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Acute Abdominal Pain -- Assessment
Nurses are very often the first medical aid providers that most patients see. In today's interprofessional healthcare set up, a nurse's approach in collecting a patient's history and diagnosing if the pain is acute or non-acute would assuredly help in providing the patient with appropriate treatment. It is therefore primary that nurses be fully equipped to diagnose the various ailments and start on the care to be provided. Nurses are also the first information gatherers and it is vital that they acquire the patient's past medical history. The importance of a structured approach in gathering this information is very vital as it forms the basis of analysis and also influences the care provided. Abdominal pain is one of the most common ailments that people complain of and seek medical care for. In most cases the pain's primary cause of pain may be ascertained almost immediately…
Biliary Colic: Biliary colic is a result of intermittent cystic duct or bile duct obstruction caused by gall stones. Typically affecting overweight women, pain in this case is usually colicky and localized in the right upper quadrant and in the epigastrium radiating towards the back. Vomiting is an associated symptom and the onset of pain is sudden and severe and it resolves as fast and spontaneously or after administering opiate analgesic.
Bowel Obstruction: Both the large and small intestines can get obstructed. Large intestine obstruction is caused by impacted faeces, tumors or volvulus (a case of the intestine twisting around itself). Obstructions in the small intestines are largely due to Crohn's disease, tumors, swallowed foreign objects or adhesions (Longmore et al. 2004.)The patient may experience colicky pain, vomiting, and will display a distended abdomen. It is also possible that some patients may become constipated as they might not be able to pass stools or gas due to the obstruction (Longmore et al. 2004). An X-ray can display the accurate position of the obstruction and help in finding speedy care.
Cholecystitis: An acute or chronic inflammation of the gall bladder, this is predominantly caused by
Lower Abdominal Pain
Patient: Patient is a 30-year-old female presenting with lower abdominal pain, beginning approximately 48-hour previous to her exam. Over the last few days, her pain has increased, and she reports vaginal bleeding that is scanty. She did have a normal menstrual period that ending two-weeks prior, and she indicates this was normal and lasted about 4 days. She is Gravida 2, Para -0, Miscarriage -- 2, and has been attempting to conceive with her husband. In addition, she denies dysuria or urinary frequency.
Vaginal bleeding after sex; inflammation of cervix from friction during sex, usually harmless and clear up quickly. It is possible that the issue could be something more serious (cervical dysplasia or cancer), but more likely inadequate lubrication or foreplay, possibly injury to the uterine lining. Vaginitis is another possible cause, all of which require a vaginal examination (Mayo Clinic, 2014).
Pseydocyesis (False pregnancy). This…
Adams, P.J. (2002). Menstruation in Young Girls: A Clinical Perspective. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 99(4), 655-662
Boston Children's Hospital (2011). Amenorrhea. Retrieved from: http://www.childrenshospital.org/health-topics/conditions/amenorrhea
Dains, J.E., Baumann, L.C., & Scheibel, P. (2012). Amenorrhea. In J.E. Dains, L.C. Baumann. & P. Scheibel, Advanced Health Assessment & Clinical Diagnosis in Primary Care (4th ed., pp. 46- 60). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Master-Hunter, T. & Heiman, D. (2006) Amenorrhea: Evaluation and Management. American Family
Assessing the Abdomen
Abdominal pain has proven to be a major issue facing emergency room doctors since the diagnosis process is relatively complex. Meisel (2011) contends that doctors in emergency rooms do not fancy diagnosing and treating abdominal pain because it entails dealing with bodily fluids, complex internal examinations, and a wide range of diagnostic tests and therapies. This comes at a time when abdominal pain is one of the major reasons American patients visit the emergency room (ER). Caring for abdominal pain is characterized by a high chance of misdiagnosis unlike other health issues. ER doctors are faced with challenging and time-consuming processes when trying to determine the actual cause of abdominal pain. This is a case study of a woman who visited an emergency room for severe abdominal pain and was diagnosed with diverticulitis. The case study entails an analysis of SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, and Plan) factors…
Patient: 66-Year-Old Black / African-American Female With Complaint of Sudden Onset of Mid Upper Epigastric Pain
During the initial medical exam, it is critical to gauge the severity of the pain. The healthcare practitioner should inquire as to the presence of previous medical conditions such as colitis, Crohn's disease, and IBS which could be the cause of the sudden onset. In the instance of abdominal pain, the provider should determine the precise location of pain as much as is possible even though referent pain is often an issue. Even though the pain is located in the upper abdominal quadrant, greater specificity is needed to eliminate possible causes. For example, "pain in the patient's right-upper abdomen can indicate gallstones or inflammation" or "duodenal ulcers, acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and acute hepatitis" (Lipman 2009; Karnath & Mileski, 2002, p. 46). In contrast, pain in the right mid-upper abdomen, may indicate…
Karnath, B. & Mileski, W. (2002). Acute abdominal pain. Review of Clinical Signs.
Retrieved from: http://www.turner-white.com/pdf/hp_nov02_pain.pdf
Lipman, M. (2009). When your belly hurts. Consumer Reports. Retrieved from:
Non-Cardiac Chest Pain
Background- Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for or visit the Emergency Room for help. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues. However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Often no clear reason for such pain presents itself during examination, but understanding the perception and pain experience can help medical professionals understand different experiences that lead to patient panic about chest pain (Jerlock, Gaston-Johansson, & Danielson, 2005). Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: 1) pressure, fullness or extreme tightness in the chest; 2) crushing or searing pain that radiates to the back, upward through the jaw, and especially through…
Unexplained Chest Pain Can be Due To Stress. (2009, February 9). Retrieved from Science Daily: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090209094551.htm
Cunha, J. (2011, March). Chest Pain - Overview, Causes, Symptoms. Retrieved from eMedicineHealth: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/chest_pain/article_em.htm
Hershcovici, T., Navarro-Rodriguez, T., & Fass, R. (2011). Non-Cardiac Chest Pain: An Update. CML Gastroenterology, 30(2), 37-54.
Jerlock, M., Gaston-Johansson, F., & Danielson, E. (2005). Living with unexplained chest pain. Issues in Clinical Nursing, 14(2), 956-64.
Assessing the Abdomen
The chief complaint of JR is that his “stomach hurts” and he is experiencing diarrhea, from which he has been unable to obtain any relief. His pain in his abdomen started 3 days earlier and he has taken no medication for it. The pain is midrange, though it was very high today when it began. He ate but experienced nausea afterwards. JR is 47, suffers from hypertension, diabetes and had an issue of gastrointestinal bleeding four years ago. He is on a number of medications to address his high blood pressure and diabetes. He has no known drug allergies, no history of colon cancer. His father and mother both had hypertension; his father has type 2 diabetes; his mother suffered from Gastroesophageal reflux disease and high fatty concentration in the blood (hyperlipidemia).
JR occasionally imbibed alcohol. He is overweight at 248 lbs with a 5’10” height. He…
This strength, however, comes at the price of an explanation of the detailed mechanisms by which abdominal pain is created by each of the identified illnesses. The article's primary strength is found in its directness and its effective summary of necessary information, in the brevity through which this is achieved necessarily limits the scope of the article. Though the article would perhaps have been more interesting with more in depth explanations, it was still a highly interesting read and provided an effective and concise review of some knowledge already obtained as well as presenting new knowledge.
The health assessment strategies described in this article would be highly beneficially in any practice not already using similar assessment methods. The efficiency and reliability of the methods the authors describe would be of great benefit to patients and staff alike, saving abundant time, energy, and resources that can then be devoted to treatment…
Cole, E.; Lynch, a. & Cugnoni, H. (2006). Assessment of the patient with acute abdominal pain. Nursing standard 20(38), 56-61.
Nursing Case Study
Managing a possible Case of Gastroenteritis: A Nursing Case Study
The effective delivery of optimal nursing care requires a comprehensive treatment plan that addresses both the patient's symptoms and the security of the immediate environment. This report presents a case study of appropriate evidence-based nursing practices in treating an elderly female patient presenting with abdominal discomfort in a residential care setting.
The client presents with new onset faecal incontinence, diarrhoea and increasing abdominal discomfort and cramps. These symptoms suggest a possible gastrointestinal disturbance (Crisp & Taylor, 2009) and present a number of possible diagnoses. While the client's nursing care plan indicates that she is normally continent, her confidential disclosure to the nurse suggests that her symptoms may be more prolonged. Another relevant client characteristic is her advanced age of 85 years.
The client's proximity to the dirty utility room in the aged care facility and the report…
1. Crisp J, Taylor C. (2010). Potter & Perry's fundaments of nursing (3rd ed.). Chatswood, N.S.W.: Elsevier, Australia.
2. Kirk MD, Hall GV, Veitch MGK, Becker N. (2010). Assessing the ?incidence of gastroenteritis among elderly people living in long-term care facilities. Journal of Hospital Infection, 76, 12.
3. Australian Government: Department of Health and Ageing. (2007). Retrieved from- http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/content/icg-guidelinesindex.htm .
