," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.impressionism.org/
William Blake's works included writings and illustrations, some of which were a bit moody and gothic, which also characterized this era. It was a time of modernization, when the opulence of the past simply did not seem relevant or even desirable any more, and it again illustrates just how different eras and ideas about society and money can alter art and artists' works. Art mirrors society and society's interests, which is why it has always changed through time, and will continue to do so.
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. etrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). etrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. etrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. ococo.…
2007). The restored hall of mirrors revealed to the public. Retrieved from the Chateau Versailles Web site: http://www.chateauversailles.fr/fr/Panoramiques/Pano_GG_b1500.htm27 July 2007.
Blake, W. (2007). Infant joy (From Songs of Innocence). Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/B/blake/blake_songs_25.jpg.html27 July 2007.
Fuseli, H. (2007). Satan starting from the touch of Ithuriel's spear. Retrieved from the Tate Britain Museum Web site: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/gothicnightmares/infocus/satanspear.htm#t27 July 2007.
Harden, M. Rococo. Retrieved from the Mark Harden Artchive Web site: http://www.artchive.com/artchive/rococo.html27 July 2007.
Turtle shell rattles have been used for countless centuries. Such rattles have been recovered from ancient sites in the southwest and in the Mississippian civilizations.
The turtle rattle was also a musical instrument in ceremonial use. One of its most important functions was its significance in the False Face ceremonies. One of the most distinguishing features of the Iroquois belief system is the reliance on the mask for religious and ritual purposes. These masks are often designated as False Faces. This term refers to the first False Face and the mythical origins of protective and healing spirits. They are used in introductory and agricultural rituals. The turtle rattles play a significant part in these important rituals.
In the various curing and healing rituals, the wearer of the False Face will juggle hot coals and use ash and is apparently immune to cold (see below), and he bears a turtle-shell rattle…
American Indian Education. http://www.osseo.k12.mn.us/special/stusupport/stuserv/AmInd/LilBuffalo/catalog.htm (Accessed April 30, 2005)
THE IROUK CHARACTER. http://www.icculus.org/~msphil/mythus/campaigns/aerth/irouk / (Accessed May 1, 2005) www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=21005756
Frank G. Speck, and Alexander General, Midwinter Rites of the Cayuga Long House (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), 70.
In "Burial at Ornans," the brightest and most colorful figures are various figures in the church. An altar boy, a priest, a man carrying a staff of the crucifix, and bishops are in the forefront. They direct our eyes to the left of the painting and create a movement towards the right where the majority of the figures are in the painting. Our eyes gravitate to their area first because there are reds and because that is where the most light is. Just as the figures walk to the right, our eyes do so as well. We see onlookers and patrons -- average members of the society. They blend together due to the similarity of hue and color. This conveys that they are interchangeable and unimportant. In "Third Class Carriage," the brightest areas of the painting are of the woman nursing and the elderly woman. They are strongly lit…
Modernism: Depth Analysis European Art Works 1860-1935
Modernism, in its widest meaning, is considered to be modern belief, eccentric, or practice. To add a little more, the word gives a description of the modernist movement occurring in the arts, its set of cultural propensities and related cultural actions, initially rising from wide-scale and extensive differences to Western civilization in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (aker 2005). In specific the expansion of modern industrial cultures and the quick growing of cities, trailed then by the dismay of the First World War, were among the issues that fashioned Modernism. Connected expressions are modernist, modern, present-day, and postmodern. In art, Modernism openly rejects the philosophy of realism (aker 2005) and creates usage of the works from previous times, through the request of return, incorporation, redrafting, recapitulation, review and at times mockery in new methods. (aker 2005) Innovation also discards the lasting…
Armstrong, Carol and de Zegher, Catherine. Women Artists as the Millennium. Cambridge, MA:: MIT Press, 2005.
Baker, Houston A., Jr.,. Modernism and the Harlem Renaissance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,, 2005.
Nicholls, Peter,. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . Hampshire and London:: MacMilian, 2005.
Pollock, Griselda, and Florence, Penny,. Looking Back to the Future: Essays by Griselda Pollock from the 1990s. New York:: G&B New Arts Press,, 2004.
