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Acid Rain and Geology
Acid rain is a term that refers to a mixture of dry and wet deposited materials that falls in precipitation from the atmosphere, containing "higher then normal amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids" (Environmental Protection Agency). Some of the "precursors, or chemical forerunners" of acid rain are from natural sources like volcanoes and rotting vegetation; other precursors are from man-made sources like nitrogen oxides (NOX) and sulfur dioxide (SO2). The man-made emissions result for the most part from the burning of fossil fuels, like coal and oil for electrical production, according to the EPA.
et Deposition: In the United States, about two-thirds of all the SO2 and one-quarter of all the NOX results from the burning of coal and oil. Acid rain is created when these gases -- released through the smokestacks of the coal and oil-fired plants -- mix with water and oxygen and other…
Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). What is Acid Rain? / Effects of Acid Rain.
Retrieved March 7, 2011, from http://www.epa.gov/acidrain/what/index.html .
Kang, Hojeong, and Lee, Dowon. (2005). Inhibition of Extracellular Enzyme Activities in a Forest Soil by Additions of Inorganic Nitrogen. Communications in Soil Science and Plant
Analysis. Vol. 36, 2129-2135.
Should Acid ain Be Made a Political Issue?
After studying several researches on how acid rain can cause economic losses, I chose a thesis proposal. I collected information from researches conducted in different countries and analyzed data using Microsoft Excel.
Acid rain is a problem that does not respect political barriers, thus, making it a global issue.
The world's population is currently around 7 billion and is still dramatically increasing. This increase is accompanied with an increase in land usage, deforestation and industrialization, contributing to environmental pollution. A major environmental hazard is sulphur dioxide. Urban areas are major contributors to this particularly harmful pollutant. It is released as a result of poorly controlled combustion, which maybe from factories, coal power plants or even from domestic use of sulphur containing fuel. Volcanoes are the natural cause of increased sulphur content in the environment. (Acid ain, 2011)
Sulphur dioxide and…
Acid Rain. (2011). In Encyclopedia. Today's Science. Retrieved from Facts On File, Inc. database.
Shah, J., Streets, D., Li, J., Pu, Y., Nagpal, T., Johnson, T., & #8230;Green C. (2000). Integrated analysis for acid rain in Asia: Policy implication and results of rain-Asia model. Annual Review of the Energy & the Environment, 25(1), 339-375. Retrieved from EBSCO database.
Smith, S.J., Aardene, J.V., & Andres, R.J. (2010). Anthropogenic sulphur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 1101-1116. Retrieved from http://www.atmos-chem-phys.org/11/1101/2011/acp-11-1101-2011.pdf
State Environmental Protection Administration. (2002, March 20). China to reduce sulphur dioxide emissions. People's Daily Online, Retrieved from http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/200203/20/eng20020320_92414.shtml
Materials and Methods
Because sulfur dioxide is converted into sulfuric acid, which bonds with water vapor in the atmosphere and results in acid rain, one of the best ways to look for the effects of that acid rain is to look to see how sulfuric acid directly affects specific items. That can be done by placing a few drops of sulfuric acid onto the selected items and waiting a few days to see what the results are. Being careful is key, because sulfuric acid is very dangerous. A well-ventilated hood and protective gloves should be used.
The other materials needed for this experiment are:
100 ml sulfuric acid (H2SO4), concentrated
Large Petri dishes with covers nylon stocking aluminum foil leaf, a flower petal, and a stick
The leaf, the stick, and the flower petal all had the same result. They were all darkened and shriveled a few days after…
Davis, Mackenzie L. And Cornwell, David a. (1991). Introduction to Environmental Engineering 2 nded. McGraw-Hill, Inc.: New York.
De Nevers, Noel. (1995). Air Pollution Control Engineering. McGraw-Hill, Inc.: New York.
It was discovered that a nearby factory was releasing sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. The resulting acid rain had deposited on the surface of the marble (CaCO3) converting it into the dull gypsum (CaSO4.1/2 H2O). Calcium sulfate also has twice the molar volume of calcium carbonate. (Lambert, 1997) This expansion had resulted in added stress resulting in cracks. The relevant chemical reaction is:
CaCO3 + H2SO4
CaSO4 + H2CO3
Many such instances can be cited as the effects of acid rain. Acidity in rain results in greater incidences of rust. This is because the acidity results in the formation of ferrous ions, which in the presence of water results in Ferric Hydroxide, which is rust.
Fe(s) + 2O2(g) + 8 H+ (aq)
Fe2+ (aq) + 4H2O (l)
Fe2+ + (aq) + O2(g) + 4H2O (l)
Fe2O3(s) + 8H+ + (aq)
Despite some research, there is no direct evidence on the…
AcidRain. Acid Raid. 2008. Environmental Protection Agency. Available:
CFC. Cfc Destruction Abstracts. 2008. Environmental Protection Agency. Available:
http://www.epa.gov/appcdwww/aptb/abstracts/cfc.htm . April29 2008.
Acid Rain Be Made a Political Issue?
Acid rain spares nothing. Its effects are vast. It affects plants by destroying its roots, causing stunting or even death. Increased acidity in the soil, resulting from acidic rain, causes destruction of its nutrients which dissolve or decay in the acidic medium. Saprophytic microorganisms present are also destroyed. Acid rain falling on leaves dissolves its waxy layer. Damage to this layer makes the plant more prone to diseases and vulnerable to the effects of drying. Germination of seeds and reproduction are also inhibited. Eventually, the plants become weak and are unable to stand adverse climate, such as strong winds and rain. Ultimately, there is wide spread deforestation. ("Effects of Acid," 2007)
(Environmental Statistics, 2007)
The effects of acid rain, causing deforestation, have been observed in many places. Examples include eastside of Penn's state in Norway, trees in Scandinavia, southeastern Canada and northeastern United…
However, against such a backdrop of apparently serious action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which imply widespread changes in energy use, conventional energy still receives the overwhelming share of government support worldwide. Over the last 20 years, some $300 billion in subsidies spent annually on nuclear- and fossil-based power has eclipsed by four times the amount spent on renewable (World Council for Renewable Energy, 2002, p. 8). Moreover, with the Bush Administration's rejection of the Kyoto Protocol in 2001, the world's largest greenhouse gas emitter, the U.S., did not undertake formal commitments for emissions reduction, signaling instead its support for voluntary measures to decrease the greenhouse gas "intensity" of certain industrial sectors (White House, 2005a). The federal government also failed to enact a renewable portfolio standard requiring growing shares of energy over time to be generated from renewable sources, even though such bills were submitted repeatedly to the U.S. Congress (Byrne, Hughes, Rickerson, & Kurdgelashvili, 2007).
More recently, the Obama Administration has taken steps to mandate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at U.S. power plants, factories, and refineries. Approved by the Energy and Commerce Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives in May2009, proposed legislation -- if ultimately enacted and signed into law -- would target a 17% cut in emissions by 2020 from 2005, and an 83% cut by 2050, supported by a cap-and-trade system (Committee on Energy & Commerce, 2009). Meanwhile, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, which became law in February 2009, set aside some $60 billion for clean and alternative energy (White House, 2009a).
