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Caffeine is one of the most-commonly used drugs throughout the world and is commonly consumed in tea, cocoa pod, coffee, and mate. My addiction to the drug was influenced by its ability to influence my mood, energize me, and comfort. Caffeine became my first love that I could turn to when stressed, happy, or sad. It acted as an ever-present help to give me comfort and relief through eliminating my insecurities and fears. Caffeine gave me hope and strength to face every situation and moment in my life and enabled me to no longer feel lonely. The drug appealed to my senses because it increased my attention and concentration, particularly when tired and fatigued. Any moment with caffeine provided me with strength and refreshment to face the next activity and program in the day.
Realization of Addiction:
My abstinence from caffeine was fueled by the realization of how…
Put another way, abstinence advocates hope that saying "abstinence is the only method which is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy and STIs" will be misinterpreted by the public and politicians to mean the same thing as "abstinence-only education is the only method which is 100% effective in preventing pregnancy and STIs." This is akin to pretending that the fact that never using silverware is the only method which is 100% effective in preventing one from stabbing oneself with a fork is a reasonable justification for never using silverware, as if there were no way to still use a fork such that the risk of stabbing oneself is almost negligible. Ultimately, as Santelli et al. (2006, p. 76) note, this kind of argumentation "is misleading and potentially harmful because it con-ates theoretical effectiveness with the actual practice of abstinence," leaving those in abstinence-only programs woefully unprepared to deal with the reality…
Cohen, S. (2003). Beyond slogans: lessons from uganda's experience with abc and HIV / AIDS. The Guttmacher Report on Public Policy, 6(5),
Collins, C, Alagiri, P, & Summers, T. (2002). Abstinence only vs. comprehensive sex education:
what are the arguments? what is the evidence?. AIDS Research Institute, 1-17.
Darroch JE and Singh S. (1999). Why Is Teenage Pregnancy Declining? The Roles of Abstinence, Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use, Occasional Report, New York: The
Development of discrepancy
olling with resistance
Avoidance of argument
In this paper we lay bear the differences that exist between harm reduction approach and the abstinence model of managing drug (opiate) addiction. We do this by a thorough analysis of the processes involved in each approach and then a systematic review of their applications. A comparison as well as contrasting of the approaches is then carried out. A recommendation on how to best apply the two techniques for optimal outcome is then provided.
The treatment of drug addiction has been indicated to be a tough journey that requires several intervention techniques. Two main interventions have been proposed and even applied in efforts to assist drug addiction patients. The two techniques, harm reduction and the abstinence have been indicated and argued to be two different roads which lead to the same destination (Mckeganey,2005). The…
Dolan K, Kimber J, Fry C, Fitzgerald J, McDonald D, Trautmann F: Drug consumption facilities in Europe and the establishment of supervised injecting centres in Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2000, 19:337-46.
Hurley SF, Jolley DF: Effectiveness of needle-exchange programmes for prevention of HIV infection. Lancet 1997, 349:1797-1801
Lenton, S. And Single, E. (2004), 'The definition of harm reduction', Drug and Alcohol Review 17, pp. 213 -- 20
Logan, DE and Marlatt, GA (2010)Harm reduction therapy: a practice-friendly review of research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, Feb2010, Vol. 66 Issue 2, p201-214, 14p; DOI: 10.1002/jclp.20669
Government Role in Abstinence Education
By the time they graduate from high school, unfortunately, 65% of our students have already engaged in intercourse," stated Lloyd J. Kolbe, director of the Division of Adolescent and School Health at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Despite this realty the government continues to fund ill-fated abstinence only programs. However, Claude Allen Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services a proponent of abstinence only programs concedes "e have not made a clear, concise message to them about the benefits of abstinence." Supporters such as Mr. Allen of such programs conveniently ignore the fact that there has been an inherent break down in our institutions, which are supposed to shield the innocent from growing up too fast. The church is having problems controlling the twisted desires of its own priests, young single mothers, head many families and sex remains a closed topic of discourse…
Connolly, Cici. Abstinence Moves to the Head of the Class. The Washington Post. 24 Apr. 2002. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on June 29, 2002. ( http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A37464-2002Apr23¬Found=true -- )
Morse, Jodi. Mixed-Reviews for Abstinence Only Programs. Time.com. 10 Aug. 2001. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on June 29, 2002. ( http://www.time.com/time/columnist/morse/article/0,9565,170687,00.html )
Shelton, Deborah. Does Sex Ed Focused Abstinence Work? The American Medical Association. 17 Jan. 2000. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on June 28, 2002. ( http://www.ama-assn.org/sci-pubs/amnews/pick_00/hlsa0117.htm )
Vulliamay, Ed. Bush Promotes Virgin Values to Curb Teen Sex. The Observer. 28 Apr. 2002.. Retrieved from the World Wide Web on June 26, 2002. ( http://www.observer.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,706482,00.html )
Enhancing Abstinence and Preventing elapse in Alcoholism
esearch paper Alcoholism esearch question: Alcoholism affects approximately 10% Americans time lives. Treatment consists psychosocial intervention, pharmacological intervention,, looming question treatment remains: Which drugs effective enhancing abstinence preventing relapse?.
The purpose of this paper is proposing a study for examining the most effective drug in preventing relapse and enhancing abstinence from alcohol. The negative and positive results of the different drugs would be examined based on the data gathered from the participants. One hundred and seventy eight participants suffering from alcoholism will be examined in the study. The participants will undergo a mandatory detoxification period before they can enroll in the study. The participants are drawn from patients admitted in public hospitals suffering from alcoholism. The study is conducted under voluntary basis, and the results are anonymous. No identifiable patient information is gathered during the study. Patient consent is sought before they can…
Armor, D.J., Polich, J.M., & Braiker, H.B. (1978). Alcoholism and treatment (Vol. 232). New York: Wiley.
Fuller, R.K., Branchey, L., Brightwell, D.R., Derman, R.M., Emrick, C.D., Iber, F.L., . . . Lowenstam, I. (1986). Disulfiram treatment of alcoholism. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 256(11), 1449-1455.
Garbutt, J.C., West, S.L., Carey, T.S., Lohr, K.N., & Crews, F.T. (1999). Pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence. JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association, 281(14), 1318-1325.
Gordis, E. (1976). What is Alcoholism Research? Annals of Internal Medicine, 85(6), 821-823.
In comparison to traditional sexual education programs, it provides absolutely no benefit, and conceivably causes additional harm attributable to the deliberate withholding of invaluable information about STD transmission and unwanted pregnancy. As part of its message, it distorts the truth about the relative effectiveness of condom use, thereby only decreasing the likelihood that teenagers who ultimately choose to reject abstinence (as virtually all adults do in our society before marriage) will do so responsibly, by using a condom correctly.
Instead of limiting the scope of sexual education, the effort should, at a minimum, include essential information relating to safer sex practices and effective pregnancy prevention. A well-structured comprehensive sexual education program could also provide valuable insight that is generally lacking in society in general, and among teenagers and young adults in particular: namely, the fundamental nonsense inherent in the gender-based sexual double standard.
In addition to undermining genuinely effective sexual…
Baker, R., Elliston, F. (1998) Philosophy & Sex.
Buffalo, NY: Prometheus
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
In conclusion, atkins draws an important link between teen childbearing and poverty, which takes this discussion past morals and values and moves it into socioeconomic territory. Half of all mothers currently on welfare assistance "were teenagers when they had their first child," atkins writes. Also, a) less than a third of teen mothers "ever finish high school"; b) the children born to teenage mothers "are twice as likely to raise their children in poverty"; c) the children of teen mothers "...are more likely to do poorly in school, more likely to drop out of school, and less likely to attend college"; and d) girls whose mothers were teenagers at the time of their birth are "...22% more likely to become mothers as teens themselves," thus completing the cycle and perpetuating the problem into future generations.
An article by Jennifer a. Hurley ("Promoting the Use of Birth Control Reduces Teen Pregnancy")…
Bakalar, Nicholas. "Adolescence: Abstinence-Only Programs Not found to Prevent HIV." The New York Times 14 August 2007: Retrieved Dec. 3, 2007, at http://www.nytimes.com .
Garrett, Robert T. "Texas teens lead nation in birth rate." The Dallas Morning News 5 November 2007: Retrieved Dec. 2, 2007, at http://www.dallasnews.com .