To illustrate these different views, he creates Starry Night over the Rhone. This shows the sense of anticipation that is occurring before the evening begins. As he is depicting, a quit outdoor cafe that is waiting for: the customers to begin arriving and the festivities to commence. To illustrate this sense of anticipation he uses different colors and lighter brush strokes. As there is: yellow, black, blue, tan and gray; to highlight the overall emotions that Van Gogh is feeling (when he reflects on his life in Paris). At the same time, the lighter brush strokes are used to show the changes of time that are taking place, by making the background somewhat blurry. This is important, because it is illustrating how the artist is trying to create that sense of realism and the passage of time, by showing their positive emotions about their past lives. ("Vincent Van Gough," 2011)…
Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette. (2011). Web Museum Paris. Retrieved from: http://www.ibiblio.org /wm/paint/auth/renoir/moulin-galette/
Frans Hals. (2011). ABC Gallery. Retrieved from: http://www.abcgallery.com/H/hals/hals.html
Hudson River School. (2011). Visual Arts. Retrieved from: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/hudson-river-school-landscape-painting.htm
Jean -- Antione Houdon. (2011). Scholar Resource. Retrieved from: http://www.scholarsresource.com/browse/artist/637
Modernism in art triumphed from the 19th century onward and in the early 20th century virtually changed the way art came to be perceived. From the Abstractionists to the Cubists to the Surrealists to the followers of Dada, the modernists continually reinvented themselves with newer and wilder movements, firmly rejecting tradition and all its preoccupations. It was only fitting, however, that modern artists should break so completely with the past: modern society had split from the old world with the Protestant Reformation, the Age of Enlightenment, the Scientific Revolution, and the Romantic Era, all of which followed one on the heels of the other. This paper will trace the history of the final era -- the modernist -- by examining five works of five different painters of the modernist era: Franz Marc's "Fate of the Animals," Pablo Picasso's "Guitar and Violin," Marcel Duchamp's "found" artwork "Fountain," Salvador Dali's Surrealist masterpiece…
Dali, Salvador. "The Persistence of Memory." Wikipaintings. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Duchamp, Marcel. "Fountain." Tate.org.uk. Web. 14 Feb 2013.
Greenberg, Clement. "Avant-Garde and Kitsch." Art and Culture. MA: Beacon Press,
Venus in Art
Introduction to Venus and Aphrodite:
Throughout history, Venus has long been a source of inspiration for artists. Her representation of love and beauty has been captured in various mediums, from the visual arts of paintings and sculpture to music and drama; Venus has served as a universal symbol of beauty and has embodied the secrets of love. Central to understanding how artists have been able to use her as such a representation of love and beauty, is understanding Venus and Aphrodite's roles in history and Greek mythology.
Venus is an ancient Italian goddess closely associated with fields and gardens and later identified by the Romans with the Greek goddess of love, Aphrodite. Although the question as to how Venus came to be identified with so important a deity as Aphrodite remains unanswered, Venus' identification with Aphrodite is certain and because of this is often depicted in art.…
Arscptt, C. & Scott, K. (Eds.) (2000). Manifestations of Venus: Art and sexuality. New York: Manchester University Press.
Beckley, B. (ed.) (1998). Uncontrollable Beauty: Toward a new aesthetics. New York: Allworth Press.
Hersey, G. (1996). The evolution of allure: sexual selection from the Medici Venus to the Incredible Hulk. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.
Goodman, E. (ed.) (2001). Art and Culture in the Eighteenth Century: new dimensions and multiple perspectives. Newark: University of Delaware Press.
works of art from the Metropolitan Museum of Art
The painting Lachrymae by the British artist Lord Frederic Leighton depicts what looks like a woman in a dark, Grecian tunic standing by a column in mourning. The woman wears a dark cloak over her shoulder and has dark leaves in her hair. Although her full figure is visible to the gazer, she turns away, as if she is in her own, private world of grief. There are dry leaves and a withered laurel crown at her feet, suggesting she is mourning for a dead lover. Other than the golden sun setting in the background, the overall atmosphere is one of profound sadness, despite the idealized, proportionate figure of the woman.
Although it attempts to recreate the images of ancient Greece in its style and symbolism, the painting is identified as being reflective of a late form of the 19th century…
Burne-Jones, Edward. The Love Song. 1868. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Leighton, Frederic. Lachrymae. 1895. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
DYNAMICS BETWEEN AT & TECHNOLOGY
Art & Technology
From the earliest moments of human history until the present and certainly into the future, the relationship between art and technology will be a dynamic one. Technology has directly impacted art forms such as architecture, photography, sculpture, and painting. Painting, sculpture, and architecture are much older art forms than photography, whose roots come from the latter portion of the 19th century. Nonetheless, each of these forms has changed technology and has been changed by technology. In numerous cases within each art form, technological developments in other industries, not related to art, influenced developments in each art respectively. The paper will discuss and consider connections between technology and art including culture and gender.