With such measures representing relatively recent steps toward energy sustainability at the national level, the last decade has witnessed a growing trend among many U.S. states and cities to fill the policy vacuum left by the federal government (Byrne et al., 2007). As of June 2006, some 29 U.S. states plus the District of Columbia had
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…
Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…
1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
It is therefore quite important to evaluate each experience on its own merits, as well as to how well each experience is integrated into the overall picture. An evaluation form has been developed for each participant as well as the parents of that participant. The evaluation form will be handed out at the end of each of the camps (whether the attendee stayed for a one-week or the full three-week course will be noted) for completion and return to the directors of the camp.
After the evaluation forms have been returned, the responses contained therein will be analyzed and broken down into categories pertaining to each camp experience and how it (they) were perceived by the campers. Follow-up questionnaires can be sent to each participant on a bi-yearly basis in order to gauge what type of long-term effects the camps continue to have on the participants.
The project is proposed…
Toulmin Model argument in response to one of the following prompts:
• What specific action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
Active in 15 countries, "Target Earth" is a group of individuals, churches, college fellowship and various ministries that are Christian protectors for everything that God created. The group feeds the hungry, saves endangered animals, rebuilds forests, and serves as active voice for environmental concerns. The groups mission is "erving the Earth, erving the Poor," which defines their connection of Christianity to environmentalism as they see it (Target Earth.com).
The news media is full of warnings that deal with environmental issues of one kind or the other be it global warming, endangered species, extinction of the rain forest, pollution, nuclear accidents, and so forth. The Christian community seems to apply less attention to these issues than they do to others. It may be because we…
Beisner, E. Calvin. (1990) Prospects for Growth: a Biblical View of Population, Resources, and the Future. Westchester, Ill.: Crossway Books,.
DeWitt, Calvin B., Ed. (1991) The Environment and the Christian: What Can We Learn from the New Testament? Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House,.
Target Earth http://christianteens.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=christianteens&cdn=religion&tm=294&f=20&tt=3&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.targetearth.org/
Yahoo Voices, Simple Steps to Help the Environment
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…
Marco-Barba, J., Mesquita-Joanes, F., & Miracle, M. (2013). Ostracod palaeolimnological analysis reveals drastic historical changes in salinity, eutrophication and biodiversity loss in a coastal Mediterranean lake. Holocene, 23(4), 556-567.
Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Y., Liancourt, P., Gross, N., & Straile, D. (2012). Indirect facilitation promotes macrophyte survival and growth in freshwater ecosystems threatened by eutrophication. Journal Of Ecology, 100(2), 530-538.
Riplett, L., Engstrom, D., & Conley, D. (2012). Changes in amorphous silica sequestration with eutrophication of riverine impoundments. Biogeochemistry, 108(1-3), 413-427.
Gareca, E.E., Vandelook, F., Fernandez, M., Hermy, M., & Honnay, O. (2012). Seed
heavily-increasing industrialized world, sulfur oxide emissions and other oxidizing gases have become problematic within the planet's atmosphere. These emissions cause acid rain, which has become detrimental to both the atmosphere and the Earth's environment over the years. While there have been numerous instances in which the United States and Europe have attempted to curb industrial emissions of sulfur oxides and nitrogen dioxides, the environment's return to a less acidic pH will take longer than expected. Acid precipitation has hit the lakes and streams the hardest, and even with the decrease of emissions, the acidity of said lakes and streams, for the most part, have remained the same.
Cause of Acid Rain
Acid rain, or "acid precipitation" as most scientists call it, is the "common name for [a] form of air pollution," which harms the environment ("Acid Rain"). This phenomenon is usually caused by a displacement of pollutants into the atmosphere,…
In the West, the problem of acid rain has been taken seriously since the 1972 United Nations Conference on Human Environment held in Sweden first presented the scientific data documenting the issues (Crittenden & White, 2010; Shah, Nagpal, Johnson, et al., 2000). Further investigation continued throughout the next two decades and led to serious efforts to reduce SO2 and NOx emissions. However, Asia faces significant ecological and human health issues attributable to those emissions as a result of rapidly increasing industrialization and fossil fuel consumption (Matthews, Hendrickson, and Weber, 2008; Shah, Nagpal, Johnson, et al., 2000)
Because of the tremendous economic growth in many Asian nations, energy use has increased proportionately but without any significant effort to reduce environmental impact. According to current calculations, the demand for power in Asia will double approximately every decade in the near future. Fossil fuel consumption accounts for approximately 80% of all commercial energy in Asia, primarily in the form of coal. Current projections are that coal burning will continue to increase as much as 7% annually (Shah, Nagpal, Johnson, et al., 2000)
On one hand, environmental monitoring in Asia has not been conducted in the manner in which it has in the
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
" And following that experience the class can discuss what acid rain does to the ecosystem and the teacher can show a video of a forest devastated by acid rain, or just photos of depleted forests and dead fish floating on a stream or lake (waters that have been polluted by acid rain).
About this time, students are asked: "here does the acid rain come from?" Let them guess, and talk about it. Then the teacher shows photos of smokestacks belching out clouds of brown sooty looking pollution and explain that once in the atmosphere, the pollutants (they don't need to know the science of precisely what chemicals bond with condensation but they could certainly relate to dirty polluted particles joining with raindrops) return to earth as acid rain. And as an additional part of this curriculum, students should be shown the various products that are produced in the factories…
Chappell, Tracey. (2008). Getting serious about inclusive curriculum for special education.
Primary & Middle Years Educator, 6(2), five pages.
EdChange. (2008). Curriculum Reform: Steps Toward Multicultural Curriculum
Transformation. Retrieved June 21, 2009, from http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/curriculum/steps.html .
Some forms of energy, such as wave and tidal energy and hydrogen fuel cells are still being studied. Another writer states, "Techniques to harness the energy found in the oceans are best developed for tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal energy conversion" (Middleton 52). Many other types of alternative energy, such as solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies are all being used where they make sense. Other solutions include nuclear energy, but the problem of disposing of the nuclear waste is a big problem, and so, no new nuclear facilities are being built. Authors Ottinger and Williams continue "Nuclear energy is excluded [...] because of its high capital and operating costs, complex technical requirements for operation and maintenance, and unresolved problems of proliferation and waste disposal" (Ottinger and Williams 331).
None of these solutions are being used enough to remedy the problem, and there are many reasons why they…
Author not Available. "Causes of Global Warming." EchoBridge.org. 2005. 21 July 2005. http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_cse.htm
Cristol, Hope. "New Concern About Acid Rain: Trees' Immune Systems may be Damaged by Pollution." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 2002: 8+.
Cruver, Philip C. "Lighting the 21st Century." The Futurist Jan.-Feb. 1989: 29+.
Johnson, Dan. "Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide." The Futurist Aug.-Sept. 1998: 15.
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…
Emissions from a new car purchased today are 90% less polluting than a new vehicle purchased in 1970. The Act has been reformed to include a provision that in 2004, all new passenger vehicles, including SUVs, minivans, vans and pick-up trucks, must meet even more stringent tailpipe emission standards. "This marks the first time that light-duty trucks, including SUVs, pickups, and minivans are subject to the same national pollution standards as cars." A common criticism of the Act was that because it had different standards for larger vehicles, a critical component of vehicle-related pollution was being ignored.
