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Stronger relationships among students result in a peer situation where pressure from the peer group encourages more cheating than in an environment where strong relationships are built with faculty.
The author provides evidence of the power of peer pressure as opposed to individual factors such as demographics or psychological tendency by means of data from students who live with their peers as opposed to those who live in a relatively isolated setting. She for example cites evidence to the effect that affiliation with a sorority or fraternity tends to increase the likelihood of cheating. The relationships that students develop with their peers also include the development of a common norm that may or may not be concomitant with the general norms of the institution. Hence, the student is more likely to adhere to the friendship norm than the more general institutional one.
Forming peer groups on campus (Hutton, 2006, p.…
Academic Integrity in the Twenty-First Century. Twenty-First Century Forces Shaping Academic Integrity.
Bodin, A.U. (2004). Self-Control, Perceived Opportunity and Attitudes as Predictors of Academic Dishonesty. The Journal of Psychology, Vol 138, No. 2, pp. 101-114.
De Bruin, G.P. And Rudnick, H. (2007). Examining the cheats: The role of conscientiousness and excitement seeking in academic dishonesty. South African Journal of Psychology Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 153-164
Engler, J.N., Landau, J.D. And Epstein, M. (2008). Keeping Up With the Joneses: Students' Perceptions of Academically Dishonest Behavior. Teaching of Psychology, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 99-102
White students will cheat as much as black students (McCabe). Overall, the pressure to perform in a rapid and stressful society is what prompts the majority of the students into academic dishonesty.
The Effects of Academic Dishonesty
Academic dishonesty may seem innocent in the beginning, but in the long run could cause a lot of problems in one's career. For example, if a student cheats on a test or an assignment, receives a passing grade and is not caught by the teacher the student passes the class. However, the student has not really learned the materials and the materials may have been important building blocks for the next chapter or upcoming assignments. Above all, the information that the student cheated could be important skills that they will need to understand for their future career. If they cheated, then they did not learn the materials as they should have learned it.…
Ann Bushway and William R. Nash, "School Cheating Behavior," Review of Educational Research 47, no. 4 (Autumn 1977), 623
Justin Pope, 'Higher education sees rise in dishonesty', Associated Press, May 19, 2007
William J. Bowers, Student Dishonesty and its Control in Colleges (New York: Bureau of Applied Social Research, Columbia University, 1964), 155.
Donald L. McCabe and Linda Klebe Trevino, "Individual and Contextual Influences on Academic Dishonesty: A Multicampus Investigation," Research in Higher Education 38, no. 2, (1997), 380.
Very often, fraternity houses maintained extensive files of hundreds of academic papers already submitted for course credit.
Those papers enabled students to rewrite papers that had already received high grades and change them just enough to present the same material as new; in larger universities, students sometimes submitted recycled papers to different professors without even bothering to rewrite much more than the title page with their student information and the date of submission.
Nowadays, more and more instructors require students to submit papers electronically, specifically so that they can maintain a database of papers previously submitted in their courses. Those databases can also be combined into the institution's computer system as miniature, institution-specific versions of Turninin.com.
The use of professional academic ghostwriters is probably the safest form of student plagiarism, because detection is not a significant risk unless the instructor detects a different comprehension level between a student's…
Boon, M. (2003). "Student cheating rises at Stanford: educational outreach, overhaul of disciplinary system may be contributing factors." Retrieved January 29, 2009 from the Palo Alto Weekly Online website, at www.paloaltoonline.com/weekly/morgue/2003/2003_04_11.cheating11.html
Girard, N. (2009). "Plagiarism: an ethical problem in the writing world." AORN
Journal. Retrieved from FindArticles.com. At http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSL/is_1_80/ai_n6113175
Innerst, C. (1998). "Universities retreat in war on cheating." Washington Times, January. 29, 2004. Retrieved January 29, 2009, from the National Center for Policy Analysis website, at www.ncpa.org/pi/edu/jan98o.html
(U of D. Office of Judicial Affairs ebsite " a Quick Reference Guide to Academic Integrity")
On the issue of flexibility the policies and procedures of U. Of D. are also much more reasonable, allowing for proper investigation and variable sanctions, depending upon the severity of the infraction. Instructors and the administration are members of the team to assist with investigation and implementation of policies.
hile est Virginia University clearly exemplifies the demonstration of a zero tolerance policy on the subject, regarding all infractions, within the defined terms as equally bad and therefore equally punishable. This puts instructors and students in peril of increased infractions due to the instructors' reluctance to report lesser incidences of the problem. Though the est Virginia University policy does have a clear outline of the handling procedures for the implementation of policy during cases of dishonesty or suspected dishonesty, the terms clearly remove the instructor's…
Academic Integrity/Dishonesty Policy, West Virginia University, Admission
Quick Reference Guide to Academic Integrity: Office of Judicial Affairs,
University of Delaware. www.udel.edu/judicialaffairs/ai.html
The esults of Academic Dishonesty:
Academic dishonesty in the form of cheating on exams hurts the students involved because they do not have to learn the class subject matter. Likewise, students who plagiarize material or use professional academic ghostwriters fail to learn how to write in addition to violating the copyrights of original authors (Slobogin 2002). Some of the worst consequences of academic dishonesty include the unfair competition in classes where students who do their own work and follow the rules of academic honesty receive grades that are reduced by virtue of the bell curve grading system. In the wider perspective, academic dishonesty is also harmful to the professional community because students receive employment offers based on assumptions made by employers about their abilities based on grades that were not earned honestly.
Furthermore, students who increase their grade point averages by cheating may receive job offers that should have been…
Boon, M. (2003). Student Cheating Rises at Stanford: Educational Outreach, Overhaul of Disciplinary System May be Contributing Factors. Retrieved December 30, 2008, from the Palo Alto Weekly Online website, at www.paloaltoonline.com/weekly/morgue/2003/2003_04_11.cheating11.html
Innerst, C. (1998). Universities Retreat in War on Cheating. Washington Times, January. 29, 2004. Retrieved December 30, 2008 from the National Center for Policy Analysis website, at www.ncpa.org/pi/edu/jan98o.html
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. (2004). Internet Gives Rise to a Bold New Era in College-
academic environment students are under extreme pressure to turn assignments in on time as well and to get good grades on those assignments. Under these conditions students will often choose the path of least resistance or the easy way out and plagiarize from some document. In this essay we will briefly examine what plagiarism is and the challenges students face when attempting to avoid plagiarism. Ultimately it will be apparent that the majority of students plagiarize unintentionally and often to their great distress. While plagiarism is a serious concern, stemming the tide will require student education combined with institutional vigilance. Consequently, it is very difficult for untrained students to avoid plagiarism.
While there are many technical definitions of plagiarism, Academic Integrity (2011) suggests that plagiarism involves many variant and diverse types of behaviors. These behaviors range from the actual copying of text from another location for use in the students…
Academic Integrity for Students (2011). Retrieved from http://guides.library.ualberta.ca/content.php?pid=62200&sid=457755
Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H., & McGregor, L. N (1992). ' Academic Dishonesty',
Teaching of Psychology, 19 (1):16-20.
In academic institutions throughout the world, there are systems of codes which dictate how administration expects the student bodies to behave. These codes can be different based upon the specific rules of the institution in question. Some have clothing rules, others alcohol or narcotic rules, but there are certain dictums which are more universal. Many schools have rules which dictate that students must behave in ways which the institution considers to be honorable. These honor codes can include different components, but it is primarily a pledge against cheating in any sense of the word. Students in many institutions must sign honor pledges wherein they promise that they will not cheat on their assignments or their examinations. Also, if they are witness to any dishonesty on the part of their classmates, then they are responsible for revealing that duplicity to members of the staff or administration. The students pledge…
McCabe, Donald L. "It Takes a Village: Academic Dishonesty and Educational Opportunity."
Ed. Rottenberg, Annette T., and Donna Haisty Winchell. Elements of Argument: A Text
and Reader. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins, 2012. Print.