The great industrialization at the turn of the 20th century changed the world and every industry. The 20th century made possible the further development of existing industries and made possible…
Benjamin, W. (1935) The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Available from design.wishiewashie.com/HT5/WalterBenjaminTheWorkofArt.pdf. 2012 June 15.
National Endowment for the Arts. (2009) Audience 2.0 -- How Technology Influences Arts Participation. National Endowment for the Arts, Available from www.nea.gov/research/new-media-report/New-Media-Report.pdf. 2012 June 17.
Thakur, M.K. (2010) How technology influences arts and creativity. International Business Times, Available from http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/79404/20101107/digital-technology-art-dulwich-picture-gallery-iguides-iPod-touch-technology-austin-museum-of-digita.htm . 2012 June 16.
hey created art that was unusual and unique, but they also created art that made statements about who they were and what they believed. Again, this has continued throughout the 20th century. Many critics and experts feel that other more modern examples of avant-garde work include the music and art of John and Yoko Ono, and the arrival of digital media in the art world.
Each of the avant-garde artists wanted the art world to accept their work too, no matter how different or unorthodox it might be. Pissarro, Manet, and Cezanne all were Impressionists at a time when art was more natural and lifelike. heir art was not accepted for years, and they struggled with their style while others simply conformed to what was in style at the time. hat is another mark of the avant-garde in the art world. hey do not conform, rather, they dare to be…
Through their art, they changed what was accepted in the art world, but they also made social commentaries about what was happening in society. For example, in 1938, Picasso painted "Guernica," an emotional reaction to the bombing of a Spanish Basque town by Nazi bombers. The painting has remained one of his most famous and well-known, as much for its depiction of the destroyed town and some of the victims as for its staunch and clear stand against the brutality of the Nazis. These artists were not afraid to stand up for what they believed in, and they wanted to change society to become a better place. They created art that was unusual and unique, but they also created art that made statements about who they were and what they believed. Again, this has continued throughout the 20th century. Many critics and experts feel that other more modern examples of avant-garde work include the music and art of John and Yoko Ono, and the arrival of digital media in the art world.
Each of the avant-garde artists wanted the art world to accept their work too, no matter how different or unorthodox it might be. Pissarro, Manet, and Cezanne all were Impressionists at a time when art was more natural and lifelike. Their art was not accepted for years, and they struggled with their style while others simply conformed to what was in style at the time. That is another mark of the avant-garde in the art world. They do not conform, rather, they dare to be different and unique and hope tastes will change and people will begin to embrace their art. They do not give up, however. Matisse is a good example of that tenacity that turns into favor. His work was modern when Impressionism had finally come into vogue, and he had to wait many years for his artwork to be accepted and viable. The avant-garde artist is different and unique - on the cutting edge so to speak - and so, they create new and daring art forms that take time to be accepted, but usually are.
It is also interesting to note that once an artist and their style or movement has become accepted, they often move on to a new style or movement. For example, modern artist Salvador Dali embraced Dadaism, and then took it one step further with his own "Paranoiac Critical Method." When that movement became accepted, he created another, "Nuclear Mysticism" later in his life. Dali also did not confine himself to one medium, but worked in sculpture, jewelry, and even theater sets. Each of these artists worked for what they believed in and for social change and acceptance.
Now that the camera took over the task of copying reality of the world, the artist was free to play with his inner senses, perception, interpretation and changing effects.
On the other hand the industrialization, rapidly growing of the art world, that brought new approaches to paint, an oil colors. The new technology offered the artists more vivid colors than the ones the former painters had to prepare by themselves in their own studios, and this opened a gate to play with a new palette of bright colors and hues.
The industrialization brought more consequences than just the new paints and materials available.
The past-paced society gave a new sense of speed to everything. It seemed like an artist had to be fast-paced as well to keep up with the crazy rhythm of the mechanical society they lived in.
Painting became fast paced -or at least it seems that way…
Monan, Berence. (2006). Impressionism. Berlin: Broschiert Sprache.