4. Andrew E, Simor MVD. (2010). Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Clostridium difficile Infection in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review. The-Americans Geriatric Societ, 58(8), 1557-1593.
Participants filled out a Short-Form McGill Questionnaire, an Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale, and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire in order to measure their levels of pain over the past few weeks. What the researchers found through statistical analysis was self-management strategies that reduced pain over time were most effective in the group that was exposed to guided imagery techniques. The level of guided imagery therapy was not itself significant, but more of the fact of whether or not it was present in the patient's therapy or not. This helps illustrate the effectiveness of guided imagery in managing long-term chronic pain when there are no fundamental cures present within traditional therapeutic practices. Pain management symptoms improved, but the symptoms overall remained. This shows that guided imagery is not a cure in and of itself, but rather an effective way to reduce and manage the pain that is present in chronic conditions like fibromyalgia.
Ferrell, Betty R., et al. "Pain management for elderly patients with cancer at home." CANCER-PHILADELPHIA- 74 (1994): 2139-2139.
Menzies, V., Taylor, a.G., & Bourguignon, C. (2006). Effects of guided imagery on outcomes of pain, functional status, and self-efficacy in persons diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine, 12(1), 23-30.
Weydert, J.A., Shapiro, D.E., Acra, S.A., Monheim, C.J., Chambers, a.S., & Ball, T.M. (2006). Evaluation of guided imagery as treatment for recurrent abdominal pain in children: a randomized controlled trial. BMC pediatrics, 6(1), 29.
In order to assess Yvonne and her symptoms, the nurse practitioner must show patience and understanding. In the treatment of the symptoms, whether to relieve the fevers or perform scans and tests to find the source of the abdominal pain, the nurse practitioner must give Yvonne and her relatives significant input into the management of the illness. Optimal outcomes can be achieved by providing information to the patient that decreases fear, timely involvement of the doctor in the administration of pain medications and emotional support (McGrath, P. 2006).
eflective practices can have considerable effectiveness in the care of Yvonne. In a paper discussing the benefits of reflective care, Ben Hannigan (2001) argues that reliance on practical knowledge alone is insufficient to solving medical problems as they are rarely abstract in nature. eflection by the nurse practitioner embeds the medical problem into the social context and allows the practitioner to engage…
1. Mununggirritj, D. Yolngu Healer's Medicine: Plants used by the women healers of North-East Arnhem Land. [Online] Available at: http://www.atec.net.au/djapirri_muunggirritj_atec_h_w_presentation.pdf [Accessed 3 September 2011].
2. McGrath P., 2006. 'The biggest worry..': research findings on pain management for Aboriginal peoples in Northern Territory, Australia. Rural Remote Health 6(3), p.549
3. Aboriginal Resource and Development Services (ARDS) [Online] Available at: http://www.ards.com.au/default.html . [Accessed 3 September 2011].
4. Cass A, Lowell A, Christie M, Snelling PL, Flack M, Marmganyin B, Brown I., 2002. Sharing the true stories: improving communication between Aboriginal patients and healthcare workers. Mad J. Aust 176(10), pp.466-70
eview of Symptoms and Lab esults
The reported nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain may indicate a GI disorder, but combined with the patient's diabetes, unusual thirst, constant urination, and fatigue, the symptoms are more indicative of an endocrine disorder (Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006).
Some of the patient's lab results fall into the normal range: BUN of 16 mg/dl (normal is 8 -- 25 mg/dl); creatinine of 1.3 (normal is 0.5 -- 1.7 mg/dl); sodium of 139 mEq/L (normal is 135 -- 145 mEq/L); blood pressure of 90/60 (normal is less than 120/80); and temperature of 99 .1°F (Chernecky & Berger, 2001; Pagana & Pagana, 2003).
Other lab results fall outside of the normal range: glucose of 420 mg/dl is very high (normal is 60 to 110 mg/dl); 4+ glucose and 3+ ketones are very high (normal is no glucose or ketones present in the urine); pH of…
Chernecky, C.C., & Berger, B.J. (Eds.). (2001). Laboratory tests and diagnostic procedures. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Haber, M.H., & Ward, P.C.J. (2002). Urine. In K. McClatchey (Ed.), Clinical laboratory medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Kitabchi, A.E., Umpierrez, G.E., Miles, J.M., & Fisher, J.N. (2009). Hyperglycemic crises in adult patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care, 32(7): 1335 -- 1343. doi: 10.2337/dc09-9032.
Lee-Lewandrowski, E., Burnett, R.W., & Lewandrowski, K. (2002). Electrolytes and acid-base balance. In K. McClatchey (Ed.), Clinical laboratory medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
The nursing professional must be adept at dealing ith these kinds of conversations, and ithout increasing the guilt that the family member or patient might be experiencing, and keeping in mind the patient's probable depression; it is the responsibility of the nursing professional to take the conversation back to the treatment and therapies that ithin the realm of the legal and ethical practices in delivering medical nursing care.
Jacquie Peden, Darlene Grantham, and Marie-Josee Paquin (2005) say that nursing standards in palliative care are based on the values of the nursing profession, and are developed by provincial and territorial regulatory bodies in Canada to guide the professional practice of nursing professionals (p. 2). The hospice palliative nurse, they rite:
Believes in the intrinsic orth of others, the value of life, and that death is a natural process.
Establishes a therapeutic connection (relationship) ith the person and family through making, sustaining,…
works cited here support the need for continued and expanded research involving the different specialties in nursing and oncology to better serve patients and their families. Also, there is little nursing information that is found in the professional peer reviewed journals that speak directly to the issue of pancreatic patients and depression. There is much more literature on the subject from the physician and researcher perspectives, but there is a void in nursing literature. At this point in time, the depression of pancreatic patients as it concerns nursing, has received little attention. Both the nursing profession and pancreatic patients would benefit from further research in this area.
The conclusion from the study of the literature available is that not only is pancreatic patient depression not well understood, it is also lacking in research that would help professionals to address depression in these patients. Also, because it is directly linked to pancreatic cancer, and because the research does support the fact that patients suffering depression and pancreatic cancer do not enjoy the quality of life as those patients who do not suffer from depression, then pancreatic cancer patients and depression should be a distinct and separate therapeutic intervention from other groups of depression.
Adali, E., Merkouris a., Manoussou, E., and Priami, M. (2004). The Attitudes of General and Oncological Hospital Personnel toward Euthanasia, ICUS and Nursing Web Journal, 17:1-9, found online at http://www.nursing.gr/index1.html , retrieved 7 October 2009.
Canadian Nurses Association (2008). Position Statement: Providing Nursing Care at the End of Life, Canadian Nurses Association.
On the part of his fellow scientists, Snow's research was resisted because it was conducted with intellectual 'leaps' of logic in his determination to find the cause, as opposed to Farr's more technical and methodological approach. Farr had the more comprehensive health surveillance program, but Snow's hypothesis and instincts were correct. Snow drew upon past studies involving smallpox, cowpox, and syphilis, to extrapolate parallel examples of how the disease was transmitted, while Farr clung to the airborne model of disease transmission popular at the time even after reviewing such studies. Farr stated that non-living or zymotic material was transmitted through the air, and hence the closer the quarters of the affected, the more apt the material would be transmitted through the air.
The commonly-held belief was that fecalized air and water were the primary conduits of the disease. Farr believed primarily that the transmission was "miasmatic" and the prevalence in…
Woods up with an exercise group close to her house, or a support group
who could help her with adjusting to her new diagnosis and give her
support. The social worker and the nursing staff would also be able to
educate Mrs. Woods' family on the condition and what needs to be done to
maximize her bone health.
5. Should Mrs. Woods have a history of renal calculi; care will be
taken for the administration of calcium supplements. Any supplement she
would take would need co-administration of Vitamin D for proper absorption.
Hormone replacement therapy is no longer considered to be a stable of
treatment due to concerns about heart disease. Additionally, there was no
significant evidence of fracture reduction of the HES study, so the risk
of thrombosis and breast cancer probably outweighs the need for HT.
Selective estrogen receptor modifiers are other alternatives which preserve
bone density but…
1. Libanati CR, Baylink DJ. (1997) Prevention and treatment of
glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. A pathogenetic
perspective. Chest. 102:1426-35.
. 2. Sambrook P, Birmingham J, Kelly P, et al. Prevention of
corticosteroid osteoporosis: A comparison of calcium,
calcitriol and calcitonin. N Engl J Med. 1993;328:1747-1752
2. Heaney RP. (1998) Pathophysiology of osteoporosis. Endocrin
Metabol Clin North Am.;27:255-65.
Client Stressors Case Study
According to the Betty Neuman model, intrapersonal stressors are "internal environmental interaction forces occurring within the boundary of the client, between client sub-systems," (12). This commonly includes physical, psychological and emotional issues that become stressors for each particular case. The clear intra-factors in this case are the presence of a kidney infection, acute lower abdominal pain, the fact that she is not taking any medications. She has been staying hydrated, a previous back muscle injury in the past. The patient has been having heavier menstrual cycles with worse cramping, no breast tenderness, did not pass clogs, she believes she is getting close to experience menopause, no prior abnormal paps or STDs, normal mammogram and pap last year, did have surgery for PPTL in 1977 after her third child was born, does not douche, previous hospitalization for back pain 5 years ago, recently went to…
Reed, Karen S. (1993). Betty Neuman: The Neuman System's Model. Sage.