Rawe, Julie. "Battling Term-Paper Cheats." Ed. Rottenberg, Annette T., and Donna Haisty
brazenly 'sampled' from a book, the dictionary, and 'remixed' into a news story," writes Julian Sanchez in an annoyed response to court rulings on sampling in the music industry. His phrasing, however, perfectly encapsulates the real problems in defining and avoiding plagiarism. In the attempt to express my own personal understanding and interpretation of plagiarism, I quickly found that despite the most sincere attempt to develop such an interpretation was bound to failure. In a moment of sarcasm, I might express a fear of plagiarizing from the honor codes of universities across the nation if I were to merely parrot back the description of plagiarism which involves not only "using another writer's words without proper citation" (CACCAS) but also "using another writer's ideas without proper citation." (CACCAS), definitions which are used verbatim in student handbooks wherever English is spoken. The problem is more significant, however, than this flippancy might make…
Alberta U. "Why Students Plagiarize." Learning Services. University of Alberta. 2004. http://www.library.ualberta.ca/guides/plagiarism/why/index.cfm
Budge, E.A. Wallis. "The Book of the Dead." New York: Gramercy Books, 1999.
CACCAS. "Academic Honesty: Cheating and Plagiarism." Academic Honestly. Faculty Resource On Grading. 2004. http://depts.washington.edu/grading/issue1/honesty.htm
Critical Art Ensemble. "Utopian Plagiarism, Hypertextuality, and Electronic Cultural Production." Critical Issues in Electronic Media. Penny, Simon, ed. New York: Suny Press, 1994, 105-118.
Academic Dishonesty and Student Cheating
Academic dishonesty has existed as long as organized schooling, whether in the form of glancing at a neighboring student's examination, copying a classmate's homework, or plagiarizing source material in written assignments. According to many reports, academic dishonesty has increased dramatically in over the last several years and three factors, in particular, have been implicated as contributing factors.
The widespread availability of Internet sources represents a convenient opportunity to plagiarize online material, especially where instructors are less familiar with the Internet medium than students. Similarly, recent technological advances in communication technology (and the miniaturization thereof) has enabled students to devise clever new strategies to facilitate cheating during in-class examinations.
Interviews with students who admit to cheating reveals that many of them justify their academic dishonesty by reference to high profile accounts of corporate dishonesty and widespread deterioration of business ethics, in general (Boon). Others maintain that…
Boon, Miriam (2003) Student Cheating Rises at Stanford: Educational Outreach, Overhaul of Disciplinary System May be Contributing Factors. (Palo Alto Weekly Online Website; Embarcadero Publishing Company). Accessed June 12, 2004, at www.paloaltoonline.com/weekly/morgue/2003/2003_04_11.cheating11.html
Innerst, Carol (1998) Universities Retreat in War on Cheating. (Washington Times, Jan. 29, National Center for Policy Analysis Website). Accessed June 12, 2004, at www.ncpa.org/pi/edu/jan98o.html
Slobogin, Kathy (2002) Survey: Many Students Say Cheating "OK"
CNN.com Website) Accessed June 12, 2004, at www.cnn.com/2002/fyi/teachers.ednews/04/05/highschool.cheating
Philosophy and Modern Business
Philosophical concepts apply to contemporary business issues, especially with respect to the ethical rightness or wrongness of the growing dominance of local markets by mega-conglomerates such as Wal-Mart and Costco. On one hand, those organizations operate perfectly legally and within the traditional framework of Markey supply and demand; on the other hand, there are fundamental philosophical criticisms that apply. For example, is it ethically appropriate for large companies to maintain their profit margins by dominating the employment opportunities available in the region and then paying such low salaries to their employees that many of them are perpetually part of the class of the working poor who must rely on public assistance programs? In effect, those companies shift the burden of healthcare (for one example) to the tax-paying public while they amass record profits.
Philosophy and Interpersonal Relationships
All of us experience the need to make choices…
educate students. There are many life lessons to be learned here at asmussen College. I am happy and proud to be a faculty member here in this great institution and sincerely enjoy being part of the educational experience for so many young people on a daily basis. I myself am also learning lessons every day, as life is a continuing learning process. This process must be unique in order for it to be important and have meaning. Students, in their experiences here at asmussen stand to benefit only when an honest and true effort is put forth. Success and failure depends on this authentic expression of the student to have any real purpose or individual meaning.
The use of another's work without properly citing it can, in many instances be considered plagiarism. Not always, however, there is always more to the case than meets the eye. Teachers and faculty members,…
Rasmussen College (nd). Academic Integrity Faculty Guide: Academic Integrity Policy. Retrieved 16 Dec 2015 from http://guides.rasmussen.edu/academicintegrity
Students Plagiarize and Why They Should Be Told About it
Plagiarism has been the reason why "scholars'" names have been ripped off from roll of honors. Protracted court battles have been litigated because of lack of academic integrity. What exactly drives a student into using information from a source without acknowledging the source of information? Students can sometimes be a funny lot. They procrastinate so much. There are instances when assignments are given out and due dates for submitting the assignments are clearly stipulate. A student would never plan with the time he has at his disposal really well buoyed with the accessibility of information in this era of digital age where a search word in Google search engine would give you access to copious amount of information. Such students would probably party until the last day when assignments are to be submitted. That is when they will pick their…
Chickering, A.W. & Gamson, Z.F. (1991). Applying the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 47.
Fulwiler, T. & Hayakawa, A.R. (2000). The Blair Handbook. 3rd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Student Survival Guide
Tips and Best Practices for Using the Internet for Academic Purposes
Be cautious when using sources like Wikipedia or other sites that have user-generated content. While these sites can contain a significant amount of useful, accurate information, they are also likely to contain misinformation. However, that does not mean that the user should reject them entirely. A well-written Wikipedia article will have a significant number of references, and examining those references can be a good starting point for research.
Using academic reference sites will lead to more reliable information. The university may provide students access to those websites. If unable to access these for-pay academic websites, a student may use free sites like Google scholar or PubMed to find academic resources.
The internet can be a great resource for books as well as articles. Many books are available for free on Google Books or similar sites.
Foster, R.L. "Avoiding unintentional plagiarism." Journal Specialists Pediatric Nursing, Vol. 12, No. 1 (2007): 1 -- 2.
Plagiarism is an issue throughout modern academia as well as in all realms of professional writing. Generally, plagiarism refers to any use of the writing or intellectual product of another person without acknowledging and crediting the original source of the information. Deliberate plagiarism consists of the purposeful use of work authored by another in an attempt to pass off writing that includes that work as being entirely the original work of the person using that information. Common examples of deliberate plagiarism include copying and pasting information from online sources and hand-copying written material from books and other hardcopy sources. However, plagiarism can also occur entirely unintentionally, and usually is the result of a genuine lack of understanding as to what types of use of research material requires referencing. Therefore, it is crucial for…
In principle, plagiarizing by paraphrasing can occur both deliberately, such as where the writer is fully aware that reproducing the ideas of another in different words without credit is plagiarism, as well as entirely unintentionally, such as where the writer genuinely believes that rewriting the material in all-original words is sufficient to make it original writing (Foster, 2007). As a general rule, the only types of information that do not require a reference are factual statements that are commonly known and purely historical facts that are widely available in reference works. Conversely, any opinion or analysis presented in original work must be credited to the author irrespective of what words are used to convey those ideas (Foster, 2007). One of the simplest ways that tutors, editors, and proofreaders can help writers avoid plagiarism is by asking them whether they are the original source of specific ideas and reminding them that any idea that comes from another person must always be credited to that person.
This article was tremendously helpful to me. I realized that I have, in the past, probably been guilty of unintentional plagiarism because I may have reproduced the intellectual ideas of others without crediting them appropriately because I was genuinely unaware that completely rewriting them so that all of the words were entirely original was not enough to make those ideas mine. This article taught me how important it is to continually ask myself whether every specific idea expressed in my writing is original or whether it represents someone else's ideas but in my original words. I believe that my understanding of the definition of plagiarism is now sufficient for me to avoid ever committing it unintentionally.
However, the digital age has provided much more sophisticated methods of cheating on in-class exams, including real-time Internet searches or note retrieval during closed-book exams.