Muller, Joseph-Emile. (1974). Impressionism. New York: Leon Amiel Publishers.
Pool, Phoebe. (1967). Impressionism in Europe. New York: Thames & Hudson.
Tinterow, Gary. (1994). Impressionism: Styles, Manner and Genres. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art.
Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Impressionism vs. Post
This paper will explore impressionism vs. post-impressionism including the influences of each on each other and society, and the effects of each other on the 19th century. The paper will ascertain how one period revived or continued the style and characteristics of the other, or how one period originated in reaction to the other. Impressionist paintings tended to focus less on detail and more on making impressions of form and figure, as the name implies. The brush strokes were less inclined to add detail and structure or order. Post-impressionists considered this trivial, and created artistic work that was decidedly more expressive according to some; more organized and structured, the Post-Impressionist movement could be best described as a response to the Impressionist movement. Some focused on methods including Pointillism, or the use of dots of color, whereas others used bright fresh colors used by Impressionists…
Brettell, R. 2000. Impression: Painting quickly in France, 1860-1890. New Haven and London: Yale
Denvir, B. 1990. The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism. London: Thames and Hudson.
Sweeny, J.J. 1996. Post-Impressionism. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, Microsoft Corp.
Tinterow, G. And Henri Loyrette. 1994. Origins of Impressionism. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
The viewer is compelled to walk around it to see the different aspects of it and perceive its changing nature. The viewer is caught in the middle between avid and Goliath and, as such, interprets a fraction of time of energy and feels the momentum of passing time. The observer of Absinthe, however, is sucked into a pit of stagnation and apathy of depression where the woman and companions signify the doldrums of death. avid frowns and bites his lower lips in agony of intense concentration. L'Absinthe is characterized by pensiveness, melancholy, and, rather than the social interaction of the avidic scene (characteristic of a religious period), Absinthe shows the isolation and depression characteristic of the modern 19th century (and still of today).
Bernini had a tough youth having to battle through destitution and homelessness, until he was finally, and by chance, recognized as artist. Then, in the fashion of…
Degas, on the other hand, was one of a cadre of Impressionist artists who lived in materialistic and hedonist France at the turn of the modern period when religion was all but rejected, and reality -- sometimes in its most sordid terms -- was becoming the artistic theme of the moment.
Herbert, RL "Brandy and Absinthe" in Impressionism: Art, lesioture, and Parisian society (Yale Univ. Press, 1988), 71-81
Thus, the history of tattooing has come full circle, and one of the early cultures that enjoyed it the most is now seeing a resurrection of the craft and the artists that create it.
In conclusion, although tattoo artists today use modern machinery and a wide variety of inks to create their elaborate designs, the basic premise of tattooing remains the same. Inks and dyes are used to create permanent designs that indicate a person's interests, ideas, and even dreams. The tattoos are a mark of cultural beliefs, and even status, since elaborate tattoos can be extremely expensive in today's market. While they may be more elaborate, colorful, and creative than early tattoos, they serve much the same purpose in history. They are artistic, they are often spiritual, and they are the mark of courage and overcoming pain. Tattoos have a long place in history, and while their popularity may…
Editors. "Skin Stories: History of Tattoo. PBS.org. 2003. 15 Dec. 2007. http://www.pbs.org/skinstories/history/index.html
Keel, Tim. "Tattooed: Body Art Goes Mainstream." The Christian Century 15 May 2007: 18+.
McGraw, Mike. "Hinrich Gets Tattoo to Honor Late Grandfather." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 13 Oct. 2006: 5.
Roman mosaics were more frequently used to adorn the floors, and thus used less glass, gold, and elaborate materials. Perhaps the most famous Byzantine mosaics are those found in the Hagia Sophia, the most famous church in Eastern Christianity. On the South Gallery or Catechumena is displayed a depiction of Christ, Mary, and St. John the Baptist known as the Deesis. Christ's "face is strikingly realistic and expressive…All [figures] are set against a golden background" ("Byzantine art," Art Lex, 2010). Of almost equal fame are the glittering, gold mosaics of Ravenna's holy buildings. "Ravenna's most famous Byzantine mosaics are of an emperor, his empress and their retinues. On one wall of the choir of San Vitale in Ravenna, built for Justinian and consecrated in AD 547, the emperor stands with crown and a golden halo" (Gascoigne 2001). Although the ostensible purpose of the structure is a holy one, the Emperor…
"Byzantine art." Art Lex. May 6, 2010. http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/b/byzantine.html
Gascoigne, Bamber. "History of mosaic." History World. 2001. May 6, 2010.
