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Abraham Lincoln was born in a log cabin on February 12, 1809 in Hardin County, Kentucky. From these humble beginnings the first born son of Thomas, an uneducated farmer, and Nancy Hanks, Lincoln would grow to become the 16th President of the United States.
In 1997 illiam Riding Jr. And Stuart B. McIver asked a group of 719 professors, elected officials, historians, attorneys, authors and other professionals to rate the presidents. The categories in which the various presidents were rated included leadership qualities, accomplishments and crisis management, political skill, appointments, and character and integrity. Lincoln finished no lower than third in any category and was first overall. In February of 2009 C-SPAN conducted a survey of 65 historians. The group was asked to rank the presidents in ten categories including public persuasion, economic management, international relations and moral authority. Again Lincoln finished first (Norton).
During the election of…
"Abraham Lincoln." Biography.com. (2012). Video. 21 May 2012.
These were all matters that needed consideration and which attracted the support of the North. His Inaugural Address tried to point them out. In this sense, he considered that the "maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is essential to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depend" Therefore, Lincoln's strategy included the rallying of support based on the idea of unity of the entity which was now the essence of the American society. While for the Northern part, the Union was a much more benefic construction, for the South it did not represent the ultimate structure in terms of economic benefits because the North totally despised slavery and its institution.
Another element Lincoln used to engage support for the cause…
Bennett, Lerone. "Differing Perspectives on Abraham Lincoln." Booknotes: Stories from American History. New York: Perseus Books, 2001
David, Ericson. The Debate over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in the Antebellum America. New York: New York UP, 2000.
First Inaugural Address of Abraham Lincoln. 1861. Yale Law School. http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/presiden/inaug/lincoln1.htm (accessed 1 February 2008).
Franklin, John Hope. The Emancipation Proclamation. Garden City: Doubleday, 1963.
Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America
What was the most important thing you learned about Abraham Lincoln from reading "Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America"?
Abraham Lincoln played an important role in bringing to an end the civil war and initiating the stoppage of slavery in the United States. After its inauguration in 1861, Lincoln was determined to unite the northern and the southern states, which were at loggerheads over slavery and the slave trade. Whereas the southern states used slaves to run their cotton-based economies, Lincoln believed that the reason could not override the need to observe and grant freedom rights to all persons in the society. As president, he instituted measures through dialogue to help unite the two factions and end slavery. The ultimate result of this was his proclamation of the emancipation in the year 1862, which ended slavery and the slave trade.
What was the most…
Robert Lincoln also declares that after his father became President, "any great intimacy between us became impossible. I scarcely had even ten minutes of quiet talk with him during his Presidency on account of his ever-constant devotion to the business of being Commander-in-Chief" (Randall, 183).
Not surprisingly, Abraham Lincoln possessed a deep love for his sons and perhaps saw himself as he was as a youth in Illinois, long before he became a lawyer and decided to devote his life to helping the less fortunate. In 1860, Lincoln aide John Hay stated that very often while visiting the hite House, he would find illiam (illie) and Thomas (Tad) creating an uproar, due to their "independence and enterprise" which their father encouraged. "They drove their tutor wild," says Hays, "with their good-natured disobedience and conducted "lively games and pranks on virtually everyone that happened to pay a visit to the house…
Burlingame, Michael. The Inner World of Abraham Lincoln. Baltimore, MD: University of Illinois Press, 1994.
Donald, David H. Lincoln at Home: Two Glimpses of Abraham Lincoln's Family Life.
Riverside, NJ: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
Lincoln's Sons." Abraham Lincoln Classroom. 2008. Internet. Retrieved October 30, 2008 at http://www.abrahamlincolnsclassroom.org/Library / newsletter.asp?ID=35&CRLI=115.
Thus, as a candidate for a particular region of the United States, regardless of its importance, he could promote the morality of slavery or its lack. However, as a major public figure, he did not have the political support or the democratic one to advocate the freedom of the slaves. Nor did he want to take that road. One of the most evident proofs was the fact that "Lincolnin the first year of the war repeatedly defined his policy as a restoration of the Union- which of course meant a Union with slavery" (M. McPherson, 2002, 108). Therefore, despite the noble discourse, neither Lincoln nor the public were ready for a change that would, on the one hand uphold the Declaration of Independence, and create disequilibrium in the Union.
Despite the serious oscillations Lincoln experienced throughout discussion on slavery, the issue of the empowerment of slaves was addressed in 1865…
Ericson, David. The Debate Over Slavery: Antislavery and Proslavery Liberalism in the Antebellum America. New York: New York UP, 2000.
Fehrenbacher, Donald. Prelude to Greatness: Lincoln in the 1850s. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1962.
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Lincoln, Abraham. "Last Public Address. April 11, 1865." Lincoln Home National Historical site. N.d. 1 June 2008. http://www.nps.gov/archive/liho/slavery/al18.htm
Douglas, as a new and alarming development (Abraham Lincoln 2010).
With that, Lincoln believed that being an American individual does not necessarily mean that you are of white, black, red, brown, or yellow complexion, which signify race. The term "American" has no racial insinuations for virtually all Americans trace their roots from distinct nationalities, races and ethnic groups and this complication alone can cause innumerable perplexed things. But because of the fact that America had evolved into its present status, all sorts of studies need to be carried out for the purpose of solving the problem. From there, Lincoln felt that the analysis of the people of America is only one of the countless implications brought about by the evolution of America itself, which means America was going to have slaves or free slaves, it could be both as seen in the following evidence.
Lincoln vied for the U.S. Senate…
Pearson, J. (1986). The definition and measurement of social support. (Journal of Counseling & Psychology
(2006). Stable home life children to learn. Marriage of Family and Education. Retrieved April 12, 2010, from. http://health.yahoo.com/relationships-family/family-life-cycle/healthwise -- ty6171.html
(2010). Grasping Reality with Both Hands: Brad DeLong's Semi-Daily Journal. Retrieved April 12, 2010, from http://delong.typepad.com/
In 1837, Lincoln took highly controversial position that foreshadowed his future political path. He joined with five other legislators out of eighty-three to oppose a resolution condemning abolitionists. In 1838, he responded to the death of the Illinois abolitionist and newspaper editor, Elijah Parish Lovejoy, who was killed while defending his printing presses from a mob of pro-slavery citizens in Alton, Illinois. In a statesmanlike manner, Lincoln gave a cautious speech at the Springfield Young Men's Lyceum, pointing out the violence done where democracy and the rule of law should be in place (Abraham Lincoln, 2005).
In 1840, with a keen political eye, Lincoln campaigned for the populist war hero and Whig candidate William Henry Harrison. Lincoln denounced Democratic candidate Martin Van Buren for having once voted to give free blacks the vote in New York. In taking this position, Lincoln clearly appealed to the racism of the overwhelming majority…
Abraham Lincoln (2006a). Civil War Biographies. Retrieved December 06, 2006 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/biograph.htm
Abraham Lincoln (2006b). American the Beautiful. Retrieved December 06, 2006 at http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=atb015b10&templatename=/article/article.html
Abraham Lincoln (n.d.). Retrieved December 06, 2006 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAlincoln.htm
Fehrenbacher, D. (2006). Lincoln, Abraham. New Book of Knowledge. Retrieved December 06, 2006 at http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=a2017280-h
Grant possessed in superb degree the ability to think of the war in overall terms, however his grand plan of operations that ended the war was at least partly Lincoln's in concept (illiams). Grant conformed his strategy to Lincoln's known ideas: "hit the Confederacy from all sides with pulverizing blows and make enemy armies, not cities, his main objective" (illiams). Grant submitted the broad outlines of his plan to Lincoln and the President trusting in Grant, approved the design without seeking to know the details (illiams).