One of EPA's earliest accomplishments was the elimination of lead from gasoline. The use of lead-based gasoline had effects beyond that of air quality. "Elevated levels of lead can damage organs and the brain and nervous system, and affect the heart and blood. Adverse health effects range from behavior disorders and anemia…
Many limestone statues and building surfaces have suffered severe damage due to acid rain. Acid-based cleaning chemicals can also etch the limestone. Limestone should only be cleaned with a neutral or a mild alkaline-based cleaner.
Limestone is also used as a frontage on skyscrapers as a thin pate for covering the solid blocks. Limestone is also used in products such as quicklime and slated lime. It sis used for cement and mortar. Limestone can be pulverized and used as a soil conditioner to offset acid soil conditions. Limestone is also crushed and used as a base for roads. Amazingly enough limestone is also used for glass making.
As limestone is valuable natural resources, it is used to make things that we all require, such as concrete and glasses. Limestone was as well admired for building block in the middle ages. Many medieval churches and few other castles in Europe were…
Galleries.com http://www.galleries.com/copyrite.htm " Copyright ©1995-2007 by Amethyst Galleries, Inc.
Taylor, P.D. And Wilson, M.A., 2003. Palaeoecology and evolution of marine hard substrate communities. Earth-Science Reviews 62: 1-103
Alberta province of Canada is considered one of the strongest economies in North America, being culturally diverse as well as politically and environmentally stable. Its varied landscape, sunny climate and varied geography make it a most ideal locality and provide its people an excellent quality of life. Alberta is endowed with abundant natural resources, natural sceneries, and capable manpower that altogether make it the perfect place to live and work in. These outstanding features are collectively referred to as the Alberta advantage (Government of Alberta 2002). Its people are vibrant, resourceful and productive entrepreneurs, whose goods and services rank among the most excellent in the world. This level of excellence draws from the inherent pioneering spirit of the earliest settlers of the province. The present principal industries of the province are agriculture and related industries, forestry, telecommunications, oil and gas. Its oil and gas industry, which began in the late…
Brown, Jim. 2003: Canada's Chretien Downplays Kyoto Economic Impact. CNEWS. http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Politics/2003/10/20/23/511-cp.html
CBCNews, 2002: Consumers Will Feel Pinch of Kyoto, Say Opponents. CBC. http://www/cbc/ca/stories/stories/2002/09/03/ab_kyoto020903
CTV News Staff. 2003:Three-quarters of Canadians Support Kyoto: Poll. CTV.ca. http://www/ctv/ca/servlit/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/10340/4051181_29423251/:hub=Canada
Government of Alberta. 2002: Canadians Divided on Kyoto Ratification. http://www.gov.ab.ca/home/index.cfm "Page=332.
Public International Law
Memorandum for preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
President XI Jinping of China
Preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
Climate Change - Carbon Emissions
Climate change poses one of the most difficult questions to the world today. Cities continue to be the main contributors of this challenge. Most of the greenhouse gases are produced by industries, motorized conveyance, domestic fuel, and disposal of waste and are centered in and around cities. The IEA (International Energy Agency) foresees almost three fourths of the carbon emissions coming from urban centers by 2030. It then becomes imperative for the cities to take cognizance of the fact and react to lessen the effect. Creating an inventory of the carbon footprint would then be the logical first step in the process of addressing the issue of climate change effectively. In…
Alvarez RA, Pacala SW, Winebrake JJ, Chameides WL, Hamburg SP. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure. (2012), ProcNatlAcadSci USA.
Hansen, James, et al. "Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People Future Generations and Nature." PLOS One (2013). Review.
Heinberg R, Fridley D. The end of cheap coal. Nature, 468(7322): 2010, 367 -- 369. DOI: 10.1038/468367a.
International Energy Agency. 2010 Key world energy statistics, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.iea.org / textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key stats 2010.pdf
) Hydrochloric acid, formic acid, nitric acid, hexanes, and toluene are all available in ACS grade through Carolina, which, with a bit of imagination, could turn into some spectacular experiments. (Toluene is, of course, a component in the production of TNT -- talk about an exothermic reaction.)
Laboratory equipment is also widely available. A simple search of the popular site Shopwiki.com reveals hundreds of beakers, pipettes, test tubes, alcohol burners, syringes, etc. More advanced items are also available, such as hot plates which automatically stir the contents of a flask placed on them, and a wealth of thermodynamic devices for pressure, temperature, and volume control.
Perhaps the best route for a truly interested young chemist to take is to begin with the CHEM 3000, working through its experiments and gaining insight, then proceed to a regime of self-education using the internet and libraries, and supplementing the capabilities of the CHEM…
1. Cook, Rosie "Chemistry at Play." Chemical Heritage Magazine 28.1 (2010) Web 11 April 2010
2. Nicholls, Henry "The Chemistry Set Generation." Chemistry World (December 2007) Web 11 April 2010
3. Salter, Rose "Chemistry sets safer, boring." Chicago Sun Times (20 December 1987) Web 11 April 2010
4. "Thames and Kosmos | Science Kits." Thames and Kosmos Home Page. Thames and Kosmos 2010. 11 April 2010
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
(Ward; Mohapatra; Mitchell, 2008)
The Great Lakes also contain large amounts of 'polychlorinated dibenzo-furans - PCDFs' and 'polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins -PCDDs' which are a result of the chlorine bleaching process of paper and pulp mills. In a nation wide study conducted for a period of 4 years on samples of fish and shellfish from various freshwater and marine water bodies in Canada, it was found that the fish from the Great Lakes were among the most contaminated samples. (Steinhart; Doyle; Food esearch Institute, Cochrane, 1995) the paper and pulp industry has also grown with the growth of the economy. However, contaminant discharge from this industry still continues despite the various environmental measures taken by the paper and pulp industry of Canada. This industry has also caused disturbance to the huge boreal landscape of Canada. Approximately 50% of Canada's fresh water is located in these boreal forests. Developmental activities have affected these…
Agioutantis, Zacharias. (2007) "Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Development..." SDIMI.
Burton, Philip Joseph; National Research Council Canada; Adamowicz, WL. (2005)
Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest" NRC Research Press.
Carter-Whitney, Maureen; Duncan, Justin. et. al. (2008) "Balancing
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
The former had been neglected. This was a very serious kind of neglect, she said. She concluded that unless the nitrogen problem was confronted and adequately contained, climate change would not be solved (ohan).