"History of mosaic art." Joy of Shards. 2008. May 6, 2010.
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
The Exoticism of Madame Butterfly, Carmen, & Aida
This paper will use three examples of 19th and 20th century opera to examine and interpret the term "exoticism." The paper will take time to clarify the relativity of the term exoticism and how it manifests in these three works. What is exoticism and how does it work? What is the function of exoticism in culture, in art, and in general? What does it reflect about a culture and what desires does exoticism express? The paper will attempt to ask and answer more questions utilizing Madame Butterfly, Carmen, and Aida as examples of the exotic at work in art.
We must first consider that exoticism is a relative term. When referring to three operas from the west, readers must take into account that what is exotic in the west is not what is universally exotic.…
Crebas, Aya & Dick Pels. "The Character of Carmen and the Social Construction of a New Feminine Myth." Center for European Studies, Working Paper Series #5, December 12, 1987.
Harwood, Buie, Bridget May, Phd, & Curt Sherman. "Exoticism: 1830s -- 1920s." Architecture and Interior Design from the 19th Century: An Integrated History, Volume 2,-Page 212 -- 235. Prentice Hall, 2009.
Locke, Ralph P. "A Broader View of Musical Exoticism." The Journal of Musicology, Volume 24, No. 4, Pages 477 -- 521. University of California Press, 2007.
Locke, Ralph P. "Beyond the exotic: How 'Eastern' is Aida?" Cambridge Opera Journal, Volume 17, No. 2, Pages 105 -- 139. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005.
Exoticism in 19th & 20th Century Opera
Exoticism in 19th and 20th Century Opera
Exoticism was a cultural invention of the 17th Century, enjoying resurgence in the 19th and 20th Centuries due to increased travel and trade by Europeans in foreign, intriguing continents. The "est," eventually including the United States, adapted and recreated elements of those alluring cultures according to estern bias, creating escapist art forms that blended fantasy with reality. Two examples of Exoticism in Opera are Georges Bizet's "Carmen," portraying cultural bias toward gypsies and Basques, and Giacomo Puccini's "Madama Butterfly," portraying cultural bias toward the Far East. "Carmen" was developed from a single original source while "Madama Butterfly" was a fusion of several sources that developed successively; nevertheless, both operas remain distinguished examples of Exoticism in Opera.
Exoticism in History and Culture
Meaning "that which is introduced from or originating in a foreign (especially tropical) country or…
Boyd, A. (n.d.). Exoticism. Retrieved from The Imperial Archive Web site: http://www.qub.ac.uk/imperial/key-concepts/Exoticism.htm
New York City Opera Project. (n.d.). New York City Opera Project: Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Columbia University Web site: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/music/NYCO
The Metropolitan Opera. (2011). Carmen | Madama Butterfly. Retrieved from Metropolitan Opera Family Web site: http://www.metoperafamily.org
Artifacts From the 19th and 20th Century
Its funny how paper is never really given importance because of the fact that it is so inexpensive and everywhere, that most of us take it for granted. In this paper, we will look at the making of the paper and how it became one of the most disposable products in the world.
Till the mid-1800's paper was considered an expensive commodity and was available only in individual hand-made sheets. Paper was the size of a papermaking frame that had to be handled by one or two people.
This created two problems, one was to be able to manufacture the paper in that size and the second was to manufacture in high volumes.
ags, grass and straw were used to manufacture high quality paper. Then came the lower quality paper called cardboards and wall coverings. During the industrial growth of the…
Basic Training, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.home.eznet.net/~kcupery/PBArtic/paperbasics.html
Greatest Achievements - 3. Airplane, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.greatachievements.org/greatachievements/ga_3_2.html
Harrods.com - Frequently Asked Questions, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.harrods.com/faqs/default.html
IHT: A Special Report 3/15/97, Retrieved on: April 19, 2003, Web site: http://www.iht.com/IHT/SR/031597/sr031597c.html
Romantic and Neoclassical Paintings
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres and Eugene Delacroix were contemporaries -- but they practiced two very different styles: the former was a Neoclassical painter and the latter a Romantic painter. Neoclassicalism emphasized symmetry and simplicity and found its inspiration in the ancient art of Greece and Rome: its practitioners celebrated the artistic styles of the Greco-Roman world, rejecting the drama of the Baroque and adopting a more intellectualized approached to the visual arts. The subjects of these paintings were often political, social historical and classical -- a portrait of the Horatii, for example, or of a scene in Homer's Iliad. The visual style was decorous, concise, restrained, balanced, rational, and sometimes witty: it appealed to the Enlightenment thinkers of the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Romanticism on the other hand was more emotional: its subjects were more often focused on nature, the individual, the common man, the spirit…
"Ars Quatuor Coronatorum." Freemasonry.
