Accounting Ethics Essays (Examples)

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Ethics in Accounting Companies Are

Words: 1125 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62694225

Education on ethics must be wider compared to "moral development" in that it must tackle the broader consideration of a wide-ranging vocation, and constricted in that it must tackle problems particularly to the accounting vocation. (esearch on Accounting Ethics)

Definite duties of the accounting profession are put forth in the different code of ethics circulated by important establishments like the AICPA. The AICPA's foremost rule of professional conduct declares: In discharging their duties as professionals, associates must implement responsive professional and moral views in all their works. (Business and Accounting Ethics) the failure of auditor sovereignty infringing ule 101 of the AICPA Code of Professional Conduct was the topic of a research project using 2,000 arbitrarily chosen AICPA members in public accounting profession as a staff auditor, senior, or manager. These executives were offered with 15 roles that are an infringement of ule 101 and were directed to give their…… [Read More]


Accounting and Accountability: A Challenge for corporate culture. The 13th International Symposium on Ethics, Business and Society. IESE Business School, University of Navarra. Barcelona, Spain. May 7-8, 2004. Retrieved at Accessed on 25 April, 2005.

Schachter, Joseph. Research on Accounting Ethics. CPA Journal. April 1999. Retrieved at Accessed on 25 April, 2005.

Smith, Katherine T; Smith, Murphy. L. Business and Accounting Ethics. 21 June, 2003.

Retrieved at Accessed on 25 April, 2005.
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Ethics and Independence in the Accounting Profession

Words: 1585 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9326788

Ethics and Independence in the Accounting Profession

There are according to the text, two primary reasons that people act unethically. A person will act unethically if there standards differ substantially from those of society "as a whole" or if the person chooses consciously to act in a selfish manner.

There is no profession more profoundly impacted by the effects of ethical standards that the accounting profession. The effects of ethical and unethical behavior on independence and daily functioning are implicit in everything an individual in the accounting profession does.

ecently there have been many public 'scandals' within the accounting profession, re-establishing the need for attention to ethical standards and training within the field of accounting. Public cases such as Enron have resulted in a diminished sense of trust among the public with regard to the accounting profession.

In times of old individuals pursuing the accounting profession as a career might…… [Read More]


Dettmer, J. (2002). "Enron casts dark shadow on academe." Insight on the News, 18(9):


Rothenburg, E. (2003). "Incorporating business ethics into introductory accounting courses." The CPA Journal, 73(10): 6

Sack, R. (1991). "Integrating ethics into the accounting curriculum." Journal of Accountancy, 172(4): 43
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Accounting Has Been Nothing if Not a

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89936224

Accounting has been nothing if not a dynamic, global discipline over the last two decades. The role of the accountant has changed dramatically during that time and will continue to do so -- as will the nature of the challenges that the accounting profession faces"

Over the past twenty years, the modern business community has been faced with the challenges of globalization, the new predominance of technology in business affairs, and the creation of a service-based 'knowledge economy' versus a manufacturing-based one. The profession of accounting has had to adapt to this new environment. "Business internationalization and globalization has facilitated the transfer of capital and information across national borders, with economic power residing in holders of particular knowledge sets. Business and management location is becoming increasingly irrelevant and management and accounting work is becoming multidisciplinary" (Parker 2002).

Globalization has lead to more uniform regulations in accounting. Until recently, U.S. accountants…… [Read More]


GAAP'S Last Stand IFRS is no rumor -- welcome to the next phase of financial reporting.

2011. Periso. Accessed: / [June 23, 2011]

Parker, Lee D. 2002. Reinventing the managerial accountant. Glasgow University.
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Ethics Issue Affecting Accountants in the United States

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19714383

Ethical Issues Affecting Accountants

The need for ethical standards within the corporate accounting field is urgent, and this paper delves into ethical issues. Given the fact that rules can be bent and manipulated, this paper also points to potential ways in which ethics can become as important as rules.

hile there has apparently been a "shift in the ethical behavior of management" -- which is related to the corruption and convictions of accountant-related individuals with Enron and Author Anderson -- the literature indicates that there are still ethical issues to be addressed within the industry (Bolt-Lee, et al., 2010, p. 38). Research presented in the peer-reviewed Journal of Accountancy shows that subsequent to the Enron and other scandals, there is a movement toward a "…more heightened state of ethical awareness" that is apparently due to "…the greater likelihood of punitive consequences" (Bolt-Lee, 38).

In the Bolt-Lee article, the authors allude…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, Barbara L. (2010). Using Game-Based Learning to Raise the Ethical Awareness of Accounting Students. Business Education Innovation Journal, 2(2), 86-93.

Bolt-Lee, Cynthia E., and Moody, Janette. (2010). Highlights of Finance and Accounting Ethics

Research. Journal of Accountancy, 210(4), 38-41.

Spalding, Albert D., and Oddo, Alfonso. (2012). It's Time for Principles-Based Accounting
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Ethics and Regulatory Issues Related Party Transactions

Words: 1867 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88648210

Ethics and egulatory Issues

elated party transactions reported on by Arthur Andersen & Co.

Flaw in the accounting firm's logic

Checklist for special projects performed by external auditors


Proposed rules or laws to prevent similar occurrences

Enron was one of the Wall Street's favorite blue chip stocks before an accounting scandal of the firm surfaced in 2000. The revelation that company has been misreporting its profits and losses during 1990s crashed the company's stock. The earnings and debt statements were not representative of the actual accounting transactions. Thus, a serious issue of bankruptcy ensued after this revelation. There were several ethical aspects of this issue as well. Following the details of accounting malpractices that the company through its accounting firm Arthur Andersen (Benston, 2003).

elated party transactions reported on by Arthur Andersen & Co.

Chewco Investments, L.P. ("Chewco"): Chewco was also a related party of Enron and it was…… [Read More]


Benston, G.J. (2003). Following the money: The Enron failure and the state of corporate disclosure. Brookings Inst Press.

Carcello, J.V., & Nagy, A.L. (2004). Client size, auditor specialization and fraudulent financial reporting. Managerial Auditing Journal, 19(5), 651-668.

International Federation of Accountants. (2009). Overall Objectives of the Independent Auditor and the Conduct of an Audit in Accordance with International Standards on Auditing. International Standard on Auditing 200. New York, NY: IFAC.

Powers, W.C., Troubh, R.S., & Winokur, H.S. (2002). Report of investigation by the special investigative committee of the board of directors of Enron Corp.
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Ethics Cable Provider Adelphia Was One of

Words: 1523 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26228668


Cable provider Adelphia was one of the major accounting scandals of the early 2000s that led to the creation of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. A key provision of the Act was to create a stronger ethical climate in the auditing profession, a consequence of the apparent role that auditors played in some of the scandals. SOX mandated that auditors cannot audit the same companies for which they provide consulting services, as this link was perceived to result in audit teams being pressured to perform lax audits in order to secure more consulting business from the clients. There were other provisions in SOX that increased the regulatory burden on the auditing profession in response to lax auditing practices in scandals like Adelphia (McConnell & Banks, 2003). This paper will address the Adelphia scandal as it relates to the auditors, and the deontological ethics of the situation.


Adelphia was once a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

McConnell, D. & Banks, G. (2003). How Sarbanes-Oxley will change the audit process. Journal of Accountancy. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from 

Barlaup, K., Dronen, I. & Stuart, I. (2009). Restoring trust in auditing: Ethical discernment and the Adelphia scandal. Managerial Auditing Journal. Vol. 24 (2) 183-203.

Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from
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Ethics Case A There Are

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29736200

The controller's objectives in this situation are to accurately reflect the state of the business; the president's request runs directly counter to this objective.

c) The controller should not be concerned with Ruiz Co.'s growth rate. The duty of the controller is to record as accurately as possible the company's financial condition. Accuracy is the most important consideration for the controller. The firm's growth rate is the responsibility of other managers.

The controller's duty of care is owed to the shareholders, regulators and other parties who are affected by the accuracy level of the financial statements. The duty, however, is not to provide the shareholders with a level of growth or to manage their expectations. The duty of the controller is to accurately reflect the firm's financial state.

As such, the controller in this situation should refuse the president's request. The request is made in bad faith, and does not…… [Read More]

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Ethics and the Internet as the Computer

Words: 2727 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52112119

Ethics and the Internet

As the computer has evolved in the modern world, so the potential for communication has also increased. The computer, and the development of the Internet, has meant that human society has become more connected than ever before and the barriers between nations and people around the globe have been broken down. While this is a positive development in many ways, the growth of the Internet has also meant that there has been an increase in a wide range of new problems. One of these is the issue of ethics. "Just as ethics evolve as human societies grow and change, so similar ethical questions are raised during the evolution of this global electronic community." (Ethics on the Web)

The more that technology for communication and open publication of information advances, the more questions are raised about issues relating to moral codes of behavior and problems about what…… [Read More]


Ethics. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. March 11, 2005.