Pelvic inflammatoy disease, a citical poblem
Occuence o ecuence of pelvic inflammatoy disease o PID has been linked to STIs such as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. Patient education and simplified guidelines ae needed to develop accuate diagnosis. In ode fo changes to take place, moe eseach must be done to undestand the complex natue of the disease and the most effective and cost effective method of teatment.
This pape delves into the isk factos, diagnosis pocesses, teatment, elevant psychological issues, public health implications, patient and family education, and appopiate efeal to specialty by eviewing liteatue petinent to PID. The esults of the liteatue eview show vey little in the past was done in egads to eseaching symptoms of PID and teatment efficacy. New eseach shows lowe abdominal pain as a main indicato of PID as well as C. tachomatis o Neisseia gonohoeae. The data also elaboates on the isks…
references for fertility in women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Fertility and Sterility, 81(5), 1344-1350.
Sweet, R.L. (2011). Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inftammatory Disease. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 2011(561909), 1-13.
Tepper, N.K., Steenland, M.W., Gaffield, M.E., Marchbanks, P.A., & Curtis, K.M. (2013). Retention of intrauterine devices in women who acquire pelvic inflammatory disease: a systematic review. Contraception, 5(87), 655-60. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23040135
diseases in the world are suffered by all children. Babies and adults alike have to endure them at some or other point of their life. Furthermore, those whose immune systems are poor or weak have a greater tendency to contract diseases such as the common cold, infant diaper rash, earaches, stomach aches and diarrhea (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2015)
The common cold shows the following symptoms: a sore throat, runny nose, headache, and watery eyes. Up till now, no precise medication exists to 'cure' the common cold. Normally, this viral illness wanes by itself after a period of 5-6 days. However, in the event that symptoms continue for an unusually long time, the patient must stay alert, as severe cases of common cold may result in pneumonia, sinusitis, ear infection, asthma attack, and bronchitis (Justadd, 2015). A study indicates that several individuals suffer each winter from sinusitis, impacting…
ADAM. (2015). Earache. Medical Encyclopedia. Medline Plus. U.S. Medical Library. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003046.htm
Alan, M., Lake, M.D.(1999). Chronic Abdominal Pain in Childhood: Diagnosis and Management. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from http://googleweblight.com/?lite_url=http://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0401/p1823.html&ei=KmJxS8Wk&lc=en-IN&s=1&m=992&ts=1439382771&sig=APONPFkf1k48Ut_Q5SluR0akIscNP1e-gg
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2015). Overview of Infectious Diseases. USA. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/infections/Pages/Overview-of-Infectious-Diseases.aspx
Benaroch, R. (2015).Your Baby's Diaper Rash. WebMD, LLC.
The patient is an 18-year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student.
The patient complains of diarrhoea 3-4 times a month although it has been on and off for one year. There is no known allergy that the patient experiences.
He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched. He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…
Baumgart, D. (2012). Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: From epidemiology and immunobiology to a rational diagnostic and therapeutic approach. New York: Springer.
Bayless, T.M., & Hanauer, S.B. (2010). Advanced therapy of inflammatory bowel disease: Volume 1. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Hanauer, S.B., & Marteau, P. (2001). Ulcerative colitis: Focus on topical treatment. Paris: J.
CHIEF COMPLAINT: Constant abdominal pain with N/V for 4 days
HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: The patient is a 24-year-old African American female who presents to the clinic with abdominal pain, nausea, as well as vomiting. According to the patient, she has not experienced fever and she has not noticed any blood in her stool or vomit.
A 24-year-old African American woman presents to the clinic complaining of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Upon enquiry, she denies any blood in the stool or vomit. She also denies any fever. Patient medical history is not available. Although acute gastritis is suspected, there will be need to conduct a few tests to ascertain the exact cause of the symptoms the patient presents. It is important to note that acute gastritis could be caused by many factors. These, according to Emergency Nurses Association – ENA (2007) include, but they are not limited to,…
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multisystem disease with both biochemical and anatomical consequences. It is a chronic disease of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism caused by the lack of insulin. In type 1 diabetes, insulin is functionally absent because of the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas. Type 1 DM occurs most commonly in juveniles but can occur in adults, especially in those in their late 30s and early 40s. Unlike people with type 2 DM, those with type 1 DM generally are not obese and may present initially with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
In this particular case, Yusuf, a 12-year-old boy was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes after exhibiting some of the following symptoms: weight loss, excessive urinating, and an unquenchable thirst. More recently, Yusuf was again admitted to the hospital after complaining of nausea, vomiting and intense thirst. The doctor observed that he appeared confused and was…
Etiology of Pancreatic Cancer
Pancreatic cancer has emerged as the most lethal human cancers. In fact, the World Health Organization (WHO) has termed it an unresolved health problem of the 21st century. The disease presently causes about 30,000 deaths in the U.S. per year (Yarbro et al. 2015). Despite past efforts, conventional interventions like radiation, surgery, chemotherapy and combination of these had minimal success in the course of this aggressive disease. It is imperative to develop an in-depth understanding of the molecular biology of pancreatic cancer to help us effectively diagnose, prevent and treat the disease. Nearly all pancreatic cancer patients experience metastases and die due to the frustrating metabolic effects of their unrestrained growth (Shrikhande et al. 2010). Hence, a crucial requirement for progress is the establishment of effective systemic interventions, can reverse the aggressive biology of the disease.
According to the WHO, pancreatic cancer is the fifth most…
Casil, A. S. (2011). Pancreatic Cancer: Current and Emerging Trends in Detection and Treatment. New York: Rosen Pub.
Gress, T. M. (2010). Molecular Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer. Amsterdam [U.A.: IOS Press.
Hoff, D. D., Evans, D. B., & Hruban, R. H. (2015). Pancreatic Cancer. Sudbury: Mass.
Jeruc, J., Kos, I., & Vodovnik, A. (2012). Pancreatic Cancer: Epidemiology and Risk Factors. International Conference on Diseases of Pancreas, Biliary Tract and Duodenum, 17-19.
Healthcare Plan for the Management of Genitourinary Disorders
Objective of this paper is to carry out a care plan for the patient, aged 60 years, who is suffering from genitourinary disorder. The study carries out the case evaluation and identifies the symptoms of the patient complication. The study also provides a comprehensive healthcare plan used for the treatment of the patients.
Case Study Evaluation
HPI (History of Present Illness).
Evaluation of the case study reveals that the patient is a Hispanic male, aged 60 years of age and complains of a decline of urinary flow. While the patient has experienced the symptom for more than two years, however, the symptom has increased significantly for the past two weeks. Although, the patient has not been diagnosed in the past, however, he faces difficulties in achieving a free flow of urine that interferes in his daily activities. The gradual worsening of the…
Benedetti, F. (2008). Placebo Effects: Understanding the Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Oxford Scholarship Online.
Bluie, T. Campbell, D.B. Fuchs, G.J. et al. (2010). Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Disorders in Individuals With ASDs: A Consensus Report. Pediatrics. 125( 1): S1-S18;
Finnegan-John, J. & Thomas, V.J. (2013). The Psychosocial Experience of Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease and Its Impact on Quality of Life: Findings from a Needs Assessment to Shape a Service. Journal of Renal Care. 40(1): 74-81.
Jaarsma. T. (2005). Inter-professional team approach to Patients with Heart Failure. Heart. 91(6): 832-838.
e recommended the remedy Natrum muriaticum, as it applies readily to Roy's symptoms, including his responsiveness to massage, his suppressed emotion, and his tendency to keep his feelings concealed from those around him. e asked that Roy not alter anything about his exercise regime during the course of treatment. Six months after Roy started taking the remedy, he returned to us for follow-up. Roy's posture was noticeably improved and he sat upright in spite of having returned from a business trip just that morning. hen asked, Roy stated that he had been increasingly aware of his negative emotions and was making a conscious effort to consciously own up to his feelings by being more assertive at work, and by simply admitting to himself that he was angry. Roy's back problems had waned; although last week he had a sudden relapse, he could readily attribute the setback to a stressful incident…
Homeopathy Index." Vitacost.com. Online at http://www.vitacost.com/science/hn/Index/Homeo.htm.
