The other animals trusted the pigs with blind faith which led to them coming full circle in their oppression, despite how hard they had fought for independence.
At one point in the story, Napoleon also encouraged the other animals to feel patriotic toward the farm. The reason behind this was so the rest of the animals would not rebel against him. This is extremely similar to the way that Richard III continuously played up the loyalty angle to dissuade people from questioning his intentions and his decisions. Ultimately however, this propaganda is only designed to keep the people "controlled" like the animals on the farm. Machiavelli would undoubtedly agree, but he would also encourage these characters to form wiser partnerships. According to Machiavelli, "A Prince should be careful never to join with one stronger than himself in attacking others, unless, as already said, he be driven to it by necessity.…… [Read More]
Abuses of Power
Because all organizations are comprised of people, it is virtually inevitable that some individuals, most especially those in positions of authority, will acquire more power relative to others. Power, though, is not the sole domain of management but it is reasonable to suggest that the majority of power wielded in any workplace setting is by higher-level executives and front-line supervisors and managers who inherently possess their power by virtue of their corporate authority. In many cases, the use of power can be a useful and acceptable practice while in others the exercise of power is unacceptable. In any case, the use of power can have some unintended consequences that make it a high-risk option. This paper reviews the relevant literature concerning these issues, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the use of power in the workplace in the conclusion.
When is power…… [Read More]
The court case scene also shows how focused the leaders are on maintaining their power. This is seen where Danforth says to Proctor, "You must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between" (Miller 94). This shows the complete lack of choice that the people of the society have. If they do not accept the will of the leaders completely, they are considered as being against them. This leaves no room for anyone to question anything. At the same time, it shows that the leaders of the town are intently focused on maintaining complete power. In this way, the leaders dominate completely, while the people are meant to be submissive to the point that they do not question any aspect of the leader's decisions.
It is in the context of this environment that the actions of…… [Read More]
It could be argued that a conflict of interest could arise in the executive's ability to create or destroy a convention, assuming inadequate resistance from the rest of the governmental body.
The idea that constitutional conventions exist outside of the bounds of courts and are injusticiable can be quite frustrating for many political scientists and politicians. Conventions are best viewed as a set of governmental traditions or norms that while not legally binding are often socially binding through votes of confidence (ozenberg, 1998). They are to be viewed as a political aberration that exist in large numbers in both the British and U.S. systems of government. There is no agreed-upon system for dealing with questions arising from the topic of constitutional conventions, yet these very same conventions, by nature, adhere to the cultural, legal, and social norms and morals of the society, which the executive oversees.
There is no singular…… [Read More]
Power Resistance in Working Girl
Fleming and Spicer's 2007 work of non-fiction, Contesting the Corporation: Struggle, Power and Resistance in Organizations details the phenomena of power and resistance to power within organizations. There is a relatively modest amount of the book (approximately the final third) that consists of analyzing power and resistance from threats that are external to an organization. The authors largely deconstruct the relationships between power and resistance within a political context, in which it is difficult to state that they do not side with the individual, as opposed to the corporation and its various members (upper level management, etc.) that represent it. The authors encapsulate the political aspect of power and resistance within the even broader context of struggle. To that end they identify four variations of struggle: those over action which become manifest as refusal and coercion, those over activities which are manifested as voice and…… [Read More]
Power and influence are important concepts in leadership and management because they are intertwined. In essence, it's impossible for a leader to influence his/her followers without power, which is crucial in getting things done and accomplishing specified goals. The close link between these two concepts is also evident in the fact that power can be defined as the capability to influence others (Lunenburg, p.1). As a result, the effective use of power is an important component in leadership, especially with regards to management. Leaders have significant influence over others when they develop a strong power base in their respective area such as organizations, institutions, and the political arena. The ability of a leader to influence his followers or employees to accomplish certain goals and tasks is dependent on the strength of his power base. ithout power (which is the capability to influence people), leaders are unable to persuade their followers…… [Read More]
After all, a person's sense of self-worth depends on feeling competent and able to influence what is happening in one's life. How much power we perceive ourselves to have directly influences our sense of self-esteem.
In a discussion of power currencies, Hocker & Wilmot (2007) say how much power we have depends on whether we have "currencies" other people want. In other words your power over another person rests on your having something to give them that they need. For example, in the days when women had few rights and little power in their marriages, they did have sex (a valuable currency), which they could give or withhold in order to exert power. But it depends on the relationship what the currency is. Sex isn't a currency in a business relationship, for instance, and perhaps it shouldn't be used as a currency in an intimate relationship.
Every person has potential…… [Read More]
Power of the President
The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America," (Article II, Section1). The United States Constitution outlines the various powers, duties, and rights of the President mainly in Article Two, after treating the various roles of congress. The President functions simultaneously as the Chief and Head of State, as the Commander in Chief of the United States Army, as Chief Legislator and Diplomat, as the manager of the economy and the state of the union, and as the head of his political party. Some of these roles are not specifically mentioned in the Constitution. An examination of the Constitution reveals that the Chief Executive of the United States is endowed with much power. He alone has the power to pardon high treason or to make treaties with foreign nations, for instance. However, because of the intricate system of checks and…… [Read More]
In addition those on the board of directors may have worked at the same accounting or law firms and had business dealings with one another in the past. Even some college professors and ex-high ranking government officials who have conducted studies or have useful connections are board members (Holbrook, 2004). The author further reports that "These people with intertwined relationships with corporate management often sit on multiple boards, causing an even greater conflict of interest (Holbrook, 2004-page 4)."
As was mentioned previously the sources of power for a corporation can differ slightly depending on whether or not the corporation is publicly or privately held. Publicly held organizations are often beholden to shareholders (each of whom owns a percentage of the company) (Winkler, 2004). Publicly held corporations must make financial information about the company available to shareholders (per government regulations).
Shareholders have a significant amount of power because they are a…… [Read More]
Adverse circumstances and heated verbal attacks by angry citizens sometimes triggers a (natural) response on the part of police officers to respond in kind, or, at the extreme, with verbal abuse in the form of threats to use their lawful powers of arrest for intimidation purposes where, in fact, any such use of arrest powers is unlawful under the given circumstances.
Typical examples with potential to trigger verbal abuse by police would include responding to members of the public who are indeed complying with a lawful order to disperse, or to vacate a specific area, but who do so while expressing their verbal disagreement or displeasure with the officer's command. They may even choose to insult the officer personally, but provided their actions do not constitute a threat to the officer or a refusal to obey his lawful orders, and as long as their manner of expression does not constitute…… [Read More]
Whether this actually takes place is not the topic of this discussion, however. It is only important here in the sense that if it is taking place, it would fall into the discussion of whether it is right to use the power that these individuals have and keep that power instead of telling the truth, even if the truth may diminish the power that they previously enjoyed.
The most important Arthur Miller quote for this discussion, however, would be "...the strongest man in the world is the man who stands most alone." This quote is very important when looking at whether truth or power is more important, because it indicates that the man who tells the truth is the one that is often shunned and ignored, while the powerful people continue to use (and abuse) that power in order to stay ahead of others. It is unfortunate that individuals feel…… [Read More]
intersectionality, power, and privilege, it is impossible not to wonder if it is human nature to seek, gain, and preserve power at the expense of others and lose all concept of the consequences. As an optimist, I believe that we can all change. In The Sneeches and Other Stories, Dr. Seuss also offers some hope for humanity, showing that it is possible to recognize the essential equality of all people and the importance of actively changing our own behavior to create meaningful changes in society. What Dr. Seuss seems to suggest, and what Johnson talks about in the Introduction and first few sections of Privilege, Power, and Difference, is that it is often up to a few individuals to make the changes that matter.
Of course, it really helps to be made aware of the issues first. I think if we take away one thing from this class, it is…… [Read More]
Ma Pastoral Theology -- Spiritual Abuse
HEN THE SYSTEM BECOMES THE PERSECUTOR
Veenhuizen's dissertation explores spiritual abuse, using Relational Theology to understand a healthy spiritual relationship vs. spiritual abuse. In Relational Theology, God offers a bilateral covenant with Him and with others of unreserved love and commitment with the gifts of blessing to anyone accepting His offer. Spiritual abuse sharply contrasts with God's covenant. Spiritual abuse has existed for quite some time; consequently, theological writers such as Veenhuizen and mental health professionals have all addressed the causes, discernment and treatment of spiritual abuse.
Foundation of Relational Theology
Veenhuizen's dissertation correctly shows that there are various definitions of Spiritual Abuse (Veenhuizen, 2011). The most inclusive one found in my research is from Lisa Oakley's "Developing safeguarding policy and practice for Spiritual Abuse" (Oakley & Kinmond, 2014). After studies and interviews with numerous survivors of Spiritual Abuse, Oakley and her team concluded…… [Read More]
sex, power, alcohol and money on moral and ethical acts
Ethics, Sex, and Morality
Sex is still a subject that is a victim of human irrational treatment of an otherwise clear functional human phenomenon. Such incidents as homicide, and insanity gold and gems have also been subjected to such irrational treatment but, luckily, the mysteries around these have been dispelled over time. Sex has not been so lucky though as there is still a cloud of mystery and deliberate misrepresentation, perception and near-superstitious handling of the phenomenon. Sex is the most emotionally involving aspect of human existence. It is not a wonder then, that there is so much confusion directed at it. Lately, though, it seems that the wind of change is sweeping fast to affect people's view of sex. Some forces in operation around the subject of sex are clearly defined now. It is increasingly impossible to have a…… [Read More]
Patriarchal domination really coincides with domestic violence. This is usually widely seen in Asian countries where poverty is widespread.
Disturbing and alarming, it cannot be denied that men and women (children and adults) are witnessing an act that is very unfair. People should respond to this problem not only relying to the leaders but also to one's own effort to eliminate the problem. It will be of great bliss if there are lots of people who are helping the victims to express their long-endured pain. This problem deserves public attention and resources because it can kill everyone and systematically be a cycle to every generation. National and local governments should put an attention to this by forming a special task force. Task force shall constitute a wide array of persons who themselves experienced such agonies and torture. This also includes psychiatrist and psychologist to help the mentally incapacitated.
The long…… [Read More]
Separation of Powers:
The United States Constitution protects the right to impeach public officials and provides the procedures and grounds for such measures. According to this constitution, civil servants in America shall be impeached for conviction of bribery, high crimes and misdemeanors, and treason. President Adam Johnson is one of the U.S. presidents who have been impeached while President ichard Nixon resigned before impeachment. President Bill Clinton faced impeachment during his tenure, which contributed to concerns that such an action could contribute to weakened presidency. The impeachment trials of these three presidents present some ethical dilemmas that were evident in the Senate's trial proceedings and political aspects. Moreover, these impeachment trials have certain similarities and differences that were fueled by the actions of the presidents in question.
Impeachment Trial of the Three Presidents:
President Adam Johnson was removed from office in May 1868 when the Senate voted unanimously to remove…… [Read More]
American Journal of International Law (2009). President issues an executive order banning torture and CIA prisons. The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 103, No. 2. Pp 331-334.
The article mentions that in line with President Obama's order to put an end to Guantanamo Bay detentions, there was an issue of executive orders. As empowered by the constitution, the orders reversed practices and policies from the Bush administration and the relationships with detention and interrogation of the terror suspects. The authors add that the order revoked Executive Order 13,440 that limited Common Article 3 application on Geneva Conventions. The order banned torture and humiliation and degrading treatment for persons under U.S. custody, control of detained persons from in armed conflicts, and limit U.S. interrogation techniques from the ones authorized through the Army Field Manual. Further, the order directed Central Intelligence Agency to end all detention facilities under its operations while…… [Read More]
Sandra Cisneros's short story "Woman Hollering Creek," and "Still I ise," a poem by Maya Angelou both make statements about race, power, and gender in America.
Cisneros is a Chicano author and Maya Angelou is an African-American author and poet.
Brief Text Summaries: "Woman Hollering Creek" touches on issues like domestic violence and the subjugation of women. "Still I ise" celebrates black female identity in a culture that is both racist and sexist.
Although different in both form and intent, Cisneros's "Woman Hollering Creek" and Angelou's "Still I ise" both reveal the intersections between race, power, and gender in American society.
Topic Sentence 1: The intersection between gender, race, and power is one of the most salient themes in both Cisneros and Angelou, as both write from the perspective of minority females.
Focus on Cisneros
Example 1: " ... there isn't very much to do except ... to watch the…… [Read More]
In other words, once our leadership gains office, then whatever was said goes the way of special interest, because the interest of the greater society becomes lost in the quest of self-interest.
e are perhaps for the first time in our nation's history attempting to understand our own path to the power we are perceived by the rest of the world as having. In fact, as Harvey so succinctly demonstrates in his discussion on the political maneuvering, because America could not have by any stretch of the imagination have accomplished its present act upon the world stage without a supporting cast of world players (28). hen they built America up for purposes of pursuing their own self-interest, then their support of America quickly began deteriorating, disintegrating to a lack of control of their own political forces, economies, and even inability to mobilize their human resources as they would have previously…… [Read More]
Corporate governance failure is a serious threat to the future existence of any organization. The high corporate failure rates witnessed in the first decade of the century brought to the limelight the concept of effective corporate governance, and the core principles of trust and integrity. This text examines Wal-Mart's corporate governance strategy to determine how the company restrains managerial power, and how it aligns the interests of managers and directors with those of the organization.
Corporate governance failure is a serious threat to the future existence of any organization. Following the stream of corporate failures witnessed in the first decade of the century, the investor base has become more aggressive about effective corporate governance based on the core values of trust and integrity. Today, a company's ability to conduct its profit-maximization goal within the ethical boundaries of integrity, honesty, fairness is widely regarded as a source of competitive advantage. Towards…… [Read More]
What the Occupy Wall Street movement is doing, is questioning the entire system itself.
A good example of this can be seen with the Occupy Wall Street Oakland chapter. What happened was the city had removed their camp near City Hall Plaza. This is in response to reports of: deaths, drug use and unsanitary conditions. At the same time, the resources of the police department were stressed to the point that they were unable to deal with possible issues affecting the safety of the community. This is when the police raided the encampment and dispersed the protestors from the area. In response to what was happening, the Oakland chapter decided to begin occupying foreclosed homes and privately owned vacant lots near City Hall Plaza. As, they are trying to illustrate how: the risky activities of bankers contributed to the financial crisis by staying in these locations. This is significant, because…… [Read More]
What strategies might be employed to increase the expected effect size? It is always optimal to have a large effect size. An increased expected effect size means that a smaller sample size will be required in order to observe the effect under investigation.
The best method for increasing expected effect size is dosing. Dosing involves increasing the amount or frequency of the intervention.
How can dosing be used to increase the expected effect size? A researcher can use dosing to increase and expected effect size by increasing the duration or frequency of the intervention for participants in the treatment condition. Increasing the dose of the intervention makes the effect under investigation more apparent and pronounced, thus giving it more statistical power.
Discuss how the two research questions / hypotheses presented in Module 1 could be "dosed-up" for a larger expected effect size.
Women with breast cancer: The hypothesis of this…… [Read More]
Concealing to Confronting Sex Abuse
It is one thing to consider child sexual abuse from the perspective of the criminal offender. Sexual abuse almost certainly qualifies as an anti-social behavior that is transmitted from generation to generation. Although this issue was not discussed in any of the articles, there is simply far too much evidence that child sexual abusers are very likely to have, themselves, been abused as children to ignore the idea that this behavior is transmitted from generation to generation, abuser to victim. In fact, child sexual offenders seem to have a modified version of the subculture of violence, but the subculture is actually one of sexual violence towards children. In this isolated culture, the sexual victimization of children is normalized. That explains the prevalence of child pornography and groups like NAMBLA. In fact, the offender may minimize the damage that he experienced at the hands of his…… [Read More]
Balance between Emergency Powers, Abuse of Law by the State and Civil Liberties of People within and Beyond the U.S.
ithin the United States of America especially after the terrorists' attack of 9/11, there seems to be a delicate balance between emergency powers, abuse of law by the authorities and the citizens' liberty. There appears to be significant connection between increase of liberty and insecurity (Gearty 1). However the question here is what security means, in some instances, security could be national threats such as terror attacks or internal forces threatening the political establishments, those that advance particular ideological ends such as those witnessed in Most North African such as Libya and Arabian countries such as Yemen. Nonetheless, in instances of such threats, civil liberties suffer and it becomes a challenge reconciling it with national security. There are many aspects of liberal democracy such as freedom of expression, association and…… [Read More]
Economics of Alchohol Abuse
Alcohol for consumption is not a necessary food item, but for some has become a standard part of adult culture. Increasing the level of alcohol consumption, however, moves from an economic paradigm to a social issue due to the ancillary health and behavioral effects from alcohol abuse. In turn, this becomes part of economics in that it requires fiscal resources to treat societal issues caused by alcoholism: domestic abuse, crime, traffic or driving issues, etc. The economic effects of alcohol are undebatable, and are pervasive in the overt and covert areas of the economy (short- and long-term) (Fogarty, 2006).
In the economic sphere of political and social policy, alcohol, like tobacco and gambling, are considered a "sin" tax that is ostensibly designed to reduce transactions for issues society considers dangerous or undesirable. However, when it comes to alcohol, many see that this type of a sumptuary…… [Read More]
Psychoactive Substance Use and Abuse
A psychoactive substance refers to any chemical which both impacts the central nervous system and the way the brain functions. Psychoactive substances refer to stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, dextroamphetamine), sedatives and analgesics (alcohol, heroin), hallucinogens (PCP, psychoactive mushrooms). As stated in the DSM-III "psychoactive substance abuse is given the definition of being "a maladaptive pattern of use indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent social, occupational, psychological or physical problem that is caused by the use [or by] recurrent use in situations in which it is physically hazardous" (Nordegren, 2002, p.11).
The social impact of psychoactive substance use and abuse on widespread scale is enormously detrimental to society. "In a 2005 report issued by the Department of Health and Human Services indicated that alcohol was associated with 100,000 preventable deaths each year and that it cost taxpayers nearly $185…… [Read More]
solutions for the alcohol abuse problem from economists' point-of-view. The second section of the paper addresses the situation of prescription drugs and how they can affect the demand and supply of other products and services. The paper continues with a section that explains the relationship between supply modification and elasticity of demand, and between demand modifications and elasticity of supply. There is also a section that discusses increasing-costs industries. Another section of the paper address the conditions required for competitive markets to be economically efficient.
There are several solutions that economists can offer when addressing the alcohol abuse problem. In this case, the problem is regarded as a negative externalities situation of the production and consumption of alcohol. The assumption in this case is that alcohol abuse is a negative externality because of its consequences, like drunk driving and the effects on consumers' health and on relationship with other individuals.…… [Read More]
Drug Abuse Economically
Alcohol consumption causes injuries, deaths and other problems in the society. In order to reduce the problem economists must understand it, and know the economic burden or effects it causes. Economists approach the problem using costs and further put it in real numbers. Economists use assumptions to simplify their work, and focus on what that really matters. They make rational decisions based on reason, and encourage them to act using that reason and not based on facts. They think at the margin while isolating variables; thus the notion that economists can be said to act rationally based on in their own interest.
Different factors should be considered when looking at alcohol consumption. Economists should use statistics to know the rate of alcohol consumption, and the increasing alcohol consumption rates. Many people tend to believe alcohol myths, which are unrealistic and misleading. Believing and acting on…… [Read More]
Protection against Abuse (deterrence)
Deterrence and the legal system
The notion of deterrence plays a significant role in the present system. In most cases, laws are put in place to ensure those who break the laws do not escape unpunished but also to discourage potential offenders from committing the offenses. This is the reason the state has opted to pass laws that ensure citizens sort their trash to enable recycling of the wastes to be much easier. The objective of the regulation is not to punish offenders, but to prevent them from disposing recyclable material inappropriately.
Sorting out of waste disposal
Different households produce different wastes, and this becomes a problem to dispose the wastes especially in urban areas. In instances that piles of garbage are left unattended in residential areas and offices, they become a nuisance. This is because of their biological as well as chemical decomposition that produce…… [Read More]
The fact of the matter that people place power and belief in the pyramid itself proclaiming that the pyramid itself is a cure all for their problems
The impossibility to either prove or deny many of these instances of miracle does misplaces the causality of their happening. Mystery contributes to the human mind's desperate attempt to make sense of things that have no logical or obvious cause. Perhaps this is the case in many worshippers of the pyramid. The previous arguments suggesting that power of the pyramid is in fact real and causes humans to react in special or abnormal ways confuses the situation about casualty and result.
Blanket statements that either support or deny the use of pyramid power will both most likely be incomplete and unmoving. Scientific experiment demands that these effects be both repeatable and with certain cause. This is very difficult due to both the esoteric…… [Read More]
Thus, these authors warn that the abuse of authority must be consistently checked and fought in order to keep it from expanding. This is currently being evidenced in our society. The Bush administration has repeated thwarted the power of Congress and the Supreme Court by attempting to pass laws that directly by-pass the national legislature and promoting a system that takes away presidential checks. The Bush administration repeated refuses to provide subpoenaed documents and to allow information access and disclosure. It is evident from their behavior that without such accurate disclosure the government is drifting closer and closer to the realities discussed within this book.
In the final analysis, Blair's new book is a haunting reminder of the world of 1984, and the contemporary establishment of his book, featuring a four-term Bush administration only highlights the urgency of the issues and themes he discusses within his book. The fact is…… [Read More]
hile most see these and other similar reforms as necessary, serving merely as a legal upgrade for law enforcement, one provision of the act's section regarding wireless communication has created much controversy. This section allows foreign intelligence agencies to wiretap citizen's phones and computers without a court order. Bringing the country back to the short-lived standard of 1928, when a fraction of the technology that is used on a regular basis today was even invented, this portion of the act leaves room for the undocumented surveillance of United States citizens (Podesta). Similarly, President George . Bush announced that in the days and months following the September 11th terrorist attacks he ordered the wiretapping of several United States residents without approval from congress, admitting and defending his expansion of the role of executive. Thus, while both public and private wiretapping have a long history of use in the United States, the…… [Read More]
Teen Drug Abuse - Prescription or Not
Differences between nonalcoholic offspring of alcoholics (family history positive, FHP) and matched offspring of nonalcoholics (family history negative, FHN) have been identified on a variety of behavioral, cognitive, and neurological measures. Compared to FHN teens, FHP adolescents and young adults demonstrate more disturbed school careers, impulsivity, rebelliousness, and nonconformity (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2006); poorer neuropsychological performance (Worden & Slater, 2009); and significantly lower amplitude in P300 brain waves, which are believed to measure selective attention (Cicero, et al. 2005). Further, following ingestion of alcohol, sons of alcoholics report less body sway and less subjective intoxication (Grant, et al., 2005), higher levels of flushing (McBride, 2011), and decreased P300 amplitudes when performing difficult tasks (Foster, et al., 2009).
Not all individuals with a family history of alcohol dependence become alcohol and/or drug abusers, however, and genetics alone cannot account for…… [Read More]
Causes of Spousal Abuse
Our society has made great strides in the last fifty years in terms of empowering women, granting them greater access to opportunities, income, self-realization, and the overall level of equality. Old patriarchal views which suggest that women should sit at home, be obedient, and know their "place" at home and in the society today are generally shunned. Yet stereotyping about women, sexism, and even misogyny in our society have not been eradicated. Violence against women remains at a frighteningly high levels. And most of the violence against women takes place at home.
Although there are families where women abuse men, overwhelming majority of spousal abuse cases involve abusive men who use violence against their wives. What are the causes of these abusive relationships? This paper tries to answer this question by utilizing conflict theory and reviewing literature on the topic. The conflict theory is…… [Read More]
There is a gradual move in considering that the combination of both these explanations is what should be the actual position to take on the issue of alcoholism and drug addiction. This mode of thinking suggests the acceptance of the gene explanation on one side in that the research does confirm that genes that are inherited goes a long way in explaining the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcoholism and drug addiction, yet at the same time it also suggests that the lifestyle pattern that is adopted by the individual could also be a major factor in the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcohols and drugs. (Frequently Asked Questions)
This means that not only is a hereditary factor only a predisposition but the behavior of the individual in social situations where the consumption occurs and the maintenance of control on these situations. This also…… [Read More]
Sexual jealousy may be the main factor for couples aged 18 to 30, but couples in their 50s have established hitting and getting hit as habits, their way of dealing with stress and problems, their bond itself. People wonder and ask why the victim does not leave the abusive relationship. Experts say that it is never easy to do so because leaving costs a lot of money and the victim, often the woman, has no money of her own and has never worked. She does not feel she has much choice until she reaches the brink (The Daily).
Alksnis, C. And Taylor, J. (2003). Aggressive ehavior by Witnesses and/or Victims in Adulthood. Correctional Service of Canada. http://www.csc-scs.ca/text/pblct/fv/fv04/fv04/fv04e04_e.shtml
Cwik, MS. (1996). Why Does Wife Abuse Occur? MSA Review. http://users.aol.com/agunah/review.htm
Daily, The (2002). Impacts and Consequences of Spousal Violence. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/020626/d02060.htm
Focus on the Family. (2004). The Impact of Family…… [Read More]
One group will consist of those with childhood abuse experience while the other group will consist of respondents who do not have childhood abuse experience. This grouping is done to achieve the objective of assessing whether respondents with abusive histories really posses a starkly different view of the family. Both groups shall consist of male and female adults, aged 26-55 years old. For the purpose for this research, those belonging to the abused groups will be those have experienced childhood sexual and/or physical abuse.
In terms of the research ethics, the respondents will be assured of their anonymity through verbal and written means. Before the start of the interview, the author will present to them a letter assuring them that all the information that they will be disclosing will solely be used for academic purposes. They will also be asked to choose a name or alias that will…… [Read More]
& Naugle, A. (2008). Intimate partner violence theoretical considerations: Moving towards a contextual framework. Clinical Psychology Review, 28(7), 1096-1107.
Eckhardt, C.; Jamison, T.R. & atts, K. (2002). Anger Experience and Expression Among Male Dating Violence Perpetrators During Anger Arousal. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 17(10), 1102-1114.
Eckhardt, C.; Samper, R. & Murphy, C. (2008). Anger disturbances among perpetrators of intimate partner violence: Clinical characteristics and outcomes of court-mandated treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(11), 1600-1617.
Langhinrichsen-Rohling, J. (2010). Controversies Involving Gender and Intimate Partner Violence: Response to Commentators. Sex Roles, 62(3-4), 221-225.
Palo Alto Medical Facilities (PAMF). (2010). Abusive Romantic Relationships. PAMF.org.
Smith, M. & Segal, J.…… [Read More]
This is also a condition when a person does not think beyond what is observed in the surroundings. So children should be given exercise to create new thoughts which are devoid of substances in their surrounding or mentality. The most effective method of cognitive approach is to teach recovery techniques to a client that assist to overcome the condition, rather than find methods to change the mentality of a person directly. This is attained by self-monitoring, self-assessment and self consequation. Each step is followed by the other till the patient reach a significant point of recovery. Self consequation is the final stage when a person appreciates himself for the significant change in the behavior. (Mennuti; Arthur, 2006)
Blow, Frederic C. (1999) "Substance Abuse among Older Adults: Treatment Improvement
Protocol" Diane Publishing.
Mennuti, osemary B. Arthur, F. (2006) "Cognitive-Behavioral Interventions in Educational
Settings: A Handbook for..." outledge.
Onken, Lisa S;…… [Read More]
Domestic Violence and Abuse: Ethical Issues
Domestic violence is an epidemic in the U.S., but it is frequently a hidden one: many women are afraid to report what they are suffering to the authorities. "Over two-thirds of violent victimizations against women were committed by someone known to them: 31% of female victims reported that the offender was a stranger. Approximately 28% were intimates such as husbands or boyfriends, 35% were acquaintances, and the remaining 5% were other relatives…In 2003, among all female murder victims in the U.S., 30% were slain by their husbands or boyfriends" (Domestic violence statistics, 2011, AADVAC). Some of these battered women may still harbor genuine affection for their partner, given that they associate violence with 'caring.' Others may genuinely want to separate themselves from their attacker but may fear they cannot economically survive on their own. Counselors and social workers dealing with victims of domestic violence…… [Read More]
educing Substance Abuse Among College Freshman
Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman
Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman
Kazemi and colleagues (2013) were interested in understanding whether a behavioral intervention would reduce the prevalence of substance abuse among college freshman in the United States. The independent variable was motivational peer-counseling sessions (motivational interviews) about the risks of alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. The dependent variables were scores obtained on two questionnaires. These scores were then used to determine if there was a statistically significant association between blackout frequency, illicit drug use, and alcohol consumption. Demographic information (attribute variables) was also collected and the attributes of primary interest were ethnicity and gender. The hypothesis tested by the researchers is whether the intervention could reduce the prevalence of self-reported high risk behaviors among college freshman at a representative…… [Read More]
Alcohol abuse was once considered a problem of willpower. Now, it is widely recognized as a medical problem with three primary roots causes: biological factors, psychological factors, and socio-cultural factors. This paper examines the three root causes, beginning with the foundation that genetic predisposition plays a tremendous role in substance abuse and alcoholism. If examines the biological factors impacting alcohol abuse, but goes beyond genetics to discuss brain changes that are the result of alcohol abuse. Next, it considers the psychological factors that relate to alcohol abuse, considering both psychological stressors and underlying character traits linked to alcoholism. Finally, it looks a socio-cultural factors linked to alcohol abuse.
Alcohol abuse is a complex, multi-faceted problem with many factors impacting the onset and expression of the disorder. Furthermore, alcohol abuse, while part of the disease of alcoholism, is not limited to alcoholism. "It's possible to have a problem with…… [Read More]
" hile there are factors like peer pressure and authority that come into play, some research claims to have isolated significant features of an individual's character that make them more likely to commit acts of fraud, bribery and falsification in the corporate context (27, 2009). For example, those people with "high levels of ambition were more likely to transgress moral codes, competitively stab colleagues in the back and make dubious decisions relating to asset-stripping, disinvestment, and so on" (27, 2009).
Trevino's (1986) work is relevant when it comes to understanding individuals and corruption. There are a couple questions regarding moral personality that come up: first of all, whether or not a person sees an event or issue as a moral problem; the second is how they decide to act in relation to that problem. Kohlberg's theory of cognitive moral development emphasizes the cognitive or reasoning aspect of moral-decision making (604,…… [Read More]
Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
ights: Suspected or Alleged Child Abuse
More than three million reports of child abuse and neglect will be filed in the United States this year (Children's ights 2012). In many states, reporting suspected or alleged child abuse is mandatory in which certain steps must be followed to ensure the immediate safety of the child and the confidentiality and privacy of the accused family. Sadly, at least four children die from abuse or neglect every day -- many in homes that are already known to child welfare agencies, and some in foster care placements made by the child welfare agencies themselves. Moreover, children and their families still have rights that must be honored during an investigation (Big Brothers 2009).
Parent's ights When Investigated
Whenever the department completes an investigation of a child abuse or neglect report, the department must notify the alleged perpetrator(s) of the report…… [Read More]
Covert participant anthropological observations of AA and NA meetings indicate that in practice the use of theological components of the program is even more explicit than the 12 steps might indicate. During the meeting the members hold "each other's hands, and lead the membership into a recitation of the Lord's Prayer. Affixed to the Lord's Prayer is an AA ending: 'Keep coming back; it works'" (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.7). Anthropologists and critics alike have commented upon the 'cult-like' nature of AA and NA: new adherents are encouraged to leave their jobs and cut family ties to facilitate their path to sobriety; there is a ritualistic aspect to the group's meetings; a demand for purity on the part of the membership; and required adherence to all of the group's rules (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.8). The emphasis on the need to confess and tell one's stories, the need to prioritize…… [Read More]
That compared with 19% for alcohol and a secondary drug; 12% for alcohol alone; 3% for smoked cocaine; 2.4% for methamphetamines; and 2.3% for heroin (Abrams).
It is estimated that by 2010 there will be 35 million teens in America (Levinson). This is a significant demographic to be concerned about. There would also be an increased chance of illicit drugs falling into the hands of children, just like cigarettes and alcohol now that are prohibited from being sold to kids. A greater availability, in general, would increase the likelihood of children being able to obtain them (Messerli).
Harm reduction is one of the primary benefits of legalizing illicit drugs; however, opponents feel that this theory is fatally flawed. Although the suffering of drug users should be reduced, their destructive habits shouldn't be tolerated. "Harm eduction advocates forget the thousands of impressionable teenagers for whom the law is a reminder that…… [Read More]
The Power of the Situation and the Fundamental Attribution Error
As noted by Sommers (2009), while there is a tendency within our culture to view the human character as stable and unalterable, the contextual power of a situation can cause individuals to behave in unexpected ways. Perhaps the most powerful example of situational influence is during times of war, where individuals are socialized to become obedient to a commanding officer's orders and to put aside their own ethical codes as they can view other human beings as 'the enemy.' This can be seen at the notorious Iraqi prison Abu Ghraib, where ordinary American soldiers from otherwise stable, normal backgrounds committed human rights abuses against prisoners. This was in violation of military protocols, but the 'us vs. them' culture in which the soldiers were immersed clearly had an influence upon their behavior. The soldiers became so habituated to the abuses…… [Read More]
ole of Drugs as Part of Youth Culture
The use of drugs among the youth has become a normal part of dance and culture of young people. Generally, drugs have been regarded as a part of daily life, particularly among the youth to an extent that it has been involved in many youth cultures. The role of drugs as part of youth culture has been fueled by other components that have become common characteristics of today's youth. Actually, today's youths are becoming synonymous to rave, dance and club cultures, which has also been accompanied by increased drug use. Similar to the 60s, taking drug while in town, clubs or dancing is increasingly becoming the norm in the lifestyles of many young people. Given the prevalence of drugs as a motivator in the youth culture, several initiatives have been established to help deal with the problem. The juvenile justice system has…… [Read More]
However, these studies did not separate the effects of ephedrine from that of caffeine and so more intense research is awaited in this direction. [Robert a] it is to be noted that caffeine and ephedrine work synergistically which could be dangerous in patients with pre-existing cardiac or blood pressure abnormalities. Caffeine affects the adenosine-mediated dilation of blood vessels by antagonizing its receptors. The resulting increased availability of free adenosine monophosphate furthers the activity of ephedrine and catecholamine stimulation resulting in reduced cardiac refractory periods and increased cardiac output and consequently elevated blood pressure. [Charles N. Krome]
It is necessary to look into the inherent risks associated with the use of ephedrine. Ephedrine has a very high percentage of adverse reactions compared to all other herbal supplements. As reported by ent et al. (2003), ephedrine alone accounts for around 64% of all adverse medical reactions due to herbal products. This in…… [Read More]
A true and effective method of combating games like the hour of power would be for the media to present the possible consequences of the game exactly as they are. It is clear that young people are not afraid of abusing alcohol. However, after witnessing the effects that an apparently simple game has on the ones that play it and on their families, people would definitely think twice before joining a power hour game. Another method which would most probably be effective would be for young people to be taught that most of the effects that they believe alcohol to have do not exist. People should learn that alcohol does not make you sociable and does not make you more attractive for the opposite sex.
1. "Power Hour' a Dangerous Ritual for Young Drinkers." Retrieved June 4, 2009, from the Join Together eb site: http://www.jointogether.org/news/headlines/inthenews/2005/power-hour-a-dangerous-ritual.html
2. "4 Tiers."…… [Read More]
Separation of Powers
It is well-known fact that political power is a very dynamic sphere of human relations and there is no doubt that democratic system is the most progressive result of complicated process of society development. Every citizen of any real democratic society knows that government is called to protect his individual rights and interests but at the same time it is clear from the pages of history that state machine was the main violator of citizens' rights.
It had been proved by thousand years of our history that state organs were not able to secure order and peace in the country, guarantee civil rights and provide effective domestic or foreign policy if political power were usurped by one person or group of them. Moreover, these people become dangerous to usual citizens and the main aim is to remove the amount of power they have to make it difficult…… [Read More]
Nobelprize.org). Pinter went on:
"The crimes of the U.S. have been systematic, constant, vicious, remorseless -- not to mention very effective. You have to hand it to America," Pinter explained, "It has exercised a quite clinical manipulation of power worldwide while masquerading as a force for universal good" (Pinter, 2005). He added, cryptically, "It's a brilliant, even witty, highly successful act of hypnosis."
The timing of his book (2003) prevents Kagan from realizing that his narrative on page 88 is incorrect. "There is little cause to believe that the United States will…begin to conduct itself in the world in a fundamentally different manner" than Bush did. Indeed, President Obama has already charted a more democratic course and has reached out to some of the cultures (namely Islam) that Bush relentlessly and ruthlessly attacked with words and bullets. I would enjoy seeing an updated version of Kagan's book, and see…… [Read More]
Typically, applications for pardons are referred for review and non-binding recommendation by the Office of the Pardon Attorney, an official of the Department of Justice (Pardons and clemency in the United States http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pardon)."
Those who oppose the pardon power of the president point to the royal misuse of days gone by when the U.S. was still under English rule and pardoning power was abused by members of the royal family throughout history.
Those who support the power of a president to pardon believe it is an elected power with regard to the United States and as such the people have provided the power to their elected president to make pardons available to those he or she sees fit.
A pardon can be granted at any point following the commission of the crime including before a conviction has been handed down, but for the most part individual pardons are granted to…… [Read More]
In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,
The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."
So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…… [Read More]
Discuss how you would use regression to learn more about the nature of the relationship between the variables
Regression is a significantly common technique used for analyzing data. Regression analysis is employed to delineate the relationships between a group of independent variables and the dependent variable. In this case, the dependent variable is substance abuse. On the other hand, the set of independent variables comprise of exposure to substance abuse, ethnicity, age, and gender, poverty, and loneliness. Regression would play a significant role in helping with the learning process regarding the nature of the relationship between the variables. The analysis will particularly entail descriptive statistics as well as regression, correlation, and ANOVA analysis. Descriptive statistics will be used to present demographic data and provide measures of central tendency such as averages and median, while the statistical analyses will be important for testing the relationship between the dependent and independent variables…… [Read More]
British Judge Lord Bringham warned states powers intrude liberty privacy individuals justification fight a "war terror." Using specific cases examples countries studying (United States, Canada Great Britain) discuss extent intrusion rights privacy freedom occurred justified a democracy? This essay 2000 words (7-9 pages) Also sources needed paper.
The issue of national security has been a subject that has kept the headlines of the newspapers especially since the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The events in the United States demonstrated that the world, as it was in 2001, was not prepared for a security breach that was unconventional in nature and modus operandi. Since then, the national security strategies have changed dramatically throughout the world. One of the most significant change if not the most significant, took place in the United States that considered itself a true victim of the terrorist phenomenon and decided to prevent further events to ever take place on…… [Read More]
In the end this may require a campaign to recruit more female corrections officers and eliminate or reduce greatly the presence of male officers from female facilities. Because of past abuses, the presence of male officers may cause many psychological obstacles for female inmates even if the officers are not sexually abusing inmates.
The increase in the female inmate population coupled with the increase in the violent nature of crimes being committed by women has caused corrections organizations to hire male guards. On the one hand, the male guards have the physical strength to subdue a violent or aggressive inmate. On the other hand male guards can also serve as very intimidating figures in a population where the majority of the women have been sexually or physically abused before coming to prison. Prior abuses cause these women to be more vulnerable and more likely to be preyed upon by…… [Read More]
Too often emotional abuse goes unreported for fear of recourse and for misconceptions that the individual believes they may deserve what is being done to them emotionally.
Physical abuse is when someone physically causes another person harm i.e. punching, kicking, throwing objects at them or using objects to cause injury i.e. cigarettes, knives, etc. His or her abuser often intimidates the abused individual. There are times when emotional abuse may be used in conjunction with physical abuse in order to help the abuser have a greater sense of power over the victim. This form of abuse is just as damaging if not more damaging in ways than its cohort emotional abuse. Both man and women have lost their lives through enduring physical abuse and not being able to live to tell the story. hile doing research it is easy to see that there is a plethora of research regarding child…… [Read More]
If anything, the fact that ordinary civilian students proved capable of such conduct on other civilians, even without the psychological stresses of a wartime combat zone and genuinely hostile prisoners, suggests that the risk of similar abuse in genuine wartime situations is much higher.
In Abu Ghraib, mixed units with different levels of training were operating in a hostile combat zone where they were subject to hostile action (i.e. mortar attacks) by the same forces from whom their prisoners were captured. Whereas at Guantanamo detention facilities guards worked in an environment of 1-to-1 prisoner-to-guard ratio, the Abu Ghraib facility sometimes required working in a 75-to-1 ratio of prisoners-to-guards (DOD, 2004). Zimbardo's study already demonstrated that anonymity is one conditions capable of "... stirring the crucible of human nature in negative directions." The other factors listed by Zimbardo include diffusion of responsibility, dehumanization, peers who model harmful behavior, bystanders who do…… [Read More]
Childhood Sexual Abuse
Claims that homosexuality can be caused by child sexual abuse (CSA) are controversial. These claims have been made by a number of researchers, and have weak links to data that may support them (Brady, 2008). In short, it is very difficult to determine if there is actually a link between CSA and homosexuality. It is important not only to further study whether there is a true link between CSA and homosexuality that goes beyond coincidence, but to also study what can be done to prevent CSA, regardless of whether it has the potential to lead to homosexuality in later life. One of the ways to do this is through policy changes through agencies that typically work with CSA and related issues, such as the Department of Children and Family Services.
The idea that CSA causes homosexuality is not a new one. Much of the argument…… [Read More]