Ethics on the Web. 1995, Accessed March 11, 2005, 

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Ethics the CPA Firm Is Under Pressure

Words: 1194 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32295882


The CPA firm is under pressure to adapt to an ever-changing marketplace. The global environment affects not only large corporations, but smaller entities as well. Additionally, the customer(s) are constantly being wooed by the competition, lower prices, and online convenience that was not available only a few short years ago. In order to maintain and grow the firm, action must be taken to keep clientele from leaving, while enticing new clients to move their business to the firm. It seems as if globalization has brought added pressure to small firms, yet opportunities still abound. This is not the 'normal' business environment that one might expect. As one recent study found however; "the management of abnormal situations becomes more important every day" (Aguilar, Prato, Bravo, ivas, 2009, p. 406).

There are certain aspects of accounting that customers expect from their accountant and the firm that he/she works for. One of…… [Read More]


Aguilar, J.; Prato, F.; Bravo, C.; Rivas, F.; (2009) A multi-agent system for the management of abnormal situations in an artificially gas-lifted well, Applied Artificial Intelligence, Vol. 23, Issue 5, pp. 406 -- 426

Gardels, N.; (2007) America no longer owns globalization, New Perspectives Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 2 -- 5

John Wiley and Sons; (2006) Ethics in Accounting, accessed on April 12, 2012 at:

Kreng, V.B. & May-Yao, H.; (2011) Corporate social responsibility: Consumer behavior, corporate strategy, and public policy, Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, Vol. 39, Issue 4, pp. 529 -- 541
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Ethics and the Auditor Looking

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25794906

Such accounting is accounting from a purely realistic and numerical perspective, having nothing to do with what those numbers would signify in the context of life within the larger society.

All accountants must swear by a strict code of ethics, yet auditors have a unique experience which places them in an even more sensitive position, calling for even more attention to ethical accounting behavior. Auditors have to deal with laboriously examining the financial records of a particular individual or organization. Often times, the auditor may already come with a bias, because there is a need for an audit based on some financial misgiving or mistake on a tax report or other important financial document. Still, it is the ethical responsibility of the auditor to remain objective and provide an unbiased service that allows for the proper examination and evaluation of financial duties and responsibilities without placing individuals or organizations under…… [Read More]


El-Moukammal, Hisham. (2009). Auditors' code of ethics. The Certified Accountant. Web.
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Ethics and Accounting - Financial Decision-Making Ethics

Words: 1093 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77157584

Ethics and Accounting - Financial Decision-Making

Ethics in Accounting and Financial Decision Making

The article Ethical guidance and constraints under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 by .M. Orin (2008), espouses the belief that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act did not go far enough in its desire to stop unethical financial practices by businesses. The article addresses what the Act actually does, which is to help companies practice more due diligence and lessen the chances of getting involved in unethical financial practices. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act involves important legal issues. The due diligence is one of those issues, but another is the need for accountants and lawyers to report the corporations they work with for wrongdoing if they see or suspect a serious financial issue (Coffee, 2002). This has been a concern for some because it technically compromises the attorney-client privilege. This was necessary, though, in the face of all of the corporate scandals…… [Read More]


Coffee, J.C. Jr. (2002, September). Leading issues under Sarbanes-Oxley, Part 1, New York Law Journal: 5.

Koehn, J.L. & Del Vecchio, S.C. (2004, February). Ripple effects of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The CPA Journal: 36-40.

Orin, R.M. (2008). Ethical guidance and constraints under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Journal of Accounting Auditing and Finance: 141-171.
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Ethics in Business Accounting Standards Accounting Standards

Words: 786 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59413102

Ethics in Business: Accounting Standards

Accounting Standards

Ethics in Business

Accounting Standards

The objective of this work is to address the relationship among the FASB, SEC, and PCAOB and to provide explanations of basic accounting theories, assumptions and principles; and finally to evaluate the role of ethics in accounting.

Victor, G. & Levitin, M. (2004) Current SEC and PCAOB Developments -- September 2004. The national conference of the AICPA in relation to recent SEC developments convened in Washington D.C. And boasted more than 2,000 attendees from "accounting firms, private industry, and government" while representatives from the SEC, Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB), FASB International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and AICPA shared their knowledge on various issues. Key was ethical standards among items on the agenda of the professional attending the meeting." (Victor and Levitin, 2004)


AICPA SEC Practice Section (SECPS) effectively changed its name and is now known…… [Read More]

Not only are accountants responsible in their professional judgments they also are under a requirement to follow "ever more prescriptive and detailed rules." (Pollock, 2005)

Summary & Conclusion

The new and differentiated types of technological applications that may be utilized in the accounting process leaves multiple methods open for use in accounting standards and practices. It is held by many experts reviewed in the process of reviewing the literature related to this work in writing that the many applications available have led to an entire new world in accounting. It appears that it is time to lay aside the hard-line regulations and rules and utilize that which is most effect, most expedient, most efficient and most ethically correct in choosing accounting standards in the contemporary and technologically advanced world.
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Ethics and Related Issues

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3922817

Ethics and elated Issues

Brief eview of the Case from the Auditors Point-of-View

Beaudean who has just become a senior partner at Cardinal and Coyote Audit firm has been tasked with doing a background check on a new client Jost Furniture International by Yancy Corliss a new partner at the firm where he works. Jost Furniture International is upbeat that Cardinal and Coyote stand to get the audit as long as they submit a reasonable bid. Background checks were to be conducted to ascertain whether Jost had potential risk as a future client to Cardinal and Coyote. Beaudean has other two staff members Vinnie Gabelli and Jackie Oloff with whom he will carry out Jost Furniture International Assessment. It is very risky to take on Jost Furniture International as a client because of the concerns that the predecessor audit firms had raised. An audit firm that had helped Jost Furniture…… [Read More]

References List

AICPA. (1988). Code of Professional Conduct. Retrieved June 5, 2013 from


Kimmel, P.D., Weygandt, J.J., & Kieso, D.E. (2011). Financial Accounting, (6th Ed). New

York: Wiley.
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Ethics With Respect to the Ethics Audit

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30800026


With respect to the ethics audit, the company shouldn't change anything other than to institute it. Where we left off, the ethics audit was external, and this is critical, because many of the current ethical issues arise because of the relationships within the company and the way that the different interests within the company are represented in the current ethics program. So the ethics audit has to be external.

The other issue with the ethics audit is that too many people within the company did not seem to want the external audit to take place. This is a major problem, so the delays in the timing of the external audit should be eliminated. The external audit needs to take place as soon as possible, which is the major change that should occur. Let the external auditors determine how and what to investigate -- their ability to ask questions that…… [Read More]

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Accounting Credibility the Accountability Failures

Words: 1413 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17956493

(5) Auditors and CPAs should consider several ways that the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and SEC implementation rules as a whole impact accountants and work closely with regulators to address these effects. (6) Public accounting firms need to reconsider external auditors' participation with their client's internal audit function and control structure. This reporting on the internal controls can be very useful and add value to the integrity and quality of the financial reporting process. However, management accepts full responsibility for the design and maintenance of the adequate and effective internal control system. (7) Auditors should advise their clients and make recommendations for the appropriate disclosures of financial information. A more timely, relevant, objective, and transparent financial reporting process should improve the quality, integrity, and reliability. (8) it is necessary to use more effective and objective audit procedures and related standards to improve audit efficiency. The role of independent auditors on financial statements…… [Read More]

Journal of Accountancy. 199(2) p. 74-75.

Rezaee, Z. (2004) Restoring public trust in the accounting profession by developing anti- fraud education, programs, and auditing Managerial Auditing Journal. 19(1): 134-148

Walker, D.M. (2005) Reclaiming public trust in the wake of recent corporate accountability failures International Journal of Disclosure and Governance 2(3):.. 264-271-279
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Ethics in Business Has Become

Words: 2102 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85250727

Training is part of this process, so that people explicitly understand the ethical culture of the company. Ethical cultures tend to be self-perpetuating because the people within the organization will hold themselves and their co-workers accountable. When you look at a company like Enron, large parts of that company were devoid of ethical standards, so it was much easier for the frauds to occur. Enron also highlights the need for ethical leadership in order to develop a highly-ethical culture. The organization looks to its leaders for ethical guidance and will likely adopt as part of the culture the ethical standards of the leaders. This is the point of the provisions in SOX holding the CEO and CFO accountable for accounting fraud and raises a lot of red flags about companies that would go private to dodge this requirement.

Lastly, there needs to be a compliance mechanism as well. Culture, training,…… [Read More]


Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from   

IBE. (2010). Ethical due diligence in recruitment. Institute of Business Ethics. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from 

McConnell, T. (2010).. Moral dilemmas. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved April 25, 2014 from 

Morgenstern, M. & Nealis, P. (2004). Going private: A reasoned response to Sarbanes-Oxley? Retrieved April 25, 2014 from
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Ethics Program Developing an Ethics

Words: 1667 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73904489

Priority of values should be identified so as to aid the organization avoid breaking laws by following the stipulated requirements of operation.

The top three of four values should be reviewed to help the organization determine which values currently help it fulfill its mandate. For example, in the accounting department, the organization should identify accuracy and confidentiality as the key values to the success of the department. Values needed to identify current issues should be brought to fore. This should be done by selecting a few people to interview the members of the organization in identifying key areas that require attention in the organization. Out of the issues identified, determine which ones are ethical and device ways in which the organization can solve them.