I would like to discuss the complications resulting from this procedure as my mother has undergone this surgery and I have seen how a patient can suffer from numerous consequences. Hysterectomy can lead to many long-term complications which may include urinary problems, hormone imbalance, sexual issues, depression, adhesions and heart complications etc. For this reason, hysterectomy has often under attack. It is believed that this procedure is being performed far more commonly than needed and hence some critics are skeptic of the need to have this performed because in most cases, the problems are not very serious. "Many people question the fact that more than 650,000 hysterectomies are performed in the United States each year. Very few of these operations are performed because of a life-threatening situation, and it is likely that many of them are unnecessary. Per capita, half as many hysterectomies are performed in the Great Britain…
Phyllis a. Balch. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, 4th Edition. Avery Trade; 4 edition (October 19, 2006)
Stanley West MD, Paula Dranov. The Hysterectomy Hoax: The Truth About Why Many Hysterectomies Are Unnecessary and How to Avoid Them, 3rd Edition. Next Decade, Inc.; 3rd edition (April 1, 2002)
Adelaide Haas. The Woman's Guide to Hysterectomy: Expectations and Options Celestial Arts; Revised edition (September 1, 2004)
However, proper treatment may restore fertility. During pregnancy, existing fibroids may grow at a greater pace due to the increased blood flow and estrogen levels but they usually return to their original size after delivery.
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Definition & Cause: Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a general term for infection of the lining of the uterus, the fallopian tubes. It is a very common disease and in the United States alone, nearly 1 million women develop PID each year and more than 100,000 women become infertile as a result of PID (NAID Fact sheet, 2005). It is caused in a majority of cases through sexually transmitted diseases such as Chlamydia and gonorrhea but PID-causing bacteria may also cause infection through other means such as during childbirth, abortion, or IUD insertion.
Complications: PID can damage the fallopian tubes, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, leading to chronic pelvic pain and serious damage…
Carson-DeWitt, R., and Odle, T.G. (2006). "Infertility.." The Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Third Edition. Jacqueline L. Longe, Editor. 5 vols. Farmington Hills, MI: Thomson Gale, 2006.
Frequently Asked Questions About Infertility." (2006). American Society of Reproductive Medicine. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.asrm.org/Patients/faqs.html
General Infertility FAQ." (2006). The InterNational Council on Infertility Information Dissemination (INCIID). Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.inciid.org/faq.php?cat=infertility101&id=1
Mallari, B. (2001). "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome." 3 RX.com. Retrieved on November 6, 2006 at http://www.3-rx.com/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome/default.php
Digestive System Disorder Case Study: Gastroparesis
The paper opens with an introduction and definintion of Gastroparesis and its association to damaging of vagus nerves along the intestines and stomach muscles. This reduces their ability for function properly. People living with diabetes have a higher likelihood of advancing Gastroparesis against sequential Diabetic Gastroparesis. More persons are contracting Gastroparesis during surgical operations. The paper illustrates that more patients are yet to find a cause linking their illnesses with Gastroparesis because it triggers Idiopathic Gastroparesis. The scope of Gastroparesis has a close link to diseases of connective tissue such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as well as scleroderma. The neurological conditions worsen along Parkinson's disease. The paper concludes with proposals of Gastroparesis diagnosis through tests carried out on gastric emptying scans, x-rays, and manometry. Clinical Gastroparesis takes the definition of stomach emptying complications. There are beneficial adjustments to insulin dosage among diabetic people who…
Ellenburg, M.A., (2012). Gastroparesis: Causes, Tests and Treatment Options. New York: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform
Parkman, H.P., & McCallum, R.W. (2011). Gastroparesis: Pathophysiology, Presentation and Treatment. New York: Springer
Sethi, A.K., & Murthi, R.K., (2011). Bowl Care and Digestive Disorders. New York: V&S Publishers
Patient Intake ecord
Patient's Name: Perez, B
Date of Birth: 06/XX/1985
Occupation: egistered Nurse
Marital Status: Single
Phone [HIDDEN] Private
Chief Complaint: Bell's palsy
History of Present Illness:
The patient states she first felt numbness on her tongue 10 days ago. When she woke up in the morning and was cleaning her teeth, the water was dripping from her mouth. Her right eye was not able to close completely, and she felt numbness on the right side of her face.
The patient consulted with her doctor who confirmed the diagnosis as Bell's palsy; her doctor prescribed prednisone for 14 days. The patient came to see me on 8/29/2013. The patient states she has pain and numbness on the right side of her face, drooling, loss of the ability to taste, and her right eye cannot fully open or close and has excessive tearing.…
 Deng, T (1999)."Abdominal pain," in Practical Diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine, K. Ergil, Ed: Churchill Livingstone, London, UK, 1999, pg. 464 -- 472.
 Wolfe, H (2003). "Joining Needling for Facial Paralysis." Blue Poppy Press. Accessed 10 June 2005.
 Bell's Facial Paralysis, Clinic of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Vol. II (1990), Practical English Chinese Library of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, pg. 964.
 Suk, YM (2008). Understanding the Jin Gui Yao Lue, A Practical Textbook, Peoples' Medical Publishing House, pg. 110.
BULL VS. GEEBIE
Bull vs. Greenbrier
The author of this report has been asked to assess the case of Bell vs. Greenbrier. In that case, there apparently was a directive from a doctor to move a patient to an emergency room due to the experiencing of abdominal pain on the part o the patient. However, there is the question of whether the patient specifically incurred damages due to the negligence. This would obviously have bearing on whether damages are recoverable or not. This report will explore from a managerial and legal standpoint what sort of damages, liability and issues exist as it pertains to this case.
As is quite obviously suggested by the summary of the situation given as part of this assignment, there are actually two separate issues in play. Indeed, the nurses who were to have moved the patient, that being Martha Bell, ostensibly breached their duty to…
Friedman, M. (2015). Family Accepts Reduced Damages in Greenbrier Nursing Home Case. Arkansas Business. Retrieved 24 July 2015, from http://www.arkansasbusiness.com/article/95383/family-accepts-reduced-damages-in-greenbrier-nursing-home-case?page=all
Spradlin, C. (2013). Family granted $5.2M against Greenbrier Nursing and Rehabilitation Center and owner. TheCabin.net - Conway, Arkansas. Retrieved 24 July 2015, from http://thecabin.net/latest-news/2013-05-17/family-granted-52m-against-greenbrier-nursing-and-rehabilitation-center-and#.VbKTCrNVhBc
A newer and easy test is the OSOM Vlue, which mixes a swabbed specimen from the vagina with a reagent. The test yields sialidase activity or presence in the vaginal fluid in 10 minutes. Sialidase is produced by V pathogens (Mashburn).
The most reliable criterion for detecting V is a pH>4.5 (Mashburn, 2007). A normal pH should, therefore, rule out V. A pH >4.5 can also indicate trichomoniasis or muco-purulent cervicitis. Vaginal inflammation more strongly suggests trichomonas or muco-purulent cervicitis, in turn associated with gonorrhea or chlamydial trachomatis (Mashburn).
The patient's pH level is 6, indicating V.
These are an inexpensive and relatively easy screening procedure for the most common sexually transmitted diseases, such as V (Iglesias, Alderman & Fox, 2000). The practitioner should be appropriately trained and experienced in using this procedure. Hence, the proper protocol and quality control are needed to insure accurate diagnosis.…
Alfonsi, G.A.; Cshlay, J., and Parker, S. (2004). What is the best approach for managing
Recurrent bacterial vaginosis? Journal of Family Practice: Dowden Health Media,
Inc. Retrieved on July 7, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0689/is_8_53/ai_n6169486/?tag=content;col1
Brown, M (2007). Treating a case of bacterial vaginosis -- case study. Health and Republic News: Health Republic. Retrieved on July 12, 2009 from http://www.healthcarerepublic.com/res/clinical/article/572868/treating-case-bacterial-vaginosis
Safety and Health Issues in Meat Processing Industry
In the meat processing industry, health and safety issues are of vital importance, in view of the several risks arising out of microbial contamination of meat and the occupational hazards faced by workers. Past experiences have shown that microbial reproduction in meat and meat products can reach alarming proportions traversing across countries and even continents. The infamous mad cow disease and the foot and mouth disease in cattle has rattled the British meat industry for a considerable period, resulting in loss of image, confidence and erosion of profits. North America's main problem is the widespread prevalence of eschericia coli in meat, more commonly known as the hamburger disease. It is well-known that meat is highly susceptible to attack of bacteria and virus and hence there is a constant need to address this risk. When microbial activity sets in, the quality of meat…
American Meat Industry Fact Sheet: 'Worker Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry', (2002) Available at www.meatami.com/content/presscentre/factsheets_infobits/FactSheetWorkerSafety.pdf. Accessed 11/28/2003
Brodeur, C. (n.d) Agriculture and Agri-food Canada - 'Meat Safety: The war on bacteria', Available at http://www.res2.agr.gc.ca/orda/pubs/art8_e.htm. Accessed 11/28/2003
Cannon, J.E et. al (1996) 'Pork Chain Quality Audit Survey: Quantification of Port Quality Characteristics', Journal of Muscle Foods (7), 56-62
Chesworth, N (1997) 'Food Hygiene Auditing', Blackie Academic & Professional, London
Liegl-tzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) pointed out that the exact incidences of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the United States and Europe is not easy to determine. This is attributed to the fact that GISTs got proper recognition as well as diagnosis from the late 1990s.Studies carried out in Iceland ( Tryggvason et al.,2005), Sweden (Nilsson et al.,2005), as well as Holland (Goettsch,2004) have indicated that close to 11,14.5 and 12.7 cases per million people per year respectively.Incidences if GISTs have been shown to be higher as a result of the fact that most patients live with it for several years and it gets detected only during gastrectomy or autopsy all of which are usually performed for other reasond. study by gaimy et al.,(2007) which was performed consecutively on autopsies indicated that small GISTs having between 1-10 mm in about 22.5% of the individuals aged above 50 years.These small GISTs…
About 50% of the GISTs exhibit a loss of gene off the arm of chromosome 22. This discovery is associated with the progression of the malignant GIST (Fukasawa et al.,2000;Bergmann et al.,1998;Kim et al., 2000;Lasota et al.,2007). There are however some losses that are less frequent on the chromosomes 9q,17q,1p and 11p.Gains are however noted on chromosomes 17q and 8q all of which have a strong association with malignant behavior (El-Rifai et al.,2000;Schurr et al.,2006).