According to illiams, the 1864 command system embodied the brilliance of simplicity: "a Commander-in-Chief to lay down policy and grand strategy, a General-in-Chief to frame specific battle strategy, and a Chief of Staff to coordinate information" (illiams). illiams notes that it "contained elements that later would be studied by military leaders and students in many nations." And Lincoln, without fully realizing his part, "had…
Abraham Lincoln. The White House. Retrieved November 09, 2005 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/al16.html
The Lincoln Institute. Retrieved November 09, 2005 at http://www.abrahamlincoln.org/
Skidmore, Max J. "Abraham Lincoln: world political symbol for the twenty-first century." White House Studies. November 01, 2002. Retrieved November 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Social Relationships. The Lincoln Institute. Retrieved November 09, 2005 at http://www.mrlincolnandfriends.org/inside.asp?pageID=25&subjectID=1
The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln
The name Abraham Lincoln conjures images of a patriotic figure more icon than man. History views the 16th President of the United States as a giant among our political pioneers, helping to define the office and the nation over which it holds sway. However, as the brief excerpt by Goodwin (2005) shows, Lincoln's emerging genius would actually disprove a host of naysayers even before the president would change the world.
Perhaps the most compelling detail of Goodwin's analysis concerns Lincoln's initial rise from local legal and political star to holder of the highest office in the land. Because he was such a sharp contrast to his political rivals in the party's campaign for a nomination, the author notes that Lincoln's emergence was something of a shock to the nation. Moreover, and most remarkably, this shock was one endured with 'sadness,' owing to the…
Goodwin, D.K. (2005). The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Exc. From Team Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln.
He says that Fremont has left himself isolated by not allowing others to communicate with him and he is therefore unable to make good decisions, because he doesn't know what is going on around him. (13) Leaders I have met emulate Lincoln in their humor, honesty and open door policies, and those who have made the greatest impression on me have; left me feeling as if I had known them my whole life. (156) This skill was well developed by Lincoln and is proof of his lasting legacy as a leadership teacher.
Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and ritings. Cleveland, OH: orld Publishing, 1946.
Lincoln, Abraham. New Letters and Papers of Lincoln. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1930.
Lincoln Douglas Debates #1 Lincoln's Speech August 21, 1858
Nofi, Albert a. A Civil ar Treasury: Being a Miscellany of Arms and Artillery, Facts and Figures, Legends and…
Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1946.
Lincoln, Abraham. New Letters and Papers of Lincoln. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1930.
Lincoln Douglas Debates #1 Lincoln's Speech August 21, 1858
Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution
This book largely looks at the Civil War and the role that Lincoln had in many of the transformations that came about from it. For example, the slaves that were liberated, the political and social order in the South that was overthrown, and other issues. The author of the book, McPherson, claims that the 16th president was a conservative and a revolutionary, and sees Lincoln's goal as preserving the Union because of the founding fathers and their revolutionary heritage. One of the most significant things about this book is that McPherson looks at something that many other Civil War scholars and historians do not examine. He looks at the war leadership ability and the strategy that Lincoln had and addresses this subject quite strongly throughout the book.
He sees Lincoln as being entirely responsible for the unconditional Union victory and bases this on…
Leadership can be defined as "a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal" (Northouse, 2011, p. 6). A great leader, therefore, has the ability to get his subordinates working together towards the achievement of a common vision. To this end, the world has had countless leaders who can be termed 'great' on their various platforms. Abraham Lincoln, however, stands out; not only has he been consistently viewed as the greatest president the U.S. has ever had, but also as one who left a legacy that still moves and inspires people in America and beyond, more than 125 years after his death (Philips, n.d.). His roving leadership style and MBWA philosophy worked the magic and still attract the interest of leaders in the world, more than a century later.
Abraham Lincoln's greatest accomplishment, which many still regard as a miracle, was his…
Northouse, P.G. (2011). Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Philips, D.T. (1992). Lincoln on Leadership: Executive Strategies for Tough Times. Illinois: DTP.
He also voted several times in favor of the Wilmot Proviso, that would prohibit slavery in any territory that was acquired from Mexico, siding with the majority in the Whig House of epresentatives (McPherson).
However, Lincoln's opposition to the Mexican War was not popular in Illinois. Democratic newspapers dubbed him 'Spotty Lincoln', and indicated that he had committed political suicide with musings such as "What an epitaph: 'Died of Spotted Fever'" (qtd. McPherson). This label would come back to haunt him when he ran in 1848 for the Whig presidential nominee against Zachary Taylor. Although Lincoln's successor in the House, his former partner Logan, lost due to backlash against the Whig party's antiwar stance, Taylor did win the presidency.
However, most disturbing to Lincoln was the fact that he did not get the patronage appointment to commissioner of the General Land Office, as he had anticipated.
Lincoln returned home to…
Biographies of the Presidents: Abraham Lincoln." World Almanac & Book of Facts 2006: pp. 597-598. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 26, 2007 http://web.ebscohost.com .
Emerson, J. "How Booth saved Lincoln's Life." Civil War Times. 44(1) Apr 2005: pp. 44-49. Academic Search Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. November 26, 2007
Lincoln -- A Very Short Introduction
hen Americans -- including many students -- hear the name Abraham Lincoln, the first things that come to mind is his effort to free the slaves, his Gettysburg Address, his Emancipation Proclamation, and the untimely assassination of Lincoln. But there are sources of worthy and even fascinating background biographical information available about the 16th president of the United States, and one of the best contemporary sources is the book by noted historian Allen C. Guelzo, Lincoln: A Very Short Introduction. The book is not organized in a logical, time-line format; instead the chapter titles clearly show that the book is written about Lincoln's ideas that shaped his approach to leadership and government: Equality, Advancement, Law, Liberty, Debate, Emancipation, and Reunion. This paper summarizes and reviews the book, which is well-written prose, highly appropriate for young readers.
Summary of Lincoln: A Very Short Introduction
Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University
Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution" by James McPherson
There has traditionally been a significant amount of interest in Abraham Lincoln's life and presidency, for the simple fact that his presence as president coincided with some fairly dramatic events in United States history. Many of these events and Lincoln's influence on them are discussed in James McPherson's non-fictional narrative, Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution. The author makes some fairly sweeping and far ranging contentions in this manuscript, ascribing a degree of importance to the confluence of Lincoln's life and the country that related both to its past and its future. Whether or not one chooses to agree with McPherson's conclusion and premises, it cannot be denied that Lincoln certainly partook in some of the more memorable moments in U.S. history, particularly those related to the Union and notions of slavery
McPherson's book is comprised of seven individual…
Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A Biography by William E. Gienapp. Specifically, it will discuss the most interesting and surprising thing discovered after reading this book. The most surprising aspect of the book was he was only 56 when he died, because he appears much older in the portraits and images Americans are familiar with, and that seems to be because the presidency aged him considerably.
Often, modern presidents seem to age dramatically from when they enter the White House to when the leave it, and this seems to be a relatively recent phenomenon based on all the pressures of the office. However, Lincoln's biography proves that is not the case, and that fact was interesting to learn. One of the reasons it aged him was dealing with all the pressures of the Civil War, but there were other reasons, too. For example, an intriguing fact was that he…
Gienapp, William E. Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A Biography. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.
This suggests that as Age increases, Current Sales decreases but the correlation between the increase in age and the decrease in current sales is not strong enough to suggest that age is a determining function in the outcome of current sales. Therefore, age does not effect the current sales number as any employee on staff with age as a non-factor is able to lead in the current sales figures.