"The Lady with an Ermine." Italian Renaissance. http://www.italian-renaissance-art.com/Lady-with-an-Ermine.html
The codes appeared on the screen and were read by trained typographers. In 1970, the Merganthaler Linotype VIP became the first phototypesetter to incorporate a minicomputer with programmable software that could be used to process raw text within the output machine (Barlow & Eccles, 1992).
The graphic artist and designer had been losing some of their credibility in relationship to the fine artists up to the 1970s, because typesetting became a mechanical process that required technical training rather than artistic talent. Yet illustrators continued to be considered artists. However, several graphic designers proved such beliefs biased and irrelevant. Starting in the 1950s, Alan Fletcher used pop art, humor and bold and colorful works to develop new works of art. David Carson, a typographer and graphic designer, established his expertise in the 1980s for experimental typeface design. Completely developing his own approach, he established new rules of design and typography and…
Barlow, G., & Eccles, S. (1992) Typesetting and composition. Great Britain: Heron Press.
Crawford, T. (2008). AIGA Professional Practices in Graphic Design. Allworth, NY: American Institute of Graphic Arts
Eskilson, S. (2007) Graphic design: a new history. New Haven, CT: Yale University
Loxley, S. (2006) Type: The secret history of letters. London: I.B. Tauris
To wit, there has been a "large-scale migration to the big cities, Pohlit explains, and that has "inclined the balance of power in cultural matters in favor of the poor and uneducated." Hence, the intellectual upper class now operates from a "narrow retreat, now itself a pariah," Pohlit continues. And that intellectual upper class of course has all the estern classical music it can possibly listen to, but it remains unable to uphold its esternized "Turkishness" with any degree of impact at all (Pohlit).
Art Music Composers
ilhelm Peterson-Berger (1867-1942) holds the highly respected position as the most popular art music composer in Sweden's history, according to Frederick Key Smith (Smith, 2002). Peterson-Berger thought of himself as more of a "symphonist and composer of agnerian operas than as a composer of miniatures," Smith explains. Peterson-Berger was raised in a home with a lot of culture; his father was fluent in…
Olsen, Dale A., and Sheehy, Daniel E. (2001). "Art Music." In The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music: The United States and Canada / Ellen Koskoff, Ed., Oxon, UK: Taylor & Francis.
Pohlit, Stefan. (2010). Musical Life and Westernization in the Republic of Turkey.
Schismogenesis and Cultural Revisioning in Contemporary Music. Retrieved August 14,
2011, from http://www.stefanpohlit.com .
Relationship of "The Old English Baron" and "Vathek" to 18th Century English Gothic Fiction
The rise of Gothic fiction in English literature coincided with the advent of the Romantic Era at the end of the 18th century and beginning of the 19th century. Gothic masterpieces such as Shelley's Frankenstein, Lewis's The Monk, and Stoker's Dracula would capture the imagination by fueling it with the flames of horror, suspense, other-worldliness and mystery. These elements are significant because the Age of Enlightenment had been characterized by a cold, objective, analytical focus on nature and humankind. It had been based on the concept that reason was sufficient to explain all events in the world and in fact all creation. Yet as Shakespeare's Hamlet reminded readers, "There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in your philosophy" (Shakespeare 1.5.167-168). Part of this interest in the Gothic was inspired…
History Of Hospitals
The combined arts and sciences responsible for how society cares for its sick and ill has transformed much throughout recorded history. The greatest and most dramatic changes occurred alongside other historic eras that complimented the changes seen in medicine and health care. The purpose of this essay is to examine the metamorphosis of hospitals from the 18th century until today. In this examination I will focus on the extent of these changes being forced by the ideas of professionalism, medical therapy or technology and the overall character of the changes and how they related to greater historic transformations.