Extant literature has been dedicated to the study of the clinical features of GISTs.GISTs are mentioned by Liegl-Atzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher (2010) to occur in almost every part of the GI tract.They are however more common in the stomach regions ( about 60%), ileum and jejunum (close to 30%), colorectum (about 4%) and duodenum (about 5%).GISTs are rarely seen in the appendix and esophagus (Miettinen et al.,2006;Miettinen, Sobin and Lasota,2005;DeMatteo eat al.,2000). Tumors that lack any form of association with the wall of the bowel are given special name- extragastrointestinal stromal sarcomas are noted to occur in the mesentery, omentum and retroperitoneum (Miettinen et al.,1999;Reith et al.,2000). The clinical symptoms that are associated with GIST are abdominal pain, dysphagia, obstruction, fatigue and satiety.It has been noted that patients may be presented with chronic bleeding to from their GI (Causes anemia). The patient may also present acute bleeding to GI ( as a consequence of the erosion via the gastric or the bowel mucosa). There could also be a rupture into the patient's abdominal cavity thus causing a life-threatening condition called intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Nilsson et al. (2005) indicated that a population-based research indicated that close to seventy percent of GISTs were related to clinical symptoms while twenty percent were not. 10% were detected at the time of autopsies.
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…
Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
Campylobacter jejuni is a helical shaped, non-spore forming, curved, Gram-negative bacteria which is most often found in animal feces. This bacteria comes from the intestinal tracks of animals where is exists as a mixed surface-associated community, protected by an extra cellular material called a biofilm. The protection afforded to the bacteria by the biofilm makes it an extremely resilient bacteria. (Siringan, 2011) It was originally discovered by Theodor Escherich in 1886 and called "Vibrio," but in 1963 a new genus was created for this organism, called Campylobacter. C. jejuni is one of the "most important human enteropathogens among the campylobacter." (Nachamkin, 2008, p. 14) This bacterium is microaerophilic and "requires 3 to 5% oxygen and 2 to 10% carbon dioxide for optimal grown conditions." (Bad Bug Book) Prior to 1972, C. jejuni was believed to be primarily an animal pathogen causing enteritis and abortions in cattle and sheep, but it…
Acheson, David. (2011). Campylobacter jejuni Infections: Update on Emerging Issues and Trends. Clinical Infectious Diseases 32(8). Retrieved from http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/32/8/1201.full
Altrkruse, Sean, et al., (1999) Campylobacter jejuni - An Emerging Foodborne Pathogen. Emerging Infectious Diseases 5(1). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov /ncidod/eid/vol5no1/altekruse.htm
"Bad Bug Book" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllness
Energy expenditure in anorexia nervosa." (Jan 2005).
Nutrition Research Newsletter. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_1_24/ai_n8968079
Murphy, Megan. (4 Feb 2007). "The struggle against anorexia: Former UNC swimmer battles the disease." Greeley Tribune. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.greeleytrib.com/article/20070204/NES/102030156
Paccagnella, Agostino, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Mauri%2C+Alessandra%22" Mauri, Alessandra, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Baruffi%2C+Carla%22" Baruffi, Carla, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Berto%2C+Rita%22" Berto, Rita, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Et+al%22" Et al (May / Jun 2006). "Application Criteria of Enteral Nutrition in Patients ith Anorexia Nervosa: Correlation Between Clinical and Psychological Data in a "Lifesaving" Treatment.
JPEN: Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3762/is_200605/ai_n16350972/pg_3
Trebay, G. (6 Feb 2007). "Looking Beyond the Runway for Answers on Underweight
Models." The New York Times. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/06/fashion/shows/06DIARY.html?ref=shows
Energy expenditure in anorexia nervosa." (Jan 2005).
Nutrition Research Newsletter. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_1_24/ai_n8968079
Murphy, Megan. (4 Feb 2007). "The struggle against anorexia: Former UNC swimmer battles the disease." Greeley Tribune. Retrieved 7 Feb 2006 at http://www.greeleytrib.com/article/20070204/NEWS/102030156
Paccagnella, Agostino, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Mauri%2C+Alessandra%22 " Mauri, Alessandra, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Baruffi%2C+Carla%22 " Baruffi, Carla, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Berto%2C+Rita%22 " Berto, Rita, http://www.findarticles.com/p/search?tb=art&qt=%22Et+al%22 " Et al (May / Jun 2006). "Application Criteria of Enteral Nutrition in Patients With Anorexia Nervosa: Correlation Between Clinical and Psychological Data in a "Lifesaving" Treatment.
co.uk 2001). Of those 1,795 reactions, "23 were fatal, 14 being actual suicides," the pressbox Web site reported. More than 200 of the "adverse reactions were psychiatric with 20 reports of suicidal thoughts of suicide attempts." Additionally, 80 reports of "depression" were logged and 13 reports of "mood swings."
The pressbox article stated that surprisingly, 74% of UK patients who had used Accutane "had mild or moderate acne according to a study among UK dermatologists." The MCA, through the article in pressbox, stated that Accutane "should only be used for severe recalcitrant cystic acne as a treatment of last resort."
Not all Accutane patients wind up depressed, psychotic or dead from suicide, of course, and Brandi Jones is one example of an Accutane success story. At least, she made it through six months of Accutane treatment, and now her skin is "mostly pimple-free" (Setoodeh, 2005), according to an article in…
The Accutane Lawyer (2004), "Accutane Side Effects, Accutane Lawsuit," [Online] Available at http://www.the-accutane-lawyer.com.
Acne-Rosacea.co.uk 2004, "Acne Treatments Page," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-rosacea.co.uk/Acne%20Treatments.htm .
Acne Resource Center 2004, "Understanding Acne," "Alternative Therapy Resources,"
The Potential Dangers of Prescription Medications," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-resource.org.
The majority of women can return to their normal routine the next day ("In Vitro Fertilization"). In most cases total bed rest is not required unless there is some risk associated with the development of OHSS ("In Vitro Fertilization").
The NIH further explains that women who utilize IVF must take the hormone progesterone for at least two months following the embryo transfer ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The hormone is taken through daily shots or pills. Progesterone is a naturaly produced hormone produced that assists in thickenign the lining of the uterus ("In Vitro Fertilization"). This thickening makes it easier for the embryo to implant to the wall of the uterus. If there is ot enough progesterone the woman will miscarry ("In Vitro Fertilization").
In additon to the risks associated with this type of reproductive technology, IVF is very expensive ("In Vitro Fertilization"). The NIH explains that many states require that insurance…
Becker, G. (2000). The Elusive Embryo: How Women and Men Approach New Reproductive Technologies. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Bleiklie, I., Goggin, M.L., & Rothmayr, C. (Eds.). (2003). Comparative Biomedical Policy: Governing Assisted Reproductive Technologies. London: Routledge. Retrieved Burfoot, a. (Ed.). (1999). Encyclopedia of Reproductive Technologies. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
In Vitro Fertilization. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved March 18 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/007279.htm
Sloan, G.A. (1993). Postponing Parenthood: The Effect of Age on Reproductive Potential. New York: Insight Books.
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…
Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:
Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445
Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid
Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
InterestInterview Coding & Reaction
There is little doubt that the experience, events and quality of care that surround expecting and new mothers is extremely important (Berrien, Olledorff & Menard, 2015). The reduction or mitigation of things like excessive pain before and after birth, any sort of disconnect between patient and providers in terms of communication and an explanation of what is and shall be going on and so forth are all important (Taavoni, Abdolahian, Neisani & Hamid, 2016). This research deigns to cover a number of things. First, it is asked of the interviewee what went well, what did not, what perhaps could or should be compared and contrasted between this or prior birthing experiences (and one did exist in the case of this research), what could have been done better, what was done well, whether proper and full options were made available and so on.
The setting and meeting…
FIBOMYALGIA OUTLINE and PAMPHLET
Introduction to Fibromyalgia
Symptoms of Fibromyalgia
Effects of the symptoms on the body.
isk factors and preventive steps.
Diagnosis and Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Therapeutic and diagnostic methods for fibromyalgia.
Treatment for fibromyalgia.