4. The following is a regression model depicting the likelihood of buying a new car given total family income and the likelihood of buying tickets to a rock concert given age.
a.) Y^ = a^ + ss^X; Y^ = 3.5 + .7X, where Y^ = likelihood of buying a new car and X = total family income
b) Y^= a^ + ss^X; Y^= 3.5 - .4x, where Y^ = the likelihood of buying tickets to a rock concert and X =…
The starting point for this brief essay is that Abraham Lincoln asserted and used a number of rather wide-ranging powers during the Civil War. There were things done during that war which were largely (or mostly) not seen before or seen since. Despite this, Abraham Lincoln is seen as one of the greatest (if not THE greatest) Presidents ever because he was able to win the Civil War and preserve the Union. His tactics included suspending habeas corpus, the convening of military courts, the arresting of civilians and the closing of newspapers. While much of what Lincoln did back in the 1860's would never fly in today's time or today's wars, his actions really were needed at the time and they ended up accomplishing their goal.
The first question asked as part of this brief report was whether Abraham Lincoln's use of Presidential power was justified. Given…
Friedman, M. (2009). Lincoln as Emancipator -- IIP Digital. Iipdigital.usembassy.gov. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://iipdigital.usembassy.gov/st/english/publication/2009/
US History. (2016). The Decision to Drop the Bomb [ushistory.org]. Ushistory.org. Retrieved 21
May 2016, from http://www.ushistory.org/us/51g.asp
The Emancipation Proclamation set the ball rolling for the liberation of slaves by resulting in the freedom of all slaves in the south and allowing black soldiers to fight for the Union during the Civil ar. As he set the ball rolling, Lincoln stated that "I leave you, hoping that the lamp of liberty will burn in your bosoms until there shall no longer be a doubt that all men are created free and equal."
The other significant political contribution of Abraham Lincoln was the ultimate freeing of all slaves in the United States as a military necessity and making slavery illegal ("Abraham Lincoln" par, 20). Lincoln abolished slavery in America and freed all slaves in the country through the endorsement of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution. Even though he was assassinated before the final enactment of the Thirteenth Amendment, Lincoln was a strong supporter of the amendment which…
"Abraham Lincoln." The Ames Laboratory: Creating Materials & Energy Solutions. IEEE Computer Society and ACM SIGARCH. Web. 7 May 2011. .
Norton, R.J. "The Accomplishments of President Abraham Lincoln." Abraham Lincoln
Research Site R.J. Norton. Web. 7 May 2011. .
While he was able to prove a point to America, his actions may have ultimately led to his assassination.
Fredrick Douglas, a former slave, once spoke about Lincoln. He emphasized that "few great public men have ever been the victims of fiercer denunciation than Abraham Lincoln was during his administration (Unknown, 2003)."
If I had the chance to have a conversation with President Lincoln, I would start by thanking him for what he did for America and the slaves. I would stress how much I, as well as many others, admire him for not backing down when others disagreed with him. I would ask how it felt to be faced with such criticism and where he gained the courage to continue his work. During the conversation, I would let him know how this work impacted not only the people of his time, but how its legacy continues even…
Guelzo, Allen C. (2002, 01 December). "Defending emancipation: Abraham Lincoln and the Conkling letter, 1863." Civil War History.
Skidmore, Max J. (2002, 01 January). "Abraham Lincoln: world political symbol for the twenty-first century." White House Studies.
Unknown. (2003, 22 September). "Eulogy for Abraham Lincoln." The Hutchinson Encyclopedia.
Interestingly, and not well-known, is the fact that as a method of "methodically" shortening the long odds against him, Lincoln arranged to have transcripts of his debates with Douglas published. The publishing of those debates greatly improved his visibility and he began to receive invitations to speak at Republican gatherings. Goodwin explains that he gave speeches in isconsin, Indiana, Kansas, Iowa and Ohio in the four months between August and December 1859.
It is not true that Obama published books to emulate the Lincoln success story albeit Obama's books Dreams From My Father and The Audacity of Hope certainly helped drive interest him as a candidate. Here was Obama, an unlikely candidate who hitherto was a first term U.S. Senator from Illinois and not well-known outside ashington D.C. And Illinois. Again, a link to Lincoln emerges from the literature.
The Janesville Gazette reported "The high order of [his] intellect left…
Abraham Lincoln Research Site. "The Day Miss Todd Became Mrs. Lincoln." Retrieved Nov.
23, 2009, from http://home.att.net/~rjnorton/lincoln49.html.
Deluga, Ronald J. "American Presidential Proactivity, Charismatic Leadership, and Rated
Performance." Leadership Quarterly, 9.3, (1998): 265-292.
Compare and Contrast Paper on Abraham Lincoln on Leadership
Successful leadership, like any other endeavor, can be replicated. The recipe for such replication is the study and understanding of the leadership ideologies and approaches of successful leaders in the field of interest. One of the greatest leaders of modern civilization is Abraham Lincoln, and his method, life, and ideologies have been studied and proposed across multiple books and journals of leadership discipline. Lincoln on leadership is one of such studies that introduce the life of Abraham Lincoln as one of the most successful and memorable statesmen in American political history, and his success is examined under various contexts. Lincoln on leadership is the primary study for this paper; however, observations are made from other leadership literature to reinforce the author’s views on successful leadership, as illustrated through Abraham Lincoln.
Lincoln on leadership: synopsis
The author, Phillips (1992), introduces Abraham…
Soviet Union brought the missiles into Cuba to rile up the American military establishment precisely so that U.S. nuclear missile installations in Turkey and Italy could be brought on the table. Secondly as an ally, Soviet Union was concerned about the fate of Cuba which held a lot of promise for the Communist experiment internationally.
The American leadership understood that what they faced in Cuba was a catch 22 situation. If they failed to act, they would live under threat and shadow of nuclear war. If they carried out a full fledge invasion of Cuba, the Soviet Union would respond by taking over West Berlin thereby severely denting the credibility of the United States of America in the eyes of its European allies. Able master of political chess that Khrushchev was he played the inexperienced but charismatic President Kennedy like a fiddle. There were of course some in the military…
Atzerodt also made a statement claiming knowledge of a Confederate plot to bomb the White House. The Union's failed raid on Richmond was also approved by Lincoln, and it was later believed that he ordered the death of Jeff Davis in a strategy to end the war. Such speculations were extremely damaging for the strength of the government, and similar conspiracy theories fascinate historians to this day. In this, at least one part of ooth's ideal was realized: government weakness. This however did not result in a revival for the South, which was in fact the ultimate aim.
In conclusion, Lincoln's death meant that his attempts at countrywide reform were immediately nullified. Without his leadership, and in concomitance with the many conspiracy theories at the time, the government was unable to carry further such work. The country was not nearly strong enough to benefit from the good work done by…
Norton, R.J. 1996-2008. The Assassination of Abraham Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Research Site http://home.att.net/~rjnorton/Lincoln75.html
Norton, R.J. 1996-2008. Conspiracy Theories. The Abraham Lincoln Research Site http://home.att.net/~rjnorton/Lincoln74.html
The White House History. 2008. Abraham Lincoln. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/al16.html
Lincoln's speech during the dedication ceremony of the military cemetery at Gettysburg (the White House History. 2008. Abraham Lincoln. (
Leaders exist throughout the ages and play pivotal roles in how humanity grows and develops. Some leaders change a nation, while others set the stage for the future leaders to take the reign. Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States of America. He transformed a country engulfed in slavery and brought about a new age of living to Americans. Indira Gandhi was one of the first female Prime Ministers of the world. She exerted dominance and charisma while attempting to progress India. Lincoln took on the transformational leadership style while Gandhi took on the charismatic leadership style. Both achieved the status of being noteworthy for their ability to inspire.