Modern medicine was ushered in with modern times, and revolutionary society changes complemented those which occurred within medicine and health management. The 18th century in historic Europe was ripe with ideas of liberty and freedom, contrasting the previous century's of closed and restricted ideas. The Power Point Slide Presentation…
Brunton, D (2004). "The Emergence of a Modern Profession?" In Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 119-150.
Marland, H. (2004).The Changing Role of the Hospital, 1800-1900, in Medicine Transformed. Health, Disease and Society in Europe 1800-1930 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2004), pp. 31-60.
"Modern Medicine." Power Point Presentation.
" The New Hospital." Power Point Presentation.
Robert, Calvin, Martha, and illiam Scott and Mila ended up in the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco because its owner, Rev. illiam Anderson Scott, was the minister at Calvary Presbyterian Church there in 1853-61. He was originally from the South and because of his sympathy for the Confederate cause in the Civil ar, including offering public prayers for Jefferson Davis, he "had to leave the city for his safety and that of his family" (Smylie 89-90). His son Robert, depicted on the far left of the painting, became a Union Army officer in 1862, although Rev. Scott regretted that he was "on the wrong side" (Acker 79). Mila was a gift to his wife Ann from her father in 1830, and was in charge of caring for the four children. In the painting, the Scott's wished to be depicted as "relatively well-heeled members of Sothern society" even…
Acker, Emma. "Black, White and Shades of Gray: Picturing Identity in Robert, Calvin, Martha and William Scoot and Mila." Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 2010.
Manigault Plantation Journal. Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina
Smylie, James Hutchinson. A Brief History of the Presbyterians. Geneva Press, 1996.
ealism, Impressionism, and Nineteenth-Century Photography
The Village Maidens
Date the Piece was Created
Art Movement and/or Style Media
ealism / Oil Paint
Description and Analysis
This 1852 painting, which sparked the creation of a collection of pictures dedicated to women's lives, depicts the artist's three sisters -- Juliette, Zoe and Zelie -- taking a stroll along the Communal-- a little valley close to Ornans (their native village) (The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2016). Despite nothing of significance being depicted in this painting, it tells a story. Courbet uses a dark and dull color tone and the overall painting is neither overly dark nor overly bright. The weather may be taken to be pleasant and warm, considering the clear sky Courbet portrays in the painting's background. His brush strokes and paint choice impart a realistic texture and tone to the picture. As no activity is shown in the…
Galbreat, D. (2014, July 26). Style Guide. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from Prezi: https://prezi.com/oumm1aqj4lmq/style-guide/
Pioch, N. (2002, September 19). Monet, Claude: Image Bathing at La Grenouillere. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from https://www.ibiblio.org/wm/paint/auth/monet/early/bathing/
The Metropolitan Museum of Art. (2016). Young Ladies of the Village. Retrieved March 12, 2016, from The Metropolitan Museum of Art: https://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/40.175/
The National Gallery. (2016). Bathers at La Grenouillere. Retrieved March 2016, 2016, from The National Gallery: http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/paintings/claude-monet-bathers-at-la-grenouillere
The National Museum of Women in the Arts in Washington is a museum specifically focused on bringing a gender-focused study to the achievements of women in the different artistic fields, whether literature, visual art, or performance art. The museum highlights the achievements of women artists by collecting and showcasing paintings and sculptures (the museum boasts a collection of 4,5000 objects created by women), presenting "10 world-class exhibitions of women artists each year," operating a publishing house, programming concerts, films and staged performances, educating the public, and sponsoring committees around the world dedicated to advocating for female artists (NMWA, 2015). While the museum is thus clearly dedicated to supporting the voice of women and their artistic expressions, the museum itself does raise questions about the issue of gender within the wider scope of the total global and historical artistic/cultural experience of not only modern day society but also of…
Advocate. (2015). NMWA advocates for women artists -- and you can, too. Retrieved from http://www.nmwa.org/advocate
Guerilla Girls. (2012). National Museum of Women in the Arts. Retrieved from http://www.nmwa.org/sites/default/files/media/images/general/advocate_guerilla_girls_2012.jpg
Mulvey, L. (1975). Visual pleasure and the narrative cinema. Screen, 16(3): 6-18.
NMWA. (2015). About. National Museum of Women in the Arts. Retrieved from http://www.nmwa.org/about