EPA established that exposure to indoor NO below the 53 ppb outdoor standard could lead to respiratory symptoms among children with asthma, especially in a multi-family setting (elanger 2006). This effect continues to be a public health issue because of the number of people exposed to the gas. According to the U.S. Census, more than half of all U.S. households use gas. Their primary source of residential NO is a gas-fueled cooking appliance. This was the summary finding of a study conducted with 1,002 participating families in Connecticut and southwestern Massachusetts from 1997 to 1999. It associated indoor NO with increased respiratory symptoms among asthmatic children. At present, there are no U.S. standards for indoor…
Belanger, K., et al. (2006). Association of indoor nitrogen dioxide exposure with respiratory symptoms in children with asthma. 10 pages. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: American Thoracic Society
Bohan, S. (2007). Nitrogen overdose. 4 pages. Oakland Tribune: ANG Newspapers
Fields, S. (2004). Global nitrogen. cycling out of control. 9 pages. Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Osenga, M (2005). EPA Proposes stationary diesel emissions regulations. 3 pages. Diesel Progress: Diesel and Gas Turbine Publications
Technology and Global Ecosystem
An Analysis of the Implications of Technology and the Global Ecosystem
The 21st century promises to usher in innovations in technology that cannot yet be imagined, and the advancements to date have provided many in the world with unprecedented standards of living. Improved methods of transportation and communication, combined with more leisure time than ever in which to spend it has resulted in many people developing a keen appreciation for technology and what it promises for mankind; an unfortunate concomitant of these innovations in many parts of the world, though, has been an intensive assault on the globe's ecosystem in an effort to bring emerging nations into line with the productivity being experienced in the developed nations of the world. As a result, a debate over whether or not technology threatens the integrity of the global ecosystem has emerged in recent years, and pundits warn that…
Anton, Philip S., James Schneider and Richard Silberglitt. The Global Technology Revolution:
Bio/Nano/Materials Trends and Their Synergies with Information Technology by 2015.
Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2001.
Bjornerud, Marcia. (1997). "Gaia: Gender and Scientific Representations of the Earth." NWSA
History Of Climate Change and Potential Impact of Climate Change
HISTOY AND POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
History of Climate Change
Climate change can be traced back to the 19th century when ice ages together with different natural changes were first noted, and effect of greenhouse first identified. Most recently, the glaciers are melting. Water levels in the seas are increasing. Evidence of increased temperatures in the atmosphere is evident from these. For the last ten years, rampant cases of tornados, winter freezes, wildfires, tropical cyclones, and floods have been common in the US and across the globe. Besides, environmental temperatures have risen steadily over the past century. Today, human activities have advanced, with their eventual effects resting on the environment (McNall, 2012). The use of nuclear energy is a devastating blow to the sustenance of the natural state of the cosmos. The use of fossil fuels has increased the…
Black, B. (2013). Climate change: An encyclopedia of science and history. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.
McNall, S., G. (2012). Rapid Climate Change: Causes, Consequences, and Solution. Framing 21st Century Social Issues. Routledge
The state has really took out half of the $300 million cost that it took to build the Hudson River Park (150 acres land/400 acres open water) with yearly assumptions that are around $20 million to $25 million. 20 years from now it might be a hard challenge keeping this up with the anticipated climate change.
Climate Change: Precipitation
The third reason why climate change will be affecting America in the next 20 years is because of the local precipitation. In addition to impacts on temperature and wind, the urban heat island affects local precipitation patterns. Both comparatively warmer air and higher attentions of particulates over the cities that can cause little more frequent rain events (Ahrens 2006).
About 20 years from now, this will become an issue because the Human-made modifications of the natural environment are affecting the thermal stratification of the atmosphere that is located above a city…
Ahrens, C. David. Meteorology today:an introduction to weather, climate, and the environment. Eighth edition. Florence, Ky: Brooks/Cole., 2006.
Lin, Q., and R. Bornstein. "Urban heat island and summertime convective thunderstorms in Atlanta.." Atmospheric Environment 34.5 (2000): 507-516.
Nowak, David J. The effects of urban trees on air quality. 5 March 1995. 30 April 2011. .
Oke, T.R. Boundary Layer Climates. London: Methuen, 2003.
Deposition occurred over a very long time period. The study found that the sediments separating the two events were characteristic of normal sedimentation, with burrows formed by creatures colonizing the ocean floor, erosion and transportation of sediments, and no evidence of structural disturbance" which means that there is no reason to believe that the asteroid impacted normal life in measurable fashion very quickly, or that fossil evidence of the asteroid's impact had been disrupted (New blow against dinosaur-killing asteroid theory, geologists find, 2009, National Science Foundation).
Even defenders of the asteroid theory think it is unlikely that it was a one-time event that killed most of the life on planet earth, and believe that the asteroids created inhospitable conditions that developed over time. Recent research also indicates that the asteroid "landed in deeper water than previously assumed and therefore released about 6.5 times more water vapor into the atmosphere. The…
Geologist gets to the bottom of Chicxulub impact crater. (2007, January 22).
University of Alaska Fairbanks. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 3, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com ? / releases/2007/01/070118094039.htm
Hypothesis: Asteroid impact. (2009). Evolution: What killed the dinosaurs? PBS.
Retrieved May 3, 2009 at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/extinction/dinosaurs/asteroid.html
(Jordans, 2008) "Europe's unilateral approach will only lead to legal battles and trade wars," Bisignani also stressed. (Jordans, 2008) a hint of this contention occurring in the future was evidenced recently when 27 nations, including the U.S., China and 25 other countries, registered opposition to the EU's attempt to include commercial airlines in its cap-and-trade program by supporting an ICAO-run program. This signal confirmed united opposition to the European Union's intentions to develop a separate, regional emissions trading system. U.S. officials warn that the inclusion of U.S. And other non-European airlines in the EU cap-and-trade program "may break international aviation and trade laws." (Jordans, 2008) Although reasons differ, along with official warnings, scientists raise questions regarding the European program. Airlines, experts basically agree, contribute approximately 2% of man-made emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas reportedly contributing to global warming. Perceptions, nevertheless, differ regarding the impact of other gases aircraft emit,…
Aircraft emissions capped to tackle climate change." European Commission, 20 Dec. 2006. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/061220_1_en.htm .
Aviation and the Environment." Finance Wire, May 7, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2005, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1474988211.html .
EPA to Revise Aircraft Engine Emission Standards." IHS, 30 Nov. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/2005/epa-aircraft-engine-emissionsstandards.htm .
FAQ on Aviation Emissions and Climate Change." HIS, 2 Jan. 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/eu-en-airplane-emissions-faq-1-07.htm .
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…
Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2
Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html
Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)
Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
Although ecologism is rapidly developing into a political ideology in its own right, its widespread acceptance and influence continues to rely on its relationship with other, existing ideologies. One of the most important, and influential, of the 'isms' is Marxism, and the link between it and ecologism is increasingly becoming the subject of academic and political study. This is especially true within the field of environmental sociology, where the Marxist perspective's ability to address the issues of ecologism and sustainability is the root of growing debate and analysis.
Ecologism, which according to Andrew Dobson, "holds that a sustainable and fulfilling existence presupposes radical changes in our relationship with the non-human natural world, and in our mode of social and political life" (2), is a relatively new arrival to the field of environmental politics. Only a few decades ago, environmental and ecological issues, such as global warming, genetically…
Dobson, A. Green Political Thought. London: Routledge, 2000.
O'Connor, J. Natural Causes: Essays in Ecological Marxism. New York: Guilford, 1998.
Lightweight concrete maintains its large voids and not forming laitance layers or cement films when placed on the wall" (p. 1). As noted at the start of the report, "The Pantheon" in Rome, built more than 18 centuries ago depicts an explemaenary example of the durability of lightweight concrete.
In contemporary construction projects, sructural lightweight concrete proves to be in high because of its lower density. The use of smaller load bearing elements or cross sections results in the builder or designer being abile to construct a smaller foundation. In the journal article, "The effect of high temperature on compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of structural lightweight concrete containing fly ash," Harun Tanyildizi and Ahmet Coskun (2008), both with the Department of construction education, Firat University Elazig, Turkey, identify a number of advantages to using structural lightweight concrete . These include the project possessing increased strength and more flexibility,…
Arisoy, B. And Wu, H.C. (2008). Material characteristics of high performance lightweight concrete reinforced with PVA. Construction and Building Materials. Reed Business Information, Inc. (U.S.). Available from: [Accessed 03 May 2010].
Concrete in practice, what, why and how? (2003). National Ready Mix Concrete Association.
D'Annunzio, J.A. (2007). New Lightweight Concrete Technology. Roofing Contractor.
Hossain, M.A. & Lachemi, M. (2007). Mixture Design, Strength, Durability, and Fire Resistance of Lightweight Pumice Concrete. ACI Materials Journal. American Concrete Institute. Available from: [Accessed 03 May 2010].
Fewer predators (i.e. fish) without simultaneous declines in reproduction would mean an increase in the number of insects in the area of acidification. This can increase the number of pests in the area, affecting crops. It could also lead to an increase in disease carrying insects, such as mosquitoes, leading to higher disease rates among other animals, including humans. This could affect populations of these other animals, affecting populations of other species that prey on or are preyed upon by these species, and so on.
Ecosystems are incredibly complex things; the interconnections between the disparate elements are so intertwined and so complex that it is almost -- perhaps completely -- impossible to know the effects of changing or removing a single element. Even more complex and unknowable are the indirect effects on portions of an ecosystem from other sources. The acidification of the Hubbard Brook is almost certainly a result…
(A Mosel iesling, 2011)
The region in which German iesling grapes are grown is centered on the valleys of the Mosel iver, especially along two of the Mosel tributaries, the uwer and the Saar. These valleys are far from rolling: The valleys along the Mosel are steep, so much so that they might seem (if they were not already planted with vines) to seem too steep to support viticulture. These hillsides are also relatively steep, which is one of the most important elements in what makes German ieslings acquire their specific identity. The higher altitude at which the grapes are grown translates into a cooler microclimate for the grapes, which lengthens the period that it takes for the grapes to ripen. This is one of the fundamentals of German ieslings (Dawson & Molesworth, 2011).
The soil type in the Mosel Valley also affects the taste of the ieslings produced from…
Asimov, E. (2010). A German Riesling that embodies spring. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/14/dining/reviews/14wine.html?pagewanted=all .
Asimov, E. (2011). Deep lakes, icy climate, great wine. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/12/dining/from-the-finger-lakes-seriously-good-wines.html?pagewanted=all
Asimov, E. (2011b). Alsatian Rieslings Return to Form. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/31/dining/reviews/dry-rieslings-from-alsace-review.html?pagewanted=all
Berger, D. (2007). The coming Riesling resurgence: Finger Lakes wines are hands up leaders. http://wine.appellationamerica.com/wine-review/439/Finger-Lake-Rieslings.html
I was born and raised in Taipei, Taiwan, which is very different than the United States in many ways. Although the country is becoming more advanced, some forms of its culture are still very traditional. Also, the standard of living is much lower than most of America. There are many people who do not have jobs or are paid low wages. Because of our past history, the country has many political problems. The people are divided on becoming part of China. (My family?) moved to the U.S. four years ago when I was 19 years old because (?). I am glad that we did. Life is much better here, but I do miss some of the special things about Taiwan like the festivals
In the past, the family was very close in Taiwan. In most cases, children stayed home when they were not in school and the elderly were…
A strictly vegetarian diet is best suited to the human body's needs, mankind's ability of survival on earth, and our inherent compassion. Switching to such a diet is fairly simple and creates the opportunity to lead a healthier, happier, and gentler life (Marcus, xi).
For numerous reasons, humanity has been increasingly taking to veganism since the last few years. Some vegan supporters assert their participation in a dietary regimen wherein consuming or utilizing animal products is unethical, according to their religious beliefs or values. Meanwhile, others put forward the argument of animal consciousness's ethicality and the industrial farming process. Those who claim to be vegans most probably do so owing to environmental, animal rights, or personal health concerns, which can alter with time. Several vegans begin as vegetarians, gradually ceasing consumption of milk, eggs and other animal by-products. Meanwhile, others turn purely vegan right from the outset. In…
Jacqui. Beyond Factory Farming: Sustainable Solutions for Animals, People and the Planet. A Report by Compassion in World Farming. 2009. Web. 15 July 2016. http://www.compassioninfoodbusiness.com/media/3817096/beyond-factory-farming-report.pdf
Phillips, Frankie. "Vegetarian Nutrition." British Nutrition Foundation. Nutrition Bulletin, 30, 2005, pp. 132-167.
Rauma, Anna-Liisa. Vegetarianism and Vegan Diet. Physiology and Maintenance, vol. II. 2011. Web. 15 July 2016. http://www.eolss.net/sample-chapters/c03/E6-54-03-06.pdf
The only hope rests in being sensible and alert to the danger we have incurred upon ourselves. Going green and seriously focusing on renewable forms of energy is the only way that we could save this planet from the impending disaster.
1) World Water Council, 'Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
2) U.S. Census ureau, 'World Population Summary', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php
3) WWF, 'Water: Our Rivers Lakes and Wetlands', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/
4) Lester rown, (Oct 2001), 'China's Water Table Levels are Dropping Fast', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.grist.org/article/table/
5) lue Planet, 'The Facts about the Global Drinking Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://blueplanetnetwork.org/water/facts
6) Pew Center, 'Coal and Climate Change Facts', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.pewclimate.org/global-warming-basics/coalfacts.cfm
7) Science Daily 'Environmental Scientists Estimate That China Could Meet Its Entire Future Energy Needs y Wind Alone', retrieved Oct…
1) World Water Council, 'Water Crisis', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
2) U.S. Census Bureau, 'World Population Summary', retrieved Oct 1st, 2010, from, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/worldpopinfo.php
3) WWF, 'Water: Our Rivers Lakes and Wetlands', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/
4) Lester Brown, (Oct 2001), 'China's Water Table Levels are Dropping Fast', retrieved Oct 2nd 2010, from, http://www.grist.org/article/table/
As to the climate, as a result of huge factory smokestacks belching out black smoke from the burning of coal, the atmosphere slowly began to change and severely affected rainfall patterns and created variations in the temperature of the air. This was the beginning of what we now call acid rain, a combination of water and carbon dioxide which slowly pollutes everything it comes in contact with, such as aboveground water sources (lakes, rivers and wells) and even the land itself in the form of run-off which eventually ends up in agricultural areas where food is grown and harvested.
With earth's landforms, the excavation and removal of coal in such places as England and the Eastern United States greatly devastated the natural landscape by leaving behind immense sections of land stripped bare and left wide open to further erosion by rain and wind. Since iron ore, copper and tin were…
Pursuing the Ideal Society." (2007). Ricoh. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.ricoh.com/environment/management/earth.html .
The Industrial Revolution and Its Environmental Impacts." (2007). Learning Space. Internet. Retrieved at http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource / view.php?id=94548.
7 times as dense as lead, and when the shell hits the target, it burns and releases uranium oxide into the air (Eco pp). "The poisonous and radioactive uranium is most dangerous when inhaled into the body, where it will release radiation during the life of the person who inhaled it" (Eco pp). According to Robert Fisk, "there is evidence that the depleted uranium residue left in Iraq is responsible for a large increase in stillbirths, children born with defects, childhood leukemia and other cancers in southern Iraq near Basra" (Eco pp). A study on the long-term effect of DU on the Iraqi environment found the presence of isotopes of U-238 series in over a third of the collected plant samples, with some wild plant samples possessing concentrations of radioactive elements up to three times the natural background (Impact pp).
Impact of Depleted Uranium on Man and Environment…
Impact of Depleted Uranium on Man and Environment in Iraq
Wicked Problem: oyal Dutch Shell and Its esponse to the Nigerian Oil Spill
Major oil companies such as oyal Dutch Shell are responsible for hundreds of oil spills every year that cumulatively involve millions of barrels of oil. The harmful effects of such oil spills on the environment is well documented of course, but less well documented are the different types and levels of responses that are used in response to oil spills in developing nations and those used in affluent nations. While oil spills such as British Petroleum's recent rupture of its Macondo well offshore United States are the focus of a massive and expensive coordinated response, far less attention is paid to oil spills that affect emerging nations such as Nigeria. This is not to say, of course, that all major oil companies -- including oyal Dutch Shell -- are completely abrogating their corporate responsibilities for oil spill…
Cocks, T. (2011, December 27). 'Shell says Nigeria oil spill contained.' Thomson Reuters.
[online] available: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/12/27/us-shell-nigeria-spill -
Duncan, H. & Duke, S. (2010, October 13). 'Royal Dutch Shell Wades in with Attack on BP
8% as compared to the dollar in the start of the last year to January this year. The value of Yuan has improved even with the fall of other emerging economies. The loss of competitiveness that resulted can be best demonstrated by a ratio that has been calculated by the Hong Kong Monetary Authority, which makes a comparison of Yuan with the currency of the other emerging markets that are in competition with China. It is important to note here that the competitors of China are the countries that trade against it, and not necessarily the countries that trade with it. The index calculated by the authority demonstrates that Yuan has been rising over 13% in the year to January. As for January alone, the value of the Chinese currency has risen by 2.6%.
The authorities of China have not said that they had made a move in to weaken…
Hefeker, C., & Nabor, A. (2002). Yen or Yuan? China's role in the future of Asian monetary integration. HWWA Discussion Paper.
Kent, C. (2013). USD is dead: China caps its dollar holdings and plans crude oil futures priced in yuan. Hang The Bankers. Retrieved from http://www.hangthebankers.com/usd-is-dead-china-caps-its-dollar-holdings-plans-crude-oil-futures-priced-in-yuan/
Leising, M., & Li, F. (2013). China to Free Yuan in 5 Years, Says Hong Kong Exchanges' Li. Bloomberg. Retrieved from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-13/china-to-free-currency-in-5-years-says-hong-kong-exchanges-li.html
Mallaby, S., & Wethington, O. (2012). Future of the Yuan: China's Struggle to Internationalize Its Currency, The. Foreign Aff., 91, 135.
Sustainability More About Politics Than Science?
The environment is a word which refers to the natural effects around us including the atmosphere, seas and oceans, rocks and mountains, plants, ice formations, human beings, stars and several others. These effects are best left in their natural state because when they get disturbed, they could have serious consequences on the atmosphere, electricity, water, weather, fire and the earth's magnetism. Sadly, this is the situation of things now and these consequences are real. Several problems are facing the environment causing global adverse effects and putting the people in it at risk. This research studies these problems and determines if the scientific and political measures put in place are effective in mitigating them
Environmental issues facing the world
The disturbances in the environment have brought about noticeable changes in climate and high frequencies of natural disasters. Take for example; the problem of global warming…
Abraham John et al. The Importance of Science in Addressing Climate Change. Climate science. 2011. Print
Scorce Jason. The Role of Government in Environmental Protection. Grist. 2006. Online journal
Burns Steven. Environmental Policy and Political Tends in Public Debate. Natural resources and environment. Vol 23. No. 2. 2008. Print.
Rinkesh. Current Environmental Issues. Conserve energy future. 2017. Online journal.
Economic entities can be influenced by the area they are located in, with the entities positioned in the vicinity of economic blocks like NAFTA or the European Union being advantaged and thus more likely to engage in trade. People in North America and those in Western Europe are advantaged because of their position, meaning that the trade business they get involved in is normally more intense in comparison to the trade performed by economic entities that reside further away from economic blocks.
Security has always been a crucial matter when it came to freight transportation. However, this topic has not been given special attention until the 9/11 events, which marked the beginning of great changes in transportation policies. It previously seemed perfectly normal to check freights for illegal substances, undocumented immigrants, and piracy. Even with that, the World Trade Center events brought forward a new set of security concerns. The…
These types of trips accounted for 33% in 2004, a major increase since 2002, when they only accounted for 17% in all international trips. Finally, the third most common stimulus for trips abroad was that of visiting family and friends. In 2002, the rate of these trips was of 28%, but by 2004 it had declined to 22%.
Another trend obvious in the past recent years is that of Polish tourists visiting destinations considered untraditional so far. This is generally the result of intensified marketing efforts and the most relevant example in this sense is the still growing number of Polish individuals traveling to the African countries, namely Kenya. Also, the results are due to a long historical relationship between Poland and Kenya, basically the fact that Poland has offered scholarships to the Kenyan students and that they have also helped defend the British territories in Kenya against Germany, during…
Ebrill, L.P., 1994, Poland: The Path to a Market Economy, International Monetary Fund
Smith, M.K., Robinson, M., 2006, Cultural Tourism in a Changing World: Politics, Participation and (Re)presentation, Cahnnel View Publications
Thomas, R., Augustyn, M., 2006, Tourism in the New Europe: Perspectives on Some Policies and Practices, Elsevier
2002, Number of Polish Tourists Up, Polonia Global Fund, http://pgf.cc/2002/06/15/number-of-polish-tourists-up/last accessed on January 13, 2009
Deforestation can also lead to soil erosion, and more silt in rivers, streams, and behind dams throughout the deforested area. Biological diversity, including many unique species and ecosystems are lost, as well.
IN order to stop deforestation, people must be more aware of the problem and stop using products made from wood, such as paper, cardboard, and other products. We also need to find alternatives for wood products, such as the recycling of paper and wood products, and building materials such as steel, and products like Trex, which is a non-wooden material used for outdoor decks and such. To stop deforestation, we have to stop cutting down trees. eplanting deforested areas does not help, because it takes too long for the trees to grow, and the damage cannot quickly be repaired.
Collins, Jocelyn. "Deforestation." University of the Western Cape. 2001. 26 May 2008. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm
Stock, Jocelyn and Andy ochen.…
Collins, Jocelyn. "Deforestation." University of the Western Cape. 2001. 26 May 2008. http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/envfacts/facts/deforestation.htm
Stock, Jocelyn and Andy Rochen. "The Choice: Doomsday or Arbor Day." 2008. 26 May 2008. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/deforestation.htm
However, there simply does not seem to be sufficient evidence for the disease hypothesis. First, there has been no evidence of disease found. Next, even extremely virulent diseases, like the plague or West Nile Virus, do not have the kill rates necessary to cause the extinction of an entire species. In addition, one has to realize that the extinction of large mammals coincided with the extinction of other animals, like birds, marsupials, placentals, testudines, and crocodilians. It is unlikely that a disease would be lethal in such a wide-variety of animal populations, especially when it did not destroy all species of certain animal genus.
The final theory is that a meteor killed the large mammals. There is evidence that meteor impacts caused earlier extinctions like the Permian-Triassic extinction and the extinction of the dinosaurs. Meteor impacts can interfere with food sources, because the resulting dust in the air interferes with…
Of course, the 2007 pet food scandal is also a result of this same lack of regulation and inspection in China. Pet food manufactured here in the United States and in Canada contained melamine, an ingredient used in the manufacture of plastic dinnerware, but also a key ingredient in many fertilizers. It sickened thousands of dogs and cats, and hundreds died as a result of eating the tainted pet food. This incident helped bring the dangers of Chinese imported food and other products into focus, and made it much more real for many Americans. As a result, many people are becoming more vigilant about Chinese products, and some Congressmen have called for bans on all Chinese foods that are not inspected, but that has not occurred.
Clearly, this poses a danger to American consumers, and it is one reason that Chinese imports are the biggest threat to America.
Comerford, Michael Sean. "Red Scare Fear Grows over the Quality, Inspection and Sheer Volume of Imports from China." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), 15 July 2007, 1.
Elwell, Craig K., Marc Labonte and Wayne M. Morrison. Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy? Federation of American Scientists. [online]. 2007. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33604.pdf .
Hirsch, Steve. "Safety Warning Issued on Chinese ATV; Government Cites Lack of Front, Parking Brakes." The Washington Times, 6 June 2007, C08.
Murray, Geoffrey, and Ian G. Cook. Green China: Seeking Ecological Alternatives/. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Such things, however, do not appear impossible given the state of science today.
There is one area of concern that science cannot totally resolve, unless it builds a time machine and can go into the future. That is, what are the total ramifications that result from science's wonders? Albert Einstein did not consider nuclear bombs when coming up with the equation of E=mc2
He considered himself a pacifist, yet encouraged the building of the bomb for fear that the Germans would create it first. He was looking toward the future. As he wrote to physicist Niels Bohr in December 1944, "When the war is over, then there will be in all countries a pursuit of secret war preparations with technological means, which will lead inevitably to preventative wars and to destruction even more terrible than the present destruction of life" (Clark, 2007, pg. 698). Then, close to death he stated:…
Clark, R. Einstein: The Life and Times. New York: Perennial, 2007
Colborn, T., Dumanoski, D. And Myers, JP. Our Stolen Future. New York:Abacus, 1996.
Gallopin, G.C., Funtowicz, S, O'Connor, M., and Ravetz, J. (2001) Science for the 21st century: from social contract to the scientific core. Int. Journal Social Science 168:
Hughes, M. (November 27, 2007). "CU Doctor Works on Breast Cancer Vaccine."
Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…
Europa (4 April 2007).
International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm
European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
Repatriation of profits have proven to be a problem as well. Fourth, as stated by Staff (2004) is the challenge presented by poor training in the sector which is stated to be "...weak both at a practical level as well as at a higher strategic level" and the problem has only been exaggerated due to the government and other regulatory authorities in China to promote logistics programs." (Staff, 2004) the fifth challenge stated is in relation to "information and communications technology" in China characterized by a: "...lack of it standards and poor systems integration and equipment. At a very basic level, the consistent supply of energy is also problematic leading to interruptions to communications through power outage." (Staff, 2004) Sixth presenting in the way of a challenge is the "undeveloped domestic industry" due to fragmentation of the logistics sector in China that is: "...dominated by commoditized and low quality transport…
Brown, Lester R. And Halweil, Brian (1998) China's Water Shortage Could Shake World Grain Markets. Worldwatch Institute 22 April 1998. Online available at http://www.worldwatch.org/node/1621.
China Logistics (2006) the Meridian Group. Hong Kong. Online available at http://www.meridiangrouphk.com/en/china_logistics/
Colby, Hunger; Diao, Xinshen, and Somwaru, Agapi (1999) Cross-Comodity Analysis of China's Grain Sector: Sources of Growth and Supply Response. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Market and Trade Economics Division. Technical Bulletin No. 1884.
Country Profile: China (2006) Library of Congress - Federal Research Division. August 2006. Online available at http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/China.pdf .
Whether it is solar power, used vegetable oil, turds, wood, or hydrogen research and experimentation is the way forward. These cheap resources have already been proven effective in various ways and manners. The need of the day is to develop new energy technologies and apply them in the most useful and practical way possible. If we want global economic stability then eco energy sector requires due attention. We have witnessed crises situations in the past. The rising demand for oil, its increasing prices and possible depletion of oil resources demand a way out. Alternative energy sources in this scenario give us a flicker of hope. U.S. government is also pushing the agenda and so should other individuals and organizations also look in this direction for the economic betterment of their counties and the world with the use eco-fuels. The change cannot be brought about by government alone, will and…
Kay, Tonya Making Biodiesel. Hawai'i Indymedia, Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://hawaii.indymedia.org/news/2006/06/5943.php.
Youngquist, W. (1998, December). Alternative Energy Sources - Myths and Realities. Electronic Green Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2006, at http://egj.lib.uidaho.edu/egj09/youngqu1.html
Bond, M. (2000, November). SOLAR ENERGY Seeing the Light.. Geographical, 72(11), 28.
Eco-Lifestyle Ideas for Surfers'. Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:wzhmycSWxXQJ:www.ecosurfproject.org/downloads/download.php%3Ffilename%3Decosurfer.pdf%26backto%3D../resources/articles/index.php+Articles+on+ECO-FUELS&hl=en&gl=pk&ct=clnk&cd=14
e like to make believe in some kind of happy ending, even to an overwhelmingly gloomy story. Even the hero of Miller's The Dark Night Returns is hardly the hero that any of us would want to follow. Miller's Batman is an unapologetic reactionary who in the process of an interrogation of a prisoner, he threatened a man he had put in a neck brace and crutches and mocked him when he claimed, "I got rights (Miller 45)." The new Batman seems to be an even bigger reactionary than the person who trained him (ibid 199). The darkness of the Bat Cave brings the tale full circle as the heroes have become like what they are fighting, dark and corrupt without any inherent light. Only outside and artificial light illuminates imaginary Gotham of Miller's dark knight as it does the New York City of Spiegelman's mouse man as he sees…
Miller, Art. The Dark Knight Returns. New York, NY: DC Comics, 1997. 1-224. Print.
Spiegelman, Art. In the Shadow of No Towers. New York: Pantheon, 2004. 1-42.
law help protect the environment and what steps can citizens take to ensure that the law accomplishes this goal?
Protection of the environment is important for our health, but humans affect the system through various means such as through polluting water and atmosphere with toxic gasses, with oil, with car fuels, and with debris that is plunked into the waters as well as depleting the fisheries and filling the air with smog and the earth with pollution.
It is for this reason that legislation is put into effect to curb our destruction and to teach us how to look after the environment in better ways. The state employs its own regulations, but it needs a synthesis of both state, business and citizen involvement to safeguard the environment, and motivation from both business and citizen is not always forthcoming. The following essay discusses policies that have been implemented to help protect…
Amos, W. (2011) Development of Canadian Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Drilling: Lessons from the Gulf of Mexico RECIEL 20 (1)
British Columbia v. Canadian Forest Products Ltd.,  2 S.C.R. 74, 2004 SCC 38
Bruce, JP (2011) Protecting Groundwater: The Invisible but Vital Resource C.D. Howe Institute
DeMarco, Jerry V;Valiante, Marcia;Bowden, Marie-Ann (2005) Opening the Door for Common Law Environmental Protection in Canada Journal of Environmental Law and Practice 15, 2
Pacific Oil-Strategic Plan
Pacific Oil Startegic Plan
IMPLEMENTATION PLAN-OGANIZATIONAL STATEGY
ISK Management PLAN
esponding of isk management Process
Evolution of isk Management
Policies and Procedures
152011 Identified isks
Pacific Oil-Strategic Plan
This paper presents a strategic plan or Pacific Oil. The paper starts with organizational background consisting of business mission, vision and the corporate values. The nature of the business of Pacific Oil has been clearly identified with some highlights on the business divisions operating in the oil industry. An environmental scan has been performed in order to have a clear insight into the circumstances in which the Pacific Oil is operating. This environmental scan for Pacific Oil is accompanied by a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities & Threats) Analysis. Strengths and weaknesses of Pacific Oil relate to internal organizational environment while opportunities and threats relate to external environment of…
Canales, James E.; Kibble, Barbara D.; Terk, Natasha, 2008. "One Step Beyond Strategic Planning." Foundation News & Commentary, Vol.41 Issue.
Hay, Robert D., 2009. Strategic management in organizations, Westport: Greenwood Press.
llison, Michael & Kaye, Jude, 2010. "Why Plan?" Strategic Planning for Organizations, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Polyack, Jolene, 2009. " Organizations Need Marketing Strategies To Meet Goals." Business Journal -- Serving Fresno & the Central San Joaquin Valley, Issue 322490.
Operational Management Case
How does the concept of product life cycle apply to egal Marine products?
The concept of the life cycle applies to egal marine in several ways. First, this company appears to be in the maturity phase. There are discussions in the article that explain the different methods that they have utilized to stay cutting edge and with supply and demand. As the years passed, they would create bigger and better boats that would in fact cost more and make more money. egal was in the growth stage when they were getting new suppliers while they continued to make updates and innovations to their product. Penfield (2009), explain that companies that can implement effective waste-recovery systems will have a competitive advantage over other businesses. They further explain that in the current economic environment companies need to look at waste as an opportunity we cannot afford to squander.…
Penfield, P. (2009). Life cycle management: A competitive advantage for businesses. Business Journal (Central New York), 23(14), 12. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Rahimifard, A.A., Newman, S.T., & Rahimifard, S.S. (2004). A web-based information system to support end-of-life product recovery. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers -- Part B -- Engineering Manufacture, 218(9), 1047-1057. doi:10.1243/0954405041897004
W, W., A, E., Zhang, H.C., & S, E. (2003). Life-cycle engineering: issues, tools and research. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 16(4/5), 307. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
imagery in the movies Chinatown and Blade unner and compare the film-noir type of imagery against the actual statistics available in the latest Census results from Los Angeles that characterize the complexion of Los Angeles in 2010. In all three arenas, we see a Los Angeles area that is multi-ethnic, grime and dirt included. In many ways, while the movie imagery is different, in many ways all three characterizations have more in common than have differences. In all three portraits, the dirty, gritty and repressive city scape has the potential to swallow up the inhabitants in the Los Angeles darkness that is almost as thick as palpable as the ninth Egyptian plague of darkness. The films accurately and effectively discuss the "feel" of the city and the city's neighborhoods. The author will provide examples from the films to illustrate this, as well as the similarities and differences.
U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Dept of Commerce. Los Angeles city, California QuickLinks. Washington,
D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 2012. Web. .
Commerce and Its Demographics
The diffusion of ideas and technological impacts that have taken place globally.
Globalization as a phenomenon of economic and cultural connectivity has been growing for centuries, but the current form is of a fundamentally different order (Smith and Doyle 2002). The speed of communication, the complexity and size of the networks involved and the huge volume of trade, interaction and risks involved make up the current and peculiar form. The diffusion of ideas, practices and technologies that occurs within is more than internationalization, universalization, modernization and westernization. Anthony Giddens (1990 as qtd in Smith and Doyle) described today's globalization as "the intensification of worldwide social relations, which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa." It has changed the way geography has been traditionally understood and how localness has been experienced. The new…
1. Diao X and Somwaru A. (1996). Dynamic Gains and Losses from Trade Reform: an Intertemporal General Equilibrium Model of the United States and MERCOSUR. University of Minnesota Economic Development Center Bulletin. St. Paul Minneapolis Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics: University of Minnesota.
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4. Killon, MU. (2005). Chinese Regionalism and the 2004 ASEAN -- China Accord: the WTO and Legalized Trade Distortion. http://econwpa.wustl.edu:8089/eps/it/papers/0501/0501003.pdf
Any organization that deals directly with petroleum-based products, including storage facilities, will be affected by the act. The act also provides for Area Contingency Plans in case of emergency. The Pollution Prevention Act aims to reduce pollution "through cost-effective changes in production, operation, and raw materials use," ("Pollution Prevention Act"). Recycling programs fall under the Pollution Prevention Act; therefore, organizations might be required under this law to participate in large-scale recycling programs. Moreover, the Pollution Prevention Act is designed to curb source pollution, so the act applies especially to organizations that are potential polluters. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act applies especially to storage of toxic waste. The act will pertain to employees of waste management facilities or of any organization that must dispose of its waste material in an environmentally sound and legally authorized way.
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm.
Clean ater Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm.…
About EPA." 2005. Online at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/aboutepa.htm .
Clean Water Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/water/cwa.htm .
Endangered Species Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/esa.htm .
Freedom of Information Act." Online at http://www.epa.gov/region5/defs/html/foia.htm .
S. pp). For more than ten years, Chinese officials have stated that production from Chinese firms investing overseas is more secure than imports purchased on the international market (U.S. pp). In order to secure more reliable access, Chinese firms are being directed to invest in projects in the Caspian region, Russia, the Middle East and South America (U.S. pp).
The National Intelligence Council's report also states that Europe's energy needs will probably not grow to the same extent as those of the developing world, partly because of Europe's expected lower economic growth and more efficient use of energy (U.S. pp). Europe's increasing preference for natural gas, combined with depleting reserves in the North Sea, will provide an added boost to political efforts that are already under way to strengthen ties with Russia and North Africa, since gas requires a higher level of political commitment by both sides in designing and…
"Globalization and Energy Supply: Strategic Risk in the 21st Century."
A Deloitte Research Viewpoint. May 2004.
Harris, Martha Caldwell. "The Globalization of Energy Markets."