Public Leader Overview
According to modern leadership theory, Lincoln was a transformational leader thanks in part to his followers. They felt a sense of respect, loyalty, and trust towards Lincoln when he became president. Furthermore, Lincoln persevered amidst…
Humphrey, R. H. (2013). Effective leadership: Theory, cases, and applications. SAGE Publications.
Lincoln, A., & Bush, H. K. (2011). Lincoln in his own time: A biographical chronicle of his life, drawn from recollections, interviews, and memoirs by family, friends, and associates. Iowa City: University of Iowa Press.
Schupack, S. (2012). Indira Gandhi. Tarrytown: Marshall Cavendish.
Steinberg, B. (2014). Women in Power: The Personalities and Leadership Styles of Indira Gandhi, Golda Meir, and Margaret Thatcher. Montreaal: McGill-Queen's University Press.
It appeared almost as if the South might win, and many of Lincoln's advisers "said that there was no way to win the war and he might need to compromise on slavery," (Moreton, 2008). However, Lincoln would not budge. It would have certainly been the politically expedient thing to do for Lincoln to surrender and make a compromise that would result in the preservation of the union on the South's terms. Lincoln did not want to preserve the union at the expense of its moral integrity, though. For Lincoln, the emancipation of the slaves was integral to the creation of a "more perfect union." eferring to the tremendous loss of life that the Civil War caused, Lincoln (1863) stated in the Gettysburg Address, "It is for us the living rather to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced." The…
Goodwin, D.K. (2005). Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Lincoln, a. (1863). Gettysburg address. Retrieved online: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/gettyb.asp
Moreton, C.L. (2008). 10 Qualities that Made Abraham Lincoln a Great Leader. HRBLR. Retrieved online: http://hr.blr.com/whitepapers/Staffing-Training/Leadership/10-Qualities-that-Made-Abraham-Lincoln-a-Great-Lea
Phillips, D.T. (1992). Lincoln on Leadership. New York: Warner.
Lincoln's econstructions Plans
Lincoln's econstruction Plans
In 1863, Abraham Lincoln was in a very difficult position. What was happening is the Union was not able to secure total victory against the South. Instead, everything hinged on: a series of miscalculations or the inability of the generals to effectively lead their forces into battle. This caused the war to drag on and the opposition to increase surrounding the policies that Lincoln had enacted in order to keep the nation united.
Then, after the victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, is when Lincoln felt confident that the South's days were numbered. This is because several situations occurred that created a fundamental shift in the momentum of the war. In the case of Vicksburg, the Union victory allowed Grant's forces to seize control of the entire Mississippi iver (effectively cutting the South in two).
To relieve pressure on the Western Confederacy, Lee believed that…
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan. Spark Notes. http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/reconstruction/section1.html (accessed March 5, 2012)
Campbell, James. Reconstruction. New York, NY: ABC CLIO, 2008.
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction. New York, NY: Peter Smith Publication, 2001.
Haltway, Herman. How the North Won. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
The Assassination of Lincoln
The assassination of Lincoln was part of a greater plot to end the continuity of government, which Lincoln and his aids (Secretary of State William Seward and Vice President Andrew Johnson) represented. Each of these men held one of the top three key positions in the Union. John Wilkes ooth, the stage-actor who killed the President, sought along with his accomplices to assist the South and the Confederate cause by assassinating the leaders of the Confederacy's opposition.
As Michael Kauffman notes, ooth and his co-conspirators had devised a plot to abduct Lincoln, smuggle him to the Confederate states and hold him ransom in exchange for Confederate prisoners whom Gen. Grant of the Union Army was, in 1864, refusing to release.
This "plot," however, was little more than a stunt on ooth's part: by having his co-conspirators gather in a public place where witnesses could confirm…
Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: the political genius of Abraham Lincoln. NY:
Simon and Schuster, 2005.
Kauffman, Michael. American Brutus. NY: Random House, 2004.
Swanson, James. Manhunt: The 12-Day Chase for Lincoln's Killer. NY:
Lincoln's Speech Compared
The Evolution of Lincoln's Thought in His Speeches
Abraham Lincoln is one of the most celebrated and popular Presidents in the history of the United States. Lincoln presided over the Presidency at a difficult time for the country, when the unity of the nation was at stake and the question of slavery deeply polarized the society into two. Lincoln was able to preserve the Union, but at a great cost which made him as controversial as he was popular. But it is uncontroversial among his contemporaries and the readers of his speeches today that the sixteenth President of the United States was a great orator, able to address a broad range of audience: rich and poor, literate and illiterate, freemen and slaves; and he possessed a rare skill of persuasion. Lincoln was able to address a divided nation with great care and measurement. He was reserved when…
All the references come from The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, edited by Roy P. Basler, and is available online at (Accessed: February 19, 2011).
Douglas did not believe that blacks were equal to whites, but he also didn't necessarily believe that because of that fact they should be slaves. Rather, he believed that it was up to every state to decide what the rights should be. He didn't want to set forth laws about this, but rather, he wanted every state to decide for itself.
One of Lincoln's better points was that slavery had not served to bring the states of the Union together, but rather, slavery had served to put a wedge between the states of the Union. hen considering why the Union had existed in a half-free / half-slave state for so long, Lincoln commented that the men who created the government thought that slavery was only a temporary thing. He thought that when people realized that slavery would not and could not be everlasting, it would simply stop. He thought that…
Guelzo, Allen C. Lincoln and Douglas: The Debates that Defined America. Simon & Schuster; Reprint edition, 2009.
The Making of a Nation. "American History Series: The Story of the Lincoln-Douglas
Debates of 1858." 2009. Accessed August 22, 2010:
Douglas stated that he would vote for the admission of any state with any form of the Constitution ratified by the territory's people. If the people showed that they wanted slavery, they should have it, he said, if the people prohibited slavery it should be prohibited. Of course, the entire voting population all the territories were free, white men. Still, Douglas saw this as an effective and moderate compromise and attempted to paint Lincoln as an abolitionist radical.
The most contentious specific policy at stake in the second debate was that of Kansas' prospective constitution. The people of the Kansas territory wished their state to be admitted as an enslaved state, and keep what they considered their property, namely their slaves. This was in violation of previous compromises, however, designed to keep the Union in a state of free and enslaved representational balance. Douglas supported the pro-slavery constitution of Kansas,…
Between the Revolution and the Civil War: How will you teach about the 3 to 4 generations that lived between 1776 and 1861 differently? In other words, how have you come to understand this time period better than you did before?
Like most Americans, I had previously been under the general impression that the generations in between the War of Independence and the Civil War worked steadily to incorporate the fundamental liberties and values that the original Colonists pursued in seeking emancipation from the British royal crown in the first place. In particular, we have always learned that religious freedom and the right to practice religion freely and without fear of government intervention or persecution were fundamental tenets of the early American people. Similarly, the contemporary historical narrative dramatically downplays the degree to which the white Americans and the federal government exploited the Native Americans unfairly, in many respects, even…
Because of his death, Lincoln remained in history as a national martyr, with a great number of historians having recognized him as the greatest American president. Also, John ilkes Booth is considered to be one of the most famous criminals ever to have lived. All of the people having taken part in Lincoln's assassination have been blinded by their passion for the Confederacy; otherwise they would have realized that their actions would not accomplish what they had in mind, as it had been virtually impossible for them to bring back slavery and the Confederacy.