In many schools, administrators have even documented instances of students sending one another real-time instant messages during exams (MJS, 2004). Academic dishonesty preceded the computer and Internet age, but the new technology has increased the temptation to take shortcuts and increased the sophistication of the available methods of all forms of cheating.
The area of academic integrity most affected by the widespread availability of online information sources is plagiarism in various forms. Until recently, students could copy and paste information directly from the Internet and turn it in as their own work for credit with relatively little risk because the chance of detection was very low.
The sheer volume of available Internet sources made it comparatively easy to find sources of information with which any…
Carr, Nicholas. "Is Google Making Us Stupid?" Atlantic (July/August 2008). Retrieved February 9, 2009, at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200807/google
Girard, Nancy, J. "Plagiarism: An Ethical Problem in the Writing World" (2009) AORN
Journal. Retrieved February 9, 2009, from FindArticles.com. At http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSL/is_1_80/ai_n6113175
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. "Internet Gives Rise to a Bold New Era in College-
On the other hand, the most acceptable treatment, the survey showed, would be to give that student a failing grade and allow him or her to redo the assignment.
Article #3: TIME (supporting details from the article): This piece states that there are "hundreds of online paper mills" [i.e., web sites that produce research papers] which cater to "all the stressed-out, disaffected or just plain lazy students" who have credit cards and Internet access. And the Time article asserts that according to Rutgers professor Donald McCabe's research (a survey of 13,248 students), some 67% admitted to having cheated "at least once on a paper or test." That having been said, it is also true that colleges and universities are fighting back against the tidal wave of cheating by purchasing the services of www.turnitin.com, a eb site that reportedly has a database of "billions of eb pages, tens of thousands of…
Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria. Acceptability of Treatments for Plagiarism. College Student Journal, 41(2), 336-341.
Rawe, Julie. (2007). A Question of Honor. Time, 169(22), 59-60.
Strom, Peter S.; & Strom, Robert D. Curbing Cheating, Raising Integrity. Education Digest,
Turnitin.com (2007). Digital Assessment Suite. Plagiarism Prevention. Peer Review.
school known as St. Martin de Porras. There were two portions to the case study…a part "A" and a part "B." The two parts were very much a "before" and "after" of a school that was in very rough shape and in every measurable way. This report will have a brief literature view, a methodology section, a study section and an analysis section. The literature review and methodology section are fairly self-explanatory. The study section asks the author of this report to identify the problems, goals and concerns of the stakeholders as well as the problems or critical issues that existed prior to the revolution that later occurred at the school. The analysis section asks the author of this report to compare the findings of the study to the findings in the literature review as well as some identification and analysis of alternative solutions. While some may shy away from…
Chiao-Ling, H., Shu Ching, Y. & An-Sing, C. (2015). The relationships among students'
achievement goals, willingness to report academic dishonestly and engaging in academic dishonesty. Social Behavior & Personality: An International
Journal, 43(1), 27-37. doi:10.2224/sbp.2015.43.1.27
Savage-Austin, A., & Honeycutt, A. (2015). Servant leadership: A phenomenological study of practices, experiences, organizational effectiveness and barriers.
d.). If those conditions have been met, the student can be given an extension for the length of deployment. If deployment is over 120 days, the student should request a withdrawal from the course.
For the student with an ill family member, I would check whether the request was received at least two weeks prior to the end of the course. If so, I would take a look at how much of the coursework the student completed. If it was over 50%, I would grant the extension. I would speak with the student and decide together when the course could reasonably be completed, no later than 60 days from the last day of the term. If necessary, I would consider "one additional extension which should not exceed 60 days" ("Course Extension," n.d.). I would also be sure to enter an "I" grade into the grade book for the student.
Excelsior College. (n.d.). Plagiarism. Excelsior.edu. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.excelsior.edu/plagiarism
Excelsior College. (n.d.). Excessive Absenteeism Policy and Procedure. Excelsior.edu. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.excelsior.edu/excessive-absenteeism
Excelsior College. (n.d.). Military Deployment Policy. Excelsior.edu. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.excelsior.edu/military-deployment
Excelsior College. (n.d.). Course Extension Policy and Procedure. Excelsior.edu. Retrieved March 24, 2011, from http://www.excelsior.edu/course-extension
Among other choices, those related to eating, drinking alcohol, sexuality, and peer group selection are some of the most important. In some respects, those decisions have a lot to do with the way that adolescent brains perceive, process, and react to external circumstances and experiences. The development of eating disorders is one example (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993). Specifically, there is empirical cross-sectional data illustrating that specific teenage perception and interpretations of self-image (especially body-image) correspond to eating disorders. That valuable information provides a good strategy for identifying teens at greatest risk of developing eating disorders without knowing anything about their actual eating habits (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).
Adolescents value their peer group associations more than the approval of society more generally. They are also much less receptive to absolutes such as firm "all-or-none" rules prohibiting them from drinking any alcohol or requiring absolute sexual abstinence. Generally,…
Gloria R. Leon, Jayne a. Fulkerson, Cheryl L. Perry, and Robert Cudeck. "Personality
and Behavioral Vulnerabilities Associated With Risk Status for Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 102, Issue 3; (1993): 438-444.
Conselling Master Questionnaire
Describe the Boolean Approach (Hauser, 2009 p. 18)
In order to use counseling databases to search for information, it is important to develop appropriate search practices. The terms one types when searching will most likely provide the results owing to their meaning. Therefore, it is up to an individual to come up with a search strategy and learn the tips of using counseling databases. The tips will assist an individual in acquiring high quality information in the required amount. Additionally, an individual is likely to add intelligence to their search strategies, the more one knows the tips of searching, and they are likely to obtain better results.
The Boolean approach is among the techniques that will generate useful results when using counseling databases, and it aims at supporting scholarly research. On the other hand, Boolean operators are words, which have unique meanings that instruct the database to…
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application.
Thousands Oaks, CA: Sage.
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counselling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
American Higher Education
Higher Education is ading in Deep ater in 2014
Is there anything to celebrate about higher education in the 21st century? hat are the most troubling issues facing America's campuses that have emerged in particular over the past twenty years? These questions cry out for thoughtful, scholarly answers. On the one hand, there are crises related to university finances, student financial programs are bogged down by endless congressional haggling, federal financial backing for important research and development has withered away to a significant extent, and scholarships and grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have not been able to meet the demand of qualified scholars (Thelin, 2013). On the other hand, according to the Knight Foundation Commission, many university presidents (if not most) are admitting that they no longer have control of their NCAA-governed athletics programs, and moreover, deans in medical schools are being urged to…
Barrett, P.M. (2014). In Fake Classes Scandal, UNC Fails Its Athletes -- and Whistleblower.
Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from http://www.businessweek.com .
Barrett, P.M. (2014). The NCAA Will Investigate Fake-Classes Scandal at UNC. Bloomberg
Businessweek. Retrieved July 19, 2014, from
I have experienced the fairytale love story and girl or young woman can dream of. Yet I am now well aware of the fact that not everybody has this luxury and that many people in the world must struggle to find a proper source of income or they have to leave their families and go to far away countries to find a better life. After this course, I think that it is our duty to help these people, to be active and responsive to their needs.
As a result of my experience with the Vietnamese immigration issue I realized that in most cases foreigners tend to work more and better than the regular American. This is because we value or time and our efforts and because we can afford to do that. Others can't. Others must struggle to find food, to find shelter. And it is our duty to make…
Personal Details of Student
Family Name: ooney
Given Name (s) Bridget
Student Number (SID): 312165250
Email (University email only) [email protected]
Assignment number (if applicable): #1
Genetics of Brian and Mind Disorders
Academic Honesty -- all forms of plagiarism and unauthorized collusion are regarded as academic dishonesty by the university, resulting in penalties including failure of the unit of study and possible disciplinary action. A module of academic honesty and plagiarism is at http://elearning.library.usyd.edu.au/learn/plagiarism/index.php .
I / We have read and understood the University of Sydney Student Plagiarism: Coursework Policy and Procedure (which can be found at sydney.edu.au/senate/policies/Plagiarism.pdf).