Having many physical and clinical symptoms, Fibromyalgia is a syndrome whose effects are felt in form of extreme musculoskeletal pain. It is believed that many environmental, genetic and biological factors are responsible for the start and progress of this infection although its etiology is undermined. In many industrialized countries, its rate of occurrence is 0.7-4.7% amongst the general population. It is incidentally seen more in women than men and the general female-to-male ratio being 9-1. Due to the diverse nature of its symptoms, those infected experience major difficulties adapting to their working environment, family or their life. It also subjects the sufferers to use consultative health services and social resources…
Arthritis and Fibromyalgia.Plos ONE, 9(2), 1-9. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0088740
Derrer, David, T.,2014, understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, webmdmd,2014,understanding fibromyalgia symptoms, retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/fibromyalgia/understanding-fibromyalgia-symptoms .
Fibromyalgia | University of Maryland Medical Center http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/fibromyalgia#ixzz3HSyCkaXF
KengenTraska, T., Rutledge, D., Mouttapa, M., Weiss, J., & Aquino, J. (2012). Strategies used for managing symptoms by women with fibromyalgia. Journal Of Clinical Nursing, 21(5/6), 626-635. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2702.2010.03501.x
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…
Direct to Consumer Advertising
HISTRY F DRUG ADVERTISING
THE DTC ADVERTISING PHENMENN
DECEPTIVE ADVERTISING - A WLF IN SHEEP'S CLTHING
CAUSE F DEATH
UTILIZATIN, PRICING, AND DEMGRAPHICS
LEGISLATIN, PLITICS AND PATENTS
LEGISLATIVE INITIATIVES REGARDING DTC
RECALLED and/or DEADLY DRUGS
In order to provide the most efficient method of evaluation, the study will utilize existing stores of qualitative and quantitative data from reliable sources, such as U.S. Government statistical references, University studies, and the studies and publications of non-profit and consumer oriented organizations. Every attempt will be made to avoid sources of information sponsored by or directly influenced by the pharmaceutical industry.
Existing data regarding the history, levels, content and growth of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined. In addition, the industry's composition prior to and after the proliferation of direct-to-consumer advertising will be examined, with regard to market share, type of substances sold, benefits of substances sold, and…
On January 9, 2002, Dr. Darlene Jody, Vice President of Medical Marketing for Bristol-Myers Squibb, issued a manufacturer's "Important Drug Warning Including Black Box Information." The Important Drug Warning advises healthcare practitioners that "cases of life-threatening hepatic failure have been reported in patients treated with SERZONE." The manufacturer's Warning indicates that numerous persons have or will suffer liver failure, death or transplantation. The manufacturer's Warning also indicates that the current estimate of the rate of liver failure associated with Serzone use is "about 3-4 times the estimated background rate of liver failure." A new Warning is being added to the Serzone prescribing information, advising that "patients should be advised to be alert for signs and symptoms of liver dysfunction (jaundice, anorexia, gastrointestinal complaints, malaise, etc.) and to report them to their doctor immediately if they occur." According to Warnings, Serzone should be promptly discontinued if signs or symptoms suggest liver failure.
Vioxx belongs to a class of drugs known as COX-2 inhibitors. When the drugs were introduced a few years ago, COX-2 inhibitors were thought to be safer and more effective than other drugs such as Aspirin and Ibuprofen. However, several studies have questioned the cardiovascular safety of Vioxx. Studies indicate that people taking Vioxx have four times the risk of a heart attack.
In May 2002, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a Talk Paper about new label warnings for the popular arthritis and pain drug know as Vioxx (rofecoxib). The new label warnings are based on the results of the Vioxx Gastrointestinal Outcomes Research (VIGOR). According to the FDA, recent studies demonstrate that Vioxx is associated with a higher rate of serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (such as heart attacks, angina pectoris, and peripheral vascular events). Based on the recent study, the FDA agreed with the Arthritis Advisory Committee recommendations February 8, 2001 that the label for Vioxx include gastrointestinal and cardiovascular warning information. Serious side effects attributed to Vioxx are heart attacks, seizures, strokes, or liver/kidney problems. http://www.recalleddrugs.com
Health Sciences 101
The Health Impact of Acetaminophen Overdose
Acetaminophen (APAP) is a common over-the-counter (OTC), antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic that is more commonly known as Tylenol®, a product of Johnson & Johnson1. Overseas the drug is called paracetamol and is manufactured and sold by countless generic drug makers.
A number of concerns regarding the safety of APAP have arisen over the past several years, including liver and kidney toxicity and adverse cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary effects. This essay will provide an overview of APAP, its uses, and safety issues, with an emphasis on the cardiopulmonary system.
Mechanisms of APAP Activity
The analgesic and antipyretic activity of APAP was thought to be similar to other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications because it was believed to inhibit prostaglandin (PGE2) synthesis2,3. This assumption has not withstood the test of time, for either APAP or other popular OTC non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The main evidence…
1. National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine. Tylenol (TN): Substance summary (SID 7847284). PubChem 2011. Accessed 5 Nov 2011 at http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?sid=7847284
2. Hamza M, Dionne RA. Mechanisms of non-opioid analgesics beyond cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibition. Curr Mol Pharmacol 2009; 2(1):1-14.
3. Kaufman G. Basic pharmacology of non-opioid analgesics. Nurs Stand 2010; 24(30):55-61.
4. Chan AT, Manson JE, Albert CM, Chae CU, Rexrode KM, Curhan GC, et al. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, and the risk of cardiovascular events. Circulation 2006; 113(12):1578-1587.
Gender variation in clinical decision-making was measured, including (1) the number, types, and certainty levels of diagnoses considered and (2) how diagnoses vary according to patient characteristics, when patients have identical symptoms of CHD (Maserejian et al., 2009).
This was a factorial experiment presenting videotaped CHD symptoms, systematically altering patient gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES) and race, and physician gender and level of experience. The primary end point was physicians' most certain diagnosis. The results: Physicians (n=128) mentioned five diagnoses on average, most commonly heart, gastrointestinal, and mental health conditions. Physicians were significantly less certain of the underlying cause of symptoms among female patients regardless of age, but only among middle-aged women were they significantly less certain of the CHD diagnosis. Among middle-aged women, 31.3% received a mental health condition as the most certain diagnosis, compared with 15.6% of their male counterparts. An interaction effect showed that females with high…
Chou, Anne F., Sarah Hudson Scholle, Carol S. Weisman, Arlene S. Bierman, Rosaly
Correa-de-Araujo, & Lori Mosca (2007). "Gender Disparities in the Quality of Cardiovascular Disease Care in Private Managed Care Plans." In Women's Health
Issues 17: 120 -- 130.
DeVon, H., Ryan, C.J., Ochs, a.L., & Shapiro, M. (2008). "Symptoms Across the Continuum of Acute Coronary Syndromes: Differences Between Women and Men." In Am J. Crit Care 17:14-24.
Physical Examination of Patient with Hemorrhoids
History of Present Illness: he patient states that she has been suffering from hemorrhoids for more than 10 years. But recently she had more severe pain and bleeding than usual after a bowel movement.
he patient stated that she experienced discomfort from the hemorrhoid on and off for years, roughly 10 years ago, the symptoms became more severe after the birth of her child birth. Since the patient experiences constipation, she suffers pain every time she has a bowel movement. She has been using a hemorrhoid ointment and a topical wipe pad for her hemorrhoid.
Cold-dampness stagnation due to spleen qi deficiency
he patent stated that she experiences difficulty digesting greasy, fried foods. In addition, she continuously craves fried food and sweets such as chocolate and candy bars. Eating in response to these cravings caused the patient to gain 40 pounds over…
The patient stated that she suffered from hemorrhoids since she was 22 years old. When she first began having symptoms, the hemorrhoid would come out after a bowel movement. Over time, however, the hemorrhoid would come out again, causing symptoms of stinging pain and swelling. These symptoms occur most frequently when the patient has to stand for a long period in a cold environment or when she feels tired. The patent stated that since she was little, she used to delay the urge to empty her bowels when she was outside of her home. In addition, she tends to sit and read for a prolonged time on the toilet. These habits seem to have made the symptoms worse.
2. The blood stasis due to spleen qi deficiency.
She often has had severe sharp pain around the CV-10 area. Whenever she experiences pain on the abdomen, she takes famotidine, which she reports does help soothe the abdominal pain. She has a history of a duodenal ulcer and has taken the medication since 2009.The patient states that if she skips a bowel movement for a day or two, she strains to move her bowels just as she might in childbirth. The patient stated that sometimes there is fresh red blood with her bowel movement. She can also feel the external hemorrhoid tissue become swollen, painful, and burn, all of which, makes it difficult for her to sit correctly. When she has to stand or sit for a long time, the patient reported that the hemorrhoid tissue becomes more irritated
Treating and Coping With Pancreatic Cancer
Although significant progress has been made in diagnosis and treating many types of cancers, one type of cancer that remains highly intractable to treatment is pancreatic cancer. In fact, pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect because symptoms may not occur until the condition is well advanced, and even when it is diagnosed early, patient prognoses are poor. Although pancreatic cancer represents just around 3% of all types of cancers in the United States, the condition is responsible for approximately 7% of all cancer deaths (Key statistics, 2015). This paper provides a description of the diagnosis and staging of pancreatic cancer followed by a discussion concerning the complications and side effects that are associated with the disease. Finally, a description of the methods that are used to lessen the physical and psychological effects of treatment for pancreatic cancer is followed by a summary of the…
Cohen, P. J. (2006, May-June). Medical marijuana, compassionate use, and public policy: Expert opinion or vox populi? The Hastings Center Report, 36(3), 19-23.
Key statistics. (2015). American Cancer Society. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/pancreaticcancer/detailedguide/pancreatic-cancer-key-statistics .
MacNeil, N. S. (2009, November). Treat depression in cancer patients. Clinical Psychiatry News, 33(11), 64.
Marks. S. & Heinrich, T. (2013, August). Assessing and treating depression in palliative care patients: Antidepressants, psychotherapy can improve dying patients' quality of life. Current Psychiatry, 12(8), 35-41.
ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.
Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.
The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.
3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:
Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;
Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;
Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…
Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.
Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.
Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.
Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
Lady Mantle (Alchemilla Vulgaris) Herb
Lady's mantle has been identified as a perennial herbaceous plant that belongs to the family of Rose (Rosaceae). The plant has kidney-shaped lower leaves and an erect stem that has been attached on slender stalks. However, the upper leaves of lady's mantle are similar in shape where all part of the plants is covered with soft hairs. Lady's mantle belongs to the species of Alchemilla Vulgaris and possessing similar herbal and medicinal properties. While many of the Alchemilla's family are cultivated, the history of Lady's mantle started in medieval period where medieval chemists collected dew or rain water with the leaf center and used it for medicinal and magical powers. Based on the medieval customs, the plant derived its generic name from the Arabic word "alkimiya" known as "universal cure for the disease." However, in the medieval tradition, alchemilla was used to treat female ailments…
It is believed that this is related to some basic dissimilarity in women's the way women's hearts work (icciotti, 2012).
Women are just as liable to have a heart attack as men, but the fact that they are more apt to die after their first heart attack may be because the signs of a heart attack are different in women. Doctors and patients frequently point chest pains in women to non-cardiac causes, leading to a misdiagnosis of their condition. Men generally experience crushing chest pain during a heart attack. Women may have a larger inclination to have pain just under the breastbone, or complain of abdominal pain, heartburn, trouble breathing, sickness and mysterious exhaustion. Women are consequently easily misdiagnosed of indigestion, gall bladder disease, or even an anxiety attack. The probability of misdiagnosing a heart attack in women is also augmented by the fact that women tend to have heart…
Braunstein, G.D. (2010). Gender Differences in Heart Disease: Nation's No. 1 Killer Kills
Differently. Retrieved from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/glenn-d-braunstein -
Gender Difference In Heart Failure. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/releases/158956.php
Theoretical Foundations of Nursing:
Nursing can be described as a science and practice that enlarges adaptive capabilities and improves the transformation of an individual and the environment. This profession focuses on promoting health, improving the quality of life, and facilitating dying with dignity. The nursing profession has certain theoretical foundations that govern the nurses in promoting adaptation for individuals and groups. These theoretical foundations include theories, theory integration, reflection, research and practice, and assimilation.
Grand Nursing Theory:
There are several grand nursing theories that were developed by various theorists including the Science of Unitary Human Beings by Martha ogers, Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model, and Systems Model by Betty Neuman. Sister Callista oy's Adaptation Model is based on the consideration of the human being as an open system. She argues that the system reacts to environmental stimuli via cognator and regulator coping techniques for individuals. On the other hand, the…
American Sentinel (2012). 5 Steps for Nurses to Stay Updated with Health Care Changes.
Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.nursetogether.com/5-steps-for-nurses-to-stay-updated-with-health-care-changes
Andershed, B. & Olsson, K. (2009). Review of Research Related to Kristen Swanson's Middle-range Theory of Caring. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 598-610.
"Application of Theory in Nursing Process." (2012, January 28). Nursing Theories: A
The word "ergogenic" means having a tendency to increase work. In the perspective or setting of sports, this term encompasses processes employed to enhance the production as well as the performance of physiological energy. Nutritional ergogenic aids can be defined as dietary and nutritive supplements that purportedly increase the level of performance beyond the expected levels under normal circumstances and conditions (Coleman). A supplement can be defined to be a substance that is added to the everyday diet of an individual in order to redress the balance of a nutritional deficiency. More often than not athletes anticipate that ergogenic aids will offer them an added or competitive advantage in their events as they uniformly do not aspire to lose. Taking into the consideration the fact that sporting races and competing events are won by small differences and disparity of as little as one hundredth of a second, it…
Applegate, L. (2005). Nutritional Ergogenic Aids. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82 no. 3 710-711.
Coleman, E. (2000). Ergogenic Aids. Retrieved 13 June from: http://health.csusb.edu/dchen/sports%20nutrition/ergogenic_aids%20chapter.htm
Dmitry V Zaretsky, Mary Beth Brown, Maria V Zaretskaia, Pamela J. Durant & Daniel E. Rusyniak (2014). The ergogenic effect of amphetamine, Temperature, 1:3, 242-247, DOI: 10.4161/23328940.2014.987564
Harnish, C. (2015). Caffeine, the Ergogenic Aid. Retrieved 13 June from: http://www.active.com/nutrition/articles/caffeine-the-ergogenic-aid
Other signs of manifestation may include irregular bleeding not associated with a woman's normal menstrual cycle, pressure or pain during or after intercourse and abdominal pain of unknown origin (NIC, 2003).
Ultrasound, endovaginal ultrasound and transvaginal sonography have all been used to help identify malignancies within the reproductive organs including the uterus. Of these, the more effective of tools is Color Doppler Sonography, because it allows physicians to distinguish benign masses from malignant masses more easily than do traditional U/S, EVU and TVS techniques. The advantages of U/S, EVU and TVS include the relatively low risk of complications and exposure to radiation which may prove more dangerous than beneficial. In times of old CT scans were often used in an attempt to try to identify malignancies of the uterus and endometrium (oss & Goplerud, 1982). Today, by combining techniques, many doctors find it is much easier to exclude cancer…
Birnbaum, LS. (1991). Pharmacokinetic basis of age-related changes in sensitivity to toxicants. Ann Rev Pharmacol 31(1):101-28.
Charnley, G. & Putzrath, R.M. (2001). Children's health, susceptibility and regulatory approaches to reducing risks from chemical carcinogens. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(2):187.
Fleischer, MD, Shappell, HW, Parker, LP, & Hanemann, MD. (2006) Color Doppler sonography of endometrial masses. Nashville: Departments of Radiology, OB/GYN, and Pathology: Vanderbilt University Medical Center.
NCI (2002 Oct). What is endometrial cancer, National Cancer Institute, UConn Health
The Etiology, Incidence and Treatment of heumatic Fever Today
Like many diseases such as smallpox and polio, Zamula (1987) reports that until fairly recently, rheumatic fever was described by most public health officials as being a vanishing disease. "After World War II," Patlak (1991) reports, "the number of cases of rheumatic fever dramatically declined until, during the 20 years between 1965 and 1985 alone, the yearly number of cases of rheumatic fever among school-age children dropped by more than 90%" (p. 24). At the time, clinicians assumed that less crowded living conditions and the use of antibiotics were controlling the disease and some physicians called rheumatic fever a "vanishing disease in suburbia" (Patlak, p. 24). As a result, the children's hospitals that were previously dedicated to the care of rheumatic fever sufferers closed because of a lack of patients and disease registries that had been rigorously maintained by…
Arocha, J.F., & Patel, V.L. (1995). Novice diagnostic reasoning in medicine: Accounting for evidence. Journal of the Learning Sciences 4(4), 375.
Patlak, M. (1991, October). 'Strep' demands immediate care. FDA Consumer, 25(8), 24.
Zamula, E. (1987, July-August). Rheumatic fever: Down but not out. FDA Consumer, 21, 26.
Methylphenidate is part of a therapy regimen for the control of the symptoms of Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD in adults and children (Ogbru 2013, Medline Plus 2012). It stimulates the central nervous system similarly as amphetamines but more mildly. The effects of methylphenidate are also more noticeable on mental activities than in physical movements. It also is used in treating narcolepsy and Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD. Stimulants control these symptoms by changing the amount of natural substances in the brain responsible for the conditions. ut both classes of stimulants are carefully used because of their potential abuse. They calm the patient, reduce their hyperactivity and increase attention span. FDA approved methylphenidate in 1955 (Ogbru, MedlinePlus).
Generic and Trade Names
Generic names -- methylphenidate, Methylphenidylacetate hydrochloride
Trade names -- Concerta, Metadate, Methylin, Ritalin, Adderall
Toxicity and Side Effects
It is to be used with cause on patients with…
Medline Plus. Methylphenidate. National Library of Medicine: National Institute
Health, 2012. Retrieved on August 24, 2013 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682188.html
NIDA. Drug Facts. National Institute on Drug Abuse: National Institute of Health,
2009. Retrieved on August 24, 2013 from http://www, drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/stiulant-adhd-medications-methylpheidate-amphetamines
Abortion to Poverty
Poverty and Abortion
The elation of Poverty to Abortion
Advancements in globalization in the current century, and the technological advancements, the globe has experienced drastic changes in terms of the culture and social related issues. People in both developed and developing states are changing their conservativeness and embracing new ideas. Awareness is being realized and the levels of literacy are gradually increasing. Information on life and its importance are clearer compared to the past, where people where not exposed. Due to this, there are heated debates on the issues of abortion in the society. This paper will analyze the situation in which poverty is affecting abortion, and how poor women's lives are implicated. Policies that assist to counter these issues are also discussed critically.
Scientific researches and innovation has been highest in the 21st century. Scientists are aiming at bettering the human life. However, the proposals…
Djerassi, C. (1986). Abortion in the United States: Political or Policy? Bulleting of the Atomic Scientists, 42(4), 38-41.
Kimport, K., Foster, K. & Weitz, T.A. (2011). Social Sources of Women's Emotional Difficulty after Abortion: Lessons from Women's Abortion Narrative. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 43(2), 103-109.
Levine, B.P. (2004). Abortion Policies and the Economics of Fertility. Society, 41(4), 79-85.
MacNair, R. (2012 June 6). Poverty and Abortion. Retrieved from www.consistent-life.org/povertyabortion.pdf
People experience trauma, addiction, mental breakdowns every day. Whether it is obsessive behavior, trying to make one's self fit into a model mystique so worshipped by the masses, or even just breaking the cycle of abuse, people time and time again have needed assistance in facing their demons. Hypnotherapy, before commercials and the movies that hyped it turned it into what is perceived as a "faux science," was actually once thought of as a useful form of treatment. "Hypnosis was once a viable treatment approach for addictions. Then, due to hypnosis being used for entertainment purposes many professionals lost confidence in it" (Potter, 2004, pp. 21). It is, to some extent. In fact doctors have found hypnotherapy useful in conjunction with traditional therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy. New research suggests that although hypnotherapy may not be a viable singular treatment option, it can help in a host of mental disorders…
Golabadi,, M., Tabad, H., Yaghoubi, M., & Gholamrezaei, A. (2012). Hypnotherapy in the Treatment of Opium Addiction: A Pilot Study. Integrative Medicine, 11(3), 19-22.
Gruzelier, J.H. (2006). Frontal functions, connectivity and neural efficiency underpinning hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23(1), 15-32.
Huynh, M.E., Vandvik, I.H., & Diseth, T.H. (2008). Hypnotherapy In Child Psychiatry: The State Of The Art. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13(3), 377-393.
Kankaanpe, A., Liukkonen, R., & Ariniemi, K. (2007). Determination of g-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: A salting-out approach. Forensic Science International, 170, 133-138.
Gastric Acid Stimulation and Production
Pathophysiology of gastric acid stimulation and production
The parietal cells in the stomach are responsible for the production of gastric acid. Parietal cells contain secretory canaliculus, which produce gastric acid and release it into the gastric lumen. Gastric acid is produced as a response to the messages received through hormonal, paracrine, and neurocrine messengers (Schubert & Peura, 2008). The production of gastric acid undergoes three phases namely cephalic phase, gastric phase, and intestinal phase. Gastrin, the major hormonal trigger of gastric acid production is produced by the G cells located in the pyloric mucosa of the stomach. The G cells will release gastrin in response to a meal. However, the Histamine 2 receptors are thought to be the primary stimulus for the secretion of gastric acid.
How GED, PUD, and gastritis affect the stimulation and production of gastric acid
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GED) is a…
Boeckxstaens, G. E., & Rohof, W. O. (2014). Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, 43(1), 15-25.
Chait, M. M. (2010). Gastroesophageal reflux disease: Important considerations for the older patients. World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy, 2(12), 388.
Kahrilas, P. J. (2003). GERD pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and clinical manifestations. Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine, 70(5), S4.
Konturek, P. C., & Konturek, S. J. (2014). Peptic Ulcer Disease Metabolism of Human Diseases (pp. 129-135). New York: Springer.
" (AAF, nd)
The Health Maintenance Organization further should "…negotiate with both public and private payers for adequate reimbursement or direct payment to cover the expenses of interpreter services so that they can establish services without burdening physicians…" and the private industry should be "…engaged by medical organizations, including the AAF, and patient advocacy groups to consider innovative ways to provide interpreter services to both employees and the medically underserved." (AAF, nd)
One example of the community healthcare organization is the CCO model is reported as a community cancer screening center model and is stated to be an effective mechanism for facilitating the linkage of investigators and their institutions with the clinical trials network. It is reported that the minority-based CCO was approved initially by the NCI, Division of Cancer revention Board of Scientific Counselors in January 1989. The implementation began in the fall of 1990 and the program was…
Principles for Improving Cultural Proficiency and Care to Minority and Medically-Underserved Communities (Position Paper) (2008) AAFP -- American Academy of Family Physicians http://www.aafp.org/online/en/home/policy/policies/p/princcultuproficcare.html
Volpp, Kevin G.M. (2004) The Effect of Increases in HMO Penetration and Changes in Payer Mix on In-Hospital Mortality and Treatment Patterns for Acute Myocardial Infarction" The American Journal of Managed Care. 30 June 2004. Issue 10 Number 7 Part 2. Onlineavaialble at: http://www.ajmc.com/issue/managed-care/2004/2004-07-vol10-n7Pt2/Jul04-1816p505-512
Darby, Roland B. (2008) Managed Care: Sacruificing Your Health Care for Insurance Industry Profits: Questions You must ask before joning an HMO. Online available at: http://www.rolanddarby.com/br_managedhealth.html
In order to treat this condition, patients were hospitalized and given a series of treatments that nearly always included multiple daily dosages of doxycycline. Other treatments included intubation, ventilation, intravenous penicillin (for the patient provisionally diagnosed with leptospirosis), antimicrobial drugs, and digital amputation (for the patient suffering from digital necrosis) (Hanson). Most patients were able to recover after hospitalization for seven days, and continued to be treated for another seven days with doxycycline out of hospital. Other more severe cases were kept hospitalized for two weeks, and in one case, the patient was unable to return to work for two months (Hanson). Multiple tests were performed on each patient in order to determine further infections that may have developed in skin and blood tissues and to discover other common symptoms and effects of this specific disease. It was through these tests that the best treatments for each case were also…
Anderson, Catherine, et al. "Diagnosis of Queensland Tick Typhus and African Tick Bite Fever
by PCR of Lesion Swabs." Emerging Infectious Diseases. 15.6 (2009): 963-965. 23 Jan.
Hanson, Joshua P., et al. "Severe Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiosis, Australia." Emerging
1159), but because of its toxicity, most physicians prefer other drugs with powerful antibiotic properties.
There are also treatments known as "cocktails" which are generally combinations of streptomycin and some other antibiotic drug. In most cases, once an infected individual was undergone drug therapy for tularemia, they become immune to any future infections in the long-term, yet depending on the severity of the infection, relapses have been reported (Glanze, 2002, p. 1160).
Since the overall source of tularemia is generally through the bite of an insect, such as a tick, a mite or a fly, there are any number of ways to prevent becoming infected with the illness. For example, when a person is outdoors, such as in a heavily-wooded region of the countryside, wearing protective clothing often helps to prevent being bitten by an infected insect.
Also, along with protective clothing, one should use some type of insect repellent,…
"Decontamination -- Infection Control." (2009). Internet. Accessed June 22, 2009 from http://www.doh.was.gov/phepr/providerfactsheets/tularemiahcp.doc.
Glanze, Walter D., ed. (2002). Mosby's Medical, Nursing and Allied Health Encyclopedia.
St. Louis, MO: C.V. Mosby Company.
"Tularemia." (2006). Internet. Accessed June 22, 2009 from http://chppm-www.apgea.
The structure of yetta is similar to that of GLP-1 and performs the same functions. oth promote decreased appetite (Wilson).
Dr. Wysham was an observer at a study conducted on 20 Rockwood diabetic patients who were taking conventional diabetic medication for their uncontrolled blood sugar (Wilson 2005). She was not informed about their glucose levels for several months after the tests began. About two-thirds of the respondents were given different injectible doses of yetta to incorporate into their medication plan, while the rest were given placebos. All of them were instructed and trained to do the injections at certain times twice daily for a month. Then they were subjected to a physical exam. Dr. Wysham closely monitored their liver, kidney, blood counts, and other functions. She observed that the patients consistently lose weight while taking yetta. The average respondent-patient lost 15 pounds in the duration of the study, 5 lost…
Business Editors (2005). Understand the impact of regulatory reform and raised drug
Safety awareness on off-label drug use. 2 pages. Business Wire: Gale Group
2007). Januvia approved in the European Union for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. 4 pages.
2007). Late breaking data released at ADA showed that the investigational use of Januvia and Metformin as initial combination therapy provided significant glucose lowering efficacy over 54 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes. 8