1. Brown, R.J. "The Postmortem Career of John ilkes Booth." Retrieved October 28, 2009, from the History buff eb site: http://www.historybuff.com/library/refbooth.html
2. Pierrepont, Edwards. (1867). "Argument of Hon. Edwards Pierrepont to the jury: on the trial of John H. Surratt for the murder of President Lincoln." Govt. Print. Off.
3. Pitman, Benn. (1865). "The…
1. Brown, R.J. "The Postmortem Career of John Wilkes Booth." Retrieved October 28, 2009, from the History buff Web site: http://www.historybuff.com/library/refbooth.html
2. Pierrepont, Edwards. (1867). "Argument of Hon. Edwards Pierrepont to the jury: on the trial of John H. Surratt for the murder of President Lincoln." Govt. Print. Off.
3. Pitman, Benn. (1865). "The assassination of President Lincoln and the trial of the conspirators." Moore, Wilstach & Baldwin.
4. Steers, Edward. (2003). "The trial: the assassination of President Lincoln and the trial of the conspirators." University Press of Kentucky.
1): Thus, Lincoln's motives for issuing the proclamation were apparently more politically-based rather than an expression of his hatred for slavery and his desire to abolish it in the U.S.
CHAPTER ONE -- "FOUR WAYS TO FREEDOM":
Lincoln's election "was the first sign in the eyes of Southerners that slavery's national political power was slipping."
From the day of Lincoln's election, "wildfire stories had been spreading that the slaves would be freed on that very day." slaveholding planter in Tennessee remarked that "a servile rebellion is more to be feared now than it was in the days of the revolution... "
This fear of "servile insurrection" was even greater in the national capital, only thirty miles downriver from Harper's Ferry and the specter of John Brown."
William Seward, Lincoln's secretary of state, declared in 1858 that "slavery and freedom were locked in an irrepressible conflict" which served as a prediction…
In my judgment," wrote Lincoln, "gradual, and not sudden emancipation, is better for all."
Thus, Lincoln was convinced that "gradual emancipation and governmental compensation to the ex-slaves would bring slavery to an end."
With the election of President Lincoln in 1860, many Southerners were convinced that Lincoln was going to do everything in his power to limit slavery in other parts of the country, especially beyond the
164). "Worry, believe it or not," Ellis continues, "has no magical quality of staving off bad luck. On the contrary, it increases your chances of disease or accident by unnerving you" (Ellis, 1997, p. 164). Thus, worrying about and subsequently avoiding fearful situations really accomplishes nothing but perpetuating the fearful situation and the worry; the situation will continue to exist if it isn't addressed. If the situation causes one distress, it follows that one will continue to feel distress unless the situation somehow, magically, disappears. Indeed, Elko & Ostrow (1991) point out that those with anxiety are prone to 'worry about worry,' worry about the outcome itself, and even perform worse than those that do not worry. Moreover, in situations where one is the leader, such as in Lincoln's case, fearful situations almost never disappear, because leaders are precisely the individuals that are expected to spearhead fearful situations.
Boyd, George a. (2010). The Seven Faces of Destiny. Retrieved from http://www.mudrashram.com/destiny2.html
Elko, P. Kevin and Ostrow, Andrew C. (1991). Effects of a Rational-Emotive Education
Program on Heightened Anxiety Levels of Female Collegiate Gymnasts. The Sport
Psychologist, 5, 235-255.
Armentrout, Jeff. "Lincoln-Douglas Debates in 1858." lecture., Newton Local School, 2012. Newton Local School http://newton.k12.oh.us/~jeff_armentrout/FOV2-001026E5/FOV2-001026E7/Lincoln-Douglas Debates PP.pdfPlugin=Loft.
he paper discusses the issues that were present in the U.S.A. At the time of the presidential elections in which Abraham Lincoln took part. It also describes the position of both the parties especially Douglas and Abraham. he paper then discusses the problems in the Democrat and the Republican parties. hen, after careful evaluation of all the contenders and their respective parties, the paper gives the results of the elections.
Chicago: Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, 2003. "MEE MARY LINCOLN BIOGRAPHICAL NARRAIVE & CHRONOLOGY." http://www.lincolnlogcabin.org/education-kits/Mary-Lincoln-Lesson-Plans/Mary-Lincoln-Narrative-and-Chronology.pdf (accessed April 13, 2013).
his source contains complete information about Mary odd Lincoln. It discusses in detail, Mary's early life, her schooling, character and looks and features as well. It also puts light on how Mary met Abraham Lincoln and how they got married. he transition of…
The ancestry, family background, siblings, educational life, death and burial of Mary Todd Lincoln were presented in this paper. This paper analyses the shifts in the life style of Mary Todd Lincoln after her marriage to Abraham Lincoln. Her occupation before and after marriage, her political career and her life as a first lady are also discussed in this paper. This paper also demonstrates how Mary Todd Lincoln spent her post-presidential life.
Wildemuth, Susan. "Elizabeth Keckley and Mary Todd Lincoln Quilt." Quilter's World Magazine, February 2009. http://www.quiltersworld.com/webbonuses/pdfs/elizabeth_keckley_mary.pdf (accessed April 14, 2013).
This paper is taken from the quilter's world magazine. It starts with the introduction of Elizabeth Keckley and her skills in making clothes. The paper also gives details about how she experienced an encounter with Mary and how they became friends. The paper ends with the description of the quilt Elizabeth made from the left over pieces of cloth from the gowns of Mary Lincoln.
" Without a fundamental leg of the Southern structure taken out from underneath the Confederacy, Lincoln gained a strategic advantage. He did so using complete military preconceptions in order to carefully avoid breaking the peacetime rules and regulations set forth by the American Constitution.
Thanks to the free labor of the slaves, the South had more than enough white men willing to fight. Tons of able-bodied young men enlisted and left home, but the economy was not drastically affected due to the fact that there were still laborers available to support the war effort. Therefore, freeing the slaves in the rebellious States, Lincoln was encouraging a mass escape which would strike a crucial blow in the infrastructure of the Confederacy. Unlike other wars both before and after the Civil War, America had rarely shown the man power of a nation in war such as the South had done. The economy…
Andrus, Albert, "The Emancipation Proclamation: Speeches of the Hon. Albert
Andrus of Franklin and Hon. William H. Brand of Madison, delivered in the Assembly, on the evening of March 4th, 1863, on the Hon. James Redington's resolutions in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war, of the proclamation of freedom, and the administration of Abraham Lincoln." Library of Congress. (accessed 13 June 1008 at ( http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r-ammem/rbaapc:@field ([email protected] (rbaapc01900div0)),1863.
Davis, Jefferson, Journal of the Confederate Congress. Volume 6. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875. (accessed 13 June 2008 at (http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=llcc&fileName=006/llcc006.db&recNum=18),1862.
Lincoln, Abraham, "Emancipation Proclamation." Library of Congress. (accessed 13
He let them know truthfully and honestly what was expected of them, that the journey would be difficult, and that they would all be in the situation together. He was honest about the impending Civil War when he first took office, and he was honest with his cabinet about the difficulties they would face. This path-goal theory of management helped create a very supportive environment that is necessary when people are facing extremely difficult problems, such as Civil War. The leader must be strong and mature, but he must also be extremely supportive and nurturing, and Lincoln was, which commanded respect among just about everyone he dealt with. He worked very closely with his generals during the war, and he set specific goals for them, another aspect of the path-goal theory -- offering specific leadership advice and goals, and expecting the followers to take the appropriate action. He was supportive,…
Elshtain, J.B. (1999, November). Abraham Lincoln & the last best hope. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 43.
Gienapp, W.E. (2002). Abraham Lincoln and Civil War America: A biography. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kumuyi, W.F. (2007, August/September). Seven communication tips an effective leader must have. New African 22+.