I / We understand that failure to comply with the Student plagiarism: coursework Policy and Procedure can lead to the University commencing proceedings against me / us for potential student misconduct under Chapter 8 of the University of Sydney By-Law 1999 (as amended).
3. This work is substantially my…
Ahmari, S. E., Spellman, T., Douglass, N. L., Kheirbek, M. A., Simpson, H. B., Deisseroth, K., ... & Hen, R. (2013). Repeated cortico-striatal stimulation generates persistent OCD-like behavior. Science, 340(6137), 1234-1239.
Arnold, P., Sicard, T., Burroughs, E. et al. (2006). Glutamate Transporter Gene SLC1A1 Associated With Obsessive-compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63(7), p.769.
Baxter, A., Scott, K., Vos, T. and Whiteford, H. (2012). Global prevalence of anxiety disorders: a systematic review and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine, 43(05), pp.897-910.
Barrett, P., Healy-Farrell, L. & March, J. S. (2004). Cognitive behavioral family treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a controlled trial. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry . 43, 46-62.
speak or write, do you own the words that you have created? What about the thoughts that preceded those words?
What is originality?
In some sense, we are all 'original authors.' We compose our own ideas in our head and transmit them to the world in speech. Yet, on the other hand, it is just as easy to claim that because our words are the result of a series of subtle cultural influences, there is no 'original' thought. Even the greatest scientific innovations of earlier eras built upon the ideas of people who existed previously. Shakespeare borrowed most of his plots. The notion of someone who exists outside of culture is a fiction. Even the language we speak shapes and limits our conceptions of the world.
However, although originality may be a fiction, it is a necessary fiction. Without copyright laws, authors would have no incentive to create new ideas.…
"Common knowledge in academic writing." PK6. 26 Oct 2011. Available:
http://www.uta.fi/FAST/PK6/REF/commknow.html [17 Jan 2013]
Hayes, Niall & Lucas D. Introna. "Cultural Values, Plagiarism and Fairness: When plagiarism gets in the way of learning. Centre for the Study of Technology and Organisation,
Lancaster University Management School. Available: http://www.lums.lancs.ac.uk/files/sdaw/5706.pdf [17 Jan 2013]
This information, stored on a computer and used to correlate with other data could be considered invaluable by many researchers, but the patients have a right to keep certain information private, and to suggest anything else would be an ethical violation of the patient's privacy.
Because computer ethics is such a volatile issue, an entire branch of study has grown up around computer ethics, which proponents who believe the computer age caused these ethical issues, and others who believe these issues would have surfaced anyway. One of the proponents of computer ethics, who actually was the first to teach the concept, Walter Maner, from Old Dominion University, is a proponent of the computer creating brand new ethical issues. An expert quotes Maner, "For all of these issues, there was an essential involvement of computing technology. Except for this technology, these issues would not have arisen, or would not have arisen…
Adams, H.R., Bocher, R.F., Gordon, C.A., & Barry-Kessler, E. 2005 Privacy in the 21st Century: Issues for Public, School, and Academic Libraries. Libraries Unlimited, Westbrook, CT.
Bynum, Terryl 2008 Computer and Information Ethics, Stanford University, URL=" http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-computer/ "
Fisher, C.B. 2006 Privacy and Ethics in Pediatric Environmental Health Research-Part I: Genetic and Prenatal Testing. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(10), 1617+.
Rennie, John 2008 Who's Watching You: The Future of Privacy, Scientific American, URL=" http://www.sciam.com/podcast/episode.cfm?id=28825D7D-D772-2192-12177C05B4B2AED7 "
Lying to Ourselves
Military integrity has been a major issue in the recent past because of the increase in moral and ethical problems that are evident across the whole United States military and not just the Army alone. Wong and Gerras' article focuses on highlighting these moral and ethical problems that are increasingly affecting integrity in the U.S. military. As evident in the article, leaders in the American military lie when performing their duties and constantly use rationalizations and justifications to deal with any emerging ethical or moral doubt. This tendency has in turn contributed to the unspoken embrace of dishonesty by these leaders, which is a clear reflection of hypocrisy. Therefore, one the major conclusions from this article include the fact that lying is has become increasingly acceptable in the U.S. military and facilitated by its leaders. Dishonesty and hypocrisy in the military is widely accepted by its leaders…
Wong, Leonard & Gerras, Stephen J. "Lying to Ourselves: Dishonesty in the Army Profession."
United States Army War College Press. accessed October 29, 2015. http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/PUB1250.pdf
There are three types of goals to focus one: short-term, medium-term, and long-term goals.
In a study environment, short-term goals would refer to attending classes, handing in assignments and studying for tests and other assessments. The study schedule plays the most important role in this type of goal. Furthermore helping to achieve this goal is the sections relating to academic honesty, as well as research and studying skills. Each goal can then be integrated with the time schedule in order to keep it in mind while adhering to the study schedule.
The medium-term goal would be to achieve success in the overall Axia study program.
Medium-term goals are generally fulfilled by a number of short-term goals that are completed successfully.
Long-term goals are the driving force for current action. In the long-term, for example, the Axia student may wish to stand within a specific profession. Success in the short- and…
Chilimo, W.L., Emmanuel, G. And Lwoga, T.E. (2006) Developing online research strategies. Sokoine University of Agriculture. http://www.itoca.org/TEEAL-AGORATanzania.pdf .
Kizlik, Bob (2006, July 20). How to Study and Make th eMost of Your Time. http://www.adprima.com/studyout.htm
Sherry, L. (1996). Issues in Distance Learning. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications, 1 (4), 337-365. http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~lsherry/pubs/issues.html
In one of the best plays of Moliere, The Misanthrope, we come across honesty as the main theme, which has been carefully incorporated to show the adverse effects of tactless honesty and the consequences of complete lack of honesty. The play was written in the 17th century and the society it depicts is the one that prefers flattery to honesty and conceit to modesty. Despite the fact that the play was meant for audiences of 17th century, it amazingly retains a universal appeal because of the treatment that Moliere extends to the central theme of honesty in the play.
The play revolves around four important characters, Alceste, Celimene, Philinte and Eliante. It is through the characters of Alceste and Celimene that the author conveys his views on honesty. Philinte serves the important purpose of balancing honesty and deceit by adopting a middle path, which is both sensible and…
Rousseau, Jean Jacques "Letter to M. D'Alembert on the Theatre" (1758).
Moliere. The Misanthrope and Tartuffe. Trans. Richard Wilbur. New York, 1954.
Managing Across Cultures
Internationalization of the economy has influenced companies to operate their business globally. The global operation has impact managers with several challenges. Market, product, and production plans must be coordinated on a worldwide basis. The global operation necessitates organization structure to balance centralized home-office control with adequate local autonomy. As companies have started their business operation on the international front, the number of their employees has increased. Increase in the employee's abroad management is faced with new global challenges. The three broad international business management challenges were identified by the management gurus as follows (obert, Kossek & Ozeki, 1998):
a) Deployment: To get the right skills where it is required in an organization regardless of the geographical location.
b) Knowledge and creativity distribution: Spreading the knowledge and practices throughout the organization regardless of where they have actually originated.
c) Talent identification and development on global basis: To identify…
Drucker, P. (1988) The Coming of the New Organization. Harvard Business Review issue
Fadel, J. & Petti, M (1997). International HR policy basics.
Global workforce issue April 1997, pp. 29-30
On the other hand, 'resistance for liberation' may have the obverse effect causing children (in this case adolescents) to take these self-same disabling elements and use them for their growth and success.
Poverty may be a social construct but it need not tarnish an individual for life. Ultimately, the individual decides what to do with his or her life, and the same circumstances that can turn one into a drug-doped self-destructed convict can turn another into a bastion of society.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, ., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.R., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, R., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
Sociology of Work
Max Weber advocated a management system, which would replace the influence of tradition and personal connection with clearly defined roles independent of those who occupied them. It was the need of his time when he and fellow theorists sought ways of increasing efficiency in production. Machines were then taking over the workload of many industries and people's lives, necessitating an immortal organization. He believed that a hierarchy had to be established to get things done. With the help of his contemporary Henry Ford, the concept of specialization was incorporated into system. Weber firmly believed it would increase efficiency of production. Strong rules and regulations must be set to keep tight control by management ranks. The bureaucratic organizational structure has been handed down to the present time with mixed effects. It has enabled governments and corporations to assert and exert power and to project power in…
Altay, A. (1999). The efficiency of bureaucracy on the public sector. DEUIIBF Dergisi:
Dokuz Eylul Universitesi. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://www.libf.deu.edu.tr/dergi/1999_2_4.pdf
Carnis, L.A.H. (2009). The economic theory of bureaucracy: insights from the Niskanian model and the Miserian approach. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian's
Economics. Retrieved on November 27, 2012 from http://mises.org/journals/qjae/pdf/qjae12_3_4.pdf
Using contemporary illustrative examples from academic literature and reputable business publications, discuss the concept of "Social Business" and the resultant opportunity and challenges that are currently being faced by the retail industry globally.
Concept of Social Business
Concept of Social Business with etailers
Social Media and etailing
Best Practices in Administering Social Media
There is a growing body of research that confirms that companies of all sizes and types can realize a wide array of benefits from the use of social media networks. While the types and applications of social media experience constant change, social media content such as blogs and microblogs have become some of the more popular social media tools that have emerged in recent years. Although there a number of benefits and advantages that can be achieved through the use of social media resources, there is a concomitant danger that inappropriate or misguided content can backfire…
'About MySpace,' 2013, MySpace. [online] available: https://myspace.com/ .
'About YouTube,' 2013, YouTube. [online] available: http://www.youtube.com/yt/about/ .
Anderson, DJ 2011, Winter, 'The Foray into Social Media: A Clinician, and Skeptic,
Sold,' Frontiers of Health Services Management, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 23-29.
Engle (2009) also notes that the costs of compliance in both monetary and human terms are greatly reduced by a willingness to embrace the regulation as a tool rather than shunning it as a "necessary evil." Though stating the obvious, he says what many in the business world simply couldn't bring themselves to hear just over a year ago, namely that "smart managers approach compliance before there is a problem that impacts the company and its stakeholders" (Engle 2009, p. 18). The issues at Bear Stearns and Lehman Brothers could have been prevented with regulation, but those at Enron and WorldCom were exacerbated by outright fraud, and the regulations provided by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act would have prevented such egregious mistreatment and mis-management of the company and its shareholders.
Strangely, the detection and prevention of fraud is not a benefit often perceived in the regulations of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act by…
Chang, H.; Choy, H.; Cooper, W.; Parker, B. & Ruefli, T. (2009). "Measuring productivity growth, technical progress, and efficiency changes of CPA firms prior to, and following the Sarbanes-Oxley Act." Socio-economic planning sciences 43(4), pp. 221-8.
Engle, P. (2009). "Making compliance effective." Industrial engineer 41(8), p. 8.
FEI. (2008). "FEI Survey: Average 2007 SOX Compliance Cost $1.7 Million." Financial Executives International. Accessed 25 September 2009. http://fei.mediaroom.com/index.php?s=43&item=204
Or, the damage done to his career would have had to have been so great and irrevocable it constituted a malicious action.
What institutional practices or policies may create a constitutionally protected property interest in one's job? May faculty members in private institutions have such a property interest in their jobs?
Roth's "property" interest in employment at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh was terminated on June 30, 1969, as specified in his contract, and there were no provisions for renewal. Faculty members at private institutions that grant tenure may have expectations of retaining their position, given the stipulations of their contracts. Grounds for being granted or retaining tenure may vary from institution to institution. here is no broadly sweeping right to tenure or right to one's job, however, rather the institution must merely uphold the guidelines it sets forth in its original contract. he university created the constitutionally-protected property interests within legally…
The damage done to Roth would have to have been the type of damage that harmed his rights as a citizen, not merely as an employee, as an employer is free not to hire back a non-tenured employee such as Roth. Or, the damage done to his career would have had to have been so great and irrevocable it constituted a malicious action.
What institutional practices or policies may create a constitutionally protected property interest in one's job? May faculty members in private institutions have such a property interest in their jobs?
Roth's "property" interest in employment at Wisconsin State University-Oshkosh was terminated on June 30, 1969, as specified in his contract, and there were no provisions for renewal. Faculty members at private institutions that grant tenure may have expectations of retaining their position, given the stipulations of their contracts. Grounds for being granted or retaining tenure may vary from institution to institution. There is no broadly sweeping right to tenure or right to one's job, however, rather the institution must merely uphold the guidelines it sets forth in its original contract. The university created the constitutionally-protected property interests within legally specified, acceptable limits.
Although Carey's journal reportedly ends prematurely, he continued to write letters for the next thirty years.
Carey understood the value in/of education, medicine, and other works. He continually encouraged missionaries to travel to the hinterland "and build an indigenous Christianity with vernacular Bibles and other writings and native-led churches."
For his mission to succeed, hile it simultaneously retained its core, Carey purported, it had to not only fill the eternal needs of people missionaries shared the gospel with, but also their day-to-day needs.
During his day-to-day life, Carey was also a husband and father. The following relates details regarding his three marriages.
Dorothy Plackett Carey (1755?-1807): Married illiam Carey in 1781. She was 25 and he was 19. Their marriage was a contrast in ability and interests. She was reluctant to leave England and go to India. Only after much perusasion and on the condition that her sister, Kitty,…
Physical Attraction in the Internet Age
Since its inception the internet has affected nearly every aspect of society so it is only natural that it would eventually impact on our most intimate of relationships: romance. In just a short twenty years the internet has nearly revolutionized the dating process and determined who and how we meet each for purposes of establishing both casual and permanent romantic relationships. The internet dating business is one of the few to not only survive but also prosper in these precarious economic times (Carpenter). By 2012, the industry is expected to reach $1.9 billion in consumer sales (D. Card).
In the context of this paper internet dating is defined as the use of a database of potential dating partners, usually located in close geographical proximity, to find someone with whom one feels some connection.
The format of most dating services is similar. The sites, whether…
Card, David. U.S. Paid Content Forecast, 2007 to 2012. Research. Cambridge, MA: Jupiter Research, 2008.
Carpenter, Susan. "No recession for online dating sites." Los Angeles Times 28 December 2008.
Epstein, Robert. "The Truth about Online Dating." Scientific American (2007): 28-35.
Franks, Christiana. "Whey Do We Fall In -- and Out of-Love?" Biography Magazine (2001): 86.
In China, that is not the case and there are tens of millions of peasants who would read such descriptions and think those workers lucky. Such context would have made for a more balanced and honest article.
Indeed, the initial article is one of the more flawed in the series of reports that the Times put out on the Foxconn issue. The article begins with an anecdote about a worker who was killed in an accident. The reality is that workers are killed on the job every day in America, too. The company paid his family quickly with a check as compensation. Again, the article makes this sound somewhat harsh, but an American firm might drag the case through the court system for years. There is no sense of contrast provided in the scathing original article that would allow a reader to have a better sense of why China's working…
BBC. (2012). Apple's Tim Cook visits Foxconn China factory. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved March 31, 2012 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-17553296
Bradsher, K. (2012). Two sides to labor in China. New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/31/business/global/labor-shortage-complicates-changes-in-chinas-factories.html
Chao, L., Areddy, J. & Poon, a. (2012). Apple pact to ripple across China. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved March 31, 2012 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052702304177104577313393458215040.html
Duhigg, C. & Barboza, D. (2012). In China, human costs are built into an iPad. New York Times. Retrieved March 31, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/26/business/ieconomy-apples-iPad-and-the-human-costs-for-workers-in-china.html?pagewanted=all
Discuss the key difference between conducting a financial audit and a fraud audit, and the related level of responsibility of the auditing firm.
Financial audits are typically carried out by certified public accountants or outside agencies or firms that work directly on behalf of individual companies. At times financial audits may be initiated by government entities. The audit itself is more of a "double-check" of financial reports and practices (Weinberg, 2003). Financial audits are deemed complete upon verification that numbers are accurate. Completed financial audits may prove or disprove information, but discrepancies will typically not result in the same serious consequences as those uncovered during a fraud investigation or audit.
Fraud auditing usually comes at the demand of the U.S. court system - usually the work is carried out by the government or privately-held third parties. Fraud audits look for dishonesty and hidden figures. They probe deeper than…
Dyck, A., Morse, A., & Zingales, L. (2010). Who Blows the Whistle on Corporate Fraud?. Journal of Finance, 65(6), 2213-2253. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6261.2010.01614.x.
Lee, A. (2012). MF Global client funds: how new NFA proposal would work. International Financial Law Review, 41.
Spencer, J. (2011, December 14). MF Global: A search for answers and millions of dollars. Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN).
Weinberg, J.A. (2003). Accounting for Corporate Behavior. Economic Quarterly (10697225), 89(3), 1-20.
This literature review looks at the question of SEO return characteristics of large and small firms from several different perspectives. The goal is to determine whether small firms are more effected by the equity offering than larger firms. This section examines the overall evidence for performance issues (including financial anomalies and manager performance) and whether research indicates evidence for a rational or behavioral explanation.
A firm's success in a seasoned equity or initial public offering is determined by many factors that are seemingly disconnected, but which the research shows are interdependent. Among these are the anomalies that cannot adequately be described by rational theories of pricing. As an example, Li (2012) suggests that the cyclical nature of the economy has a far greater effect on certain types of offerings (IPOs and SEOs among them) than was previously thought. Again, the relatively unpredictable nature of firms and investors…
Abhyankar, A., & Ho, K.-Y. (2001). Is long-horizon abnormal performance after seasoned equity offerings illusory? New evidence from the UK. Retrieved from http://www.fin.ntu.edu.tw/~conference2002/proceding/3-1.pdf
Brau, J.C., Brown, R.A., Osteryoung, J.S. (2004). Do venture capitalists add value to small manufacturing firms? An empirical analysis of venture and non-venture capital-backed initial public offerings. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(1).
Brau, J.C., & Osteryoung, J.S. (2001). The determinants of successful micro-IPOs: An analysis of issues made under the small corporate offering registration (SCOR) procedure. Journal of Small Business Management, 39(3).
Brav, A., Michaely, R., Roberts, M., & Zarutskie, R. (2009). Evidence on the tradeoff between risk and return for IPO and SEO firms. Financial Management, 38(2).
Ethics: Take it From the Top
Ethics take it from the Top
The essay "Ethics: Take It from the Top" is written by Maynard Dolecheck and Carolyn Dolecheck, who discussed the problem of unethical business practices and suggested some solutions to eliminate it. As the name indicates, the authors suggested that ethics must be followed by the top-level management so that the low level employees follow them without any fear. According to them, unethical business practices are quite common all around U.S. And organizations do not consider the limits of unethical and illegal actions. Also, the violations of client's rights are common because of the absence of some pre-defined rules which are obligatory in order to safeguard consumer's rights. Hence according to authors, there always remain an invisible boundary between ethical and unethical practices and everyone treats it in his own way. They rightly provided the example of Best estern…
Dolecheck, M.M and Dolecheck, C.C. (1989). Ethics: Take It from the Top. Copyright Dolecheck and Dolecheck.
ole of Cyberspace in International elations: A Literature eview
Cyberspace became a household term after it was adopted by computer professionals and popularized in the 1990s (Slater, 2002). Before that, it was used most often in science fiction movies and books. It relates to the environment in which communication occurs over and/or between computer networks. With the growth of the internet, many people began referring to cyberspace as the "place" where everything happened online (Slater, 2002). Technically, of course, cyberspace is not really a physical place. It is just the term chosen to be used by most of the general public when they discuss where something "goes" when it is sent from one computer. For example, an email that failed to reach its destination without explanation may be said to have been "lost in cyberspace." While that is not, technically, accurate, everyone who deals with computers and the internet understands…
Baylis, J., Smith, S., & Owens, P. (2011). The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations. NY: Oxford University Press.
Granville, J. (2003). Dot.con: The dangers of cyber crime and a call for proactive solutions. Australian Journal of Politics and History, 49(1): 102-109.
Roskin, M.G., & Berry, N.O. (2009). IR: The New World of International Relations (8th ed.). NY: Pearson.
Slater, D. (2002). Social relationships and identity online and offline. In L. Lievrouw & S. Livingston (eds), The Handbook of New Media. London: Sage.
According to prior research studies, plagiarism is not just appearing in the academic environment. Now, plagiarism is being seen in corporate America as a way to "adjust" information that might otherwise seem unfavorable to stakeholders, higher-ups, or others who will be provided information regarding something to do with the company. Financial issues are often a part of the plagiarism issue, but there are other concerns that are not related to the company's finances. No matter what concerns a corporation has, it should be honest about those concerns and not attempt to cover them up with dishonesty of any kind. There are other dishonest practices other than plagiarism that are used in corporations today, but plagiarism is one of the more common problems that is discovered. It appears to be acceptable until it is discovered, and it is important that the researcher examines just how much plagiarism is permeating…
Aguilera, R., & Vadera, A. (2008). The dark side of authority: Antecedents, mechanisms, and outcomes of organizational corruption. Journal of Business Ethics, 77, 431-449.
Bailey, J. (2008, January). Whistleblowing: An international perspective. Internal Auditing, 23, 20-25.
Dewey, J. (1963). Experience and education. New York, NY: Collier Books.
Haggerty, J., & McKinnon, J. (2004, September 24). Fannie Mae ousters might come. Wall Street Journal, p. A12.
Like all other aspects of business today, security systems often prove to be highly complex and hard (even for the participants) to identify.
The culture of an organization is like the culture of a family, a community, or a nation: Because it surrounds the people in it they often have a great deal of difficulty in recognizing to what extent policies and procedures arise from the constraints of culture and what therefore can be relatively easily changed. Matz (2010) summarizes the ways in which organizational culture both supports an organization and can blind the individuals in it to ways in which their actions may no longer be as effective as they once were:
… the essence of organisational cultures consists of a set of 'unspoken rules' that exist without conscious knowledge of the members of the organisation. Over time the invisibility of the attributes at the deepest level…
Dalton, D.R. (2003). Rethinking Corporate Security in the Post 9/11 Era, New York: Butterworth-Heinemann
Deal, T.E. & Kennedy, a.A. (1982). Corporate Cultures: The Rites, and Rituals of Corporate Life, London: Penguin.
Gartenberg, M. (2005). How to develop an enterprise security policy. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/98896/How_to_develop_an_enterprise_security_policy .
Johnston, L. & Shearing, C. (2003). Governing Security: Explorations in Policing and Justice. London: Routledge.
This type of evidence includes perception and memory, is subjective, and can be inaccurate. Almost all evidence must be sponsored by a witness who has sworn or solemnly affirmed to tell the truth. All persons are presumed to be qualified to serve as witnesses in trials and other legal proceedings, and all persons are also presumed to have a legal obligation to serve as witnesses if their testimony is sought. Witnesses are generally required to give their testimony in the form of statements regarding what they saw, heard, felt, tasted, or smelled, and they are generally forbidden to express opinion or draw conclusions. A person who is not testifying as an expert will be allowed to present an opinion as testimony if his opinion is both rationally based on his perception and helpful to an understanding of his testimony. Opinions of a competent layperson are specifically permitted by rule, statute,…
Waltz, Jon R. And Park, Roger C. (1998) Gilbert Law Summaries: Evidence. 17th Edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Legal and Professional Publications.
Herbalife: Ethical Issues
Herbalife is a company selling herbal products for health and dietary purposes. In order to do this, the company recruits interested people to help them sell their products. The way in which this is done is however questioned for its apparent unethical nature. The aspects of the case, together with the ethical issues involved, are discussed below.
Donaldson (127-128) provides three broad theories of ethics that can be applied to the situation of Herbalife. The first of these is deontology. According to this theory, a sense of duty accompanies all actions. This dictates that some acts are morally obligatory, regardless of the practical or economic consequences of such an act. The second theory pertains to rights. Especially during the new millennium, the issue of human rights has been at the top of business agendas. This then is also one of the major theories regarding ethics in…
Desjardins, J.R. And J.J. McCall. Contemporary Issues in Business Ethics. Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1996.
Donaldson, J. Business Ethics. London: Academic Press, 1992.
Hawken, P. "A Teasing Irony." In Business and the Environment. Edited by Richard Welford and Richard Starkey. London: Earthscan Publications, Ltd., 1996.
Shaw, W.H. And V. Barry. Moral Issues in Business. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1995.
Small usiness' Need for a CPA
One of the critical investments a small business can make to mitigate loss and risk is hiring a CPA and putting that CPA on the 'management team.' As Wells notes in his groundbreaking research, "Denise, a bookkeeper for a small trucking firm in irmingham, Alabama, wishes she had never heard of Ralph Summerford, CPA. ecause of his thoroughness, Denise is facing several years in prison for embezzling $550,000 from her employer. At least she will look good standing before the sentencing judge: Denise spent a great deal of her illegal loot on head-to-toe cosmetic surgery. She blew the rest on a shiny new Lexus, luxury vacations, clothing and jewelry. And, of course, Denise had to have a big house to store all of her finery." (Wells, 2003)
Surprisingly, it was not at all the fancy standard of living that made her employer suspicious. "The…
Wells, Joseph. 2003. Protect small business: small companies without adequate internal controls need CPAs to help them minimize fraud risk. Journal of Accountancy.
Small Business Administration. 2005. www.sba.gov.
Federal Reserve Bank. 2004. www.federalreserve.gov.
AICPA. 2005. At www.aicpa.org/antifraud/training/homepage/htm.
motivates people or corporations to partake in enterprise crime?
Among the peculiar aspects that come with business ethics, as in comparison with other domain names of applied ethics, is it handles a wide array of human matters which are more often than not stricken by serious criminality, as well as an institutional structure and atmosphere that is also oftentimes noticeably criminally inclined (Hilts, 2003). The oddity of the situation may also be lost on professionals within the area. It's quite common, for example, at business ethics discussions for most of presentations to become more concerned with straight-forward criminality and they tend to avoid ethical issues within these debates which are actually where we find frequent questions regarding where the correct strategy for countering crimes lies. In this way, all of the discussions of the 'ethics dilemmas' at the beginning of the twenty-first century continues to be very deceptive, since the…
Doris, J.: 2002, Lack of Character (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge).
Friedrichs, D. O. And Schwartz, M.D. (2008). Low Self-Control and High Organizational Control: The Paradoxes of White Collar Crimes. In E. Goode (Ed.), Out of Control? Assessing the general theory of crime (pp. 145-159). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press
Heath, J. 2008, Business Ethics and Moral Motivation: A Criminological Perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 83:595 -- 614.
Heath, J.: 2006, 'Business Ethics Without Stakeholders', Business Ethics Quarterly 16, 533 -- 557.
The court originally found that Fisher had a comparable worth to her make colleagues. In fact, she actually published more than they did (204-205).
4. Termination of Tenured Faculty For Cause
The American Association of University Professors has recommended that universities extend adopt regulations for dismissing tenured faculty for "adequate cause," but leave the specifics up to the university (215). Tenured university professors can be relieved of their duty for cause if they fail to maintain their "fitness" as "teachers and researchers" (215-216). One example of how this policy can be interpreted for individual universities is a university that required a tenured professor two have a review of unsatisfactory performance for two consecutive years before being terminated for cause, in addition to "clear and convincing evidence" of this status. Misconduct, neglect, and dishonesty are other conditions that would require the dismissal of a tenured faculty member for cause (216). Courts…
Conflict of social norms and its effect on school environment
Social norms can be defined as the rules that determine what should be done or avoided by people in their social settings and circumstances. Norms make sure that people keep promises, ranging from the lane to drive on, to sticking by the golden rule. These are tools for explaining phenomena. They are used to analyze the state of the world even as great as international diplomacy or as subtle and ordinary as traffic rules. However, the body of knowledge regarding norms is spread across disciplines and traditions of research with unclear guidelines or consensus on the way the term should be put to use. Existing research on the subject has largely majored on the effects of the norms and the content of the same. By description, social norms cut across such disciplines as sociology, game theory, economics, and legal studies…
I couldn't have imagined their lives even if I had tried. (Broyard, p.42).
hen she reveals this, Broyard demonstrates an attitude that is probably shared by many white people; a desire to talk about race, but the concern that even broaching the topic is impolite. Therefore, the gulf between the races gets wider and wider.
Broyard also acknowledges the problem with claiming her own African-American identify. Talking about her first post-funeral meeting with her father's family, Broyard discusses her thoughts about claiming to be black, when she had no real life experiences as a black woman. She asked herself:
Had I ever had trouble getting a cab or service in a store or the respect of my colleagues because of the color of my skin? as I ever judged not as an individual but as a credit or an embarrassment to my race? Had anyone ever assumed I was stupid,…
Broyard, Bliss. One Drop: My Father's Hidden Life - a Story of Race and Family Secrets.
New York: Little, Brown, and Company, 2007.
Abolish Grading" by Paul Goodman
Paul Goodman's essay entitled, "A Proposal to Abolish Grading" is analyzes the effect of grading to student performance. Goodman's essay raises the question on whether grading is a good measure of determining student performance in schools and universities. The author's position in the essay states clearly that he is against grading as a measure that will be used in determining school performance, and this position is supported by three primary reasons. Goodman's first stance is that the pressure that a student gets from trying to achieve a higher grade in order to pass results to plagiarism and cheating; the second stance concerns the 'irrelevancy" of grading as a measure that will determine whether a student performed very well in school or not, and this is crucial when grades are used for appraising a student for his or her future career; and lastly, grading results to…
Democratization, Culture and Underdeveloped Nations
This paper looks at the issue of culture and democratization in underdeveloped countries. The paper is based on research conducted through a systematic review of the current literature on the subject, from policy documents published by bodies such as the IMF and the World ank, to academic papers written by workers in this field, to online discussion forums (which can be an extremely valuable source for assessing 'grass roots' opinions regarding issues such as this).
The paper begins with a basic introduction to some key topics, through a discussion of questions such as 'What is democracy?', 'What is culture?', 'What is an underdeveloped country', and 'What does democracy mean at the present time for people in the United States, and the rest of the developed world, and for people in underdeveloped countries'?
What do we mean, as a citizen of the United States, when we…
Abizedah, A. (2002). Does Liberal Democracy Presuppose a Cultural Nation? Four Arguments. American Political Science Review 96(3).
Adams, D. And Goldbard, A. (1995). Cultural Democracy: A Brief Introduction. Available at http://www.wwcd.org/cd.html . Accessed 13th January 2003.
Elshtain, JB (1993). Democracy on Trial. Concrod, Ontario: Anansi.
Kasfir (2000) Democracy in Translation: Understanding Politics in an Unfamiliar Culture (Book Review). American Political Science Review September 2000.
Higher Education: Ethics of International Student ecruitment
In recent years, the number of students crossing national borders in pursuit of education has increased significantly. This phenomenon is also referred to as 'global student mobility' and it can be attributed to the students' desire for migration, the inability to find study opportunities in their home countries, and the desire to improve their employability in their home countries. According to the National Association for College Admission Counseling, NACAC (2014), enrolments of international students at institutions of higher learning have more than quadrupled over the last three decades, from a total of 1.1 million in 1985 to 4.5 million in 2012. In fact, global mobile population is expected to exceed 7 million in 2025. Wilkins and Huisman (2011) state that the United States, United Kingdom and Australia are the three most popular destinations for international students and they account for almost 44% of…
Altbach, P. G & Reisberg, L. (2013). The Pursuit of International Students in a Commercialized World. International Higher Education. Vol.(73)1, 2-4.
Engberg, D. (2013). International Recruitment: Oversight and Standards. International Higher Education. Vol.(73)1, 6-7.
Huang, I.Y., Raimo, V., & Humfrey, C (2014): Power and Control: Managing Agents for International Student Recruitment in Higher Education. Retrieved 6 May 2015 FOM http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.968543
Kallur, R. & Reeves, M. (2006). Guidelines for Ethical practices in International Student Recruitment. Association of International Educators. Retrieved 7 May 2015 from http://www.nafsa.org/Find_Resources/Supporting_International_Students_And_Scholars/Network_Resources/International_Enrollment_Management/Guidelines_for_Ethical_Practices_in_International_Student_Recruitment/
(apaport 1942: 149)
It is important here to have some framework with which to discuss parapraxes
Aitchison, as a psycholinguist blends both the disciplines of psychology and linguistics to give a more balanced view overall. She proposes first two broad definitions for type of parapraxis. (1998: 244) the first is when a wrong item or word is unintentionally chosen, these are generally referred to as slips of the tongue and an example would be, "Did you remember to buy some toothache?" eplacing the word toothpaste, which was intended, with toothache, which was unintended. She also refers to these more properly as slips of the brain. Secondly there is a classification of errors that are due to the faulty assemblages of the language within the statement. The word choice is usually correct but the grammatical assemblage of the statement is not. Here is an example she uses of this:, "Someone's been…
Aitchison, Jean. 1998. The Articulate Mammal: An Introduction to Psycholinguistics. London: Routledge.
Bear, Gordon. 1992. 'A Freudian Slip?.' Teaching of Psychology 19:174-175.
Coles, Robert (2000) Darwin, freud, and adam phillips. Raritan 19 (4), p1
De Chumaceiro, Cora L. D'az. 1997. 'Serendipity and Its Analogues in Runco's Problem Finding, Problem Solving, and Creativity.' Creativity Research Journal 10:87-89.
person steals the property or possession of another, the action is considered both a criminal and moral offense that if caught, the corresponding penalties are meted out. The matter is easily provable because what was taken is a tangible entity that provides solid proof of the usurpation. The issue becomes contentious when what has been stolen is intangible especially if these are original ideas, thoughts, designs and concepts. This then comes under the purview of plagiarism, a well-known offense not only in the academic circles but in the milieus dealing with intellectual property rights and copyright. Plagiarism should be differentiated from copyright though wherein "copyright is an area of civil and criminal law that prevents a series of uses of a qualifying creative work [while] plagiarism is a primarily ethical issue that centers around the dishonesty of claiming another's work as your own (ailey, 2011)." Nonetheless, plagiarism at its plainest…
Bailey, J. (2011). The role of copyright in fighting plagiarism: Part 1 and 2. PlagiarismToday. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.plagiarismtoday.com/2011/07/05/role-of-copyright-fighting-plagiarism-part/
Hansen, B. (2003, September 19). Combating plagiarism. The CQ Researcher, 13(32): 773-796. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.cqpress.com/docs/Combating%20Plagiarism.pdf
Institute for Interactive Media and Learning. (2007, April 18). Why students plagiarise. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.iml.uts.edu.au/assessment/plagiarism/why.html
iParadigms, LLC. (2011). Plagiarism. Retrieved July 8, 2011 from http://www.plagiarism.org/
Dean of Students,
As I prepare to meet with you this coming week, I do so with a full understanding of the seriousness of my offense. However, this is an understanding that I have truly only gained during the last year and as a result of my own regrettable actions. Last year, I was accused of plagiarism for failing to properly quote and cite some of the sources that I used to complete a research paper for a Geography 100 level course. I am sorry to say that I am guilty of this offense.
However, I hope to make it clear to you in our meeting that this offense was not committed out of malice or dishonesty. It was a simple error in judgment and one that I will never make again. After enduring this process while simultaneously attempting to remain on top of my current studies, I have gained…
english topic Steroid. I specific details topic Steroid Use Sports. steroid ? famous types steroid sport function type. good bad effective steroid athletes steroid ? steroid affect short-term long-term.
Steroids: are they a necessary evil?
Society traditionally encouraged people to experience progress in any field that they possibly could and this made it difficult for some to keep up with the fact that the world was constantly changing. In their struggle to keep up and even to be recognized for their contributions, some individuals have turned to using controversial methods. Athletes are provided with difficult choices as they feel the need to satisfy the needs of their fans. Society is indirectly responsible for the fact that some athletes use steroids because of the pressure that it puts on their shoulders. Many athletes today use steroids at the expense of their own health because they know that this is one of…
Dilingham, Michael, "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/steriods-ethics.html
Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)
Hecht, Annabel, "Anabolic Steroids: Pumping Trouble," FDA Consumer Sept. 1984
Sender Aaron J. "Anabolic Steroids for non-therapeutic use," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the New York University Website: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jaeger/anabolic_steroids.htm
Saints and the oughnecks by William Chambliss is a masterpiece study in Seattle suburb in the 1970s and it demonstrates the significance of connecting the macro and micro factors together. (Conformity, deviance and Crime) The Saints and the oughnecks were two clusters of boys from the same Hanibal High School, who got involved in the same kinds of abnormal behaviors but were branded differently by the public. (Violence; Disease or Attitude) The Saints belonged to upper-middle-class families, while the oughnecks belonged to a lower socioeconomic setting. (Conformity, deviance and Crime) The saints were a cluster of eight young men of fine, steady, white upper-middle class families on the pre-college track in high school, who were vigorous in school affairs, who associate in unbelievably large amounts of absenteeism, much of drinking and driving, quite a bit of little stealing and vandalism, and loads of deceiving in school, but cope up to…
"Conformity, deviance and Crime" (2003) Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/giddens4/chapters/chapter7/welcome.htm Accessed on 14 November, 2004
'Self-Fulfilling Prophecies" Retrieved from http://www94.homepage.villanova.edu/peter.knapp/IthemeSFP.htm Accessed on 14 November, 2004
'Theories of Deviance: Conflict Theory" Retrieved from http://www.d.umn.edu/~bmork/2306/Theories/BAMconflict2.htm Accessed on 14 November, 2004
'The Saints and the Roughnecks" Retrieved from http://chat.wcc.cc.il.us/~kwestman/Week_7_Chambliss01.htm Accessed on 14 November, 2004
The Preliminary Complaint process consists of consultation by the grievant with the Director of Affirmative Action (DAA); completion of a complaint form within 6 months of the incident; forwarding of the complaint to the accused by the DAA and a preliminary enquiry by him; discussion of the complaint by the DAA with the accused after which the DAA may dismiss the complaint, resolve it, or refer it to the Ray Allen Ethics Board for a formal hearing. The complaints are held in camera and the hearing body consists of the Board with a minimum of 5 members. Formal hearing begins with mailing of a notice to the accused; the person charged has a right to request for delay in hearing; both parties can request for exclusion of any Board member if they apprehend bias and have the right of an adviser during the hearing. The hearing may be held in…
Although supervisors have an obligation to foster an atmosphere in which supervisees feel capable of being forthcoming with important information, we must also be concerned with the possibility that trainees may have predispositions toward nondisclosure, as well as the risk of liability associated with certain types of nondisclosure.
Ellis & Douce (1994) believe that there are eight supervisory themes and issues tend to recur in-group supervisor supervision (i.e., supervisor anxiety, intervention choices, group cohesion, responsibility, parallel process, power struggles, individual differences, and sexual attraction). Given the importance of supervisory issues in counselor supervision (Ellis, 1991), it is reasonable to expect that the eight issues may be important for effective supervisor supervision. In fact, our experience suggests that assessing and confronting these supervisory issues successfully is an integral part of supervisor supervision. Therefore, in the next section we discuss the eight issues and suggest intervention strategies to address them.
American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy. (1999). AAMFT supervisor designation: Standards and responsibilities handbook. Washington, DC: Author.
American Counseling Association. (1995). Code of ethics and standards of practice. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologist and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, 1597-1611.
American Psychological Association. (2001). Draft of ethics code [Online] Available: