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Not so, states Sykes, a pro-choice supporter. How can one force, for example, a girl in early teens who has been raped to deliver and have to consider the major decisions of motherhood? Similarly, adds Deam (1997) who had to make a personal decision about her own on this issue, abortion should be an option when it is known that a child has a fatal or chronically debilitating birth defect. "I am forever thankful for the legal choice to end the life of a baby that had no chance. I believe completely that the right should always be there."
Lastly, is the debate concerning restrictions on abortion, as far as the number of months of pregnancy. In 1973, in oe vs. Wade, the Supreme Court declared most existing state abortion laws unconstitutional. The latest major conflict has been over abortions of late-term pregnancies or sometimes called "partial-birth abortion." Those…
Deam, J. (1998) "Losing Daniel." Ladies Home Journal. November.
Forsythe, C.D. (1999) "Abortion is not a necessary evil."
Christianity Today, May 24.
Gargaro, C.C. (2000) "My views as a pro-life woman." Retrieved 21, March 2005. http://www.gargaro.com/abortion.html
Even the laws on statute books charge the parents with crimes punishments varying from a few years to death (Need for repealing Hudood Ord stressed, 2003).
In such societies abortion is the only solution of protecting the woman and 'the family name'. Unfortunately, abortion is also illegal in most of these societies. The result is that people have to find sympathetic (and money demanding) private clinics, resort to unsanitary back street abortion clinics (Gabon: Illegal Abortions, 2005) or find women who perform abortion by using antiquated techniques. The result is that thousands of women are rendered infertile or loose their lives in these illegal abortions. These women will surely prefer not to have the sword of the law hanging over their heads too. Legal abortion in such cases in these countries will be considered a blessing. Banning abortion under all situations in developed countries will only help retain these laws…
Pro-Abortion lobby rejects the religious arguments regarding when the life begins. Their argument is that during most of the development period the fetus is incapable of living outside the womb and cannot be considered as independent being. Pro-life campaigners (as pro-abortionists are often called) emphasize that the pregnant woman is a living being and her suffering or affect of unwanted pregnancy on her life is more important than the interest of a fetus.
Pro-abortionist point out that abortions were taking place when it was illegal, thousands of women were dying in those illegal abortions but the advocators of life did not show any concern for their suffering (U.S. exports anti-abortion policy, 2003). Pro-abortionist point out that most reasonable Americans reject the notion that abortion is wrong in all circumstances. 77% (Legal Abortion: Arguments Pro & Con, 2005) Americans believe that under circumstances abortion is the correct moral choice. Pro-abortionist point
In 1973, through the landmark case of Roe vs. ade, the Supreme Court made first trimester abortions legal in the United States. The decision struck down a host of state anti-abortion statutes and was hailed as a landmark of women's reproductive rights. It also gave birth to a vocal umbrella movement of anti-abortion groups which continue to challenge Roe vs. ade both on moral and legal grounds.
Almost three decades later, the issue of abortion remains the greatest moral flashpoint facing America today. More than any other moral issue, the question of abortion has divided communities, determined the outcome of many elections and incited quiet citizens to become activists.
Perhaps the only point both pro- and anti-abortion activists agree upon is that the battle over abortion rights has caused needless deaths. People who are against abortion, the self-labeled "Pro-Life Movement," point to the 46 million births that are…
Alcorn, Randy. Prolife Answers to ProChoice Arguments. Oregon: Multnomah Publishers, 2001
Allan Guttmacher Institute. "Induced Abortions." Facts in Brief. 2002. Alan Guttmacher Institute. 4 December 2002 www.guttmacher.org/pubs/fb_induced_abortion.html.
Dlouhy, Jennifer. "House Passes Abortion Bill Despite Democrats Protest over Health, Constitution." CQ Weekly 27 July 2002: 2055.
Eilperin, Juliet. "Unborn Victims Act Wins in House; Foes Call It Attack on Abortion Rights." Washington Post 27 April 2001: A1.
Abortion / Abortion Debate
In the United States, an individual's rights are guaranteed by law and the National Constitution. Laws encompass all aspects of the cultural definition and are likely to change over time as the social, political and religious foundations of the culture change. Abortion is a religious issue as well as a medical, social and legal issue. he debate over abortion is centered, naturally, on the moral issues of taking a human life and the consequences of such acts for the individual and social well being of society.
Autonomy and the rights of the individual play a large role in the argument for pro-choice. It is argued that having an abortion is a personal and moral decision, not to be delegated to the state or to be mandated by law. For the most part, Americans seem to feel that the issue of abortion is one where both the…
The extreme range of emotions that are involved in the debate concerning abortion can be difficult for the woman in a situation where she must choose. In Milwaukee there exists a program where Catholic women who choose to have an abortion can go for counseling, to accept the sacrement and to enter into the process of reconcialiation after the abortion has been performed. A woman must be referred by a priest but any services and all interactions are confidential. While the Cathiolic church is, basically, opposed to abortion, it also teaches that a person may choose to follow their conscience after consideration, study and prayer. The right to autonomy is recognized by the Church in matters of morality when one considers the Church to be a 'guiding influence' rather than an arbiter of the moral. In this instance, disallowing legal abortions is not the issue. Allowing for free choice and providing moral guidance and support is the issue. The alienation felt by a Catholic woman in this situation involves an element of is self-division. The process of reconciliation is between the individual and God but also reconciliation of the self to itself (Matthewes, 1998). Such a program becomes a valuable resource for the health care provider is able to refer a patient for continued care.
Matthewes, Charles T. (1998, Jan). Pluralism, Otherness, and the Augustinian Tradition. Modern Theology, 83-113.
Social Work: he Abortion Debate
he controversy surrounding the issue of abortion rights has been in existence since the early decades of the 19th century. Like is the case in many other countries, the pro-life and pro-choice movements are the two opposing sides in the abortion debate in the UK. Members of the pro-life movement hold the view that abortion is not justifiable under any circumstances, particularly because it amounts to murder, and only God has the right to give and take life. he pro-choice profile, however, refutes this claim, arguing that fetuses are not recognized as persons on the legal front, and hence, they are not subject to enjoyment of constitutional rights like other legal persons. his text reviews the evolution of the abortion debate and abortion policies in the UK, and explores the fundamental issues at conflict from the perspective of both sides before giving a set of…
The Implications of Existing Laws
The UK, contrary to other developed countries such as the U.S. And Canada, has reported increasing rates of both legal and illegal abortions. A 2013 study by the European Life Network, which sought to assess the prevalence of abortion in England and Wales found that the number of reported abortions rose by 0.1 percentage points and 2.1 percentage points respectively between 2012 and 2013, and
Federal Law Abortion
The highly polarizing subject of abortion is widely and enthusiastically argued throughout the entire United States of America. The context behind the practice appears to be unacceptable to both sides of the debate and a deep rooted and intense feud between pro-lifers and pro-choicers has been established in modern day society. The purpose of this essay is to suggest that the federal government should not take over the field of abortion and leave this decision up to the local governments.
State vs. Federal Laws
The United States was created in a fashion that would prevent tyranny and abuses of power. One way in which to do this was allowing states to create their own laws that were applicable to their own geographical location. For this reason abortion nor any other medical procedure should be governed by such a large and mishandling organization as the federal government.
Boonstra, H.D. (2007). The heart of the matter: public funding of abortion for poor women in the United States. Guttmacher Policy Review, 10(1), 12-16.
Forsythe, C.D., & Presser, S.B. (2005). Restoring Self-Government on Abortion: A Federalism Amendment. Tex. Rev. L. & Pol., 10, 301.
Norrander, B., & Wilcox, C. (1999). Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy. Policy Studies Journal, 27(4), 707-722.