Rawley, J.A. (2003). Abraham Lincoln and a nation worth fighting for. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Mary Todd Lincoln:
Public Perceptions as First Lady
Synopsis of Mary Todd Lincoln's Life
Mary Ann Todd was born on December 13, 1818, in Lexington, Kentucky. She was one of seven children born to Robert S. Todd and his wife, Eliza Parker Todd - prominent family in Lexington. Mary's mother passed away in 1825, and her father remarried the following year (Baker 1986).
She appeared in school plays and learned to speak French fluently. Mary was ambitious, scholarly, and an excellent conversationalist (Baker 1986). In 1839, Mary moved to Springfield, Illinois, to live at the home of her older sister, Elizabeth Edwards. Mary, who stood about 5' 2," was active and popular in Springfield's society - courting Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln won her heart, and the two were married in 1842. Abraham surprised Mary with a wedding ring engraved with the words, 'Love is Eternal' (Anderson 1975).…
Anderson, L. Mary Todd Lincoln: President's Wife. Champaign, IL: Garrard Publishing, 1975.
Baker, J. Mary Todd Lincoln: A Biography. New York W.W. Norton, 1986.
Biography of Mary Todd Lincoln (6-9). 22 November 2003.
In return, Lincoln denounced Garrison and other abolitionists as "zealots" who would destroy the Union and dismantle the constitution for their cause.
In summary, DiLorenzo challenges the very foundations of classical Lincoln scholarship. He paints Lincoln as a power-hungry politician who put economic interests of his own group ahead of the interests of the country. He craved dictatorial power and willingly prolonged a bloody war in order to further his statist agenda. Finally, Lincoln's actions regarding colonization, his defense of slaveowners and his contempt for abolitionists belie his reputation as the Great Emancipator.
Analysis of arguments
DiLorenzo makes provocative arguments, ones that have been gleefully reported by right-wing columnists like Walter Williams and Joseph Sobran. However, a cursory reading shows that DiLorenzo's statements are hardly new. Instead, much of these are a rehashing of pro-Confederate writers from Jefferson Davis.
Some of DiLorenzo's statements are supported by facts. For example, Lincoln…
Abraham Lincoln expanded the presidential powers at the time of the American Civil War.
This paper will examine how Abraham Lincoln expanded the presidential powers at the time of the American Civil War (Writer Thoughts, n.d).
Civil War Background
A key event in the historical consciousness of USA is its Civil War that took place between 1861 and 1865. While the 1776-1783 revolution led to the nation's creation, its Civil War determined the type of nation America would be. It resolved a couple of important issues that the revolution failed to settle, namely: 1) whether America was to remain a dissolvable confederacy of numerous free, independent States or become an indivisible country having a sovereign federal government; and 2) whether America, whose fundamental declaration was that all of mankind has been created with equal rights to freedom, would remain the world's largest slaveholding nation (McPherson, n.d). By spring 1865, every…
Burlingame, M. (2008). Abraham Lincoln: A Life. Retrieved February 25, 2016, from http://abrahamlincolnsclassroom.org/abraham-lincoln-in-depth/abraham-lincoln-and-power/
Donald, DH (1996). Lincoln (1st Touchstone ed.). Simon & Schuster.
Greenberg, D. (n.d.). Slate Magazine - Politics, Business, Technology, and the Arts. Lincoln's suspension of habeas corpus. Retrieved February 25, 2016, from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/history_lesson/2001/11/lincolns
McPherson, J. (n.d.). Civil War Trust: Saving America's Civil War Battlefields. A Brief Overview of the American Civil War. Retrieved January 24, 2016, from http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/civil-war-overview/overview.html
Controversial President Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln lived during very controversial times. Moreover, he was elected president in an age in which the very foundation of American social and political life was fraught with controversy. Therefore, it is not surprising that Lincoln's presidency was filled with the sort of controversy that typified the age in which he lived. In fact, many of the more controversial aspects of Lincoln's presidency had widely escape the notice of those who uphold his legacy. Lincoln famously suspended the writ of Habeas Corpus during the period directly proceeding and involving the Civil ar. This basic tenement of law enforcement and criminal proceedings is foundational to the U.S. criminal justice system, yet Lincoln did not so much as hesitate in suspending it. Additionally, he made a practice of fairly routinely throwing his opponents in jail. hat is so striking about this practice is that these were political opponents…
Dueholm, James, A. "Lincoln's Suspension of the Writ of Habeas Corpus: An Historical and Constitutional Analysis. Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. 2008. Web. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jala/2629860.0029.205/ -- lincoln-s-suspension-of-the-writ-of-habeas-corpus?rgn=main;view=fulltext
Maas, Alan. "Lincoln and the Struggle to Abolish Slavery." www.socialistworker.com 2009. Web. http://socialistworker.org/2009/02/12/lincoln-and-the-struggle-to-abolish-slavery
Neely, Jr., Mark. "The Lincoln Administration and Arbitrary Arrests: A Reconsideration." Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association. 1983. Web. http://quod.lib.umich.edu/j/jala/2629860.0005.103/ -- lincoln-administration-and-arbitrary-arrests?rgn=main;view=fulltext
Lincoln and leadership" in the Economist discusses Lincoln's leadership skills, showing how, occasionally, in American -- and general history a leader arose who had unconventional leadership skills and was, indeed, an outsider to the system. Sometimes, in fact -- and extraordinarily as it was -- the outsider was better than the insider: more skilled, knowledgeable. He could see it with a fresh eye. Schumpeter (2012) therefore proposes that it may be this very skill of the outsider: the ability to see the situation with a certain freshness that enables him to succeed and makes him so fitting for the task.
Lincoln was one of these outsiders
In May 1860, candidates for the presidency included two very experienced politicians called William Seward and Salmon Chase. Instead, a one-term congressman who had failed to win a Senate seat for his native state, Illinois was chosen. And Lincoln more so suffered from debilitating…
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B.M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Bass, B.M. (1997). Does the transactional -- transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational boundaries? American Psychologist, 52, 130 -- 139.
Bass, B.M. (1998). Transformational leadership: industrial, military, and educational impact. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Therefore, while Lincoln gave a rather general statement concerning the matter, Lincoln offered an image common people can relate to and therefore agree upon. Thus, Lincoln's use of the human rights issue was unsuccessful in this context.
Secondly, Douglas raised the issue of the states free to decide on their own whether they accepted slavery or not. Douglas, points out the fact that states have according to the constitution the right and power to decide on their own for the rights given to the black people. Referring to Illinois, he concludes that slaves "belong to an inferior race, and must always occupy an inferior position," thus "I hold that Illinois had a right to abolish and prohibit slavery as she did" and therefore "we must leave each and every other State to decide for itself the same question." In his counter argument however, Lincoln failed to address specifically this issue,…
First Debate with Stephen a. Douglas. Ottawa, Illinois. August 21, 1858. The National Parc Service web site. 2007. 19 Nov. 2007 http://www.nps.gov/archive/liho/debate1.htm
Jenkins, Philip. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Although President Lincoln might have overstated the importance of Uncle Tom's Cabin as being a singular cause for the war, the statement does capture the fact that literature serves as a reflection for social values and norms. Abolitionism did become a major political force in the antebellum years, which is why Lincoln and the Union were willing to wage war for so many years and sacrifice so many lives. Of course, there were economic motives for the war (Tindall). Unionists were still mostly whites with racist beliefs, and their impetus for fighting was based as much on the need to retain access to Southern wealth and resources. Abolitionist views provided a convenient political foundation for the policies shaping Union efforts to prevent Southern cession. Read as a representation of abolitionism, Uncle Tom's Cabin serves almost as a piece of political propaganda.
"The little woman who wrote the book…
Stowe, Harriet Beecher. Uncle Tom's Cabin. Retrieved online: http://web.archive.org/web/20080913231136/http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/StoCabi.html
Tindall, George Brown. America: A Narrative History. W.W. Norton.
Lincoln-Douglas Debates and Politics in the Mid-19th Century
To the Editor of the Freeport Press:
I am writing today to express my strong support for Abraham Lincoln's candidacy in the upcoming Senatorial elections. There are many reasons why I have decided to vote for a Republican -- going against my life-long commitment to the Democratic Party -- not the least of which is the way in which Lincoln stood up to the demagoguery of Mr. Douglas. While Lincoln showed great skill at oratory, Douglas' dirty tactics and his obsession with the idea that Negroes are less than human have contributed to my decision in this election.
In fact, when Douglass loudly asserted that Republicans who supported an end to slavery were something akin to demons, I was outraged. When Douglas said he would "…nail it [Republican platforms] upon the back of every Black Republican in the state," he alienated me,…
Lincoln and Draft iots in Nyc --
Lincoln in NYC (1859) and Draft iots in NYC (1863)
Lincoln in New York City (NYC) (1859)
Abraham Lincoln paid a visit to the city of New York in the year 1860, when campaigning for his epublican nomination. This is where he made his historic Cooper Union speech, which proved to be a unique combination of rhetorical opportunity, political culture, human genius, and technological innovation. It worked as his campaign speech, while simultaneously revealing Lincoln's personal beliefs to the nation (Holzer, 2005).
Holzer (2005) asserts that Lincoln contended that the U.S. federal government was capable of effectively regulating slavery within its territories, and that the moral revulsion towards slavery implied that the government ought to employ its power to ensure slavery is forbidden in the nation's territories and eventually eliminate this abhorrent institution from America.
It has long been agreed by…
Holzer, H. (2005). Lincoln at Cooper Union: The Speech that Made Abraham Lincoln President. Journal of the Abraham Lincoln Association, Vol 82-88.
Vodrey, W. F. (2003). Blood in the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots. Retrieved February 24, 2016, from The Cleveland Civil War Roundtable: http://clevelandcivilwarroundtable.com
It seems that Lincoln was probably happy. He was doing an important job, and he had a family that loved him. He never had a lot of money, but he seems as if he was content with his life. In this, he was different than Cory. He would not have chosen to end his life the way Cory did, because he was content, and because he had important responsibilities. Maybe Cory was unhappy because his life was empty, and he did not have important responsibilities, and that would be a big difference between Cory and Lincoln. Lincoln was a success and he worked hard. Cory did not have to work, and he did not seem to have anything to motivate him or make him proud. Lincoln did, and so he had a reason for living, while Cory did not.
Lincoln worked hard his entire life, and never made a lot…
Robinson, Edward Arlington. "Richard Cory."
Browne, Francis Fisher. The Every-Day Life of Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1995.
Leadership -- Power and Responsibilities / Integrity
hen it comes to the concept of "leadership" there are numerous definitions that can be applied. Every leader uses his or her own approach to leading, and while there are similar aspects to the behaviors of most leaders, how leaders approach their strengths is played out differently. In literature (like the blind man in Cathedral) and in real life (like the way Abraham Lincoln conducted himself in a political situation) leaders provide robust examples of how to get things done and how to influence the actions of others.
This paper uses the leadership styles and behaviors of several individuals to demonstrate their qualities (or, in the case of Jimmy Cross, lack of leadership qualities) as they lead -- and the paper points to the integrity the individuals showed in the process of their leadership.
Leadership and Integrity
Abraham Lincoln -- the subject today…
Abrashoff, Michael D. It's Your Ship: Management Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy. New York: Warner Books. 2002
Carver, Raymond. Cathedral: Raymond Carver, in The Wadsworth Casebook Series for Reading, Research, and Writing, Ed. Laurie Kirszner. Independence, KY: Cengage
Moreton, Catherine L. "10 Qualities that Made Abraham Lincoln a Great Leader." Business & Legal Resources. Retrieved February 16, 2013, from https://hr.blr.com . 2008.
1). While modern observers may relate the role played in the history of the United States only on his presidency of the Confederate states, in reality, a more balanced view of the man would also include the fact that Davis had a significant role in the development of the early nation and his contributions were responsible for increasing both the size and the character of the country. In this regard, Cooper emphasizes that, "Davis's notability does not come solely from his crucial role in the Civil War. Born on the Kentucky frontier in the first decade of the 19th century, he witnessed and participated in epochal transformation of the United States from a fledgling country to a strong nation spanning the continent" (2003, p. 1).
As noted above, as a graduate of West Point, Davis served as a junior officer in the U.S. Army in the southwestern United States and…
Brick-Turin, a.S. (2004). Jefferson Davis, Confederate president. The Historian, 66(3), 585-
Cooper, W.J. (2003). Jefferson Davis: The essential writings. New York: The Modern Library.
Davis, J. (1881, 1971 reprint). The rise and fall of the Confederate government. New York: Da
It might be said that, had Lincoln not been elected, the war might have been put off by a few years, and then a solution might perhaps have been reached. However, as has been demonstrated, the country was moving inexorably toward war and no other solution would work. If the war had been put off by a few years, the result would more than likely have been even more terrible and bloody than it was. General Grant was of the opinion that the war was inevitable. "The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war," he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, in accord with his belief that the Mexican-American War was the result of the South's attempts to extend slavery into Mexican-controlled Texas, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war in modern times." Grant would then…
Government Changes post-Revolution ar vs. post-Civil ar
Close examination of the reasons for and the results of the Revolutionary ar and the Civil ar forces me to disagree with McPherson's position that more radical change in government occurred due to the Civil ar than the Revolutionary ar. In order to understand how this is true, one must look at several issues, such as the causes of each of the wars, the purposes and intentions, and the ultimate results.
The Revolutionary ar was based on the struggle to become independent from Great Britain and this struggle began due to a series of taxes forced upon the citizens. So "taxation without representation" was the initial call to arms however, it grew to include other freedoms as well.
The Civil ar was utterly a different process of situation. hile claims by the South of freedom it was always an economic issue tightly woven…
Abraham Lincoln, Cooper Union Address, New York City Presidential Campaign
Confederate States of America-Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union, December 1860, South Carolina
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address." Washington D.C. Mar. 1861. Address.
Ordinance of 1787
The reason for such volunteer support for a war against fascism was born from the economic calamity and the political turmoil of the 1930's (Sills pp). Thus, like many during the Great Depression, the young volunteers had experienced with deprivation and injustice, leading them to join the "burgeoning student, unemployed, union, and cultural movements that were influenced by the Communist Party and other Left organizations" (Sills pp). These groups had exposed the volunteers to a Marxist and internationalist perspective, and with their successes in bringing people to conscious, political action led to a revolutionary spirit (Sills pp).
American radicalism was spurred by the appearance of pro-fascist groups like the Liberty League, and the expansion of fascism abroad (Sills pp). ith Japan's invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Hitler's rise to power in 1933, and Italy's assault on Ethiopia in 1934, (all accomplished without hindrance from estern governments), the Communist Party responded…
Hemingway, Ernest. For Whom the Bell Tolls. Scribner. 1995.
Nelson, Cary. The Spanish Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/scw/overview.htm
Rosemont, Franklin. Spanish Revolution of 1936. Retrieved August 15, 2005 from http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/spain-overview.html
Sills, Sam. The Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Retrieved August 15, 2005 at http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/abe-brigade.html
..that the rebellion, if crushed out tomorrow, would be renewed within a year if Slavery were left in full vigor (Greeley 1862).
If the North eventually won the war, and slavery was not abolished as an institution, war would be again inevitable. However, Lincoln's primary duty, as he saw it, was not to save or destroy slavery, regardless of his personal views, but to preserve the idea of the Union. Lincoln believed that it was unlawful for any State to succeed, it simply could not be done -- the Union was the Union, and his role was to bring the errant South back into the fold. Lincoln personally found slavery abhorrent, but his duty was not to destroy it, but to unite the North and South as one nation once again. If letting slavery exist helped united the country, Lincoln would let it be so, or vice versa. "What I…
Greeley, H. "The Prayer of the Twenty Million." CivilWarHome.com. August 19, 1862. http://www.civilwarhome.com/lincolngreeley.htm (accessed August 2010).
Lincoln, A. "A Proclamation By the President of the United States." Civilwarhome.com. September 22, 1862. http://www.civilwarhome.com/emancipation.htm (accessed August 2010).
____. "Reply to Emancipation Memorial presented by Chicago Christians of All Denominations." Teachingamericanhistory.org. September 13, 1892. http://teachingamericanhistory.org/library/index.asp?document=1080 (accessed August 2010).
____. "The Dilemma of Slavery." In Reparations for Slavery - A Reader, by Salzberger., et.al., eds., 17-21. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2004.
4. Theodore Roosevelt
A lion of a president and a bulldog of a man, I see him as courageous, moral, upright, and staunch. Roosevelt is famed for his many achievements, but the oen that I consider most important is his fight against the economic corruption and greedy businessmen of his country. Few presidents dared to oppose powerful capitalists who, in many ways held the country in the palms of their hands. Roosevelt was not afraid to oppose them. His endeavors in this area included busting hugely competitive businesses that were engaging in corruption to further their ends and earnest regulation of businesses.
Roosevelt is also well-known for his leadership of the Progressive Movement and for his founding the conservation movement as well as for imbuing Americans with a love for sports and exercise in the American nation.
Roosevelt was a man of many talents: naturalist, hunter, explorer, author, and soldier…
Carpenter, J.J. Jefferson's Views on Education Implications for Today's Social Studies 95 (2004): 140-141.
Schwartz, B. George Washington and the Whig conception of heroic leadership American Sociological Review, 43, 1983
Neely, ME The Last Best Hope of Earth: Abraham Lincoln and the Promise of America, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1993
Roosevelt, T. Citizenship in a republic Speech delivered at the Sorbonne, April 23, 1910
American Constitution: A living, evolving document -- from guaranteeing the right to enslavement in the 18th century to modifications in favor of freedom in the 19th century
Constitution today protects the rights of all in its language, but this was not always the case in its text and spirit. As a political tactic as well as out of personal conviction and experience, Frederick Douglass' characterization of the American Constitution as an anti-slavery document is certainly an admirable piece of rhetoric. Douglass stated that although the America he spoke to at the time of his autobiography My Bondage and My Freedom, was a nation divided between free and slave states and territories, fundamentally America was and "is in its letter and spirit, an anti-slavery instrument, demanding the abolition of slavery as a condition of its own existence" (396)
Slavery, Douglass stated, deprives an individual of his or her dignity, deprives an…
Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. Available in full text online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer new2?id=DouMybo.sgm& images=images/modeng& data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed& tag=public& part=6& division=div2[29 Jan 2005].
Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address: Monday, March 4, 1861." From Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs, U.S.G.P.O., 1989. Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/124/. [29 Jan 2005].
Madison, James. "Federalist No. 10." The Federalist Papers. Available in full text online ( http://www.thisnation.com/library/books/federalist/10.html ) [29 Jan 2005].
"The United States Constitution." Available in full text online http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html . [29 Jan 2005].
Mourning Becomes Electra
It must have come as something of a shock for the original audience of Eugene O'Neill's Mourning Becomes Electra in 1931 to take their seats, open their programs, and discover that this extremely lengthy trilogy of plays does not actually contain a character named "Electra." This may seem like an obvious point, but it is one worth considering as we approach O'Neill's American analogue to the Oresteia of Aeschylus -- the title essentially gives away the plot. Yet this would have been precisely the case with the original audience in fifth century Athens for a Greek tragedy: they arrived already knowing the myth of Electra or Oedipus or Medea, and so therefore what was being witnessed was, in some sense, a ritual re-enactment rather than a plot-driven narrative. Even the rare Greek tragedy that does introduce surprise into its plot, like the Orestes of Euripides, does so…
" Despite the stated expansion, habeas protection continued to be applied only to cases in which the defendant alleged that the sentencing court lacked personal or subject matter jurisdiction. The Court extended the reach of federal habeas review during the later part of the nineteenth century, however, by changing the circumstances under which the lack of state court jurisdiction could be found. Even after this shift, federal habeas courts sat not as fact finders but as guarantors of fundamental constitutional rights. (Breuer, 1994)
In 1915, the Court dramatically increased the scope of habeas corpus in Frank v. Mangum, in which the Court held that habeas relief is available whenever the state, "supplying no corrective process,... deprives the accused of his life or liberty without due process of law." The Warren Court continued this shift toward increased availability of habeas corpus in the next phase of habeas litigation after World War…
Breuer, J.R. (1994). Habeas Corpus - Limited Review for Actual Innocence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 84(4), 943-974.
Hafetz, J.L. (1998). The Untold Story of Non-criminal Habeas Corpus and the 1996 Immigration Acts. Yale Law Journal, 107(8), 2509-2544.
Hammel, A. (2002). Diabolical Federalism: A Functional Critique and Proposed Reconstruction of Death Penalty Federal Habeas. American Criminal Law Review, 39(1), 1+.
Hoffstadt, B.M. (2000). How Congress Might Redesign a Leaner, Cleaner Writ of Habeas Corpus. Duke Law Journal, 49(4), 947.
Ohio Capitol Building
Discuss the overall design of the building. Upon what earlier buildings or styles was the design of this structure based? hy is that significant?
According to those who helped to construct the building, the Ohio Capitol was intended to be a building that was designed simplistically, to reflect the refinement and simple nature of the people in the state (Gilkey 1902,-page 651). The Ohio Capitol Building's design is based upon Greek and Roman architecture. It has been considered a premier example of Greek revival architecture which became popular during the 19th century in the United States and Europe (Gilkey 1902,-page 652). The structure was designed before the United States Capitol building and thus does not have the round dome that most capitol buildings have, although that structure too was designed after Grecian and Roman architecture. Subsequent additions to the building, either because of the need for additional…
Gilkey, Elliott Howard et. al. (1901). The Ohio Hundred Year Book: a Hand-book of the Public
Men and Public. Taylor: Columbus, OH.
"The Ohio Statehouse." (2012).
Prudence is a trait that was recommended by scholastic philosophers onwards. One of the earliest of the philosophers who recommended it was Aristotle followed by t. Augustine. Aristotle saw prudence as practical wisdom and declared it to be one of the cardinal virtues. In fact, prudence is more than wisdom; it is wisdom as the skill of knowing what is right. Prudence entails making right decisions and implementing them effectively. Aristotle saw prudence as "living well as a whole" ([footnoteRef:1]). Aquinas defined prudence as the practice "through [which] we deliberate well about matters pertaining to the whole of human life and the ultimate end of human life." ([footnoteRef:2]). He also called it "simply right reason about what is to be done" ([footnoteRef:3].) Comment by Jeremy: This isn't really a definition of prudence -- it's a way prudence is put into practice. Clarify this sentence. Comment by Jeremy: It appears --…
Sources: Please refer to the Turabian style.