Green, Tanya L. "Parents Have the Right to Know when their Children Receive Family
Planning Services at School." Opposing Viewpoints: Students' rights. Greenhaven Press,
How can we expect our children to learn how to think critically if we do not teach them about sex?
Cheers to The Dallas News for pointing out the woeful inconsistencies and shortcomings in Texan state education. The majority of Texas school districts "either teach an abstinence-only health curriculum or avoid talking about sex altogether" and the result? Texas has one of the highest rates of teen pregnancy in the nation. When evidence proves that our methods are not working, it is time to change them. Some teens are blessed with parents who make up for their state's lack of sex education programs. Unfortunately, many Texan teens remain ignorant at the behest of irresponsible parents. If withholding medical treatment for minors is against the law, then so too should withholding access to information about safe sex.
Finally, I would like to add that young people have a right to information:…
Certainly it would give rise to debate within the community, and would perhaps because it circumvents the authority that was asserted by the community in limiting the teen's awareness to abstinence, would eventually have to be abandoned because of the ways in which the community would relate the process to what it actually is: getting the kids the information on birth control.
If educating the kids as to the alternatives available to them is prohibited, then it becomes incumbent upon the health professionals to take the discussions to the parents. Since most kids, estimated at 47%, say that their decisions about sex are most influenced by their parents (the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 2007, found online at then educating the parents must become the focus of the effort. If Vermilion Parish and other places within and outside of Louisiana would tie the hands of educators and health professionals…
The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, Sexual Health Statistics for Teenagers and Young Adults in the United States, September, 2006.
The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, 'American Opinion on Teen
Pregnancy and Related Issues 2007, found online at retrieved 14 March 2009.
Abortion trends varied widely by state as well. "Teenage abortion rates were highest in New York (41 per 1,000), New Jersey, Nevada, Delaware and Connecticut. By contrast, teenagers in South Dakota (6 per 1,000), Utah, Kentucky, Nebraska and North
Dakota all had abortion rates of eight or fewer per 1,000 women aged 15 -- 19. More than half of teenage pregnancies ended in abortion in New Jersey, New York and Connecticut" (Guttmacher, 2010). It is important to keep in mind that teenage abortion rates may reflect multiple issues. First, they may reflect that teenager's own personal beliefs and desire to raise a baby. However, they may also reflect prevailing societal norms in that geographic area, which can make it difficult, and even practically impossible, for pregnant teenagers to obtain abortions.
Portrayal in popular culture
Perhaps one of the most alarming things about teen pregnancy is that it is receiving more…
Cape Fear Teen Health Council. (2006). Why is teen pregnancy a problem? Retrieved April 2,
2012 from http://www.capefearteen.org/cfthc.php?section=statistics&record_id=1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). Prepregnancy contraceptive use among teens with unintended pregnancies resulting in live births- Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS), 2004-2008. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 61(2), 25-29.
Drayton, V., Montgomery, S., Modeste, N., Frye-Anderson, B. (2002-2003). The health belief model as a predictor of repeat pregnancies among Jamaican teenage mothers. International Quarterly of Community Health Education, 21(1), 67-81.
Charitable Foundations and Discrepancies Between Ideology and Needs
There are ten steps that have been defined as critical components of community development: defining the professional's role; researching the community; entering the community; raising consciousness; assessing needs and assets; defining goals; building strategies; strategizing; taking action, and evaluating. While enacting these steps, engagement with the community is just as necessary as the community activist acting as an initiator and a teacher. The organizer can function as a mediator, supporter, and encourager of community-generated events, not simply a director and teacher. Although establishing ties with a community in need can be difficult and time-consuming because of the initial perception that the individual giving aid is an 'outsider,' because of the added credibility that working with insiders can give about the needs of the community, an integrated approach is usually advisable. Community change can seldom be imposed effectively throughout. There must be knowledge,…
Fischer, Robert & Eric Schragge. (2000). Challenging community organizing. Journal of Community Practice, 8 (3): 1-19
Food lust advertising design: Applying the concepts of 'luxuria' and 'chastity'
hen comparing cars such as Hummer and the Prius, the contrast between the two brand identities seems obvious. One is a large, gas-guzzling vehicle that denotes the purchaser's wealth. The Prius is a small, snub-nosed vehicle that apparently proclaims the user's interest in environmental sustainability. However, beneath the surface, there are even more complex issues about how the vehicles convey the user's class. The Prius is also an expensive car, after all. Chastity is not about low price -- it is an attitude.
hat constitutes 'luxuria' versus 'chastity' in marketing is even more complex with the marketing of items that have a very wide price range like food. Some products marketed as objects of 'luxuria' may be low-priced; some may be high-price. Some products marketed upon their 'chastity' may be more expensive than their 'luxuria' counterparts. The endy's…
"Baconater." Wendy's. [9 Mar 2010]
Hsu, Tiffany. "Wendy's reenters Japan with $16 foie-gras-and-truffle burger." The LA Times
28 Dec 2011. [9 Mar 2010]
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
Relapse prevention therapy breaks down the chemical dependency recovery process into specific tasks and skills, which patients must learn in order to recover; it also shows patients how to recognize when they are beginning to relapse, and how to change before they start using alcohol or drugs again (Gorski and Kelley, 2003).
In order to understand the process of relapse prevention, we will first look at the phenomena of chemical dependence, and its associated behaviors, and the phenomena of relapse, in order to be able to then look at the various ways of tackling these behaviors to induce relapse prevention in the patients.
What is Chemical Dependency/Chemical Addiction?
Chemical dependency is a disease caused by the use of alcohol and/or drugs, causing changes in a person's body, mind, and behavior: as a result of the disease of chemical dependency, people are unable to control the use of alcohol and/or drugs,…
Bell, T. (1990). Preventing adolescent relapse: A guide for parents, teachers and counselors. Independence, MO: Herald House / Independence Press.
Daley, D. (1987) Relapse prevention with substance abusers: clinical issues and myths. Social Work, 45(2), 38-42.
Gorski, T.T. Passages Through Recovery. Center City, MN. Hazelden Press, 1989.
Gorski, T.T. Understanding the Twelve Steps. New York: Prentice Hall/Parkside, 1989.
Compared to only a few decades ago, American society has become more open and accepting of teenage pregnancy. Pregnant teens are no longer hidden away with relatives. More importantly, many school and community groups have adopted honest and aggressive strategies to address the growing incidences of teenage pregnancy.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of four different styles of programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage girls. These programs include sex education in schools, one-on-one conversations between patient and health care worker in a clinical setting, service learning programs and finally, youth development programs. Emphasis is given on the effectiveness of these programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage African-American girls.
The first part of this paper is an overview of teen pregnancy statistics, both throughout the United States and with African-American teenagers in particular. The next part of the paper then identifies the factors behind the rising rates of pregnancy…
Boekeloo, B.O., Schamus, L.A., Simmens, S.J., Cheng, T.L., O'Connor, K., & D'Angelo, L.J. 1999. "A STD/HIV prevention trial among adolescents in managed care." Pediatrics, 103, 107-115.
Harding, David. 2003. "Counterfactual Models of Neighborhood Effects: The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty on Dropping Out and Teenage Pregnancy." American Journal of Sociology. November.
Moore, Mignon R. And Lundsay P. Chase-Lansdale. 2001. "Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy Among African-American Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment." Journal of Marriage & the Family. November.
Napier, Kristine. 1999. "Abstinence-Only Programs Reduce Teen Pregnancy." Education. Tamara L. Roleff, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press
According to Tamara Kreinin, president of the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S., "Manipulating facts about condoms is using a scare tactic to try and get kids not to be sexually active" (Morse, 2002).
One of the consequences of a lack of full and complete information to youth actually causes self-imposed ignorance of their own safety. If adolescents do not get the proper education on protecting themselves from STDs, it is unlikely they will get much beyond playground rumor. In several reviews conducted by the U.S. Surgeon General and by the Committee of HIV Prevention, abstinence only programs have little to no effect on the sexual behavior of adolescents ("Abstinence"). Further, denying young people full and accurate information about sex, contraception, and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases puts them at needless health risks. The reality is that teens will talk about sex, will experiment, and will likely have…
Boston:Economy. (2009, March). Retrieved December 2010, from City-Data.com: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-Economy.html
Health and Social Disparities. (2010, March). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://sph.bu.edu/Maternal-a-Child-Health/department-of-community-health-sciences/menu-id-617096.html
Linking Teen Pregnancy Prevention to Other Critical Social Issues. (2010, March). Retrieved November 2010, from the Namtional Campaign: http://www.thenationalcampaign.org/why-it-matters/pdf/introduction.pdf
Medical Research in Boston. (2010, February). Retrieved December 2010, from Boston University: http://www.bumc.bu.edu/
This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.
Applications of the model
The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…
Amato, L., Davoli, M.A., Perucci, C., Ferri, M., Faggiano, F.P. And Mattick, R. (2005) an overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: Available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. Journal Substitutes Abuse Treatment, 28, 321-329.
Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, a.H., Erringer, E.A. And Edlin, B.R. (1998) Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 18, 505-511.
Bradley-Springer, L. (1996) Patient education for behavior change: Help from the transtheoretical and harm reduction models. JANAC, 7(1), 23-33.
Des Jarlais, D.C. (1995) Harm reduction: A framework for incorporating science into drug policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 10-12.
NLM (2012). Substance abuse treatment of women. Chapter 4. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NK83257
- Screening and assessment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books.NK83253
rauser, D (2010), Sublingual buprenorphine relieves symptoms of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC. Retrieved on December 9, 2012
Fisher, P.A. et al. (2011). The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral dis-inhibition in childhood and adolescence,
Developmental Psychopathology. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335443
Hamdan, a.H. (2012). Neonatal abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC.
Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.emedicine.medscape.com/article/978763-clinical
Johnson, K et al. (2003). Treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome, Archive of Disease
in Childhood. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.bmj.com/content/88/1/F.2.2.ful
Johnson, K and Leff, M (1999). Children of substance abusers. Pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/103/Supplement_2/1085.long
Kraft, W.K. et al. (2010). Future trends…
NLM (2012). Substance abuse treatment of women. Chapter 4. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health. Retrieved on December 9, 2012 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK83257
- Screening and assessment. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books.NBK83253
Brauser, D (2010), Sublingual buprenorphine relieves symptoms of neonatal opioid abstinence syndrome, Medscape: Medscape LLC. Retrieved on December 9, 2012
12 Step groups
step programs are famous for their role in the breaking of addictions. The programs cover such areas of addiction such as gambling, drug, and alcohol. Below is an evaluation of the effectiveness of the 12 step program in breaking addiction to alcohol.
Background of Alcoholism
Facts concerning the abuse of alcohol are often overlooked as it is a frequently used drug that can be obtained from the nearest store or ordered from a menu in a restaurant. Alcohol abuse statistics raise several alarms but focusing the attention of the public to the alcohol effects can help raise awareness and help in the fighting of alcoholism (Get The Facts).
Just a few drinkers of alcohol stop consumption with the first bottle. Also, an evening of heavy consumption is not always done alone (Get The Facts). Chronically consuming alcohol leads to a host of effects. When done over a…
Get the Facts on Alcohol Abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://drugabuse.com/library/get-the-facts-on-alcohol-abuse/
The Birth of A.A. And Its Growth in the U.S./Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://www.aa.org/pages/en_US/historical-data-the-birth-of-aa-and-its-growth-in-the-uscanada
Jesse Bruce Pinkman is one of the most important characters in the popular TV series, 'Breaking Bad'. He plays the deuteragonist (2nd most important character) in the series, partnering with Walter White in his methamphetamine drug ring. Pinkman acts as a dealer and manufacturer of methamphetamine, and is also a methamphetamine user. Jesse was also a former student in White's chemistry class.
According to the program script, Pinkman was born September 14, 1984, into a middle income family in Albuquerque, New Mexico. While still in high school, he began using and dealing methamphetamine. After being thrown out of the house for his continued drug use, he moved into his Aunt Ginny's place, and looked after her until she died of lung cancer. After her death the ownership of the house fell to his parents who allowed him to continue staying there. The rift between Pinkman and his family…
Bettmann, J., Russell, K., & Parry, K. (2013). How Substance Abuse Recovery Skills, Readiness to Change and Symptom Reduction Impact Change Processes in Wilderness Therapy Participants. Journal Of Child & Family Studies, 22(8), 1039-1050. doi:10.1007/s10826-012-9665-2
DSM-5.pdf (PDFy mirror). (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2015, from https://archive.org/stream/pdfy-85JiVdvN0MYbNrcr/DSM-5#page/n136/mode/1up
Gregorowski, C., Seedat, S., & Jordaan, G.P. (2013).A clinical approach to the assessment and management of co-morbid eating disorders and substance use disorders. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/1471-244X-13-289
Hall, W., Farrell, M., & Carter, A. (2014). Compulsory treatment of addiction in the patient's best interests: More rigorous evaluations are essential. Drug & Alcohol Review, 33(3), 268-271. doi:10.1111/dar.12122
teenage sexuality. The writer links research and theory to a practical problem and discusses how they are similar. The writer also discusses teenage sexuality in the context of education. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Americans have adjusted a lot of their thinking when it comes to teenage sexuality during recent years. There was a time when a pregnant teen would have been removed from the school and sent to a school for unwed mothers. There was a time when a sexually active female was labeled a slut, or said to be loose. Those days are on the retreat as Americans accept teenage sexuality more than ever before. With that acceptance comes the question of when and how to teach sex education. Schools are at a crossroad because they are dealing with pregnant teens but many parents are opposed to the sex education of their children within…
Mallet, Pascal; Apostolidis, Themistoklis; Paty, Benjamin (1997). The development of gender schemata about heterosexual and homosexual others during adolescence.. Vol. 124, The Journal of General Psychology, pp 91(14).
Feigenbaum, Rhona-Weinstein, Estelle-et al.,(1995). College students' sexual attitudes and behaviors: Implications for sexuality education.. Vol. 44, Journal of American College Health, pp 112.
Brody, Stuart; Rau, Harald; Fuhrer, Niklas; Hillebrand, Heiko; Rudiger, Daniela; Braun, Manuel (1996). Traditional ideology as an inhibitor of sexual behavior.. Vol. 130, The Journal of Psychology, pp 615(12).
National Poll Shows Parents Overwhelmingly Support Comprehensive Sex Education Over Abstinence-Only-Until-Marriage by 5 to 1 Margin (Accessed 10-23-2002) http://www.siecus.org/media/press/press0028.html
Certain ethnicities were seen to have relatively high levels of participation, while women from North Africa and those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds were much more likely to refrain from taking part in such prenatal diagnostics than were Dutch women. This study could go a long way towards bridging cultural divides when it comes to healthcare, though the authors do not delve deep enough into making recommendations in this regard.
Harper, C.; Henderson, J.; Schalet, A. & Becker, D. (2010). "Abstinence and Teenagers: Prevention Counseling Practices of Health Care Providers Serving High-Risk Patients in the United States." Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health 42(2), pp. 125.
The effects and types of counseling delivered to teenage girls identified as a "high risk" by clinicians was observed in this study, with the conclusion that few clinicians view abstinence-only recommendations as effective at reducing risk for pregnancy and other concerns. Presenting information regarding contraceptives,…
In a long-term and large population study, researchers found that maternal deaths for reasons only indirectly related to the pregnancy were on the rise in the Netherlands. More expectant mothers were observed to suffer from fatal cardiovascular and other problems. The fact that women are getting pregnant at older ages, both due to lifestyles that tend to postpone child rearing and through new fertility treatments, are thought to be responsible for this. It is interesting how such objectivity can and indeed must be retained when dealing with such a politically and personally sensitive issue.
Wynn, L.; Foster, A. & Trussell, J. (2010). "Would you say you had unprotected sex if ... Sexual health language in emails to a reproductive health website." Culture, health & sexuality 12(5), pp. 499.
For this study, over a thousand emails sent to an emergency contraceptive website in the United States were analyzed for the type of language used to describe sexual acts, safe sex methods, and other aspects of the emails' authors' experiences leading up to their emailing. The terms "sex" and "unprotected sex" varied widely in their specific meanings for the different authors, and this corresponded to varying degrees of risk concern as well. The authors spend a great deal of time theorizing about how language shapes thought, but they did not provide a great deal of discernible concrete information in this report, making it somewhat difficult to follow and suspect.
ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm, through the National Guideline Clearinghouse at http://www.guideline.gov.
Evidence-based findings concerning chlamydia screening and treatment of PID contained in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature.
The additional resources cited at Appendix a will also be consulted.
3. Identify a specific group of people that are being affected by the disease/condition. The screening guidelines published by the USPSTF recommend that the following specific groups of women should be routinely screened, whether or not they are pregnant, if they:
Are sexually active and aged 25 or younger;
Have more than one sexual partner, regardless of age;
Have had an STD in the past, regardless of age; and Do not use condoms consistently and correctly, regardless of age (Screening for Chlamydial infection) a. Explain any unhealthy behaviors that may be contributing to the disease/condition. Some of the unhealthy behaviors that may contribute to the incidence of PID include (1) having multiple sex partners and…
Hubacher, D., R. Lara-Ricalde, D.J. Taylor, F. Guerra-Infante and R. Guzman-Rodriguez. (2001). "Use of copper intrauterine devices and the risk of tubal infertility among nulligravid women. New England Journal of Medicine 345: 561-67 in Mckay at 259.
Klein, Rupert and Barbel Knauper. (2003). "The Role of Cognitive Avoidance of STIs for Discussing Safer Sex Practices and for Condom Use Consistency." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 12(3-4): 137-138.
Macdonald, Noni E. And Robert Brunham. (1997). "The Effects of Undetected and Untreated Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and Ectopic Pregnancy in Canada." The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality 6(2): 161.
Mcglynn, Elizabeth a., Eve a. Kerr, Cheryl L. Damberg and Steven M. Asch. Quality of Care for Women: A Review of Selected Clinical Conditions and Quality Indicators. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2000.
Moreover, an 'abstinence-only' education program is sometimes perceived by teenagers as providing one-sided and medically inaccurate information. (Studies by Kirby, 1997 and Huberman, quoted in "educing Teenage Pregnancy" 2006) shift in attitudes towards teenage sexuality must occur in the U.S. To facilitate the development of appropriate policies and programs to reduce teenage pregnancy. Presently, sexual activity, rather than the pregnancies that can result from it, is seen as the problem requiring intervention. Teaching young people that premarital sex is a moral failure does not prevent pregnancy -- studies show that those with fearful and negative attitudes about sexuality are less likely to use contraception when they have sex than those who believe they have a right to decide to have sex (eiss, 1990).
It is, therefore, important to have a more comprehensive program of sexual education for teenagers that gives due recognition to the fact that sexual expression is a…
American Opinion on Teen Pregnancy and Related Issues 2003." (2004). Science Says: A Project of the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.teenpregnancy.org/works/pdf/American_Opinion.pdf
Kirby, D. (2001). "Emerging answers: research findings on programs to reduce unwanted teenage pregnancy." National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.teenpregnancy.org/resources/data/pdf/emeranswsum.pdf
Reducing Teenage Pregnancy." (2006). Planned Parenthood. Retrieved on May 18, 2007 at http://www.plannedparenthood.org/news-articles-press/politics-policy-issues/teen-pregnancy-sex-education/teenage-pregnancy-6240.htm
Reiss, Ira L. (1990). An End to the Shame: Shaping Our Next Sexual Revolution. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books.
Mental Illness and Substance Abuse
Does mental illness cause substance abuse addiction or does substance abuse addiction cause a mental illness diagnosis? Does it go both ways?
A complex relationship exists between substance abuse and mental illness. Those suffering from depression, anxiety and other mental illnesses may use alcohol and drugs as self-medication. Unfortunately, though such options may appear to work temporarily, substance abuse is no treatment for any condition; in fact, it often aggravates the problem during severe intoxication as well as in the course of substance withdrawal (NAMI, 2010).
Furthermore, alcohol and drugs can initiate mental illness in persons who are otherwise mentally healthy, while worsening problems in those who are already mentally ill. Active substance users will tend to not follow-through properly with therapy, and are more vulnerable to serious health complications and even premature death. Those having dual diagnosis will also be more prone to violent…
Anderson P, & Baumberg B. (2006). Alcohol in Europe: a public health perspective. London: Institute of Alcohol Studies.
Anderson, M. L., Ziedonis, D. M., & Najavits, L. M. (2014). Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and substance Use Disorder Comorbidity among Individuals with Physical Disabilities: Findings from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27(2), 182-191. doi:10.1002/jts.21894
Book SW, & Randall CL. (2002). Social anxiety disorder and alcohol use. Alcohol Res Health; 26:130-5.
Cerda M, Sagdeo A, Galea S. (2008). Comorbid forms of psychopathology: key patterns and future research directions. Epidemiol Rev; 30:155_177.
Role of Sex Education within Schools
The sex education protocols and regulations in Florida are based on “abstinence-only-until-marriage programs” and the state is only allowed to teach abstinence (Dodge et al., 2008, p. 71). Schools are required to follow protocols when teaching about sexually transmitted diseases. These protocols stress that abstinence is the expected standard that all students should be expected to follow, abstinence is the way to avoid the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, and that students have the power to control their own personal behavior. High school students are taught about HIV/AIDS and must take a Life Management Skills course.
The age at which children should be exposed to sex education topics is judged differently according to nation, state and culture. In Canada, sex education is begun as early as elementary school. In Florida, sex is taught as something that young persons need to avoid. The realities of…
Outcomes to be Assessed:
The primary objective is to see that subjects of the program cease smoking and remain abstinent from tobacco use. This will be the primary outcome to be assessed therefore. Individuals in both the experiment and control groups would be consulted at the six-month juncture and the one year point in order to determine how many among them have remained abstinent from tobacco use in that duration and up to that point.
Other outcomes to be assessed would be long-term health factors relating to the use of tobacco. According to statistics compiled and sponsored by the T.J. Samson Community Hospital in Glasgow, Kentucky and most recently updated in the spring of 2006, habitual smokers of cigarettes are "fourteen times as likely to die of lung cancer" and twice as susceptible to fatality by heart disease. (T.J.S.C.H, 1) This means, according to the Community Hospital, that…
American Heart Association (AHA). (2009). Smoking Cessation. Americanheart.org.
Bickman, L. & Rog, D.J. (2009). Randomized Controlled Trials for Evaluation and Planning. The Sage Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods.
Euromonitor International (EI). (2009). Tobacco in Costa Rica. Euromonitor.com
Fiore, M.C.; Novotny, T.E.; Pierce, J.P.; Giovino, G.A.; Hatziandreu, E.J.; Newcomb, P.A.; Surawicz, T.S. & Davis, R.M. (1990). Methods Used to Quit Smoking in the United States. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(20), 2760-2765.
Hina Mauka is a top tier treatment and rehabilitation center located in Waipahu, Hawaii, in the United States. he services that it offers include programs directed at adults, adolescents, and families to overcome alcoholism and addiction issues in a setting that is safe and nurturing (Hina Mauka, 2009). Each of these programs has different goals and objectives that are outlined as manners to measure its success. his essay will exam Hina Mauka's een C.A.R.E. program, which is aimed at middle and high school students.
Hina Mauka's een C.A.R.E. program is an innovative program that offers outpatient treatment to adolescent patients during the school day and on campus. he program collaborates with a number of high schools on both the Island of Oahu and the Island of Kauai (2009). It locates counselors on the campuses of these high schools and middle schools, which facilitates consistency, visibility, and accessibility of the services,…
There are both manifest and latent characteristics of the goal and objective listed on the Hina Mauka Teen C.A.R.E. website. The latent characteristics include such achievements as receiving respect and learning that it can be safe and healthy to trust: these accomplishments may not be outwardly evident to a third party, thus making them latent. Meanwhile, there are a number of manifest goals which can be witnessed by a third party. They include staying in school, staying away from legal activity, giving respect, and reducing and abstaining from drug and alcohol use.
While it is evident that Hina Mauka has defined the reduction and abstinence of alcohol and drugs as its goal, and the role modeling of healthy communication and the teaching of life skills to their participants as the objective, the two also follow the traditional characteristics that would be found in a goal or objective, respectively. Again, the reduction and abstinence of alcohol and drugs is a goal because it is a long-term goal that is to be accomplished. It, in itself, is the reason the Teen C.A.R.E. program exists, and is based on ideas and incorporates a broad plan and fairly generic action. Meanwhile, role modeling healthy communication and teaching life skills is clearly an objective because it is more tangible and exists on a shorter term, comparatively speaking. The objective is based on fact, and incorporates a much narrower plan, such as promoting staying in school and staying away from illegal activity. It also consists of much more specific action that must be taken. Therefore, the goal and objective listed on the Hina Mauka website are accurate in their claims.
Teen Care. Hina Mauka. Retrieved 30 March 2011 from http://hinamauka.org/teen-care.asp .
As noted, the agency provides a wide variety of services and programs. They service women and young children in the greater Henry County, GA area. The agency provides counseling for pregnant women, but it also provides support to those mothers who choose to keep and raise their children. They provide everything from baby formula and diapers to maternity clothing, baby clothing, car seats, and cribs to needy families and mothers. It is a full-service organization in that caseworkers are assigned to clients and can advise them throughout the pregnancy and beyond. PC also has counseling available for young mothers who choose to give their babies up for adoption. They also provide links to further educational information, and will counsel young women if they choose to have an abortion, too. They will not perform the abortion, however. They also provide ultrasounds for patients.
Funding is always a challenge in any community…
Author not Available. (2005). Pregnancy resource center of Henry County (PRC). Retrieved from the PRC Web site: http://www.pregnancyhenry.com/index.html14 Sept. 2005.
Editors. (2005). Choosing abortion. Retrieved from the Planned Parenthood Web site: http://www.plannedparenthood.org/pp2/portal/files/portal/medicalinfo/abortion/pub-abortion-q-and-a.xml#1096485730778::113741405219455006714 Sept. 2005.
While abortion is not banned, it is not encouraged either. Its lack of acknowledgment at the state and local policy level demonstrates the lack of priority or evasion of the government to acknowledge abortion as a healthcare service that must be stated specifically as a subsidized service by the federal government.
Interestingly, with the approval and passage of the Affordable Care Act (or "Obamacare"), federal policy on abortion remains vague if not directly banned or discouraged. While abortion is not explicitly stated as a health service that will be subsidized under this new healthcare law, it is contended that abortion services and its funding are "always included unless it's explicitly excluded" (O'Neil, 2012). Thus, women can avail of abortion services as a healthcare and preventive service subsidized by the federal government and covered in health insurance plans.
This new development in the federal policy on abortion is a step forward…
"Federal and state bans and restrictions on abortion." (2012). Planned Parenthood Action Center. Retrieved 28 July 2012. Available at: http://www.plannedparenthoodaction.org/positions/federal-state-bans-restrictions-abortion-644.htm
O'Neil, T. (2012). "Obamacare and abortion: Health overhaul could lead to federal subsidy of abortion, critic says." The Washington Free Beacon. Retrieved 28 July 2012. Available at: http://freebeacon.com/obamacare-and-abortion/
Santelli, J., M. Ott, and M. Lyon. (2006). "Abstinence and abstinence-only education: a review of U.S. policies and programs." Journal of Adolescent Health, Vol. 38.
Alcoholic Liver Disease
CAUSES AND IMPACT
Causes, Incidence, Risk Factors, Impact
Alcohol use has been linked with liver disease mortality and increased social and economic costs (NCI, 2014; ruha et al., 2009). Most recent statistics say that disorders in alcohol consumption afflict millions of people worldwide. The incidence has been increasing along with increasing alcohol consumption. Alcohol liver disease takes the form of acute alcoholic hepatitis and chronic liver disease, such as steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Seriousness and prognosis depend on the amount consumed, the pattern of drinking and the length of time of consumption, the presence of liver inflammation, diet and nutritional and genetic disposition. While steatosis is virtually benign, morbidity and mortality are both high in liver cirrhosis. Survival rate for advanced cirrhosis is 1 to 2 years and 50% mortality risk for those with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis have as much as 50% mortality (NCI, 2014).…
Bruha, R., et al. (2009). Alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 110 # 3m Prague Medical Report:
PubMed Central. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19655694
EASL (2012). EASL clinical practical guidelines: management of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 51 # 1, Journal of Hepatology: European Association for the Study of the liver. Retrieved on April 6, 2014 from http://www.easl.eu/assets/application/files/5e1b5512fb2cabb_file.pdf
Frazier, T.H. (2011). Treatment of alcoholic liver disease. Vol. 4 # 1, Therapeutic
Psychology Dual Diagnosis: Substance elated Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (ockville, 2005). Substance use disorders are often found to exist with co-occurring disorders. This report highlights the assessment and treatment of substance related disorders and the co-morbid disorders.
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Substance-related and addictive disorders. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/documents/substance%20use%20disorder%20fact%20sheet.pdf
Bierut, L., Dinwiddie, S., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J.,. . ., & Reich, T. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: a report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry. 55(11), 982-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9819066
Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake R. E. (2004). A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev, 23,471-481.
Collins, R. L. Blane, H. T., & Leonard, K. A. (1999). In OttP. J., Tarter, R. E., Ammerman, R. T. Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Boston: Allyn and bacon, pp.153-165.
Visual impairment (including blindness);
9. Multiple disabilities;
12. Autism; and,
13. Traumatic brain injury (Evanciew, 2003).
In order to overcome the current constraints to learning about proper condom use by this wide range of special needs college students who may have individualized constraints to learning, an appropriate approach must be developed that can adequately communicate the importance of the practice as well as the mechanics that are involved. To this end, Evanciew (2003) reports that, "esearch suggests that students with special needs benefit from experiences that involve functional, hands-on learning" (p. 7). Therefore, the approach described further below can help special needs college students learn both the importance of proper condom use as well as the mechanics that are involved in applying them.
The objectives of this initiative are two-fold as follows:
1. To promote a greater understanding of the importance of proper condom use…
Avert: International HIV & AIDS Charity. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.avert.org / photo_library/images/normal_photo_no_3217.jpg.
Beh, H.G. & Diamond, M. (2006). The failure of abstinence-only education: Minors have a right to honest talk about sex. Columbia Journal of Gender and Law, 15(1), 12-13.
Bisol, C.A., Sperb, T.M., Brewer, T.H., Kato, S.K. & Shor-Posner, G. (2008). HIV / AIDS
knowledge and health-related attitudes and behaviors among deaf and hearing adolescents in southern Brazil. American Annals of the Deaf, 153(4), 349-351.
Religious communities in schools encourage various programs with the intention of having teenagers ready to go through diverse social difficulties. However, they constantly tend to go over the topic of contraception, as religion does not support it.
Even after seeing the effect that unwanted births have on teenagers, religious communities are not supportive towards birth control. Irresponsible adults condemn birth control, claiming that the government should finance proper education, instead of investing into something that they believe is not a true necessity.
Even with the fact that religious communities do not support birth control programs, Americans generally appear to be encouraging teenagers to use contraception. A large percentage from the general public believes that birth control should be covered by health insurances. Also, they believe that sex education should involve issues concerning contraception through abstinence. There are a number of educational institutions supporting the concept of teaching teenagers that they…
1. Barth Richard P., Painter John S., Sangalang Bernadette B. "First-Birth Outcomes and Timing of Second Births: A Statewide Case Management Program for Adolescent Mothers." Health and Social Work, Vol. 31, 2006.
2. Sawhill, Isabel V. "What Can Be Done to Reduce Teen Pregnancy and Out-of-Wedlock Births?." Retrieved November 28, 2009, from the Brookings Web site: http://www.brookings.edu/papers/2001/10childrenfamilies_sawhill.aspx
3. Schwartz, Michael. "Sex as Apple Pie." National Review, Vol. 40, June 10, 1988.
4. Wetzstein, Cheryl. "Poll Finds Majority Back Birth Control; Access Sought without 'Delay'." The Washington Times, June 8, 2007.
Croop et al. (1997).
The overall safety profile of naltrexone is good; however, care must be taken in prescribing the drug to certain patient populations; e.g., naltrexone shows a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity (package insert) and is therefore contraindicated in patients with significant hepatic impairment, which is frequently encountered in alcohol-dependent populations.
The clinical trials of naltrexone have typically been conducted in patients without significant impairment in hepatic function. Another consequence of the hepatic impact of naltrexone is the possibility of drug-drug interactions.
Kim et al. (2001) potentially clinically significant interaction has been reported between naltrexone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; these researchers found elevated liver function tests in study participants receiving both medications, although the doses of naltrexone used in this study were higher than the typical 50 mg daily dose.
Naltrexone is not appropriate for use with patients taking prescribed or illicit opioid drugs. Antagonism of the effects of these drugs…
Ait-Daoud, N., & Johnson, B.A. (1999). Medications to treat alcoholism. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(2), 99.
Anton, R.F., & Randall, C.L. (2005). Measurement and choice of drinking outcome variables in the COMBINE study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(4), 104.
Bhagar, H.A., & Schmetzer, a.D. (2006). New antidipsotropics. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 9(4), 29.
Bean, P., & Nemitz, T. (2004). Drug treatment: What works? New York: Routledge.
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
oys and Girls Clubs of America as a Resource to Aid in the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency
oys and Girls Clubs of America
This research describes the tremendous need for nonprofit human services organizations by youth who: use drugs, commit crimes or are victims of crime, drop out of high school, and become pregnant at an early age. There are a variety of nonprofit organizations such as oys and Girls Clubs of America, ig rothers ig Sisters and Children's Aid Society that step in to try to compensate for a breakdown in modern social infrastructures. This paper summarized how each makes their own unique contributions and describes in detail the many successes of programs offered by the oys and Girls Clubs of America, proven by formalized studies. ecause human services have made such a difference in the lives of children, recommendations include additional outreach and increased funding for their activities.…
'2003 Survey National Survey on Drug Use and Health." U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 8 Jan. 2005. .
"About CAS." The Children's Aid Society. 8 Jan. 2005. .
Alston, Frances Kemper. "Latch Key Children." NYU Child Study Center. 9 Jan. 2005. .
Anderson-Butcher, Dawn, Newsome, W. Sean, and Ferrari, Theresa M. "Participation in Boys and Girls Clubs and Relationships to Youth Outcomes." Journal of Community Psychology. 12 Dec. 2002. Wiley InterScience. 9 Jan. 2005. .
attitudes of social work students toward drug and alcohol abuse and to determine what demographic characteristics or background experiences might influence perception of drug and alcohol abuse. The research has benefits for the social work community, as understanding such attitudinal influences can help social workers eliminate potential professional biases. However, there were several flaws and methodological limitations in the study that should be addressed before commencing further research in this area, and which limit the external validity of the study.
First, the sample was not representative of the entire population, but rather, focused on Boston University sociology students. Certain demographical groups were underrepresented and others were over-represented. Second, the research hypotheses were inherently flawed because they were not based on a thorough review of sociological literature or on sociological theory. For example, the first hypothesis, that participants from Muslim or Jewish backgrounds would be more likely to view substance abuse…
group meets downstairs in a church. There are "tables" where the members sit and discuss their issues. In this group there are two tables, nearly filled with about 20 people at each table. There are mostly middle-aged to older adults here (40 years old and up), but a few that are under 30 years of age. There is a pretty even distribution of males and females at the two tables. The general interaction between the members is causal and quite friendly. After sitting at one table I wait for the meeting to get started. Once it is started there are a lot of formalities: an introduction by the leader (I am later told that this person is referred to as the chairperson and this position is a volunteer that changes weekly), the reading the stipulations of the group, a prayer, asking if there are any first time attendees (I remained…
Kelly, J.F., Magill, M., & Stout, R.L. (2009). How do people recover from alcohol dependence? A systematic review of the research on mechanisms of behavior change in Alcoholics Anonymous. Addiction Research and Theory, 17, 236-259.
Rosenberg, H. (1993). Prediction of controlled drinking by alcoholics and problem drinkers.
Psychological Bulletin, 113, 129-139.
Vaillant, G.E. (2005). Alcoholics Anonymous: Cult or cure? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(6), 431-436.
Substance abuse is a common affliction among the elderly population. Several factors may contribute to the prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse among older adults, including loneliness, poor health, and depression. The most rapidly growing segment of the American population is the elderly, and whether or not alcohol can be considered beneficial or detrimental in this population depends on the doses being consumed (Ferreira and Weems, 2008). However, the population of older adults is increasing and so is the proportion of elderly individuals demonstrating alcohol abuse (Ferreira and Weems, 2008).
It is estimated that by 2030 the proportion of adults comprising the elderly population (65 years and older) will reach 20%, which marks double the current number (Duncan et al., 2010). Interestingly, substance abuse in general has shown increases in the elderly population, with a steady increase in primary substance abuse problems other than alcohol observed in the elderly population…
Atkinson, R.M. (1990). Aging and alcohol use disorders: diagnostic issues in the elderly. International Psychogeriatrics, 2(1), 55-72.
Bobo, J.K., Greek, A.A., Klepinger, DH, Herting, J.R. (2010). Alcohol use trajectories in two cohorts of U.S. women aged 50 to 65 at baseline. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 58(12) 2735-80.
Chiu E. (2008). Alcohol for the older person -- friend or foe? Age and Ageing, 37(5), 493-4.
Duncan, D.F., Nicholson, T., White, J.B., Bradley, D.B., Bonaguro, J. (2010). The baby boomer effect: changing patterns of substance abuse among adults ages 55 and older. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 22(3), 237-48.
Public schools' incorporation of sexual education and family planning courses have led to a decline in teen-age pregnancies.
Sexual education curriculum
Background of history of school incorporation
Who takes the classes
What is taught
Perceived effects on teenagers thoughts about sexuality
Knowledge of sexually transmitted disease
Impact on self-esteem
Peer pressure to engage in sexual acts
Forms of preventing pregnancy
Forms of birth control
School's role in providing information
Family's role in providing information
Comparison of number of teenage pregnancies from 20, 10 and 5 years ago V. Conclusion
Government-funded health agencies have recorded a dramatic drop in teenage pregnancies over the past decade reaching an overall record low according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. This decrease is related directly to the inclusion of sexual education in public junior high schools and high schools.
Although sex education was first proposed in the early 1950s, the…
teenage AIDS. The writer explores the topic and presents some of the statistics as well as programs in the fight against teenage AIDS in the U.S. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
The AIDS epidemic continues to ravage the nation though the targeted growth areas are shifting. At one time it was considered a gay man's disease, then it shifted to be an adult disease. Today there is a growing teen population contacting the disease and efforts are underway to educate and eradicate the disease among the youth of the nation.
The incidence of teen AIDS is growing. The median period for the disease to incubate before showing itself is 10 years, which means there are many more infected that the medical community is aware of. In many teens and young adults it will not produce symptoms until the person is in their adult life, and have…
BOB GROVES, Staff Writer, MORE HIV TESTING URGED FOR TEENAGERS., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 06-25-1998, pp a01.
Author not available, The growing specter of AIDS in the young.. Vol. 17, Medical Update, 03-01-1994, pp 3(1).
Michelle B. Mueller; Special To The Post-Dispatch, TEEN-AGERS TEACH FACTS, DISPELL MYTHS ABOUT HIV AND AIDS., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 12-11-2000, pp 6.
Brain's Reward Pathway in the Context of Addiction
The brain's reward pathway involves the mesolimbic dopamine system controlling the way that an individual reacts to stimuli. Natural rewards such as food, sex, and diverse interactions with others can thus play an important role in motivating a person. One of the simplest ways to describe the brain's reward pathway would be to consider the fact that an individual learns that he or she needs to repeat an action in order to get a reward. Memory is connected with the reward pathway, as memory centers concentrate on identifying all the steps that lead to the reward and attempt to recreate these respective actions. Drugs that are addictive have an effect on the reward system as they reinforce certain behaviors, with the dopamine reward pathway being stimulated by these substances.
The reward pathway is particularly old when regarding things from an evolutionary point-of-view.…
Longstaff, A. "Neuroscience." (Garland Science, 2005)
Mutsatsa, S. "Physical Healthcare and Promotion in Mental Health Nursing." (Learning Matters, 13 Mar 2015)
Pomm, H.A. & Pomm, R, M. "Management of the Addicted Patient in Primary Care." (Springer Science & Business Media, 26 Aug 2008)
"Biological Research on Addiction: Comprehensive Addictive Behaviors and Disorders, Volume 2." (Academic Press, 17 May 2013)
That is particularly troubling in light of the tremendous decrease in teen pregnancy where birth control is available without such restrictions (Asmar, 2005).
In light of the evidence of the effectiveness of birth control availability on teen pregnancy and the negation of that benefit by parental notification requirements, birth control information and materials should be made more available to teenagers and without any parental notification requirements.
Asmar, Melanie. "Should girls have to tell their parents?; Teenagers, young women weigh in on abortion case To tell or not to tell?; Not birth control; hat would you do?." Concord Monitor; November 27, 2005.
Hench, David. "School birth control backed; Poll: 67% favor access for students, but the number falls for those under 16 or without parental consent." Portland Press
Herald; November 2, 2007.
Russell, Eric. "Battle looms on access to birth control Advocates play tug of war over teenagers' well-being."…
Asmar, Melanie. "Should girls have to tell their parents?; Teenagers, young women weigh in on abortion case To tell or not to tell?; Not birth control; What would you do?." Concord Monitor; November 27, 2005.
Hench, David. "School birth control backed; Poll: 67% favor access for students, but the number falls for those under 16 or without parental consent." Portland Press
Herald; November 2, 2007.
Russell, Eric. "Battle looms on access to birth control Advocates play tug of war over teenagers' well-being." Bangor Daily News; December 3, 2008.
The Internet makes it easier than ever before for teens to have personal lives independent of their parent's control, which can make teens quickly feel as if they are adults, even if they still have a child's impulsivity and lack of respect for consequences.
Townsend is not only concerned about hot-button issues like drugs and sexuality, however. Violence and aggression can easily be overlooked or normalized as just a phase and have equally negative consequences for the teen's development. Rude and violent teens become rude and violent adults. Townsend writes: "In addition to intervening directly when your teen is aggressive in your presence, you will also need to do as much prevention as possible and to set up workable consequences and helps for those times you find out about the aggressiveness" (Chapter 21). A lack of respect for parents, teachers, even peers, must not be tolerated and must be consistently…
The two researchers, Nichols and Good, continue, "Teen pregnancies are an acute national problem because when young girls have children, the risk of poor developmental outcomes, such as poverty or lost career and educational opportunities, increases substantially for both mother and child" (Nichols, and Good 101). Thus, the cycle of poverty could continue through generations, all because of teen pregnancy. Many minority women do not have the resources to get birth control, which is another cause of teen pregnancy in minorities and poverty-stricken areas. This is one area that society could intervene, and create more awareness for teens in poverty-stricken areas, and create more educational opportunities for new, young mothers, so they can continue their education and break the cycle of poverty. Another social problem of teen sex is that studies show it can lead to decreased interest in school and other activities. Another author notes, "Early teen sex is…
Editors. "U.S. Teen Sexual Activity." Kaiser Family Foundation. 2005. 18 Nov. 2008. http://www.kff.org/youthhivstds/upload/U-S-Teen-Sexual-Activity-Fact-Sheet.pdf
Nichols, Sharon L., and Thomas L. Good. America's Teenagers -- Myths and Realities: Media Images, Schooling, and the Social Costs of Careless Indifference. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2004.
Sabia, Joseph J. "Early Adolescent Sex and Diminished School Attachment: Selection or Spillovers?" Southern Economic Journal 74.1 (2007): 239+.
Teen Sex Linked to Early Friendships." USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education) Apr. 2003: 7+.
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.
Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.
Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
A group of researchers write, "To effectively respond to this pandemic, HIV / AIDS must be treated as both an emergency and a long-term developmental issue" (Da Cruz, Da Cruz & Hammers, 2007). First, additional research must be developed to help find an ultimate cure for this disease. This would be the ultimate form of control and eradication, and would eliminate this social problem from the world.
However, this research is costly and takes time. Simply developing drugs that help combat the disease effectively has taken decades, and there is still no cure or preventative for AIDS, other than abstinence. There is an office of AIDS research in the Federal Government that coordinates research and development activities, and there is research under way to help develop an AIDS vaccine to prevent the disease. esearch should be heavily funded, and if federal funds are not available, they should be sought through…
Da Cruz, J.D., Da Cruz, B.K., & Hammers, C. (2007). HIV / AIDS: The pandemic hits the 'sleeping giant'. International Social Science Review, 82(1-2), 55+.
Editors. (2008). AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the AIDS.gov Web site: http://www.aids.gov/ .
Editors. (2007). Basic information: AIDS. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the CDC.gov Web site: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/topics/basic/#origin
The churches play a particularly important role in both the African-American and the Hispanic communities. They have both the charter and the means to assist teens and their families to provide a moral and ethical underpinning to their teachings about sexuality.
Beil, L. "Abstinence Education Faces an Uncertain Future." New York Times 18 jULY 2007: N.P.
Campbell, J. Understanding John Dewey: Nature and Cooperative Intelligence. Chicago: Open Court Publishing, 1995.
A de la Garza, R.O. "Latino Politics." Annual Review of Political Science (2004): 91-123.
Dreweke, J. Review of Key Findings of "Emerging Answers 2007" Report on Sex Education Programs. ashington: Guttmacher Institute, 2007.
First Things First. "Out of edlook Pregnancy Fact Sheet." 2007. First Things First. 3 December 2007 http://firstthings.org/page/research/out-of-wedlock-pregnancy-fact-sheet.
Harris Poll. "The Religious and Other Beliefs of Americans." Harris Interactive 29 November 2007: n.p.
Harris, F.C. "Something ithin: Religion as a Mobilizer of African-American Political Activism." The…
Beil, L. "Abstinence Education Faces an Uncertain Future." New York Times 18 jULY 2007: N.P.
Campbell, J. Understanding John Dewey: Nature and Cooperative Intelligence. Chicago: Open Court Publishing, 1995.
A de la Garza, R.O. "Latino Politics." Annual Review of Political Science (2004): 91-123.
Dreweke, J. Review of Key Findings of "Emerging Answers 2007" Report on Sex Education Programs. Washington: Guttmacher Institute, 2007.
Maternity Nursing, Labor & Delivery / Newborn
Labor and Delivery Terms
Para: Para refers to the number of live births a woman has had (it might be a stillbirth, or twins, or even triplets) past the 20-week gestation period (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Gravida: this refers to the number of times a woman has been pregnant, whether she actually gave birth, had an abortion or a stillbirth (Zimmerman, p. 116).
Amniotic Sac: this is a membrane around which the fetus is surrounded. It is a strong series of membranes that is visible after 7 weeks of gestation. (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical Effacement: this phrase refers to the measurement of the expansion of the cervix as the baby gets closer to being born. hen the cervix is 50% effaced, it is halfway to being ready for the baby to be born (Jurkovic, et al., 2011).
Cervical dilation: Slowly but surely the…
Encyclopedia Britannica. (2010). Childbirth. Retrieved August 17, 2011, from http://www.britannica.com/bps/search?query=childbirth .
Heller, Michelle E., and Veach, Lynette M. (2008). Clinical Medical Assisting: A Professional,
Field Smart Approach to the Workplace. Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Jailkhani, R., Patil, VS., Laxman, HB, Shivashankara, AR, Kulkarni, SP, and Ravindra, MS.
Fornication means unlawful sexual intercourse (ible Study Guide 2011, ible.com 2011). Sexual intercourse is physical sexual contact of the genitals of at least one of the involved. Unlawful means outside a valid marriage. Hence, premarital sex, adultery, homosexuality and bestiality are forms of fornication. Fornication is so grave a sin that fornicators are barred from inheriting the kingdom of God [1. Cor. 6:9-11]. It is so serious that it is the only lawful ground for divorce and remarriage [Matt. 5:32; 19:9] (ible Study Guide, ible.com). Otherwise, marriage is an indissoluble union between a man and a woman.
The Holy ible is firm and clear about its stand against fornication. It says that fornication emanates from the heart and defiles the person, as in Matt. 15:19-20 (ible Study Guide 2011, ible.com 2011). It is the work of the flesh [Gal. 5:19]. St. Paul exhorts Christians to avoid it [1 Cor. 6:18.…
Bible.com. What does the Bible Say about Fornication?, 2011. Retrieved on November
22, 2011 from http://www.bible.com/bibloanswers_result.php?id=256
Bible Study Guide. Fornication, 2011. Retrieved on November 23, 2011 from http://www.biblestudyguide.org/index.htm
Walking Wounded. Christians Resisting Sexual Temptation, 2000. Retrieved on November 22, 2011 from http://www.walking-wounded.net/htm/christians_and_sexual_temptation.html
(Grossman, 2003, Academic Search Elite)
It is hoped that a greater understanding of the human brain's ability to recognize faces in a specific sequence, group of patterns, density and also in whole or part will further assist the purveyors of new technology to train machines to do the same. "The most serious threats to our freedom often advance in small steps. Face recognition systems may one day provide significant benefits in military applications...." (Taslitz, 2002)
Though the different systems still have problems and kinks, specific to each type the promises of face recognition technology being used in this manner is a highly developing theory with a great deal of research to back it. "...the Pentagon is funding a fifty-million dollar initiative to use face-recognition technology a s a means for combating terrorism." (Taslitz, 2002)
The collective information available to the researcher is substantial with regard to the issue of…
Bower, B (7/6/2002) "The Eyes Have it," Science News, 162(1) Database: Academic
Ferber, D. (2/14/2004) "Autism Impairs Face Recognition," Science Now, Database:
Academic Search Elite Psychinfo at EbscoHost.com.
Neural Correlates of Drug elapse Propensity
efraining from Drug Use
Treating drug addiction requires experience and skill, because no single approach has broad efficacy (reviewed by Bauer, Covault, and Gelernter, 2012). High inter-individual variability of contributing factors and a lack of knowledge about what causes treatment failure (reviewed by Walton, Blow, and Booth, 2001), helps explain a relapse rate between 40% to 60% (NIDA, 2011). For this reason, researchers have been trying to identify what factors contribute to addictive tendencies and influence treatment success.
To better understand why some substance abusers are successful in overcoming their drug addictions and others are not, this essay will examine the neural correlates of drug relapse behavior. Particular attention will be paid to environmental and genetic factors and how they influence brain function on an anatomical and cellular level.
Neural Correlates of Environmental Triggers
Environmental triggers have long been known to increase the risk…
Bauer, L.O., Covault, J., and Gelernter, J. (2012). GABRA2 and KIBRA genotypes predict early relapse to substance use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 123, 154-159.
NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse & Addiction). (2011). The science of drug abuse and addiction. DrugAbuse.gov. Retrieved 22 Oct. 2012 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/media-guide/science-drug-abuse-addiction .
Potenza, Marc N., Hong, Kwang-ik A., Lacadie, Cheryl M., Fulbright, Robert K., Tuit, Keri L., and Sinha, Rajita. (2012). Neural correlates of stress-induced and cue-induced drug craving: Influences of sex and cocaine dependence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 406-414.
Preston, Kenzie L. And Epstein, David H. (2011). Stress in the daily lives of cocaine and heroin users: Relationship to mood, craving, relapse triggers, and cocaine use. Psychopharmacology, 218, 29-37.
racial gender constituency a fact-finding committee major American party choice: My choice marked astrids. This paper introduction conclusion. •******Outside consultant hired party advise inclusive*****
To ensure there is equality in society, the party should ensure that encompasses women in its agenda. The role of women in society cannot be overlooked, and any American party should include them when discussing society matters. Women play an important role and addressing their issues together with other issues is vital for the party's success. Having women in the party's leadership will also ensure that the women agenda is addressed and women will feel represented. Considering the constituency has more women than men, it is vital that the party attracts them to its side. This will not only ensure victory to the party, but will ensure that the party is more inclusive and sensitive to women affairs. Encouraging women to participate within the party affairs…
Keremidchieva, Z. (2012). Legislative Reform, the Congressional Caucus for Women's Issues, and the Crisis of Women's Political Representation. [Article]. Women & Language, 35(1), 13-38.
Sedgh, G., Bankole, A., Singh, S., & Eilers, M. (2012). Legal Abortion Levels and Trends By Woman's Age at Termination. [Article]. International Perspectives on Sexual & Reproductive Health, 38(3), 143-153. doi: 10.1363/3814312
Women: Still Number Two But Trying Harder. (1975). [Article]. Time, 105(22), 48.
Asceticism and Its Influence in the Middle Ages on the Church
Saint Jerome, known for his austerity in the spiritual life, wrote to Celantia in the fourth century that the extent of one's "abstinence and fasting" is not to be confused with his state of perfection. In other words, a life of asceticism or penance is merely a means to perfection and not an example of perfection in and of itself. Asceticism was a term borrowed from the Greeks by the early Christians, who applied askesis, the Greek word for athletic training, to the spiritual life (Campbell). As men like Benedict and Augustine developed the ascetic lifestyle, the Church began to refine its sense of the practice of penance, meant to lead one to a state of holiness in the Middle Ages. This paper will describe the beliefs and practices of the major ascetics and how their ideas affected the…
Campbell, Thomas. "Asceticism." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. 1. NY: Robert
Appleton Company, 1907. Print.
According to a 2002 survey conducted under the auspices of NIH, ecstasy abuse among college and university students in general is a widespread trend that impedes academic performance (Bar-on, 2002). The NIH survey targeted 66 4-year American universities and colleges alike. The projected findings indicated a diminishing trend in undergraduate academic performance amongst students who indulge in binge drinking and abuse ecstasy in the process. Elsewhere, a Harvard College drug study indicated persistent drug users were more likely to miss lectures and delay in their coursework than the average student (Montgomery & Fisk, 2008).
A parallel IP esearch dubbed "Predictors of academic achievement and retention among college freshmen" projected that while certain students manage to cope with the new life role upon entering college, a good number of students flunk out of college before completing their freshman year. According to this research, 75% of the freshman drop out is related…
Bar-on, R. (2002). Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems
Erikson, E (1956) "The problem of ego identity" (pdf) Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4: 56 -- 121
Kotter, J & Cohen, D (2002) the Heart of Change: Real-Life Stories of How People Change Their Organizations Harvard Business Review Press
Montgomery C. & Fisk J.E. (2008) "Ecstasy-related deficits in the updating component of executive processes" Human Psychopharmacology 23 (6): 495 -- 511
TV Series and the Society
The social set up in most communities in the world is indeed eroded with lots of images and teachings especially from the media. Among the major influences the lives of individuals in the society are affected by television programs and series. Most of the TV series that are relied to the individuals of a family in a particular setting basically influence the decision and the activities of the many individuals in either a negative or a positive manner. Indeed the most affected are the minor in the society, which are the children1.
From the healthcare providers' point-of-view, the media especially the television play a very important role in the escalation of the chances of teenage pregnancies and adolescent malpractices among the youths in America. These youth frequently use the media like television series, music movies and magazines in their plight for…
HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.
Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…
Cdc.gov. (2013, May 29). What is HIV? Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/basics/whatishiv.html
Impact-dc.com. (2010). A State of Emergency. Retrieved from Impact-dc.com: http://www.impact-dc.com/a-state-of-emergency-hivaids-impact-in-the-african-american-community/
Gelaude, D.J., Sovine, M.L., & Sawxyer, M. (2013). Hiv prevention programs delivered by community-based organizations to young transgender persons of color:
Lessons learned to improve future program implementation. International Journal
Nineteenth Century Reform
The nineteenth century, particularly between 1825 and the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, the United States was in a state of reform. There were five key reform movements that made themselves present in America in the nineteenth century. There was the Utopianism/
Communitarian Movement, which established an ideal society separate from present politics. Educational reforms were important in the creation of taxes to support the public school system, higher education for adults, as well as mandatory education and attendance. The Temperance Movement urged abstinence from alcohol and the oman's Rights Movement was vital in the improvement of the life of women politically, socially, and economically. It also included the battle forged for women's suffrage rights. Humanitarianism was improving the lives of those less fortunate.
Reform in the nineteenth century was generated by secular communities, which arose in the mid 1800s. The primary goal of these…
Emerson, Ralph Waldo. The Transendentalist. 1842. http://www.emersoncentral.com/transcendentalist.htm
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1998.
Sumner, William Graham. What Social Classes Owe to Each Other. Caldwell, ID: Caxton Press, 2003.
U.S. Constitution. http: www.usconstitution.com/const.html.