It should be noted that not all remedies can be obtained for any ethical dilemma that might arise. Emphasis should be made on dilemmas that don't…… [Read More]

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Ethics What Usefulness Does Ethics

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77696977

Therefore, the best way to help employees act ethically is to view the workplace and daily operations as a training ground.

In your estimation why is there a growing need for organizational ethics programs? What are the factors contributing to ethical problems in the global corporate world? What are possible solutions?

The need for organizational ethics program is growing for several reasons. First, organizational ethics have become crucial for companies to avoid legal and financial distress. Second, ethics help businesses run smoothly and well, attracting the best caliber of employee. Ethics programs are important especially in large organizations with a diverse staff. Global and multinational companies will be working with people from around the world, who operate in unique ethical environments. Ethics programs help multinational companies create standards for employees that will help avoid conundrums and miscommunication. Ethics programs bring all employees together on the same page and therefore become…… [Read More]

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Ethics in Decision-Making

Words: 537 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23221674

Ethics in Decision-Making

Clegg, Stewart Martin Kornberger & Carl Rhodes. (2007). Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making. he Sociological Review, 55:2.

According to Stewart Clegg, Martin Kornberger and Carl Rhodes' article, "Organizational ethics, decision making, undecidability, ethical decision-making" from the Sociological Review, ethical decision-making is not optimized with either an outcome-driven consequentialist approach nor a rule-bound deontological approach. "We suggest that rules for ethical decision making, rather than ensuring ethical outcomes, can work to insulate organizations from moral responsibility" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 393). Because of recent ethical scandals, there has been a drive to seek a heavily prescriptive and rule-bound approach to ethics, but the authors believe that "ethics is best considered in terms of the way that organizations are sites for ethical difficulties, dilemmas and deliberations (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 394). heorizing ambivalence in ethical decision-making is the ambitious goal of the article. he article uses the…… [Read More]

The solution of 'going by the rules' is often offered because of the difficulties and complexities of managerial decision-making in large organizations. Managers cannot perfectly calculate the 'correct' decision. In contrast to the ideal of perfect rationality, contemporary organizational theorists tend to see organizations as 'garbage cans' or mixes of personal and organizational ethical orientations. It is often uncertain what will 'tumble out' decision-wise, even when there are efforts to have policies in words. In the face of such randomness, a personal ethical orientation and sense of justice is required. "In Derrida sees decision-making as irretrievably implicated with issues of personal responsibility and ethics" (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 398).

For Derrida, rules are not useful and future-oriented utilitarian calculus is impossible. To simply follow the rules enters into the 'madness' of rationality, and echoes the protests of Nazi war criminals that they were just following orders and therefore their crimes were excused. A sense of personal responsibility and investment in every decision that has potential ethical consequences is required, and no human being, regardless of his or her level of the organizational hierarchy, can abdicate responsibility. Organizational acts that use authority, routine, and above all bureaucracy are usually the least ethical rather than the most (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 403). This statement seems supported by recent history, in which some of the least ethical actions (the accounting fraud at Enron, 'robo-signing' for foreclosures after the housing crisis) were done as a matter of routine, according to the set procedures of the organization.

What is called for in the article is more humane but also more difficult -- the sharpening of the ethical faculty of all corporate decision-makers. Responsibility cannot merely be technical, and ethics strives to affirm the humanity of the person whose fate is being decided, rather than to distance the decision-maker from that person through the affirmation of 'rules.' Instead of forcing workers to learn a corporate manual by rote, managers should strive to create virtuous beings: "management's task in relation to ethics should be one of enhancing and maintaining structures within which moral agents face, understand and act within the conditions of undecidability (Clegg, Kornberger, Rhodes 2007: 405).
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Ethics Consider the Three Purposes of Morality

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14921380


Consider the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter 1. Which of these would it be easier for utilitarianism to fulfill and which could well be more difficult for that system to fully meet?

Of the three purposes of morality treated in Chapter One, perhaps the easiest purpose for the ethical system of utilitarianism, as developed by the Englishman Jeremy Bentham, to meet would be to create a functional system of social ethics, or the ethical schema that holds a society together by its ethical 'glue.' Utilitarianism suggests that society, when pressed on many sides by the competition of different ethical claims, or even simply by different but equally valid claims for personal happiness, should choose the truth claim that allows for the greatest good for the greatest number of individuals within that particular society. For instance, the happiness of the many in my neighborhood to sleep late at…… [Read More]

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Ethics an Empirical Study of

Words: 4024 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8991795

.." And "The probability that my peers would undertake the same action is...." It is the difference in the responses given to these two questions, as captured on a seven point Likert scale, that is the measure of the social desirability response bias. (Tyson: 1992; Cohen et al.: 1995, 1996, 2001).

Many studies have been done on the role and correlation between moral development and ethical decision making as it applies to various professionals. A majority of these research studies have found that such things as gender, education, age and taking ethics courses in school have some affect on one's moral reasoning developments (Armstrong: 1993; Elm, Kennedy & Lawton: 2001; Jones & Hiltebeitel: 1995; Ponemon & Glazer: 1990; Shaub: 1994). However, many studies have also found exactly the opposite, in that no significant relationship exists. (Ma & Chan: 1987; Rogers & Smith: 2001; Thorne, Massey & Magnan: 2003).

Studies have…… [Read More]

Weber, J., & Glyptis, S.M. (2000). Measuring the impact of a business ethics course and community service experience on students' values and opinions. Teaching Business Ethics, 4, 341-358.

Weber, J., & Green, S. (1991). Principled Moral Reasoning: Is it a Viable Approach to Promote Ethical Integrity? Journal of Business Ethics, 10(5), 325-333.

Wynd, W.R., & Mager, J. (1989). The business and society course: Does it change student attitudes? Journal of Business Ethics, 8(6), 486-491.
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Accounting Resources in Any Industry

Words: 1713 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1738376

Then again, even the sites that allow for such commentary often don't receive any. PwC IFS hasn't received any comments in the past month on any of its articles, for instance, though it does provide accurate and fairly up-to-date information. Part of the reason for this could be the fact that this blog, like many others in the accounting world, are run by large firms -- Price Waterhouse Coopers, in this case. Though this does not mean there is necessarily a bias at work in the blog, and indeed certain differing opinions are allowed, the fact that the information on such blogs is so directly under the control of a single for-profit entity means it must be regarded as at least slightly suspect. As these resources are also free, however, there is no harm in regularly browsing them.


Accounting and Business esearch. Accessed via EBSCO 8 October 2009.

Accounting…… [Read More]


Accounting and Business Research. Accessed via EBSCO 8 October 2009.

Accounting Historian's Journal. Accessed via EBSCO 8 October 2009.

Accounting and the Public Interest. Accessed via EBSCO 8 October 2009.

Accounting Today. Daily print periodical. 2009 issues reviewed.
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Ethics in a Long-Term Healthcare Business Ethics

Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14438008

Ethics in a Long-Term Healthcare Business

Ethics in the health care industry spans a wide spectrum of activities and most of the obligations are cast by law on the professionals and the second by the common practice and morals of the profession. Both are important to the progress of the institution and also the health care industry. Compliance of statutes is of primary importance.


There are many rules and statutes that must be complied with by all organizations and one such recent legislation is the hospital information access system. The HIPAA rules apply to all personnel in the system and extend to laboratory technicians, and lawyers and insurers. The culpability comes if the information was disclosed to a third party who did not have an association with the entity -- the clinic and was permitted to access the information. In such cases where the physician discloses information to another…… [Read More]


Andre, Claire; Velasquez, Manuel. (2013) "Aged-Based Health Care Rationing" Retrieved 8

June, 2013 from

Chaikind, Hinda R. (2004) "The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability ACT

(Hipaa): Overview and Analyses" Nova Publishers.
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Ethic Responsibilities of the Workplace

Words: 2624 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44352712

Ethics and Corporate esponsibility

The following will be an assessment of firm referred to as PharmaCAE. The assessment will concentrate on the idea of companies that have encountered negative outcomes as a result of company business activities. CECLA (Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act) will be brought up in this assessment in addition to other environmental safeguarding proposals and human social theories in regards to environmental and work ethics.

A new initiative, We CAE about YOU world, was recently initiated by PharmaCAE, declaring its dedication to the environment via modifications in packaging, recycling, and other green programs. This was possible in spite of the fact that the firm's lobbying attempts and PAC have effectively conquered environmental policies, such as the broadening of the Superfund tax that was established by Comprehensive Environmental esponse, Compensation, and Liability Act (CECLA). Situated in New Jersey, PharmaCAE sustains a huge production facility in the…… [Read More]


Animal Ethics. Virtue ethics and care ethics - Animal Ethics. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from

Berger, J. (2010, December 25). Fox News - Breaking News Updates | Latest News Headlines | Photos & News Videos. Obama's Reversal on 'Indigenous Peoples' Rights Stirs Concern Over Legal Claims | Fox News. Retrieved August 4, 2015, from

Calman. (2004). Teaching and learning ethics Evolutionary ethics: can values change. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 366-370. Retrieved, from

Difference Between Similar Terms and Things. Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology | Difference Between | Utilitarianism vs. Deontology. Retrieved August 9, 2015, from
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Ethics the Employee Is Faced With Ethical

Words: 2667 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85270894


The employee is faced with ethical requirements throughout their workday that must be met with knowledge and a trained attitude. Workplace ethics is one of the most crucial elements whether the person involved in an ethical dilemma is a high-level manager or an entry-level employee. An ethical stance is important because it is what guides the interactions that the employees will have with each other, their management, and the customers that patronize their products. It is also important that the business leaders follow an internal and external ethical stance so that the culture generated within the company is one that promotes positive ethical practices. This paper begins by talking about the way that the business leaders view the external world of ethics through accounting practices and how they deal with other companies. The discussion then moves inside the company and how the management treats its employees. Employee to employee…… [Read More]


Brandt-Rauf, S.I., Brabdt-Rauf, E., Gershon, R., Li, Y., & Brandt-Rauf, P.W. (2011). Genes, jobs, and justice: Occupational medicine physicians and the ethical, legal, and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace. Ethics & Medicine, 27(1), 51-55.

Dinkins, C.S. (2011). Ethics: Beyond patient care practicing empathy in the workplace. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), 1-8.

Embse, T.J.V.D., Desai, M.S., & Ofori-Brobbey, K. (2010). A new perspective on ethics safeguards: Where is the clout? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 75(3), 4-13.

Klimek, J., & Wenell, K. (2011). Ethics in accounting: An indispensable course? Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15(4), 107-113.
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Ethics Gross National Products Ethics Gross National

Words: 2076 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83135896

Ethics, Gross National Products


Gross National Product

Tariff barriers


Ethics is a branch of Philosophy and deals with the basics questions about right and wrong, virtue and vice, as well as good or bad nature of things human beings do in their daily lives. Thus, ethics is essentially related to the moral aspect of things. A thing, act, or idea of practice might be legally correct but may not be morally sound in given conditions. For instance, the pursuit of profit by firms is legally correct but ignorance to the well being of society in which that firm operates is morally incorrect. Essentials of ethics: The essential elements of ethics are related to the character of actions being taken by the human beings. The topic essentially deals with the behavior and its outcomes with respect to the impact created on fellow human beings and society as a collective…… [Read More]

Stimpert, J.L., & Duhaime, I.M. (1997). SEEING THE BIG PICTURE: THE INFLUENCE OF INDUSTRY, DIVERSIFICATION, AND Business STRATEGY ON PERFORMANCE. Academy of Management Journal, 40(3), 560-583.

Taylor, A., Chaloupka, F.J., Guindon, E., & Corbett, M. (2000). The impact of trade liberalization on tobacco consumption. Tobacco control in developing countries, 343-64.

Yue, C., Beghin, J., & Jensen, H.H. (2006). Tariff equivalent of technical barriers to trade with imperfect substitution and trade costs. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 88(4), 947-960.
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Ethics Primarily Acts as a Check to

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64415049

Ethics primarily acts as a check to ensure that the corporate strategy is enacted effectively. arely do firms take ethics into account as a key element of strategy, though it does happen once in a while. Generally, the role that ethics plays is tangential to strategy aside from its role as a check. obin and eidenbach (1988) elaborate further on this idea, noting that "without the integration of ethics at the very beginning of the planning process… the organizational culture may not provide the checks and balances needed…" Their argument is that while corporations tend to put the profit motive forward first, a lack of ethics can undermine the objective of maximizing shareholder wealth. Having a strong program of ethics built into the organizational culture reduces the risk of major ethical lapse.

A couple of recent issues highlight the importance of building an ethical culture to maximizing shareholder wealth. Enron…… [Read More]


Dahlsrud, A. (2006). How corporate social responsibility is defined: An analysis of 37 definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from 

Davis, S. (2013). Examples of social responsibility strategies. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from

Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 19, 2013 from   

Robin, D. & Reidenbach, R. (1988). Integrating social responsibility and ethics into the strategic planning process. Business and Professional Ethics Journal Vol 7 (3-4) 29-46.
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Ethics Corporate Governance & Business Ethics it

Words: 1771 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81377422


Corporate Governance & Business Ethics

It is quite interesting to note that, academic research in business ethics was a totally distinct discipline from research in corporate governance, and the application of the word 'ethics' was uncommon in available research on corporate governance. The chief responsibility of corporate governance was understood to be safeguarding the benefits of the shareholders. Because of the severance between ownership and management, and the incapability of the independent owners to supervise the performances of those managers, a possibility was available for vital strategic decisions to be taken which would advantageous for the managers to a more larger extent compared to the owners. For example, takeovers not related to the organization's core competence outcome in a bigger corporation, however, it does not result in a more profitable company all the time. Certainly, research has proved that extremely increased extent of isolated diversification normally resulted in lower…… [Read More]


Beekun, Rafik; Singh, Manohar; Stedham, Yvonne. Center for Corporate Governance and Ethics. Retrieved from Accessed on 26 June, 2005

Corporate Governance & Business Ethics. Retrieved from Accessed on 26 June, 2005

Ethics and Corporate Governance: Is There One Best Way? Conference Overview: Prudential Business Ethics Center at Rutgers. March 25, 2004. Retrieved from / Accessed on 26 June, 2005

Hollinger, Susan. B. Corporate Governance: Codes of Ethics to Guide Corporate Conduct. July 2002. Retrieved from Accessed on 26 June, 2005
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Ethics Plays an Important Role in Many

Words: 1250 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41901720

ETHICS plays an important role in many areas of our business world. Take direct selling, for instance. How can you tell the difference between a legitimate business and a disguised pyramid scheme? To answer this question, we need to back up and look at what "ethics" are all about and, why they are important. Then we will look at the legitimacy of the two direct selling methods.

What are ethics? Here is the most recent textbook definition from a college MA (Masters in usiness Administration) updated required reading selection, "Ethics are the moral principles that govern the actions and decision of an individual or group," Marketing 7th Edition (Kerin, 2003, 100). In other words, to choose a course of action in moral situations, we use ethics, our cornerstones or guidelines to follow.

Why are ethics important in the business arena? ecause every person is a part of the whole and…… [Read More]


AICPA, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. New York. 2002.

Direct Selling Association, Direct Selling Association. Washington. 2002.

Donne, John. "No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main..."The Phrase Finder. 3 Nov. 2002.

Kerin, Roger, and Eric Berkowitz, Steven Hartley, William Rudelius. Marketing, 7th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill/Irwin, 2003.
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Ethics and Friedman and Accounting

Words: 1788 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44317438

Accounting and Ethics

The stakeholder model should be implemented in combination with Friedman's shareholder model

In his article, "The Social esponsibility of Business is to Increase its Profits" published in 1970's reputed "The New York Times" Magazine, Friedman debates in favor of precisely what the article's title states. He alleged that corporate social responsibility (CS) was a diversion from the economic rudiments of business that helps in capitalization of profits and yields to shareholders. In his article, when he raised the description of advocates of CS he stated, "The businessmen believe that they are defending free enterprise when they declaim that business is not concerned 'merely' with profit but also with promoting desirable 'social' ends; that business has a 'social conscience' and takes seriously its responsibilities for providing employment, eliminating discrimination, avoiding pollution and whatever else may be the catchwords of the contemporary crop of reformers (Kristin, 2009; pg 7)."…… [Read More]


Kristin, T. (2009). Corporate social responsibility. Baylor Business Review 27.2: 20-23. Accessed from:

Coelho, P.R.P., McClure, J.E.; Spry, J.A. (2003). The social responsibility of corporate management: A classical critique. Mid - American Journal of Business 18.1: 15-24. Accessed from:

Henry, M (2006). Wall Street Journal, Eastern edition, New York, N.Y: A.12.

Lantos, G.P. (2001). The boundaries of strategic corporate social responsibility. The Journal of Consumer Marketing 18.7: 595-630. Accessed from:
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Ethics Core-Tex Is Facing a Number of

Words: 708 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32747178


Core-Tex is facing a number of problems that could result in negative publicity. At present, the company is facing multiple challenges but has escaped major headlines. Thus, its stock price has not been hit too hard as the result of the accounting accusations. For the CEO, there are a few key things that need to be done. The first move, the muzzling of the C-suite, is essential. From a public relations perspective, the company needs to speak with a unified voice. From a legal perspective, there may be limits to how much the company can say anyway.

The first step, then, is information gathering. The CEO in particular is liable under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act for anything accounting misstatements (Sarbanes-Oxley, 2014). The CEO must take personal responsibility for verifying the accounting allegations. This is necessary because there seems little doubt that the SEC will send investigators over the company, given…… [Read More]


Bernstein, J. (2013). The 10 steps of crisis communication. Bernstein Crisis Management. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from

Sarbanes-Oxley. (2014). Section 302: Corporate responsibility for financial reports. Sarbanes-Oxley 101. Retrieved March 21, 2014 from
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Ethics Companies Come and Go

Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97932224

However, there were too many issues with the company and with one of Andersen's lawyers -- Nancy Temple -- to say that the company was not aware of what was taking place. Accountants are trained to handle facts and figures, and they know when something is incorrect.

In the Arthur Andersen/Enron case it was believed that Temple and others knew that the figures were wrong but wanted to show the profits for the company so that the stock prices would continue to grow (Thomas, 2002). What was making investors rich was slowly killing a large accounting firm and a company that was previously good to work for -- a company on which many people depended. Pensions and other perks of working for Enron vanished seemingly overnight, making it very difficult for many of the employees (a large number of them older) to be hired anywhere else. These were people who…… [Read More]


Schulman, M. (2006). Incorporating ethics into the organization's strategic plan. Markkula Center for Applied Ethics. Santa Clara University. Retrieved from

Thomas, C.B. (2002). Called to Account. Time Business. Retrieved from,8599,263006,00.html
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Ethics in Businesses Over the

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87208268

(Ferrel, Fraedrich, & Farrel, 2009)

How will the implementation of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 prevent future dilemmas in Tyco?

Sarbanes-Oxley increases: the penalties for such actions, limits the role that the board of directors will have with managers, it creates an accounting oversight board and it requires the CEO / CFO to certify under oath that all financial information is correct. This will severe as a deterrent and help to provide mechanisms, to the prevent ways that the fraud was able to be perpetuated at Tyco. (Ferrel, Fraedrich, & Farrel, 2009)

Can the SEC trust Tyco's new board?

Yes. This is because those members who were involved with Kozlowski were purged and none of the current members have committed any acts of wrong doing. These facts along with the Sarbanes-Oxley in place, means, that there is no reason for the SEC not to trust the board. (Ferrel, Fraedrich, &…… [Read More]


Ferrel, O., Fraedrich, J. & Farrel, L. (2009). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
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Ethics and Firm's Goals Agency Problems The

Words: 524 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52334005

Ethics and Firm's Goals

Agency Problems: The shareholders of a corporation are its owners, and these oweners control management by electing a board (with most smaller shareholders voting "by proxy" or not really voting at all) that oversees the executive positions in the corporation, who in turn oversee the operations and management of the firm. An agency relationship exists to separate the personal liabilities of the shareholders/owners and the actions/resources of the corporation, which can create significant problems of accountability -- namely, the lack of people that can be held accountable for the corporation.

Goal of the Firm: It is true that managers of a corporation should not focus solely on stock price, as current prices reflect only short-term assessments and do not adequately take into account long-term goals and potentials, but stock price is also an important consideration. The current stock price of a firm affects its long-term capabilities…… [Read More]

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Accounting Theories and Business Decisions The Business

Words: 1729 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16133016

Accounting Theories and usiness Decisions: The usiness World

Case Facts

Application of theories

Other cases of stakeholder theory application

Accounting theories and business decisions: The business world

There are many theories that explain the complexity of relationship between different groups of people directly and indirectly related to an organization. Two of the most comprehensive and most discussed theories are stakeholder theory and agency theory. oth the theories describe what the main purpose of each group is and how these groups ought to manage these relationships. In agency theory, it identified that agency relationship takes place when one or more than one principal, acting as owners, delegate their power to make decisions, to a person acting as their agent or steward. Thus, agency theory principally revolves around the relationship of principal and agent. While the principal delegates the authority or decision making power to agent (managers) to act in the best…… [Read More]


Alessi, Chirstopher. 2013. "Understanding the LIBOR Scandal." Council on Foreign Relations, Feb 6. Accessed August 23, 2013.

Dean, Cornelia. 2007. "Executive on a mission: saving the planet." New York Times, May 22. Accessed August 23, 2013.

Jensen, Michael C. 2010. "Value maximization, stakeholder theory, and the corporate objective function." Journal of applied corporate finance 22: 32-42.

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 2011. How great companies think differently. Harvard Business Review, November. Accessed August 24, 2013.
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Ethics Memo Before Making a Decision I

Words: 320 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6297322

Ethics Memo

Before making a decision I would want to review any disclosure statement I signed before leaving my old firm. Presumably, that disclosure statement would bar me from making any attempt to bring old clients to the new firm, and presumably, it would bar my using confidential information about clients.

However, there are limits to what disclosure statements can cover. It is likely that I don't know anything about this company my new company couldn't find out in other ways. Each company has to position itself in the marketplace, and most companies will try to have something that makes them special and unique, as it increases their competitive edge.

So, while I know these things, they aren't corporate secrets. Telling my new employer what I know about my old employer does not seem unethical to me. The real problem is that Jack McDougal may ask me to cross that…… [Read More]

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Ethics in Southwest Airlines an

Words: 7676 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17405736

(Southwest Airlines Corporation)

The employees are always put first at Southwest Airlines, and according to the CEO Herb Kelleher, who was responsible for founding the company Southwest Airlines, the philosophy that employees come first is deeply embedded in the psyche of the company, and if the employees of the company are happy and contented and fully satisfied with their work, then they will most definitely take better care of the customers of the company, and this is exactly what happens at Southwest Airlines. When the customers are happy at the treatment that they receive at Southwest Airlines, they, quite naturally keep coming back for more, and this in turn makes the shareholders extremely happy and satisfied. The employees at Southwest Airlines are some of the best and most highly paid employees of any airline, and in general, all the walls of the company are always filled with several pictures of…… [Read More]


Abenes, Fiorello B. "Marketing Study of Southwest Airlines" Retrieved at Accessed 30 August, 2005

Aviation Accident Brief" (2002) Retrieved at Accessed 30 August, 2005

100 Best Corporate Citizens for the year 2005" (Spring 2005) Business Ethics Magazine.

Retrieved at Accessed 29 August, 2005
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Accounting Information for Decision-Making

Words: 2585 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97908272

Accounting Information for Decision Making

Corporate Confirming on Water isk (Feb 2010) indicates that the Global Confirming Initiative (GI) G3 Guidelines' five water-related indications (total withdrawal volume by source, ponds considerably impacted by distributions, percentage and total amount of water recycled and used again, total water discharge by quality and destination, and identification water physiques and related habitats impacted by discharges) make the perfect beginning point for assessing and confirming water risks. Within this section, we'll briefly discuss the relevance of all these standards (Power, 2010).

Total water withdrawal by source

Confirming the entire amount of water withdrawn by source adds for knowledge of the general scale of possible influences and threats connected using the company's water use. The entire volume withdrawn offers an indication from the organization's proper size and significance as a user of water and offers to set up a baseline figure for other information relevant to…… [Read More]


Task 1:

GRI, (Global Reporting Initiative). (2006) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Version 3.0, Accessed on September 27, 2012 from:

Power, G. Paddling Upstream - Approaches to Corporate Water Reporting. Business and the Environment, 21. 6 (Jun 2010): 1-3.

Task 2:
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Ethics Ba Accounting in the

Words: 1467 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74955745

For example, mergers and acquisitions are perceived as the latest fashionable trend to grow the company market share and profitability due to synergies affect. But as the practise has shown, out of the latest mergers, about 75% did not perform as they were expected by the top management.

The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was aimed to facilitate and solve some of these very difficult problems in the accounting and management of the companies. The companies now are restricted to the amount of intangible assets they can show in their balance sheets, which reduces the moral opportunism problems in the company. The company has also currently to hire the auditors which are completely independent from the management of the company and cannot carry out any other than audit services for the company. This solves the problems of insider trading, where the management take advantage of their internal knowledge of the real company situation.…… [Read More]


Available from

Brealey, R., Myers, SC. Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 4th Ed., McGraw & Hill, 2004.

Abrams, J. Quantitative Business Valuation: A Mathematical Approach for Today's Professionals, McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Available from:
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Ethics and Corrections Work the

Words: 3225 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96910545

149-150). When the inmate failed to deliver on the guards' demands, the guards then planted drugs in the inmate's bunk (p. 150). The inmate was subsequently prosecuted, and received an extended sentence (p. 150).

Often people will doubt these kinds of stories, because, after all, the inmates are already imprisoned for offenses like drugs, and often much worse kinds of crimes. This puts the inmates at risk of guards and other prison employees who might not embrace a high set of ethics or personal morals. Everyone wants to see crime punished, but when the crimes are being committed within the prison environment, people seem to be less concerned about them, even if they are crimes being committed by the guards or prison officials. People should, in fact, be very concerned about these kinds of crimes, because it is the prison officials and those employees, including guards, who are willing to…… [Read More]


Bowman, J.S. & Elliston, F.A. (Eds.). (1988). Ethics, Government, and Public Policy: A Reference Guide. New York: Greenwood Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database:

Cody, W.J., & Lynn, R.R. (1992). Honest Government: An Ethics Guide for Public Service. Westport, CT: Praeger. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database:

Coyle, A., Campbell, A., & Neufeld, R. (Eds.). (2003). Capitalist Punishment: Prison Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database:

Dolovich, S. (2005). State Punishment and Private Prisons. Duke Law Journal, 55(3), 437+. Retrieved April 16, 2009, from Questia database:
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Ethics and Development

Words: 3006 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59694757

Ethics and Morality -- Ethics and Development

The problem of "development" (or, perhaps "progress" and "advancement" also fits in this context) is that while many millions of citizens of the world have been blessed by dramatic progress (technological, industrial, and communications) over the past few decades, many millions are being left behind. Indeed, while millions are living better, living more comfortable lives, countless millions are not benefiting in the least from this social and economic development. In fact, the gap between the "haves" and "have-nots" is said to be widening, and this is a cause for great concern.

Millions of African children are AIDS and HIV victims, simply because they were born to mothers who suffered from AIDS and HIV; millions of other African people are suffering malnutrition, starvation, and live in hopelessness and dread. Millions of people in Third World countries do not have clean reliable drinking water or…… [Read More]

Resources Defense Council. 2003. EPA Officially Rolls Back Clean Air Act

Protections [online]; available from

Singer, Peter. 2002. One World: The Ethics of Globalization. New Haven: Yale

Basudeb Biswas, "Development as Freedom," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, February 2002, 252.

Andrew Davidson, "Amartya Sen, Development as Freedom," Social Analysis, 46 (Summer 2002): 161.
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Accounting and Economics the Power

Words: 2218 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43132637

Education should come from non-profit international scientific, health and environmental organizations. They would be most widely respected and would have more access to both the TNCs and the host and origin country governmental bodies. They can educate the corporations on the practicality of policing their own people and actions. They can educate government bodies on how to include these considerations in political decisions. They can be resources for The United Nations and the TO to help them decide on their programs. Finally they can help the educate the global populace via global media, especially independent educational media.

The last suggestion is one way to approach using public relations. Another is to incite the press and various other media to report the good and the bad actions of TNCs. His makes for interesting news for their audiences, and good public service for the media. In essence, Fowler has said much of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fowler, Robert J. "International Environmental Standards for Transnational Corporations." Environmental Law 25.1 (1995): 1-30. Questia. 14 Dec. 2006

Ietto-Gillies, Grazia. Transnational Corporations: Fragmentation Amidst Integration. London: Routledge, 2002. Questia. 14 Dec. 2006

Thomas Donaldson, The Ethics of International Business 31 (1992).
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Accounting Finance Identify the Stages of

Words: 1424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16608887

production/income and so on. Some companies also include quality assessments as part of their analysis of department efficiencies.

5.Explain the role of the budget in the business control cycle.

Budgets can be used to help a firm meet goals and objectives. The business control cycle consists of four steps. The first is setting the standard, that is, creating the budget. The next is recording the performance of the company's departments. Third, variances from the budget are identified and analyzed to understand why they occurred. Finally, action can be planned to either correct problems identified this way, or to put preventive measure in place to enhance future performance.

6.Analyze internal and external control mechanisms that can be put in place to monitor and evaluate the budget.

Internal control mechanism could include consistent follow-up on internal and external audit findings and reporting findings of internal audits to the head of the organization…… [Read More]


Loeb, R. And M. Workman (2002) Annual budgeting as a management tool. Robert Loeb and Company. Retrieved 6 September 2005 at

Miller, G.J. And J. Rabin. (2001) Performance-based budgeting. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Porter, W. (2005, June 1). CRO advantage: outsource clinical trials to launch biotech development success. Biopharm International. Retrieved 8 September 2005 from
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Ethics Corporate Governance and Company Social Responsibility

Words: 2447 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92786765

Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social esponsibility

Information that is essential to share includes financial performance, business strategy and overall company actions (Pfeffer, 1998). Sharing this information gives the employees the power to evaluate their performance and help them make the right decisions on how they can improve it. This is a simple and very straightforward practice but most companies are still apprehensive about this practice. One cause for this is that information is power and by sharing essential information like financial performance the management is scattering that power. Another reason is that the management is concern about information escaping to competitors. This will put the organization in an unfavourable position. But what companies do not realize that the competition most probably already know this information. Thus if a company withheld information they are only leaving their own employees in the dark. Because of this, employees will reply on speculation…… [Read More]


Green, K.W., Wu, C., Whitten, D., & Medlin, B. (2006). The impact of strategic human resource management on firm performance and HR professionals' work attitude and work performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17(4), 559-579.

Hammer, L.B., Kossek, E.F., . Yragui, N.L., Bonder, T.E., and Hanson, G.C. (2009). Development and Validation of a Multidimensional Measure of FamilySupportive Supervisor Behaviors (FSSB). Journal of Management. 35(4), 837-856.

Harris, L., & Ogbonna, E. (2001). Strategic human resourcemanagement, market orientation, and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 51(2),157?166.

Hatch, N.W., & Dyer, J.H. (2004). Human capital and learning as a source of sustainable competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 25(12), 1155?1178.
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Ethics Corporate Governance and Company Social Responsibility

Words: 1917 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67756532

Ethics, Corporate Governance and Company Social esponsibility

OCED state-owned enterprises and Privatized companies

In the past few decades, emerging economies have launched ambitious plans to privatize their state owned enterprises (SOEs). The volume of privatization in emerging economies has increased from $8 billion in 1990 to about $65 billion in 1997 (Dharwadkar, George, & Brandes, 2000). In privatization, ownership is transferred from the state to new private and public owners, which may include management, employees, local individuals, institutions, and foreign investors, with the state also retaining a certain percentage of ownership after privatization. The new diversified ownership structure after privatization makes corporate governance an important issue in emerging economies (ajagopalan and Zhang, 2008).

On the one hand, the new ownership structure creates the traditional principal agency problem whereby self-interested executives aim to maximize their private interests rather than the owners' interests. To address this problem, it is necessary to design…… [Read More]


Aman, H. And Nguyen, P. (2008). Do stock prices re-ect the corporate governance quality of Japanese "rms" Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, 22(4), 647 -- 662.

Buchanan, J. And Deakin, S. (2007). Japan's paradoxical response to the new "Global Standard" in corporate governance. Accessed on October 12, 2011 from

Dharwadkar, R., George, G., & Brandes, P. (2000). Privatization in emerging economies: An agency theory perspective. Academy of Management Review, 25(3), 650-669.

Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs. (2005). Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises: OECD Guidelines on Corporate Governance of State-Owned Enterprises. Accessed on October 14, 2011 from:
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Strategic Perspectives in Management Accounting and Finance

Words: 2965 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49188738

Strategic Perspectives in Management Accounting and Finance

The main reason for differentiation in the accounting studies seemed to occur due to the functionalist perceptions in the expertise of social studies. According to Dellaportas and Davenport (2008) professions are being separated by occupation on the basis of the level of distinctiveness one occupation has from another; a model first designed by Greenwood in 1975.

Abercrombie et al. (1994, p. 335) in their study explained that such distinctiveness is surrounded by the concept which results in more beneficiary outcomes for the public than for an individual's professional interest in providing services. This simply means that it was an original human demand that gave birth to all professions. There's an equality on profession's social compulsion i.e. there is a balance between a professional's job and his obligation to serve the public. In this regard Carey (1965, p. 376) asserted that it was in…… [Read More]


Abbott, A. The system of professions: an essay on the division of expert labor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press (1988).

Abercrombie, N., Hill, S., Turner, B.S. The penguin dictionary of sociology. 3rd ed. Ringwood: Penguin Books (1994).

Bedard, J. The disciplinary process of the accounting profession: protecting the public or the profession? The Quebec experience. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy; 20 (2001) (4/5): 399 -- 437.

Bivins, T.H. Public relations, professionalism, and the public interest. Journal of Business Ethics; 12 (1993) (2): 117 -- 26.
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Smith & Smith 2003 Ethics

Words: 2266 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67552447

In terms of the employees, a system should be made available to provide them with the confidence to report any suspected fraud within the company. This should occur on a confidential basis to prevent situations such as those of Employee 1 above. The employee was fully aware of the fraud and felt that it was unethical, but was reluctant to report it because of the lack of adequate systems by means of which to do so. Managers and employees alike should be aware of this reporting system, and therefore encouraged to report any suspected misconduct.

This is not to say that company loyalty should not be an important part of the company's operations. Employees should be encouraged to be loyal to the company and to take pride in the work they do. Without such loyalty and pride, the work that employees perform will not adhere to the necessary standards of…… [Read More]


Eikner, E. (2004). Accounting Principles for Ethics Cases.

Schweikart, James A. Cognitive-Contingency Theory and the Study of Ethics in Accounting. Journal of Business Ethics.

Smith, Katherine T. & Smith, L. Murphy. (2003, June 21). Business and Accounting Ethics.
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Accounting Code of Conduct The

Words: 1283 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83471567

It also publishes interpretations about certain rules.


The AICPA's Code of Professional Conduct is considered to be a binding agreement for every CPA in America.

As with other professions most accountants are ethical and honest in their dealings with their clients, however every so often a problem arises that must be disciplined. This can happen in a purposeful attempt to be deceitful, or it can happen by an error in judgment or an error in practice. egardless of how or why it happened a review is called for and a sanction or discipline course of action is decided upon (Badawi, 2002).

Most of the violations that occur are ethical dilemmas that are relatively easy to solve but some of the problems become quite in depth and resolution is more difficult to reach.

A study of conduct violations in a ten-year period produced the following result.

The…… [Read More]


Badawi, Ibrahim M.(2002) Accounting codes of conduct, violations and disciplinary actions. Review of Business; 1/1/2002;

Carey, J.L. The CPA Plans for the Future. New York, NY: AICPA, 1965.

Demski, J.S. And J. L Zimmerman.(2000) "On Research vs. Teaching: A Long-Term Perspective." Accounting Horizons
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Accounting New Responsibilities

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82193912

Accounting Profession: New Scrutiny and esponsibilities

While many people treat the accounting profession as something which lacks glamour and prestige, ordinary civilians often don't realize how crucial the accounting profession is to the world at large. The accounting departments in major firms are often what provides a foundation for most companies to be able to do what they do and accomplish tasks as needed. Accountants are the ones who are able to keep track of all the finances that are going out vs. what is coming in. Given the "new normal" in the world of corporate finance in light of the more recent corporate scandals, the work that accountants do have a greater level of importance. Accountants are now under greater scrutiny and have greater levels of responsibility: the accounting departments in major firms are now seen as ethical watch-dogs.

The skills and knowledge required in being an accountant are…… [Read More]


Balassone, J. (2014). Ethical Meltdown: Red Flags for Directors. Retrieved from

Einhorn, W.M. (2003). Ethical Accounting Practices and the Pressures on CPAs.

Retrieved from
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Accounting CPA Ideas 1- My Story I

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4523176

ccounting CP. Ideas 1- My story: I a young, my father gave responsibility manage budget house. School I control budget Volunteer

Personal statement: Why I want to obtain an MSc in ccounting

Ever since I was young, I have had the responsibility of balancing a budget. My father encouraged me to manage some of the household finances, and by the time I was selected in school to oversee the treasury of the volunteer club, I felt very comfortable and confident with bookkeeping. Majoring in accounting when I went to college seemed like a natural extension of my interests and aptitudes. I graduated with a B.. In accounting from King Saud University in 2009. However, even then I knew that obtaining a B.. was only the first step in gaining mastery of the profession. I already knew I wanted to go on to get my MSc in ccounting but decided to…… [Read More]

After graduating, I obtained a job at the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, where I am currently employed. I am charged with supervising the Agency's financial statements and the accounting details of insurance companies. My work has enabled me to put my academic knowledge into practice, and has been a constant, daily education in the need for rigor, efficiency, and wide and deep knowledge of international accounting standards and ethics. But like all positive experiences, my work life has also showed me what I do not know about the accounting field. I wish to gain a broader and more flexible skill set to be better able to cope with the demands of the profession. The profession is changing at a rapid rate. I have been amazed how quickly my nation and the world have evolved in terms of accounting standards and ethics since 2009.

My work experience whetted my appetite for more knowledge about the field of accounting. I have come to better understand the different ways in which modern global business demands new forms of accounting and monitoring business processes. Government regulations are constantly changing regarding how financial statements must be prepared, as are the needs of businesses in the new global economy. Accountants must meet these challenges head-on, and obtaining my MSc would better equip me to do so. Becoming a part of a formal MSc program would also connect me with a network of fellow professions, whose diverse work experiences would instruct me.

I have chosen to purse an MSc in Accounting at University which emphasizes team-based learning and will offer a flexible curriculum so I can tailor my education to my needs. I believe that I have enough experience to know how to guide my education, while supported by the outstanding faculty of the school. Because of my experiences I am confident I would be an asset to any classroom. I would be able to offer my knowledge to support what was being taught in class with real-life experiences. After obtaining my MSc, I intend to become a CPA and open my own business. Obtaining an MSc would give me the knowledge and platform to act independently as an accountant and to serve in my profession to the maximum extent of my abilities. Much as I have enjoyed working for a government agency, I believe it is in private practice where my full ambitions can be realized. My MSc would thus also give me a needed grounding in managerial theory that I would require to manage my own office of fellow accounting professionals.
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Ethics and Social Responsibility of Management

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92787196

Regulating the Accounting Industry

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and discuss regulation of the accounting industry, which is currently self-regulated. Is regulation necessary, and if so, why?


Currently, the accounting industry is a "self-regulating" industry, which means they set their own rules, and abide by them within the industry, with a minimum of outside intervention. The Financial Accounting Standards Board governs companies. The board sets the rules and applications accounting firms must follow.

Many experts feel that self-regulation is no longer working, and the Federal Government needs to place more constraints on accounting firms. "...non-regulation and deregulation of the financial industries has gotten us into this mess. Auditors are allowed to receive income both from auditing and from consulting or 'management advisory services' to the same client, the latter usually being the more lucrative relationship with more potential for growth" (Amato).

She goes on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amato, Theresa. "How to Prevent the Next Enron Swindle." Citizen Works. 21 January 2002.

Author not available. "SEC Prescribes Weak Cures for Accounting Industry's Ills." USA Today. 18 January 2002. pp. 14A.

Editors. Accounting 2002.

Pitt, Harvey L. "Public Statement by SEC Chairman: Regulation of the Accounting Profession." U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 17 January 2002.
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Accounting Profession Is a Necessary Practice Because

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53954419

accounting profession is a necessary practice because the discipline still has room for growth. In fields related to auditing, gross failures in the internal auditing system have been reported. In order to avert such occurrences; having a publication on a given accounting situation is essential. Investors, accountants, and students have to be provided with reliable and concise information in the document. This can be communicated effectively using appropriate publication documents. This analysis examines on the possibility developing appropriate publication as a response to the needs of the industry.

Planning Your Article

The extract affirms the necessity of processing a clear, concise, and understandable article. This is because the accounting profession is a demanding occupation that requires primary ethics and exactness. Article development requires proper planning, choosing a viable topic, and researching on it. The topic should seek to resolve an accounting problem. In order to pursue the article, the authors…… [Read More]


May, C, & May, S. (2012). Effective Writing: A Handbook for Accountants. New York: Pearson Prentice Hall
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Ethics and the Auditor

Words: 667 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14549710

auditing comes with immense responsibility as it plays a vital role in maintaining a check and balance and establishes an organization's credibility and repute among its stakeholder. An auditor's report is a key document that most stakeholders use when taking decisions pertaining to an organization. For this it is important for auditors to show highest levels of compliance with ethics.

Auditors and Ethics

Audit and Ethics have a very deep relationship as one goes with another. Financial audit of clients needs to be ethical and it is an area of major concern as these companies hold the public stake. The base of ethical auditing is independence and beneath it lies the principles of honesty, professional diligence and due care, integrity and confidentiality. The basic part of ethical auditing which is independence focuses on the auditor's strict adherence to the maintenance of independence from having a financial interest in its clients.…… [Read More]


Hall, W.D., & Renner, A.J. (1991). Lessons Auditors Ignore at Their Own Risk. Journal of Accountancy, 171(6), 63+.
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Accounting Fraud and SOX

Words: 988 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82605283

Law Is Likely to Affect All of the Following: Audit Committees of Public Company Boards of Directors

According to Sections 201 and 204 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX), auditors must report "all critical accounting policies and practices" and the members of an audit committee cannot offer "non-audit services for public company audit clients" (PowerPoint, slide 6). According to SOX Section 303 and 404, company officers are prohibited from influencing auditors and "the auditor shall attest to, and report on, the assessment of internal control made by the management of the public company" (PowerPoint, slide 6).

A study of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) sanctions against auditors before and after the implementation of SOX up to 2010 found that common reasons for auditor failure to detect fraud include "failure to exercise due professional care;" "insufficient levels of professional skepticism;" "inadequate identification and assessment of risks;" and "failure to respond to…… [Read More]


Cohn, M. (2011). Congress probes accountants' role in financial crisis. Accounting Today.

Beasley, M. Carcello, J, & Neal, T. (2013). An analysis of alleged auditor deficiencies in SEC

fraud investigations: 1998-2010. Center for Audit Quality. Retrieved from:
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Ethics in Business

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71454371

Betty Vinson was horribly unjust, especially considering that she cooperated completely with federal prosecutors. Indeed, it is difficult to imagine how their case against WorldCom CEO Bernard Ebbers could have proceeded as well as it did without the cooperation of Ms. Vinson. Certainly, if the federal government is to be expected to attract the small "fish" to give up the big "fish," then this certainly is counterproductive.

Certainly, Ms. Vinson made the decisions that she made due to the fact that she was fearful about losing her job if she did not engage in the activity that she did. After all, did the accounting agency pick up on the fraud? The above conviction is especially unbelievable since she took the stand not just against Ebbers multiple times, but also Troy Normand was only given three years' probation and did not impose a fine on him. This was especially the case…… [Read More]


McClam, E. (2005, August 5). Ex-worldcom exec vinson gets prison, house arrest. Retrieved from
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Ethics Information Technology it Is Commonly Argued

Words: 490 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39279181


Information Technology

It is commonly argued that information technology and information systems is largely value neutral in the same way that other technologies do not necessarily have any ethical implications by themselves. However, one interesting observation is that such advances in technology can largely influence the power structures of organizational hierarchies and create an opportunity for unethical practices to emerge. For example, take Enron. Enron's board of directors virtually waved the corporate Code of Ethics to allow Enron financial officers to complete the now famous off-balance-sheet deals that ultimately led to their bankruptcy (illiams, 2005).

New technologies such as ERP systems allowed top executives to have more control over the organization. This eliminated some levels of hierarchy that was needed to maintain a bulk of accounting records and executives could complete more of the transactions within accounts themselves without having to rely on middle management. Thus although the technology…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Flatworld Solutions. (N.d.). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing. Retrieved from Flatworld Solutions:

Williams, M. (2005). IT MATTERS: Ethics, Information Systems, and a Steel Ax. Retrieved from Graziadio Business Review:
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Ethics in Business

Words: 1251 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84754421

Business Ethics

The issue of business ethics has been front and center for over a decade, following on the heels of the accounting scandals that led to the passage of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. That those scandals came in such rapid succession and occurred in such large companies shocked the financial world out of its complacency with respect to ethics.

But the issue of business ethics has been around longer than that -- note the true moral dilemma posed by bribery in foreign countries, an issue that spawned the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act to curtail the practice. There are other issues, too, in business ethics, not just high level accounting scandals. They do not always involve criminal acts, either. In many cases, businesses are posed with a choice between doing two things that are perfectly legal, but where at least one of the options violates some sense of ethics. I feel…… [Read More]

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Accounting Fraud of Countrywide

Words: 3486 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30783221

Countrywide Accounting Fraud

In the year 1969, David Loeb moved to NY from Virginia to begin a home loan and advance organization named as "United Mortgage Servicing." He was joined by his trusted aide Angelo Mozilo. Both shared common dreams of big money and making their presence felt across the nation. The sole owner of the firm, David Loeb had to, under pressure of work, circumstances and colleagues part with half of the ownership. David Loeb and Angelo Mozilo became equal partners of the new firm that they formed, "Countrywide." They began their operations from and opened their new office in California. Angelo Mozilo was a very forceful and opportunistic marketer, and began pushing for contracts in the market aggressively. The organization was chipping away at two fundamental boards; David's NY-based credit exercises and Mozilo's home loan plot trades in the city of California. After they attempted to present open…… [Read More]


Chomsisengphet, S., & Pennington-Cross, A. (n.d.). Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, 88(1),(January/February 2006), 31 -- 56.

Freeman, W., Wells, P.A., & Wyatt, A. (2013). Insights from the Failure of the Countrywide Financial Corporation (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 2275772). Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from

Karlan, D.S., & Zinman, J. (2013). Long-Run Price Elasticities of Demand for Credit: Evidence from a Countrywide Field Experiment in Mexico (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 2272723). Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from

Michael Hudson. (2011, September 23). Mortgage industry tanks, fraud continues at Countrywide. Retrieved December 19, 2014, from
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Accounting System Implemented at Chic Paints Limited

Words: 5463 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80489325

Accounting System Implemented at Chic Paints Limited

eport submitted in order to fulfil the requirements of AAT Accounting Qualification

Internal Controls and Fraud

Accounting System eview

Weaknesses in the Existing System and ecommendations

Cost and Benefit Analysis

Mapping of report to outcomes and criteria

The purpose of this report is to present the findings of the evaluation of existing accounting system implemented at Chic Paints Limited. Chic Paints Limited hired me as an Accounting Technician of the Company to review the accounting systems of the company and report on the operating effectiveness of the internal controls, and this report explains it.

The report also discusses the results of the evaluation of existing accounting systems implemented at Chic Paints Limited on the basis of the AAT code of Ethics and Sustainability requirements. The report also identifies and presents the weaknesses in the existing accounting system along with the effects of the…… [Read More]

References (2013). AAT and sustainability | AAT. [Retrieved from: [Accessed: 16 Dec 2013].

AAT London (2011). AAT code of Professional Ethics. Code of Ethics. London: AAT. (2013). 20 Question to Detect Fraud. Retrieved from:  [Accessed: 16 Dec 2013].

Griffin, D. (2013). What Are Internal Accounting Controls? Retrieved from:  [Accessed: 15 Dec 2013].
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Ethics in Accounting

Words: 1550 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48097958

ethics in the business and accounting communities has been a topic of broad discussion. From the collapse of Enron to the mishaps of Andersen the country has seen the most tumultuous ethical behavior in the history of our nation. The purpose of this discussion is to define ethics and the reasons why ethical behavior is important among accountants and business leaders. e will also explore ethical codes within the accounting and business communities. In addition we will provide examples of corporations that have performed both ethically and unethically. Finally we will focus on what changes need to be made to encourage ethical behavior.

Defining Ethics

Ethics is defined as the science of morality. (The Macmillan Encyclopedia) The Oxford Dictionary of Business defines ethical behavior as "Behavior judged to be good, just, right, and honorable, based on principles or guides from a specific ethical theory. However, ethical theories may vary from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

About the SEC. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. 

Code of Ethics.

Creswel, Julie. "Will Martha Walk." Fortune Magazine. Published November 10, 2002

Dictionary of Business, Oxford University Press, © Market House Books Ltd. 1996
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Ethics and Law in Accounting Finance

Words: 917 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6791618

Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 is will probably be known as one of the most significant change to federal securities laws in the United States since the New Deal. The act was passed after a series of corporate financial scandals made the national news, which included a slew of companies such as Enron, Arthur Andersen, and orldCom. The most notable provisions of the act include such items as both criminal and civil penalties for securities violations, a push for auditor independence from the corporation, requirements that guarantee certification of internal audit work by external auditors, and significant calls for increased disclosure regarding executive compensation, instances of insider trading as well expanding types of information that must appear on financial statements.

Even though the act may lessen the burden of the consequences of unethical acts that the public has to bear, all publicly traded companies now have to deal with the formidable…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Open Pro. (2011). OPENPRO AND SARBANES-OXLEY COMPLIANCE. Retrieved from Open Pro: 

Pele-Sol. (2011). What is Business Process Automation. Retrieved from Pele-Sol Engineered:

Solu Soft. (2009, January 13). Business Process Management. Retrieved from Solu Soft:
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Ethics and CSR Code

Words: 887 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75629346

Code of Ethics Development

Description: Begin by preparing a code of ethics for a fictional company, which should include a minimum of 10 elements. Once you have compiled the code of ethics, respond to the following questions: 1. hy did you include each of the 10 elements? 2. hy is a code of ethics an important part of every business from an employer standpoint? 3. hy is a code of ethics an important part of every business from an employee standpoint? 4. Once you have written the code of ethics, how would you implement it to ensure compliance? Your completed assignment must be a minimum of three pages (One page for the code of ethics and two pages for question responses).

Code of Ethics

Transparency -- the company will make every effort to be transparent to all stakeholders, including employees and partners

Diversity -- the company will go far beyond…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chrobot-Mason, D. (2012). Developing Multicultural Competence to Improve Cross-Race Work Relationships. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 199-218.

Hughen, L., Lulseged, A., & Upton, D. (2014). Improving Stakeholder Value through Sustainability and Integrated Reporting. The CPA Journal, 57-61.

Jimoh, O., & Danlami, A. (2011). Strategic Human Resource Management and Organizational. International Journal of Business and Managment, 46-59.
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Ethics and Compliance

Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32405862

Strategic and Financial Planning

Meeting corporate objectives requires alignment between the strategic and financial plans. While corporate strategy may call for exciting growth opportunities, without a solid financial plan to provide capital resources, the strategic goals cannot be met. Starbucks plans to build upon its recent success and expand its consumer packaged goods projects and create new connection points with consumers to increase daily spending. The company will provide financial support for the new projects by using the increased operating income and cash on-hand that is now available after reducing operating costs at current locations and closing redundant and failing stores.

Strategic Planning vs. Financial Planning

A strategic plan can simply be defined as the steps taken to best allocate a company's resources to achieve an optimal financial return, but the process of strategic planning is much more complex. The strategic plan should define the corporate goals and objectives and…… [Read More]


Keown, A.J., Martin, J.D., Petty, J.W. & Scott, D.F. (2005). Financial management: Principles and applications (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Raynor, M.E. (2007). What is corporate strategy really? Ivey Business Journal, 71(8), 1. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Starbucks. (2011). Annual report: Fiscal 2010. Seattle, WA. Retrieved from
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Ethical Issues in Budgeting Accounting

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52093033

Accounting: Ethical Issues in Budgeting

What should an employee do when he or she discovers that there is an error in a projection?

Accounting professionals have a duty to observe high standards of conduct and integrity in order to uphold the reputation of the accounting profession. For instance, if an error occurs in sales projections, the accountant has a duty to correct the error immediately and inform the head of the department or manager of the company. Sales projections are crucial to a company's budget because they give an idea of the amount of revenue the company intends to generate in future. Since they help determine the health of the company, majority of the decisions the company makes will based on the projected figures. If an accountant chooses to conceal errors in the projections, therefore, wrong decisions will be made and the overall performance of the company will be affected…… [Read More]