Abortion rates have been steadily decreasing in the United States, but the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention still reports over 600,000 legal abortions per year (CDC, 2018). In spite of the landmark Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade, abortion remains a contentious public policy issue. The reason why this issue was selected for analysis is because it remains unresolved in public debate and reflects unfortunate schisms in American society. Rather than resort to vitriolic language, it would be more constructive to reach a consensus about abortion policy.
History and Background
Both from medical and legal perspectives the term abortion refers to different procedures used to voluntarily terminate a pregnancy (“Abortion Law and Legal Definition,” 2018, p. 1). Abortions can be medical or clinical. Medical abortions utilize pharmaceutical methods to terminate the pregnancy; a clinical abortion involves the use of specialized tools and procedures such as suction devices…
Probably, one of the most logical statements made by a nonbiased researcher and commentator on the subject of emotional effects of abortion is that;
In spite of psychological problems suffered by a few women after abortion, the existence of post abortion syndrome is doubted by most experts. There is little need to posit a unique disorder in this case, since abortion is not significantly different from any other stressful life experience that might cause trauma in certain people.
This trauma can then be dealt with in a logical and constructive manner, befitting any other stressful life event, such as the loss of a partner in a separation, being fired from a job or getting into a car accident. Depression, protracted grief or general feelings of guilt, when they occurs must be treated as a logical outgrowth of life stress not as a special case of social…
Arthur, Joyce. "Psychological Aftereffects of Abortion: The Rest of the Story." The Humanist Mar.-Apr. 1997: 7.
Bullough, Vern L. "The Abortion Debate." Free Inquiry Summer 1996: 16.
Corbett, Maureen R., and Katherine L. Turner. "Essential Elements of Postabortion Care: Origins, Evolution and Future Directions." International Family Planning Perspectives 29.3 (2003): 106.
Irwin, Harry. "Choice: Tone it Down." The Nation 5 Apr. 2004: 23.
In this context the argument is made from a moral and religious point-of-view that the unborn child is alive and that abortion is tantamount to murder. As Bohan (1999) states in the House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human ights Issue, "No society that truly believes in human rights can fail to recognize the right to life of the unborn. Human rights are, by definition, rights, which inhere in one simply by virtue of being a human "(Bohan, 1999, p. 64).
From the religious perspective the main argument against abortion revolves around the view of the religious and spiritual value of human life. In Christianity this refers to the Commandant, "Thou shall not Kill." The sanctity of life applies as well to the unborn child and in many religions life begins at the moment of conception. Form this normative perspective the murder of a human being is seen to be…
Abortion is every woman's right. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.socialistworker.org/2004-1/496/496_06_Abortion.shtml
Abortion Laws Worldwide. Retrieved March 16, 2009 at http://www.womenonwaves.org/set-1020.245-en.html
Baer, J.A. (Ed.). (2002). Historical and Multicultural Encyclopedia of Women's Reproductive Rights in the United States. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Bohan, J.F. (1999). The House of Atreus: Abortion as a Human Rights Issue. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
For the most robust philosophical debate, the morality of abortion should be argued based on both duty-based and rights-based ethical principles. Abortion does in fact point to both duty and rights-based ethics. The duty to care is one example of a moral duty relevant to the abortion debate. Abortion also raises the question of rights. In the case of abortion, the rights belong to several stakeholders but none more salient than the embryo/fetus/potential human being. Because it is scientifically as well as philosophically impossible to delineate any other moment in which a fetus becomes a person, it is logical to presume that the beginning of personhood is conception and not some random or arbitrary point in the gestation period. The rights of the pregnant female are less central to the abortion debate from a philosophical standpoint, because it is the fetus/embryo who stands the chance of being killed. In…
"Abortion." Philosophy Talk. Retrieved online: http://www.philosophytalk.org/shows/abortion
Bouchier-Hayes, Frank. "Philosophers on Abortion and Infanticide." Retrieved online: http://www.minerva.mic.ul.ie//vol2/bh.html
Gordon, John-Stewart. "Abortion." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.iep.utm.edu/abortion/#SH3b
Thomson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs. Vol 1, No. 1, Fall 1971. Retrieved online: http://spot.colorado.edu/~heathwoo/Phil160,Fall02/thomson.htm
Instead, considering the more empirical medical and social considerations at hand, the Supreme Court established the position that stands today.
In spite of this precedent, pro-life groups have mounted powerful, ongoing and determined opposition to this constitutional position. Indeed, the political relevance of abortion can mostly be attributed to this determination, which reflects a belief on the part of the conservative population of the United States that abortion is wrong, that it should be regarded as murder and that the failure of the nation to intervene on the behalf of its unborn children is a fundamental sin. This is a view which has resonated with many Republican office-holders and Christian community leaders in recent years, who have battled aggressively to shift the public perspective to a place of rejection of these values.
However, most of the evidence available to us suggests that abortion is a critical right which must be…
California Medical Association (CMA). (1973). Where We Stand -- CMA Position Papers: • Abortion. Western Journal of Medicine, 116(6), 42-59.
Dreaper, J. (2007). Divisions Deep Over Abortion Ban. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/health/7041048.stmCalifronia Mecianl
"It is not just a Catholic and Protestant Debate"(13).
Some Catholic statements, like the 1968 papal encyclical Humanae Vitae, condemn the practice on grounds of the created order, which is thought to be structured in such a way that all sexual expression must be open to procreation. Other statements, notably various declarations issued from 1969 to 1989 by the National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) in the U.S. appeal instead to the nature of the human person and the idea that life begins at conception. Abortion must be rejected, such statements argue, because it terminates a human life. Yet a third subgroup can be identified. Statements like the NCCB's well-known 1983 pastoral on peace and the Catholic bishops of France's 1979 declaration do not emphasize the doctrines of creation and human persons but argue against abortion by granting priority to the gospel.
In addition, in the Protestant Church, several statements…
Beckwith, F.J. Politically Correct Death: Answering the Arguments for Abortion Rights Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1993.
CPN. "Topics." 6, May 2005. http://www.cpn.org/topics/families/prolife.html
Currie, Stephen. Abortion. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Do No Harm. Coalition of Scientists for Research Ethics. 6, May 2005. http://www.stemcellresearch.org/
Abortion on our Communities
Abortion is a controversial issue that has been debated for years without solution. The arguments for and against the issue abound but the cultural, religious, social and personal factors related to abortion are so strong that it becomes impossible to fully satisfy the various groups involved in the debate. While the pro-abortionists claim that the woman has the right to make the choice of giving birth or terminating it the anti-abortionists state that terminating the life of a fetus is murder and giving the right of the decision to one person would cause the downfall of law, value of life and human value as we know it. Yet, giving birth to a child not wanted by the parents creates a whole set of new problems like single parenthood, financial depreciation, child neglect, and urban overcrowding, to name just a few.
This research contends that…
Changing Abortion Guidlines
Abortion and the constitution
Changing abortion guidelines
Abortion is the deliberate termination of human pregnancy; this process is performed the first 3 weeks of pregnancy. According to oe v. Wade it states that a woman is entitled to personal privacy protection, this is due to the fact that it includes the woman's determination of whether to bear a child or not. The judicial oversight of legislation was increased by the Courts under the privacy line of the cases; consideration was of abortion related laws in all the States of America (Sarah, K. 2010).
Looking at the historical review of medical and legal views concerning abortion, the Courts found out that the modern prohibitions were not in line with the recent vintage thus lacking historical foundation that would have played a fundamental role of preserving them constitutional review (Edward, L. 2002). The Courts also discovered that the word…
Edward, Lazarus. The Lingering Problems with Roe v. Wade, 2002. Retrieved on May 20, 2014 http://writ.corporate.findlaw.com/lazarus/20021003.html
Sarah Kliff, Remember Roe!, NEW SWEE K. MAGAZINE, 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2014 http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2010/04/15/remember-roe.html
The term 'abortion' is used to denote a practice of purposeful pregnancy termination to ensure a child isn't born. This social issue revolves around the aspect of personhood. Almost everybody is of the view that every individual has his/her own unique moral status; hence, depriving any individual of his/her life, except in some extreme situations, is a grave sin. A pro-lifer contends that this principle is applicable to abortion as well, since a fetus is, in essence, a person (thus the word "pro-life"). Meanwhile, a majority of pro-choicers contend that it is only at an advanced developmental stage (i.e., during birth or shortly before it) that a fetus may be identified as a person. The chief, hotly-contested issue with regard to this subject -- fetuses' moral status -- has remained the same since the passing of the 1967 Abortion Act in the UK.
Arguments for Abortion
Ethical theorist, Judith J.…
The Impact of the Pro-Life Movement on Abortion Rates
The Impact of the Pro-Choice Movement on Abortion Rates
The Future of Roe v. Wade
When Does Life Begin?
A Comparison of Abortion Practices in Different Countries and the United States
The Current Status of the Abortion Debate in the United States
How Will the Trump Administrations Stance on Planned Parenthood Affect Abortion Rates in the U.S.?
How the Pro-Life and Pro-Choice Movements have Affected Americans Public Opinion about Abortion 
II. The Pro-Life Movement
III. The Pro-Choice Movement
Despite becoming the law of the land in 1973 when the U.S. Supreme Courts decision made abortion legal, pro-life advocates continue to hammer away at the laws concerning the status of human embryos and fetuses in an effort to eventually reverse this landmark decision. In response to the growth of pro-life organizations,…
The question of whether or not abortion should be legal depends entirely on who is asked, and what type of moral reasoning is being used. Likewise, the question of whether abortion should be legal or not depends on the definition of abortion -- which stage the abortion can or should take place. Perhaps more importantly, the answer to the abortion question relates to one's definition of a fetus. The answer to the question also depends whether abortion legality is maintained at the state as well as the federal level. These are some of the many factors influencing the abortion debate in the United States. Abortion has become a central political topic, not just in the United States, but in other countries as well. In the United States is the added dimension of states' rights, and whether states should be allowed to determine their own abortion policies. The arguments presented…
British Pregnancy Advisory Service (2013). What is an abortion? Retrieved online: http://www.bpas.org/bpasyoungpeople/what-is-abortion
Faux, M. (2000). Roe v. Wade. Cooper Square Press.
Roe v. Wade, 1973. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html
Savage, D.G. (2013). Supreme Court vote upholds Texas abortion law. Los Angeles Times. 19 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online: http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-scotus-abortion-texas-20131120,0,3988621.story#axzz2lcd6QVfk
Abortion is a polarizing issue. The debate divides families as well as politicians. However, I am all too well aware of the fact that there are many individual stories that are far more complex than the black-and-white shades in which the issue is presented by the media.
Take the example of the aunt of one of my best friends from high school. My friend's aunt became pregnant: this was joyous news for her and she wanted to keep the baby. This was her third pregnancy: the first two had ended in miscarriages. By the third time she became pregnant the woman was in her early 40s, making her pregnancy extremely high-risk for both mother and fetus. The woman was very cautious and followed her doctor's advice and yet, she still had complications. By the end of the third trimester she was in tremendous physical pain and the fetus was unlikely…
"Catholic pro-life committee E-Alert: The distinction between direct abortion and legitimate medical procedures. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. 23 Jun 2010. Web. 3 Dec 2013.
Eckholm, Erik. "Bishops sued over anti-abortion policies at Catholic hospitals."
The New York Times. 2 Dec 2013. Web. 3 Dec 2013. .
In this situation, the images work on their own in presenting an effective argument. Just as a lawyer must often rely on visual evidence in court to persuade the jury, so too does a pro-life advocate need to use visual aides to get his or her point across to the general public.
The audience for the Abortion Pages will vary. Some pro-life advocates will visit the website to reinforce their beliefs and remind themselves why they are dedicated to the cause. People in the religious community might point others to the website in order to inform them about the implications of abortion. The values and beliefs of those in the religious community will be generally in line with the views of the creator of the website. The website will bolster the opinions of religiously-minded visitors and will consequently show them that their beliefs have considerable support.
Furthermore, showing the Abortion…
Describe the Compelling Attitudes both for and Against Abortion
This paper explores the particular virtues and morals to which each side of the debate subscribe; this is of particular importance since the pro and anti-abortion camps each believe that they are morally just while contending that the other is not. According to Marquis (1989), this is the reason why neither position has successfully been able to persuade the other, and both sides have had difficulty compromising and arriving at any middle ground. The basis for such divisiveness stems from altering perceptions of whether a fetus constitutes a human being; while the anti-abortion group believes that a fetus is in fact a living being (such that abortion becomes equated with murder) the pro-abortion camp asserts that a fetus is not yet a human being and so abortion is not a form of murder. Meanwhile, those who are pro-abortion believe that…
Dejanikus, T., & Rylance, M. (1979). pro & anti-choice dialogue: cooptation or cooperation? Off Our Backs, 9(3), 4-5, 28.
Lake, R.A. (1984). Order and disorder in anti-abortion rhetoric: A logological view. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 70(4), 425-443.
Marquis, D. (1989). Why abortion is immoral. The Journal of Philosophy, 86(4), 183-202.
he stance is, of course, preposterous. he solution to lessening poverty of course lies in providing more resources for development rather than encouraging abortion.
Similarly, some people justify the abortion of babies with disabilities on compassionate grounds. his reasoning is an extension of the now thoroughly discredited pseudo-science of eugenics that promoted the weeding out of the mentally retarded and feeble-minded populations. here is no 'compassion' involved in the killing of the most vulnerable sections of our population and the unborn child is quite obviously the most vulnerable. In fact, it is one of the cruelest acts imaginable. It is also misleading to suggest that such unborn babies with disabilities are 'unwanted.' he readiness of families to adopt such disabled children disproves the contention.
he most controversial legal issue facing the U.S. courts and the administration is the issue of 'partial birth abortion.' he procedure in which a baby's brain…
The most controversial legal issue facing the U.S. courts and the administration is the issue of 'partial birth abortion.' The procedure in which a baby's brain is 'literally sucked out' has been performed thousands of times in the country since abortion was legalized. The U.S. Congress passed the "partial-Birth ban Acts" in 1996 and 1997 but was vetoed by President Clinton. Eventually President Bush signed the Act into law in 2003. On appeal, the courts in California, Nebraska, and New York ruled that the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act of 2003 is unconstitutional and a violation of the 1973 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade. The Act now heads to the U.S. Court of Appeals and is expected to eventually end up in the U.S. Supreme Court for a decision. New appointment of judges to the U.S. Supreme Court by the Bush administration in the coming days is, therefore, crucial to the decision on this issue and would be eagerly awaited by all those who support the right of life for the unborn babies.
Even the earliest abortions, such as the RU 486 abortions cannot be done until after six weeks of pregnancy
Abortion: Two Opposing Sides
Abortion is one of the most difficult and controversial bioethical issues of modern times. This is perhaps because there are equally compelling arguments on both sides -- in favor of and against. hen debating abortion we are dealing with the question of when human life begins in a meaningful fashion, which is, to some extent, unanswerable.
Four principles of bioethics
Autonomy: The idea that human beings are autonomous, and possess the right to govern their own fate can be used to support a women's right to choice. However, from the point-of-view of an opponent of abortion, if the fetus is a person, it possesses a right to autonomy and to choose to live. But from the mother's perspective, because it is her body at stake, her right to autonomous choice trumps the right even of the father's to decide whether she does or does not have…
"Bioethical principles." The Nathaniel Center. [June 14, 2011]
Abortion and the Media: Domestic and Global Perspectives
If anything can be agreed upon, it’s that abortion is a complex issue, one that triggers a wealth of opinions, feelings and beliefs. The way in which abortion is presented in the media is something that is also exceedingly complex, and which can both impact society and be a reflection of the beliefs of a particular society. Even in this modern era, abortion is still an issue that has the power to divide people and to cause tense debates. This paper will examine abortion in the media from a more global perspective, and will attempt to pinpoint the factors that trigger and influence both women and men alike.
The research article, “Women’s opinions on the legalisation of abortion in Chile 2009 –2013” by Palermo and colleagues (2015) shows an unsurprising finding about people’s viewpoints on abortion—and with those viewpoints, their beliefs on…
Abortion takes away the fundamental, unalienable right to life; therefore, it is legally wrong. Its effects on unborn children and women are both traumatic and long-lasting, which makes abortion the wrong choice physically and emotionally. Because it results in an unnatural and unnecessary death, abortion is morally wrong. For these reasons, abortion is wrong and should be made illegal.
Even though the verdict of Roe vs. ade was rendered in 1973, the issue of abortion continues to be extremely controversial today. It is always a popular and important issue during presidential elections. Most people have a firm belief in whether or not abortion should be legal. hile there are many other factors and issues, the debate about whether or not abortion should be legal is deeply rooted in differences of belief in two main areas. These differences are when human life begins and where government jurisdiction ends (Cozic and Petrikin…
Cozic, Charles P., and Jonathan Petrikin, ed. The Abortion Controversy. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1995.
Hadley, Janet. Abortion: Between Freedom and Necessity. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1996.
Reardon, David C. Aborted Women: Silent No More. Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1987.
Tribe, Laurence H. Abortion: The Clash of Absolutes. New York W.W. Notron & Company, 1992.
(Brownmiller 470) Hemorrhaging blood, Brownmiller was afraid -- but her fear did not make her question her choice.
Of course, pro-life activists like Dew would argue that no matter how desperately women might want abortions, they have no right to end another human being's life, regardless of their circumstances. But Dew's line of argumentation raises serious questions about the ethics of forcing another human being to subject their bodies to the rigors of pregnancy (which has far greater risks than a legal abortion) and to harbor another human being within their body against their will. Of course, a woman might choose to have sex -- but the ability of a young girl to fully understand the implications of her decision to have intercourse, and the fact that the male in question does not have to endure a pregnancy, suggests that the 'fairness' of outlawing abortion, regardless of the status of…
Brownmiller, Susan. "Abortion is a woman's right." In Voices of a People's History of the United States, 2nd Ed. Edited by Howard Zinn & Anthony Arnove, 1999.
Dew, Diana. "It's a child, not a choice." Diana Dew's essays on life issues. 1998. [August 7,
'? 17 but the midwives feared God, and did not as the king of Egypt commanded them, but saved the men-children alive? 18 and the king of Egypt called for the midwives, and said unto them: 'Why have ye done this thing, and have saved the men-children alive?'? 19 and the midwives said unto Pharaoh: 'Because the Hebrew women are not as the Egyptian women; for they are lively, and are delivered ere the midwife come unto them.'? 20 and God dealt well with the midwives; and the people multiplied, and waxed very mighty? 21 and it came to pass, because the midwives feared God, that He made them houses. (Exodus 1: 15-21)
The lord does not speak here of the Hebrew male children as being alive before their birth, instead he speaks of the favor he gives to the midwives who save the Hebrew male children at their birth,…
A Hebrew - English Bible According to the Masoretic Text and the JPS 1917 Edition (2005) retrieved December 10, 2010 from: http://www.mechon-mamre.org/p/pt/pt0.htm
Such prohibition, Bentham contended, would be a contradiction to the preservation of individual rights. He even goes so far as to signal the necessity for a change in approach to contending with any questions regarding the prescription of rights, here channeled through the words of John Stuart Mill. The remarks seem directed in their derisive tone at the unempirical thinkers espousing the Law of Nature as a singular lens for evaluating human rights.
"Instead of taking up their opinions by intuition, or by ratiocination from premises adopted on a mere rough view, and couched in language so vague that it is impossible to say exactly whether they are true or false, philosophers are now forced to understand one another, to break down the generality of their propositions, and join a precise issue in every dispute." (Mill, 1)
Guided by the central principle that morality may defined as the creation, extension…
California Medical Association (CMA). (1973). Where We Stand -- CMA Position Papers: Abortion. Western Journal of Medicine, 116(6), 42-59.
Mill, J.S. (1838). Bentham. London and Westminster Review. Online at http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/bentham/bentham
Rachels, J. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, pg.
91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.
Women who see their physician two times a year for refills would see an individual cost savings of $85 per year for a total cost savings of $307 million for the population. In addition, approximately 2.1 million women would eliminate their annual gynecological visits altogether for an individual cost savings of $85 per year and a total cost savings of $178.54 million (Louis Harris and Associates 1993). Overall, the savings to women who either stop seeing their physician annually or reduce their visits to once a year would equal about $695.3 million.
Assuming the average wage rate is $12/hour and the average amount of time spent at the doctor's office is 11/2 hours (including travel time), women who currently see their physician four times a year for Oral Contraception refills would save 4.5 hours per year or$54 for a total opportunity cost savings of $44.4 million for the population. Five…
Holly Mead, IWPR/GWU Research Fellow. Making Birth Control More Accessible to Women. A Cost Benefit Analysis of Over-the-Counter Oral Conceptive. Feb, 2001. IWPR Publications.
Kate Saunders. New Mobile Clinics to carry out birth control policy in Tibet. July, 2003. Life News
China Forces Abortion, Sterilization on Tibetans Lhasa. Aug, 2000. CW News in collaboration with LSN.
Health Abortion 'part of birth control'. January, 1999. Health Latest BBC Health News.
Origin of the Topic
The most common origin of virginity is derived from Christianity. Christianity teaches that sex before marriage is wrong. Sex should only occur between a man and a woman who are married. Sex outside of marriage is considered an abomination to God. The Bible states that when a man leaves home, he should cleave unto his wife and they shall become one flesh.
Impact on Male and Female Sexuality
Phone sex, masturbation, and sensual massages are just a few activities in which couples can participate together without risking the loss of virginity. Sensual massages release endorphins that enhance moods so that the receiving individual is left satisfied with just being touched. Many people might find these activities embarrassing or unusual, but if you cannot engage in such activities with your partner, why would you commit to having a sexual relationship or marriage? It would take a…
Lewis, Jone Johnson. (1999). Roe v. Wade Supreme Court Decision. Retrieved April 22, 2013, from http://womenshistory.about.com/od/abortionuslegal/p/roe_v_wade.html
Springhouse Corporation. (1989). Abortion. Professional Guide to Diseases 3rd Edition,
Abortion is an important topic in society because it deals with the matter of life and death. It also deals with the matter of personal rights. Does a woman have the right to terminate a pregnancy? Or does abortion contradict ethics and moral standards that govern society and human beings? The conflict at the heart of the abortion argument is one of rights vs. ethics. On the one hand, those who support for abortion rights say that a woman has the right to choose. On the other hand, those who do not support abortion rights, say that the woman has a duty to carry the child to term because of an ethical and moral obligation. This paper will show how according to ethical and moral perspectives, life should be supported—which means that a woman should not choose to have an abortion because this violates moral law.
What is abortion? Abortion…
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…
Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.abort73.com .
Glionna, John M. (2012). Arizona passes law restricting abortion. Los Angeles Times.
Retrieved April 16, 2012, from http://www.southbendtribune.com .
Jones, K., and Chaloner, C. (2007). Ethics of abortion: the arguments for and against. Nursing Standard, 21(37), 45-48.
Ethics abortion. ethics? hat abortion? related affect . A breif history abortion. Does abortion fall metaethics, normative ethics, applied ethics? I include Christian, Jewish, Islamic views abortion.
There has always been much controversy regarding the issue of abortion, as while many believe that it would be perfectly normal for people to have access to the practice, other consider that it is wrong and that society would practically accept the killing of innocent human beings by supporting the concept. Morality is one of the principal ideas that comes up when discussing with regard to abortion. Numerous individuals believe that there is no situation when abortion can be considered to be right. Some believe that abortion is justified when it is performed with the purpose to protect the mother's life and others consider that the pro-abortion argument is very complex and that there are a series of situations when abortions needs…
Alcorn, Randy, "Why Pro-Life?: Caring for the Unborn and Their Mothers," (Hendrickson Publishers, 31.01.2012)
Bailey, Jacqui, "Abortion," (The Rosen Publishing Group, 15.12.2011)
Dreifus, Claudia, "The Dalai Lama," Retrieved April 19, 2013, from the NY Time Website: http://www.nytimes.com/1993/11/28/magazine/the-dalai-lama.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
Holtz, Carol, "Global Health Care: Issues and Policies," (Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 07.07.2008)
Legality of Abortion
In a number of modern societies, irresponsible women choose abortion as a form of birth control instead of practices such as abstinence or the use of prophylactics, even with spouses. There are a number of publicly available forms of birth control that do not compare with abortion. The opinions on abortion vary widely and it is an issue that is often vigorously debated. Often the reasoning behind a person's opinion about abortion comes from his/her moral compass. Some people's morality guides them to believe that abortion is wrong and some people's morality guides them to believe that applying laws to women's bodies (and not men's) is the morally upsetting aspect the issue. Abortion is a topic that might begin as a moral issues, then turns into a political issue, and then turns into a legal issue. Morals influence politics, and politics (and political views) influence laws.…
ProCon. (2014). Should Abortion be Legal? ProCon, Web, Available from: http://abortion.procon.org/ . 2014 February 04.
This means that the government should fund abortions despite of where they are performed whether in hospitals or clinics. This can be achieved through passing legislation to support pro-choice care for all pregnant women. Allowing abortions only in particular situations is a form of discrimination and in order to ensure that Americans have the necessary system that supports the choice of women to get an abortion, the government needs to pass legislation that funds abortion clinics. This will ensure that all women despite their social class have the right to make decisions about their childbearing and their reproductive health and not leaving this to only those who are able to afford to pay for abortion.
Shortage of abortion providers
There has been a shortage of abortion providers over the years as a result of the lack of experience in conducting abortions for doctors since despite their medical education, they are…
Jane Roe, Et Al. V. Henry Wade, District Attorney of Dallas County Roe v. Wade. U.S. Supreme Court 1973.
Haney, J. The Abortion Debate: Understanding the Issues. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Pub Incorporated, 2008. Print.
Henshaw, S.K., and L.B. Finer. "The Accessibility of Abortion Services in the United States, 2001." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 35.1 (2003): 16-24. Print.
Weisberg, D.K. Family Law. New York: Aspen Pub, 2008. Print.
Cons of Abortion
After three decades of legalized abortion in the United States, it is still a controversial topic (Earll, 2003). Many abortion supporters do not understand why the nation is still divided on the topic after all this time. According to Sammon (2002): "Abortion is one of those issues that will be argued forever with never an answer agreed upon by competing factions. It's a debate that manages to combine medicine, technology, morals, politics and religion all in one bitter brew." This paper aims to determine what drives this ongoing opposition to abortion.
A 2002 Gallup poll found that a majority of Americans consider abortion to be morally wrong (Earll, 2003). According to a Los Angeles Times survey, fifty-seven percent of Americans "consider abortion to be murder." Many Americans who are opposed to abortion base their view on a moral code derived from Judeo-Christian teachings, particularly the…
Earll, Carrie. (September 9, 2003). What's Wrong with Abortion? Focus on Social Issues. www.family.org/pregnancy and www.feministsforlife.org.
Foster, J. (1985). Personhood And the Ethics of Abortion. Abortion And the Sanctity of Human Life. Ed. J.H. Channer. Cape Town: Oxford University Press. 31-53.
Shettles, Landrum, and David Rorvik. (1986). Human Life Begins At Conception. Abortion- Opposing Viewpoints. Ed. Bonnie Szumski. St. Paul: Greenhaven Press. 16-22.
Garlikov, Richard. (2002). The Abortion Debate. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.garlikov.com/writings.htm .
The pro-life arguments state that a fetus is in fact a real-life person in the making. Is true there's no supporting scientific evidence for the beginning of personhood, but what if an unborn child has a soul and can actually feel pain? Isn't then artificial abortion a crime? Just because we are not sure, we should take the most radical solution that we can and are allowed to by law?
This is the first solid argument to sustain the moral impermissibility of induced abortion. Because having an abortion equals the death of a life growing inside, as a natural result of unprotected sexual intercourse. It is therefore considered that the new life, the fetus, did not have a choice. And having an artificial abortion furthermore deprives him/her of the right to chose (whether to live or not). So, if it's about the right to chose and the freedom to decide…
Abortion." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 21 April 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion
Abortion debate." Wikipedia. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation Inc. 22 April 2007.
Abortion ranks amongst the most widely questionable subjects examined and discussed all through the world today. Is it accurate to say that it is legitimate? Is it precise to say that it is not an ethical decision? These are simply a couple of the inquiries that arise thereto. One thought is that fetus removal is thought to be reasonable when viewed through the utilitarian viewpoint. The discussion that follows will contemplate on that.
Abortion (Debate Basics):
The premature birth deliberation questions if it can be ethically right to bring an end to pregnancy unnaturally (BBC Ethics). Thinker Ted Lockhart offers a practical answer for taking care of moral issues that can help decide whether to go in for abortion (BBC Ethics). Lockhart proposes that we ought to "exercise discretion based on ethically acceptable values" (BBC Ethics). Interpreted in a simplified manner this means that where we need to settle…
"Introduction to the Abortion Debate." BBC. Web. 19 Dec. 2014. .
Singer, Peter. Rethinking Life and Death: The Collapse of Our Traditional Ethics. 1st ed. St. Martins, 1996. Print.
The guide to practice is sometimes ambiguous, for example, Rashi, the great medieval teacher, implies in one case that the fetus has no rights, but then elsewhere seems to imply the opposite (Berke pp). However, no Jewish source accept abortion for the purpose of birth control or sterility, which is a practice that "cheapens human life" and public morality (Berke pp).
Abortion continues to be a highly contentious issue in the United States, with few signs of abatement, and actually increased signs that it is being placed at the forefront of many agendas (Johnson pp).
Berke, Matthew. "Jews Choosing Life." Journal of Religion and Public Life.
February 02, 1999. Retrieved August 01, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Feder, Don. "Abortion, Judaism, and Jews."
National Review. July 8, 1991. Retrieved August 01, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library eb site.
Feder1, Don. "The kosher majority. (Orthodox Jews as…
Berke, Matthew. "Jews Choosing Life." Journal of Religion and Public Life.
February 02, 1999. Retrieved August 01, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Feder, Don. "Abortion, Judaism, and Jews."
National Review. July 8, 1991. Retrieved August 01, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Here the man also implicitly suggests that perhaps he has not always just been out for himself or for a good time and that he instead has learned from life itself that it is a mistake to accept an unwanted "white elephants" into one's life. Next when they order two more drinks (Anis del Toro with water this time) the woman notices how "Everything tastes of liquorice [sic] [bittersweet]. Especially all the things you've waited so long for . . ." (Hemingway, "Hills Like hite Elephants") meaning that she herself has longed for this pregnancy, but that the pregnancy also now has a disappointing, not-quite-sweet aspect to it.
A short while later, the man next says, still trying to convince the woman of his own logic for [from his perspective] both their sakes: "That's the only thing that bothers us. it's the only thing that's made us unhappy." But…
Hemingway, Ernest. "Hills Like White Elephants." Plato. 4 December 2007.
Abortion to Poverty
Poverty and Abortion
The elation of Poverty to Abortion
Advancements in globalization in the current century, and the technological advancements, the globe has experienced drastic changes in terms of the culture and social related issues. People in both developed and developing states are changing their conservativeness and embracing new ideas. Awareness is being realized and the levels of literacy are gradually increasing. Information on life and its importance are clearer compared to the past, where people where not exposed. Due to this, there are heated debates on the issues of abortion in the society. This paper will analyze the situation in which poverty is affecting abortion, and how poor women's lives are implicated. Policies that assist to counter these issues are also discussed critically.
Scientific researches and innovation has been highest in the 21st century. Scientists are aiming at bettering the human life. However, the proposals…
Djerassi, C. (1986). Abortion in the United States: Political or Policy? Bulleting of the Atomic Scientists, 42(4), 38-41.
Kimport, K., Foster, K. & Weitz, T.A. (2011). Social Sources of Women's Emotional Difficulty after Abortion: Lessons from Women's Abortion Narrative. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 43(2), 103-109.
Levine, B.P. (2004). Abortion Policies and the Economics of Fertility. Society, 41(4), 79-85.
MacNair, R. (2012 June 6). Poverty and Abortion. Retrieved from www.consistent-life.org/povertyabortion.pdf
Statement of the Policy
The policy of the United States on abortion was one set forty years ago in a landmark decision, in the 1973 case oe v. Wade, which legalized abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Brief History of the Policy
In the case of oe v. Wade, a single woman by the name of oe brought class action that challenged the constitutionality of the criminal abortion laws in the state of Texas. In this case a licensed physician by the name of Hallford, who had state prosecutions against him pending was allowed to intervene. A childless couple, known as the Does, attacked the laws and based the alleged injury on the future possibilities of contraceptive failure, stating that were not prepared for becoming parents and the health of the wife. The court ordered the abortion statutes void "as vague and overbroadly infringing the plaintiff's…
Roe v. Wade (1973) SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES 410 U.S. 113. APPEAL FROM THE UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE NORTHERN DISTRICT OF TEXAS. No. 70-18 Argued: December 13, 1971 - Decided: January 22, 1973. Retrieved from:
Catholic Perspectives on Culture, Society and Politics (2007) Vox Nova. Retrieved from: http://vox-nova.com/2007/05/22/abortion-and-economics/
Dionisio, L. et al. (2006) A Political, Public & Moral Look at Abortion. Retrieved from: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jackson/social.issues/papers/AbortGrI.html http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0410_0113_ZS.html
Norrander, B. And Wilcox, C. (1999) Public Opinion and Policymaking in the States: The Case of Post-Roe Abortion Policy. Policy Studies Journal, Vo. 27, No. 4, 1999. Retrieved from: http://academic.udayton.edu/grantneeley/Morality%20Policy/norranderandwilcox-psj.pdf
The issue of abortion remains very controversial and is characterized by several arguments and counter-arguments. This has led to differences in permitting and prohibiting the procedure across different societies. However, abortions should be permitted for several reasons rather than being an unrestricted procedure or practice. Women should be permitted to make private personal decisions based on their beliefs, circumstances, and values without interference from the government or any group. Therefore, people should respect and support a woman when she encounters a decision that could change her life such as whether to have a child.
Generally, the government should respect personal integrity by enabling women to make their own private decisions and ensure that they have the ability to make such decisions in a responsible manner. Secondly, abortion should be permitted in several circumstances such as when the mother's health is at risk including her mental well-being. Moreover, abortion…
"Should Abortion Be Legal?" (2011, November 15). ProCon.org - Abortion. Retrieved July 25, 2013, from http://abortion.procon.org/ view.answers.php?questionID=1447' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
A normal pro-life campaign is less complex than Catholic anti-abortion principles because of the religious aspect of the matter. The connection between the Catholic Church and morality has come to be stronger in the recent years in spite of the fact that it does not essentially function based on morality alone. To a certain degree, one might be inclined to consider that the Church is wrong in promoting anti-abortion simply because it wants to follow Christian tradition. Catholic teachings are essentially derived from the Bible and "whatever the "moral" teaching of the Church might be, it is, in the final analysis, a function of how to read the Scripture. Christian morality is not, in short, a "stand-alone" moral position" (O'Brien 92). In promoting anti-abortion messages, Catholic representatives practically go against the general message that the Gospel is trying to convey.
Catholics have recently been more determined than ever to fight…
Faundes, Anibal and Barzelatto, Jose, "The human drama of abortion: a global search for consensus," Vanderbilt University Press, 2006.
John Paul II, "Evangelium Vitae: The Gospel of Life," St. Pauls Publications, 2009.
Mitchell, Alan C. "Choosing life: a dialogue on Evangelium vitae," Georgetown University Press, 1997.
O'Brien, George Dennis, "The Church and abortion: a Catholic dissent," Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.
According to Ayn and, rights do not relate to a prospective human being, but only to an actual human being. A child cannot attain any right until it is born. It is only on this criterion that we can safeguard the political right of the women to do what she opts for in this matter. No other person including even her husband has the right to influence as to what she may act in respect of her own body. That is a basic principle of right. (Peikoff, 2003)
While many of the endeavors to further confine the abortion rights are justified on the basis of advances being made in fetal medicine, actually they are motivated by a challenge to the right of women to exert regulation over reproduction. eproduction is viewed as a primary activity of the family, a crucial structure that forms society. If women can exercise full option…
Abortion: Definition" Retrieved from www.abcbirth.com/lGlossary.html. Accessed 30 October, 2005
Abortion is every woman's right" (23 April 2004) pp: 6-7. Retrieved at http://www.socialistworker.org/2004-1/496/496_06_Abortion.shtml. Accessed 30 October, 2005 woman's right to choose: Workers Power 299" (October 2005) Retrieved at http://workerspower.com/index.php?id=83,812,0,0,1,0Accessed 31 October, 2005
Choice: Defending a Fundamental American Freedom" Retrieved at http://www.prochoiceamerica.org/generation/faq.cfmAccessed 30 October, 2005
Definitions and associated Formulas" Retrieved at http://scangis.dhec.sc.gov/scan/pregnancy/support/pregndefn.htm. Accessed 30 October, 2005
Additionally, the school's policy to let parents know when there are issues with their children should only be related to issues that pertain to schooling. What goes on in the life of a student and is not related to school should not be the business of the school. It would be, therefore, unethical for Donna to call Melissa's parents and tell them that their daughter is pregnant. That information was told to Donna in confidence and does not have anything to do with the girl's performance at school.
In short, it would appear that Donna should avoid telling Melissa's parents of the pregnancy and intended abortion, because it does not relate to school business and Melissa is old enough to get an abortion without parental consent in her state. While it is understandable that Donna is against abortion given her Catholic beliefs, those are personal and not related to…
De La Torre, M.A. (2004). Doing Christian ethics from the margins. NY: Orbis Books.
Fagothey, a. (2000). Right and reason. Rockford, IL: Tan Books & Publishers.
Sarat, a. et al. (eds.). 2005. The limits of law. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Schools barred from telling parents of abortion (2004). Law of the Land. WND. Retrieved from http://www.wnd.com/2004/12/27841/
Abortion Should not be Allowed
Abortion: hy it Should Not be Allowed
Abortion and whether the same ought to be allowed or not is an issue that has stimulated heated debate between proponents and supporters of abortion. hile proponents of abortion have often presented seemingly reasonable arguments on why abortion should be permitted, these arguments have often times been countered by equally strong arguments against abortion by those opposing it. This text revisits the debate and with compelling reasons, argues why abortion should not be allowed.
To begin with, it is important to note that aborting an unborn child (regardless of its stage of development in the womb) is akin to murder. According to Schwarzwalder, the senior VP of the Family Research Council, there are those who have argued that whatever is formed in the woman's womb when a human ovum is penetrated by a sperm is just but a…
Hendrick, Judith. Law and Ethics in Children's Nursing. Iowa: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print.
NHS. "Abortion -- Risks." NHS, 7 June 2012. Web. 20 April. 2014.
Saad, Lydia. "Pro-Choice Americans at Record-Low 41%." 23 May 2012. Web. 20 April. 2014.
Schwarz, Stephen D. Understanding Abortion: From Mixed Feelings to Rational Thought. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2011. Print.
Abortion refers to the termination of the pregnancy and most members of society tend to feel strongly and often myopically about their opinions of abortion. This paper will examine the complex and multi-faceted history that the United States has had with abortion as well as the pros and cons of this procedure. This essay will take a long look at the reasons that motivate those who support abortion and those who do not. It is hoped that this deep analysis will not only strengthen one’s ability to think critically, but allow compassion and common understanding to thrive in society.
Abortion: Nuances of the Issue
Abortion: Reasons for Support and Opposition
Abortion: Reasons for Approval and for Protest
Abortion: Exploring the Positive and Negative Complexities
Abortion in America: Examining both Sides of the Coin
Acceptable Circumstances: When is an abortion a non-controversial decision?
Women in the United States faced many difficulties before the legalization of abortion. The case of oe vs. Wade is famous as this case allowed for the legalization of abortion K. Jones & Chaloner, 2007.
Before the legalization of abortion, there were women who still aborted illegally, and all that legalization provided for was a safe environment for the women to perform abortion. Legalization of abortion provided women with a choice in regards to keeping the pregnancy to term or terminating the pregnancy. This choice is and has been a controversial one, which results in many debates for and against abortion. The debates regarding abortion have not favored women as it was earlier thought, since there are women who still cannot access abortion services. Women of color were mostly disadvantaged before abortion was legalized, but the situation did not change after abortion was legalized. Colored women…
Avalos, L.R. (2003). Abortion in the Web of Relationship. International Journal for Human Caring, 7(2).
Bartlett, L.A., Berg, C.J., Shulman, H.B., Zane, S.B., Green, C.A., Whitehead, S., & Atrash, H.K. (2004). Risk factors for legal induced abortion -- related mortality in the United States. Obstetrics & gynecology, 103(4), 729-737.
Cates, W., Grimes, D.A., & Schulz, K.F. (2003). The public health impact of legal abortion: 30 years later. Perspectives on sexual and reproductive health, 35(1), 25-28.
Fried, M.G. (2013). Reproductive rights activism in the post-Roe era. American Journal of Public Health, 103(1), 10-14.
Over the years, given the awareness and exposure that came with the advent of media and the internet, human societies and cultural norms across the globe have evolved from being very conservative to moderate to liberal. With apparent increases in literacy rates, standards of living and awareness in general, people around the world have reconsidered many of their notions and have adopted more liberal approaches towards social norms and myths. That said, despite of moving towards liberal broad minded cultural notions, the practice of Abortion still attracts intensive debates in both developed and less developed societies. This paper particularly focuses on the degree to which poverty is related to the practice of Abortion and how this relationship does implicates on the lives of poor women. The paper also aims at proposing a policy that would help in tackling the said problem.
As medical sciences evolved and progressed for…
Bachiochi, E. (2011). Embodied Equality: Debunking Equal Protection Arguments for Abortion Rights. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 34(3), 889+.
Bridges, K.M. (2009). Quasi-Colonial Bodies: An Analysis of the Reproductive Lives of Poor Black and Racially Subjugated Women. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 18(2), 609+.
Kopaczynski, G. (2011). No Higher Court: Contemporary Feminism and the Right to Abortion. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press.
Kumar, A. (2012, February 2). House votes to ban subsidies for poor women who abort fetuses with birth defects. The Washington Post. Retrieved from The Washington Post Database.
Abortion: Ethical and Political Issues of RU 486
Abortion is a totally unacceptable, cruel and unethical practice and should be considered illegal except under some special cases and medical circumstances that indicate a danger to the mother. Our judicial system must consider the ethical and moral aspects of abortion as an intrinsic part of the problem when approaching this social issue. Even from the practical prospective the abortion pill RU486 has not been a breakthrough and instead of making abortion a private and safe method it has only increased the physical discomfort and the psychological ordeal for the woman.
Abortion is the one of the most debated social issues of this century. The controversy as to the right that man has over the life of a baby in the fetus and in controlling its entry into the world is a much-debated topic. Abortion is nothing but putting an end to…
Designed by 'RU486.com', "Abortion Procedures," Accessed on March 10th, 2003
BBC News, "Roe v Wade: Key U.S. abortion ruling" January 16, 2003 Accessed on March 12th, 2003
The right of autonomy is also influenced by individualistic ideology of capitalism which other feminist point out is male-biased. Feminists seek to free themselves from perspectives that devalue women and deny them opportunities to explore their thoughts and experiences. For this reason, some feminists have joined the anti-abortion side because the issue of autonomy is not acceptable in a liberal society. According to olf-Devine, she argues that abortion is the response of men to deal with problems caused by unwanted pregnancy and will therefore be problematic for those trying to support feminist perspective as the moral response and that even the feminist perspective on abortion generates strong presumptions as a way of reacting towards unwanted pregnancy Moghadam 91()
The killing of an unborn baby can never be justified under any circumstance because it does not provide a solution to the situation that lead to conception. Illegalization of an abortion implies…
Work cited http://celiawolfdevine.com/pdf/Abortion-and-the-Feminine-Voice.pdf >Bernstein, Richard J, and Christopher J. Voparil. The Rorty Reader. 2010.
Defense of Abortion
The author of this piece, Judith Jarvis Thompson, supports abortion, she uses descriptive assumptions creatively, and she makes dramatic -- even outrageous -- examples as juxtapositions to develop her argument and make her points. She also employs value assumptions that are effective in her narrative. But Thompson's theses and her Socratic style of argument carry the most weight as she turns of the positions of the "pro-life" movement upside down as a way to make her own positions shine. Thompson presents all of this two years before the U.S. Supreme Court's historic Roe v. ade decision, which is impressive in hindsight, given the intensity of the ongoing debate on abortion.
Is the fetus a human being from the time of conception?
In her first paragraph, Thompson notes that people are expected by pro-life proponents to say that the "fetus us a person from the moment of conception."…
Thompson, Judith Jarvis. "A Defense of Abortion." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1, no. 1.
In the past few decades an argument has raged across America over the issue of abortion. My personal opinion on this subject is that abortion should not be legal. I believe that because an embryo, and later a fetus, is a human life form that is separate and distinct from its parents, and has the potential to become something great, that people should follow the "Golden ule" and treat others, including embryos, only as they would like to be treated; and this would mean not ending their life. Therefore, in the debate over abortion, I am on the "Pro-Life" side.
While many abortion proponents concentrate their arguments on the mother and her rights, they often forget that there is another person involved, and it is a distinct and individual life form. Most embryology texts indicate that the life of a human being "begins with complete fertilization, which yields…
Gensler, Harry. (2011). Ethics: A Contemporary Introduction. New York: Routledge.
Lee, Patrick, and Robert P. George.(2005). The Wrong of Abortion. In Cohen, Andrew
and Christopher Wellman. (Eds.), Contemporary Debates in Applied Ethics.
Malden, MA: Blackwell.
Utilitarian Abortion Considerations:
The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether
permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, 2003 p160). The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions. Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, 2002 p 99).
Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, 2002 p101-2). For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…
(Dershowitz, 2002 p112).
Therefore, the contemporary utilitarian approach to morality in human life is to consider other definitions of "goodness" and "benefit" rather than equating morality with the interests of the greatest number. In many respects, that is the perspective exemplified by the modern American justice system (Dershowitz, 2002 p112). Under that view, the moral rightness or wrongness of elective abortion would seek to weigh the manner in which permitting abortions might benefit society and how that decision would affect all of the individuals directly involved in specific situations. If the initial assumption is that society is benefited by the respect for the autonomous rights of individuals to make personal decisions about abortion without interference from the state, utilitarianism would support the freedom to make that decision.
Under the act utilitarianism perspective, therefore, certain types of abortions (such as in cases of rape, incest, or medical necessity for the life of the mother)
While abortion is not banned, it is not encouraged either. Its lack of acknowledgment at the state and local policy level demonstrates the lack of priority or evasion of the government to acknowledge abortion as a healthcare service that must be stated specifically as a subsidized service by the federal government.
Interestingly, with the approval and passage of the Affordable Care Act (or "Obamacare"), federal policy on abortion remains vague if not directly banned or discouraged. While abortion is not explicitly stated as a health service that will be subsidized under this new healthcare law, it is contended that abortion services and its funding are "always included unless it's explicitly excluded" (O'Neil, 2012). Thus, women can avail of abortion services as a healthcare and preventive service subsidized by the federal government and covered in health insurance plans.
This new development in the federal policy on abortion is a step forward…
"Federal and state bans and restrictions on abortion." (2012). Planned Parenthood Action Center. Retrieved 28 July 2012. Available at: http://www.plannedparenthoodaction.org/positions/federal-state-bans-restrictions-abortion-644.htm
O'Neil, T. (2012). "Obamacare and abortion: Health overhaul could lead to federal subsidy of abortion, critic says." The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 28 July 2012. Available at: http://freebeacon.com/obamacare-and-abortion/
Santelli, J., M. Ott, and M. Lyon. (2006). "Abstinence and abstinence-only education: a review of U.S. policies and programs." Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 38.
Et al. "Psychological Responses of Women After First-Trimester Aortion." Arch Gen Psychiatry. Volume 57.8 (2000): 777-84. Lexis Nexis
Rearden, David C. "Aortion and Susequent Sustance Ause." The Journal of Drug and Alcohol Ause. Vol 26.1 (2000): 61-75. Wiley Online Lirary
Rosen, Gerald; Spitzer, Roert; McHugh, Paul. "Prolems with the post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis and its future in DSM-V." British Journal of Psychology. Volume 192 (2008): 3-4. Hard Copy
Speckhard, Anne; Rue, Vincent. "Complicated mourning: Dynamics of impacted post aortion grief." Journal of Prenatal Psychology Health. Volume 8.1 (1993): 32
Speckhard, Anne; Rue, Vincent. "Postaortion Syndrome: An Emerging Pulic Health Concern." Journal of Social Issues. Volume 48.3 (2010): 95-119. Referenced in Government Study
"Mental Health and Aortion." American Psychology Association. 2008. We. 25 Fe. 2012.
bibliography with verifiable peer reviewed studies. It was simply a summery of the work, similar to some of the peer reviewed sources. Finally, the popular news article was also less accurate and more of an opinion piece and the author's bias were very obvious.
The "No New Law!" campaign then shifted its focus to the establishment of freestanding clinics and insurance coverage for women who needed the procedure. Because provincial governments regulate health care in Canada, pressure was put on them for publicly funded clinics. Pro-choice activists also pressured the federal government to approve U-486 for Canadian testing.
Although criminal sanctions are no longer in force, improved equal access has been disappointing. ich women have always had access to safe abortions and always had a choice, but working women have not. Their choice was inhibited by the state's involvement. Weir (1994) states the women now who have the greatest difficulties are women of colour, rural women, women from under-serviced areas, poor women, unemployed women, women with disabilities, and women whose first language is not English. How much money women have and what kind of work they are employed in makes a huge difference in…
Albert, R. (2005). Protest, proportionality, and the politics of privacy: Mediating the tension between the right of access to abortion clinics and free religious expression in Canada and the United States. Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review, 27 (1), 1-62.
Palley, H.A. (2006). Canadian abortion policy: National policy and the impact of federalism and political implementation on access to services. The Journal of Federalism, 36 (4), 565-586.
Weir, L. (1994). Left popular politics in Canadian feminist abortion organizing, 1982-1991. Feminist Studies, 20 (2) 249.
Against Legal Abortion
The legality of abortion has been a topic of discussion for quite some time now. Pro-life participants and pro-choice participants go head in head debating on what the right thing to do would be. Although giving women the right to choose to do with their bodies whatever it is that they would like to do with them, the health risks and the societal effects and impact that legalizing abortion would do, will outweigh any freedom of choice argument.
Women who get even one abortion in their lifetime have an increased chance of getting physical ailments and illnesses than women who have not gotten an abortion. They are 30% more likely to get an ectopic pregnancy in the future if they have gotten one abortion and four times more likely if they have gotten two or more, which by itself increases the mortality rate of a woman by…
Monahan, M. (2006). The effects of abortion. In AbortionFacts.com. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from
Masse, S. (2011). Abortion Risks. In Ramah International. Retrieved August 15, 2011, from
partial birth abortion, many pro-choice advocates point to a woman's right to choose as the basis for its existence, however, a woman's right to choose should never override the rules against committing murder.
Partial birth abortions are not new. They were medically defined in the early 1800's and that definition is extremely telling as to its intent. In 1833, partial birth abortions were defined as "an abortion in which the person performing the abortion partially vaginally delivers a living fetus before killing the fetus and completing the delivery (What is a Partial-Birth Abortion? (http://www.ewtn.com/library/ISSUES/PATBIT.TXT)."
For one to understand how partial birth abortions constitute murder, one needs to know the medical procedure involved. In a partial birth abortion, the fetus is located through ultrasound. The physician uses forceps to grab one of the legs of the fetus and begins to drag it down through the birth canal until everything but the…
Judge to let witness say fetus feels abortion pain
The Record (Bergen County, NJ); 3/23/2004; LARRY NEUMEISTER, THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
The Record (Bergen County, NJ)
What is a Partial-Birth Abortion?
It must be considered, as well, that genetic testing is a somewhat newer thing and the results can be skewed; so even if a doctor did do a test and results came up negative, there is a chance something could have been positive. Is the doctor responsible for the fact that the test didn't find any genetic problems? It would be absolutely nonsensical to think that the doctor should be punished for not detecting problems. It is also incredibly unfair.
When two people decide to have children, they are basically assuming all responsibilities and they should be aware that giving birth to a child means knowing that there are certain risks involved. There is this question to be considered: If an aborted child cannot sue for wrongful death, how can anyone sue for wrongful life?
What will happen, if we aren't careful, is that doctors will become very wary of…
Bayles, Michael D. (1975). Harm to the unconceived. Kalamazoo College -- Western
Michigan University Conference in Philosophy of Law.
Doerr, Adam. (2009). The 'wrongful life' debate. Genonomics Law Report. Retrieved on September 1, 2010, from the Website: