Environmental Problems Essays (Examples)

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Environmental Problem in the World

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14910790

Some forms of energy, such as wave and tidal energy and hydrogen fuel cells are still being studied. Another writer states, "Techniques to harness the energy found in the oceans are best developed for tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal energy conversion" (Middleton 52). Many other types of alternative energy, such as solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies are all being used where they make sense. Other solutions include nuclear energy, but the problem of disposing of the nuclear waste is a big problem, and so, no new nuclear facilities are being built. Authors Ottinger and Williams continue "Nuclear energy is excluded [...] because of its high capital and operating costs, complex technical requirements for operation and maintenance, and unresolved problems of proliferation and waste disposal" (Ottinger and Williams 331).

None of these solutions are being used enough to remedy the problem, and there are many reasons why they are not being more heavily used. Many of the long-term projects are very expensive to build and operate, and so utilities are hesitant to invest in them. Around the world, many countries are investing in alternative power, such as wind power. Another writer notes, "India, China, and a dozen European…… [Read More]


Author not Available. "Causes of Global Warming." EchoBridge.org. 2005. 21 July 2005. http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_cse.htm

Cristol, Hope. "New Concern About Acid Rain: Trees' Immune Systems may be Damaged by Pollution." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 2002: 8+.

Cruver, Philip C. "Lighting the 21st Century." The Futurist Jan.-Feb. 1989: 29+.

Johnson, Dan. "Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide." The Futurist Aug.-Sept. 1998: 15.
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Environmental Case Study Solving a Puzzle

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21639584

Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)

Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or economically beneficial to the province or entire Canada (Fairley 52).

These developments of events surrounding the oil sands make it critical for the creation or formulation of effective and efficient solution to the puzzle facing Alberta and the planet. The responsibility for development of economic, social, and political policies in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.

Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at: < http://www.strategywest.com/downloads/StratWest_OSProjects.pdf >

Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.

Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
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Environmental Justice & Executive Order

Words: 9648 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26252107

For example, unequal protection may result from land-use decisions that determine the location of residential amenities and disamenities. Unincorporated, poor, and communities of color often suffer a "triple" vulnerability of noxious facility siting." (Bullard, 1998)

Finally, 'Social Equity' is that which "assesses the role of sociological factors (race, ethnicity, class, culture, life styles, political power, etc.) on environmental decision making. Poor people and people of color often work in the most dangerous jobs, live in the most polluted neighborhoods, and their children are exposed to all kinds of environmental toxins on the playgrounds and in their homes." (Bullard, 1998)


The National Preservation Institute states that the term 'cultural resource' is not defined in NEPA or even in any other Federal law and yet there are "several laws and executive orders that deal with particular kind of 'resources' that are 'cultural' in character." The following is a description of various sources and their definitions of regulations relating to cultural resources and the human's interaction with their environment.

NEPA and CEQ regulations: makes a requirement of agencies to consider the effects of their actions on all aspects of the 'human environment'.

The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA)…… [Read More]


Bullard, Robert D. (1998) Environmental Justice in the 21st Century. Environmental Justice Resource Center. Online available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/ejinthe21century.htm

O'Neil, Sandra George (2007) Superfund: Evaluating the Impact of Executive order 12898. Environmental Health Perspectives

• VOLUME 115 | NUMBER 7 | July 2007. Online available at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/9903/9903.pdf

Pellow, David Naguib (2004) Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago. MIT Press 2004. Google Books Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=P_8g761DKFAC&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=Environmental+Justice+Movement,+Chicago,+Executive+Order+12898&source=bl&ots=ZC3pkDW6PB&sig=lwIdweolIL9q613JulaJ1RKvrCs&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result#PPA81,M1
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Environmental Policies Give an Example

Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279

The 1980s (the period when Ronald Reagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- Reagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANWR or Arctic National Wildlife Range, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm (DSP) that influence the public's opinion about the environment. Does our DSP limit our ability to respond appropriately to future environmental problems?

Protecting the environment involves sacrificing economic growth to a large extent since economic growth depends on environmental inputs. The forward march of the human civilization has resulted in…… [Read More]


Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm

Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.

Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
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Environmental Hazards Open Dumps an

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77953367

Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.

Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (Repa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top soil which is placed for growth of vegetation. The system of engineering in the modern landfills is in such a way that it ensures protection of environment and human health through the containing of leachate which could otherwise contaminate ground water. At the same time there is collection of gases…… [Read More]


Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenkerala.net%2Fpdf%2Fkey_issue_on_open_dumps.pdf&ei=Vy9uUcyuBamy7AbDo4GYBQ&usg=AFQjCNFUTQkrQnIxwkIgJOzwJtptbNSfGw&bvm=bv.45368065,d.ZWU

Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.republicservices.com/Corporate/Planet/SustainabilityProjects/San-Antonio-Atlanta.aspx

Skye, J. (2011).Environmental problems: Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Environmental_Problems:_Landfills
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Environmental Crime the National Environmental

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29682431

..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)

The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)

An important part of this act and its implementation is the setting of safety and health standards. To this end the Act also makes provision for the setting of uniform safety and health standards for industrial and other work places. For this reason the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was established to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009.  http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund 

Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. (http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/)

Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
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Environmental Security the Environment and

Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46094940

The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while insecurity can impact the environment negatively as well. Specifically, refugees driven from their environment by political insecurity can place negative strain on their new environment, while war could result over a lack of resources.

It has also been mentioned above that environmental insecurity can provide a valuable resource for targeted…… [Read More]


Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.

Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11

Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
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Environmental Justice Policies and Issues

Words: 5141 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35478705

Environmental Justice in the United States:

Policies, Beliefs & People/Places Involved

During the course of my college career, my interests and passions have changed, gradually evolving to an intensified mix of all that my Interdisciplinary Studies major encompasses. I began my college career seeking a Mass Communication degree; a course of study that focused primarily on community organization and mobilization. After feeling the harsh reality of advertising and public relations evils, I decided that Social Work was my calling. I felt a deep need to help others in situations where if they only had some assistance their lives could be changed for the better. However, after taking an Introduction to Environmental Issues course, I felt strongly that a change of studies was necessary. I began to formulate a study plan that included all of my previous interests and integrated a whole new section-policy and law. I was particularly interested in the politics of environmental issues and how government and society view the environment and handle problems or issues that arise. Thus, when my senior project topic was due, the obvious choice for me was to research environmental justice within the United States. The Environmental Justice Movement has elements of my…… [Read More]


Adams, John H. (1994, spring) Message From the Director: Environmentalism and Justice at NRDC, Amicus J. (statement of the Executive Director of the Natural Resources Defense Council).

Alternatives for Community and Environment (ACE) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at  http://www.Ace-ej.org 

Commununities of a Better Environment (CBE). Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.cbecal.org

Community coalition for Environmental Justice (CCEJ) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.ccej.org, online.
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Environmental Racism There Are Several

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20158065

One major way in which this can be achieved is education. Living in an integrated society means that education can be focused upon everyone within this society at the same time. In this way, both white, black, and other people can be educated about the environment, as well as strategies to implement towards a healthier environment for everybody. Such programs should then be greatly focused upon issues such as the equal right to a clean and healthy environment.

A further way to combat environmental racism is to address the issue with corporations and businesses. Businesses should focus their resources towards community projects that help black and poor communities to become cleaner and healthier for their inhabitants. This process can be connected to other social community projects such as schooling or building homes for the poor.

Finally, workplaces and educational facilities serving poor and black communities should be approached on a collaborative basis. It is only by working together that the United States can address the many social and economic factors facing it. This is also true of environmental racism. In addition to an understanding of the phenomenon itself, educational facilities and workplaces should invest their intellectual and financial resources into…… [Read More]


Bullard, Robert D. Dumping in Dixie: Race, Class, and Environmental Quality. Boulder, CO: Westview, 1990.  http://www.ciesin.columbia.edu/docs/010-278/010-278chpt1.html 

Carter, Majora. Greening the ghetto. Feb 2006. http://www.ted.com/index.php/talks/majora_carter_s_tale_of_urban_renewal.html

Roy, Arundhati. Power Politics: The Reincarnation of Rumpelstiltskin. Outlook India, Nov 27, 2000. http://www.commondreams.org/views02/0307-03.htm
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Environmental Policies and Problems in

Words: 2855 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65016873

" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:

China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;

Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)

Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) Studies conducted in the United States have shown that "emission reduction programs provide much greater benefit than their costs." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) It is interesting to note that emission controls are generally not…… [Read More]


Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2

Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html 

Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)

Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
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Environmental Laws vs Economic Freedom

Words: 817 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22269435

Environmental Laws vs. Economic Freedom

The objective of this work is to provide an in depth analysis on environmental restrictions and economic freedom. This work will explain the rational and support the writer's view with research. Addressed will be topics including sustainability, change management, regulation and competition.

Defining Environmentalism and Economic Freedom

The work of Walter Block entitled "Environmentalism and Economic Freedom: The Case for Private Property Rights" states that an environmentalist "may be non-controversially defined as a philosophy which sets great benefit in clean air and water and to a lowered rate of species extinction." (1998) The definition of economic freedom is described as the "idea that people legitimately own themselves and the property they "capture" from nature by homesteading, as well as the additional property they attain, further, by trading either their labor or their legitimately owned possessions." (Block, 1998) The first view of the relationship existing between environmentalism and freedom is stated as appearing "direct and straightforward: an increase in the one leads to a decrease in the other and vice versa." (Block, 1998) The Marxist school of thought and those who are communist are "advocates of environmental concerns. People like these come to the ecological movement…… [Read More]


Beder, Sharon (2006) The Changing Face of Conservation, Commodification, Privatization and the Free Market. In Lavingne, DM (ed), Gaining Ground: In Pursuit of Ecological Sustainability, International Fund for Animal Welfare, Guelph, Canada & University of Limerick, Ireland, 2006, 83-97.

Block, Walter (1998) Environmentalism and the Economic Freedom: The Case for Private Property Rights. Journal of Business Ethics 17: 1887-1889. 1998. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands. Retrieved from: http://mises.org/etexts/environfreedom.pdf

Carlsson, F. And Lundstrom, S. (2001) Political and Economic Freedom and the Environment: The Case of CO2 Emissions. Working Papers in Economics no 29. Second version August 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.efdinitiative.org/research/publications/publications-repository/political-and-economic-freedom-and-the-environment-the-case-of-co2-emissions/files/New%20Swopec%2029.pdf

Lee, HH, Chung, RK, Koo, CM (nd) On the Relationship Between Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability. Retrieved from: http://www.unescap.org/esd/environment/mced/documents/materials/EG_ES.pdf
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Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal What Is Environmental

Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51447096

Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal

What is Environmental Stewardship?

What are the problems?

Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?

A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness

Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.

This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important reality -- that although the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and our state associates share responsibility for making sure that the nation's environmental progress to date could be much better. It is clear that environmental stewardship has always been part of our exceptional American experience -- there is a unique history…… [Read More]


Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.

Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.

Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.
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Environmental Psychology

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29994840

Environmental Psychology

This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments, human information processing, and the promotion of durable conservation behavior. Though it is said to be the best-known and most comprehensive description of the field, it is also known as human factors science, cognitive ergonomics, environmental social sciences, architectural psychology, socio-architecture, ecological psychology, ecopsychology, behavioral geography, environment-behavior studies, person-environment studies,…… [Read More]


Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.

Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future

Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp. 169 -- 185
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Environmental Racism Unequal Distribution of

Words: 1050 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71818209

The third and most contentious explanation charges unequal distribution of pollutants and hazardous toxins to environmental racism.

In this explanation race is a major factor. Research findings suggest, "...racism may be playing a role in the decision-making process" (p. 88). Industrial decision-makers frequently choose minority areas for disposal and industrial facilities. Concentrations of pollution are simply reflections of inherent injustice in the system. In other words, poor environmental quality in minority areas is a symptom of institutional discrimination. Thus a variety of groups, organizations, and such are implicated -- probably, they don't intend any harm, but their policies result in negative outcomes for poor areas and the people living in them. In Kitchener, Ontario, for instance, a housing development was built where formerly a waste landfill was located. Officials who approved the development knew it had been a waste landfill, but the project was going to be profitable. Buyers did not know when they bought the property what was going to be underneath them. In another place, Ralgreen, Ontario, a housing development was built on top of a former waste landfill; methane gas accumulated and caused explosions, and eventually everybody had to move out. The city knew about the presence…… [Read More]


Friedman, D. (1998). The "environmental racism" hoax. The American Enterprise, 9 (6), 75-78.

Talking race (2003). Alternatives Journal, 29 (1), 3-4.

Warriner, G.K., McSpurren, K. And Nabalamba, a. (2001). Social justice and environmental equity: Distributing environmental quality. Environments, 29 (1), 85-99.
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Environmental Economics

Words: 2913 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16139129

Environmental Economics

Economics and Nature Conservation

From early childhood, one is taught of the importance of the surrounding environment in all human activities. Forests for instance are crucial sources of fresh air and clean water, as well as raw commodities that support life. Nevertheless, mankind continues to trash the woodlands, and as such jeopardize the future of the next generations. In a context in which next to 5 million hectares of forests are lost on annual basis due to deforestations and fires, causing a multitude of environmental, economic and social effects, the global authorities must intervene to better regulate the sector.

The modern day individual is characterized by a myriad of features, such as the reduced time to cook and the obvious tendency to either eat out, either grab some fast food. Other elements refer to the increased pace of technological development, with which he has to keep up; the incremental pressures on the job, also pegged to the necessity to prove one's compulsory role within the business climate, now when employers engage in downsizing operations.

Aside these features however, an increase in the responsible behavior towards the natural environment is also observable. The civilized populations have understood the necessity…… [Read More]


Bratkovich, S., Gallion, J., Leatherberry, E., Hoover, W., Reading, W., Durham, G., Forests of Indiana: Their Economic Importance, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,  http://na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/forestprod/indiana_forest04/forests_of_IN04.htm  last accessed on November 24, 2009

Burgees, P., Cheek, K.A., Policy Review

Johnson, K.N., Holthausen, R., Shannon, M.A., Sedel, J., Case Study

Nelson, J.E., Management Review
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Environmental Crime Economic Globalization and

Words: 2261 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2165518

A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.

Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have resilient single rather than traditional natural bush like growth. As these plants overtake the grasses that grow in clumps, the protection for the soil changes, even outside of the agricultural area, and fires spread more rapidly. ("Give a Weed an" c1) Another example would be the modifications of plants to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Gaudet, Mary. "Without a Trace: Controversy Buzzes around the Mysterious Disappearance of Bees on Prince Edward Island." Alternatives Journal July 2005: 32.

"Give a Weed an Inch, it'll Take a Smile." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 12 June 2005: c1.
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Environmental Regulations in Public Transit

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60710599

Environmental Regulations in Public Transit

The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and statues take place as some widespread pollutants erode stone. Decrease in visibility due to smog caused by air pollution can affect national parks and at times meddle with aviation. (Why should you be concerned about air pollution?)

The biggest segment of the nation's population occupies swiftly growing metropolitan and urban…… [Read More]


Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005

Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005

Clean Air Act. Retrieved from  http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act  Accessed on 28 May 2005

Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
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Environmental Sciences Obama Turns to Web to

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50361966

Environmental Sciences

Obama Turns to Web to Illustrate the Effects of a Changing Climate

This article discusses how the use of technology and the internet can aid in the overall global warming education process. The article explains how President Obama is using a mobile app to depict the effects of global warming in local communities. Through technology, Obama hopes to create awareness of the overall global warming issue, and its impact on communities. The article states that out that individuals given a list of 20 issues, rank global warming as 19th. Through the use of the app, the Obama administration hopes to create an overall sense of urgency within the general public.

A particularly interesting aspect of the article was the amount of detailed coordination needed to produce the app. The mobile app is unique in that it attempts to depict the impact global warming has on communities' overtime. As such, geographically aspects will need constant surveillance and monitoring to accurately depict damage caused by global warming. To complete this task effectively requires technological expertise and coordination. The article mentions that private companies such as Google, local governments, and even federal agencies all work together to create the technology used…… [Read More]

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Environmental Changes the Physical Environmental

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68287562

The growing population has a great impact on the extent of global warming and its consequences for society, economy and the environment. This means that there is rising in greenhouse emission, more people means more industry. Scientists worry about the emission from developing countries which may contribute to global environment problems even sooner than expected. But not only the developing countries contributes to the emission but also rich industrialized countries have been putting carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere for many years now. "20% of the world's population can not continue to indiscriminately pollute the atmosphere at the expense of the majority" (M. Glantz 2005). Rich industrialized countries contributes a higher percentage of emission at the atmosphere that increases the environment's temperature of global warming and results to change of weather pattern to different regions. "Africa's contribution to the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases has been minimal, yet according to the IPCC, Africa is the most vulnerable continent to climate change as widespread poverty severely limits its capabilities to adapt" (Glantz 2005). This only explains that in comparison Africans are poor and have a very few resources to support their basic needs like food and water, these…… [Read More]


Glantz.H. (March 2005) Climate Change Global Warming and Sub-Saharan Africa. Fragile Ecologies. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website: http://www.fragilecologies.com/mar02_05.html. s

Global Warming. Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website: http://www.nrdc.org/globalWarming/qthinice.asp

Klueger J. (2008). Global Warming Heats Up. Time Magazine. Retrieved on May 03, 2008, from website, www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1176980,00.html
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Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineers of

Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84085324

Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal…… [Read More]

Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.

Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.
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Problem With Trying to Monetize Ecosystems

Words: 1905 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89012041

Monetizing Environmental Goods and Services

Monetizing ecosystem services is not essential for ecological sustainability. Thus, all goods and services provided by nature should not be commoditized and given an economic value or price so that they can be traded properly and accounted for in economic decisions to bolster their conservation. Monetization is only effective in the realm of presenting penalties for ecosystem violations, though even then it presents as a flawed system. The monetization of natural resources and ecosystems marks a violation of our integrity and collective human spirit.

Nature and all organic processes already have an inherent value that makes them valuable. It's up to society to realize that value, and to treat these attributes as precious through their time and attention. All attempts to monetize or to ascribe a financial value either artificially or through government support generally manifest as unsustainable. For example, the government often tries to accomplish this through subsidies of climate-friendly technologies (such as ones which rely on natural ecosystems) generally results in revenues raised by taxing. "Given the tight fiscal environment throughout the developed world, it is difficult to justify increasing (or even continuing) the subsidies that would be necessary to change significantly the…… [Read More]


Ackerman, F., & Gallagher, K. (2000, October). Getting the Prices Wrong. Retrieved from Global Development: [HIDDEN]

Kinzig, A. (2011, November). Paying for Ecosystem Services -- Promise and Peril. Retrieved from Sciencemag.org: [HIDDEN]

Spash, C. (2008). How Much is that Ecosystem in the Window? Retrieved from Environmental Values: [HIDDEN]

Stavins, R. (2009, April). What Explains the Recent Popularity of Market-Based Envrionmental Solutions? Retrieved from [HIDDEN]
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Environmental Psychology Securing Its Future by Harold

Words: 733 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20472726

Environmental Psychology: Securing its Future" by Harold M. Proshansky

Relatively young field, is it secure?

Epistemology: study or theory of the nature and grounds of knowledge

How did field begin, where is it going?

Environmental Psychology: Yesterday and Today


Empiricism -- theory of relying on observation, experiment, experience

Positivism -- theory that considers religion, metaphysics imperfect means, and relies on natural phenomenon and empirical sciences

Field developed in 1960s during social and political upheavals

But even before, after WWII -- new structures built, rapid growth -- increased research in social psychology, emphasis on attitude change, group processes, intergroup conflicts

Lewin (1948), Festinger, Schacter, and Back (1950) and Deutch (1949) students of Lewin (1948) -- began applying field theory conceptions to various social problems

Confluence of Forces

laboratory-experimental model but failure to apply to real world -- leads to loss of credibility and "malaise" in the social sciences in 1960s and 1970s -- still absence of environmental psychology blatantly -- noisily elusive -- hard to understand

Emergence of Environmental Design / Psychology

Result of external factors put pressure on all behavioral sciences

Unprecedented growth of urban, suburban

Need to answer questions about human needs, values, behaviors, experiences

Architect planners such…… [Read More]

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Environmental Impact of the Gulf

Words: 1595 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14052889

These are the organisms that are accountable for the development of red tides. These algal blooms later destroy additional aquatic species by interfering with their respiratory organs. Among the numerous species of microscopic algae that comprises the foundation of the aquatic food chain, about eighty-five species are said to be deadly (Carlisle, n.d).


Legislation should be passed to govern the maritime activities such as oil drilling and crude oil shipping in order to set specific safety guidelines and risk mitigation approaches. Hefty fines should be imposed on the parties that contravene these legislations. Cleanup activities should also be put in place to eliminate both the short-term and long-term effects of the previous oil spill. The aim is to rehabilitate and rejuvenate the level of aquatic and human health.


Oil spill are dangerous to aquatic and human life forms. They should therefore be avoided and controlled at all cost in order to curtail their devastating consequences.… [Read More]


Achenbach, J. (2008) "A 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico: Scientists Say Area That Cannot

Support Some Marine Life Is Near Record Size," Washington Post

Carlisle, E. (n.d) the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone and Red Tides.

 http://www.tulane.edu/~bfleury/envirobio/enviroweb/DeadZone.htm . Accessed on February 24, 2011
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Environmental Policies and Citizen Contribution

Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12528627

Citizen Groups Shaping Environmental Policy

The environmental issues have of late been a subject of concern to many people and many organizations. Governments all over the world have been under persistent pressure to implement policies and also enact laws that are friendly to the environment or are intentionally formulated to safeguard the environment. The Kyoto protocol was a pace setter in many aspects concerning the environmental care and conservation, hence many bodies borrow from it and help in the implantation of the guidelines that were outlined in that particular meeting of the global bodies and economic giants of the world. These groups that act as custodians of the environment include the citizen groups of diverse measures and backgrounds.

The citizen groups in this aspect include the industry groups, trade associations and the not-for-profit organizations. These are the renowned groups that use their influences to shape the perspectives that the government has or forms about the environment and the measures that it takes to protect the environment. This step of influencing the government becomes possible for these citizen groups since they have the economic resources and the political influence as well as the backing of the large numbers of citizens that…… [Read More]


Desai Uday, (2002). Environmental Politics and Policy in Industrialized Countries. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=oa5ykgL3cjAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=how+citizen+groups+shape+environmental+policies&source=bl&ots=K0PXSyUbxC&sig=vCzf4TZzmmxojF_MgnqYV5w1S9U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wjA_Va-IHczVPL3IgLAG&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=how citizen groups shape environmental policies&f=false

Micehael E.K., (2002). Environmental Policy and Politics in the United States: Toward Environmental Sustainability? Retrieved April 26, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=oa5ykgL3cjAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=how+citizen+groups+shape+environmental+policies&source=bl&ots=K0PXSyUbxC&sig=vCzf4TZzmmxojF_MgnqYV5w1S9U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wjA_Va-IHczVPL3IgLAG&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=how citizen groups shape environmental policies&f=false

The Sierra Club, (2015). Citizen Groups Compelling U.S. EPA to Protect Appalchia's Water. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from http://content.sierraclub.org/press-releases/2015/01/citizen-groups-compelling-us-epa-protect-appalachia-s-water
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Environmental Impacts of Plastic Bags

Words: 3396 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74324348

Life Cycle or Carbon Footprint of Plastic Bags

Plastic bags are regarded as one of the most common items in daily life in the modern society. These products continue to be common in everyday life despite emerging concerns across many cities worldwide concerning their probable environmental impact. These concerns have increased in the recent past because of the problem of global climate change. Actually, the concerns have been fueled by increased interest in calculating the climate change effects of varying consumer products in recent years. Despite accounting for a small portion of consumer products, plastic or shopping bags have been identified as sources of numerous environmental problems throughout the world. Some of the major environmental problems emerging from the use of plastic bags include litter, flooding, and resource depletion. Nonetheless, the impact of plastic bags on global climate change can be understood through examining their life cycle or carbon footprint. This is followed by developing possible areas of impact reduction to lessen the environmental problems brought by plastic bags.

Use of Plastic Bags

As previously mentioned, plastic bags are considered as one of the most common items in daily life though they account for a small volume of consumer products.…… [Read More]


Adane, L. & Muleta, D. (2011, August). Survey on the Usage of Plastic Bags, Their Disposal, and Adverse Impacts on Environment: A Case Study in Jimma City, Southwestern Ethiopia. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, 3(8), 234-248.

Ellis et al. (2005, December 22). Plastic Grocery Bags: The Ecological Footprint. Retrieved November 12, 2015, from http://www.vipirg.ca/archive/publications/pubs/student_papers/05_ecofootprint_plastic_bags.pdf

Jalil, A., Mian, N. & Rahman, M.K. (2013). Using Plastic Bags and Its Damaging Impact on Environment and Agriculture: An Alternative Proposal. International Journal of Learning and Development, 3(4), 1-14.

Khoo, H.H., Tan, R.B.H., Chng, K.W.L. (2010, February 13). Environmental Impacts of Conventional Plastic and Bio-based Carrier Bags. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 15, 284-293.
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Environmental Science Environmental Fundamentals Defining Environmental Science

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23132420

Environmental Science

Environmental fundamentals

Defining environmental science: The quest for sustainability

Environmental science or environmental studies are defined as the "study of a range of environments, from the bodies we live, to the physical structures, institutions and industries we build, to the politics, languages and cultural practices we use to communicate, and to the earth and its complex multitude of animals, flora and bio-physical elements and processes" (What is environmental science, 2012, York University). The word derives from the French world 'environs,' which means everything around us (What is environmental science, 2012, York University). A critical component of environmental studies has become how to enhance the sustainability of human life in conjunction with the environment. Humans today are not seeking simply to understand the environment but to live in harmony with it. Environmentalism seeks to acknowledge that humans are part of the environment, not merely consumers of it. "Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic and other requirements of present and future generations" (What is sustainability, 2012, EPA).

Human technological development, until recently, has largely been to the detriment, rather than the enhancement of the…… [Read More]


Bittman, Mark. (2008). Rethinking the meat-guzzler. The New York Times. Retrieved:


Britten, Nick. (2009). Scientists grow meat in a laboratory. The Telegraph. Retrieved:

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Environmental Assessment

Words: 2079 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39135465

Environmental Assessing Canada

More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.

The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result of implementing various projects. Subsection 35 of this act emphasizes that any "harmful alteration, disruption or destruction (HADD) of fish habitat" (Fisheries Act) is forbidden. Individuals thus need to assess the consequences that their work or undertakings are going to have on the environment and do everything in their power…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, "Canada Enter the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited," (McGill-Queens, 1997)

"Fisheries Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14151-eng.htm

"Canadian Environmental Assessment Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Canadian Environmental Law Association Website:  http://www.cela.ca/taxonomy/term/212 

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Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law

Words: 3051 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96085136

Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation

With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.

There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their very being. There is need therefore to look at the various forms of safety law violations, the consequences as well as how to curb this trend of violations. Environmental crimes can therefore be referred to as the acts of man that are directed or intended at harming the environment (Environmental…… [Read More]


Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up

Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating

Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf.
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Environmental Concerns in 1900 the

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3445105

Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. Everybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to a decrease in interest and the willingness to listen and change their views on the part of the population; this passivity induced by an afflux of information - neither useful nor concise - is a psychological truth which cannot be denied especially when trying to raise awareness on such an…… [Read More]

Europa (4 April 2007).

International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm

European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
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Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37679198

Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le Roy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical

The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.

Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing, as well as "a burning feeling in the lungs" (EPA, no date, p. 1). It can even be fatal. Although there are numerous factors that can account for this condition, one of the most prevalent is air pollution. Additionally, it is worth noting that while there are measures individuals can…… [Read More]


Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf 

Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf

Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
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Environmental Degradation and Poverty There

Words: 1043 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32311566

The World Health Organization (WHO) has determined that poor people suffer greater loss of life and health from pollution and other environment-related causes, with lack of safe water, sanitation, and poor air quality being the main factors in determining life expectancy. The statistic that 20% of the total loss of life expectancy in developing countries is attributable to environmental causes, versus only 4% in rich countries is also indicative of the fact that the poor are hit the hardest by environmental degradation. (Ibid. p. 6)

Despite such overwhelming evidence about environmental degradation as a major cause of poverty, there is a widespread perception in developing countries that maintaining the environmental quality was a luxury that the poor countries can ill-afford while allocating their scarce resources in supposedly more important areas such as education, health and infrastructure. This is an arguable point. According to the "Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty..." report, pursuit of development that accepts environmental degradation as the price of progress often leads to situations in which the benefits of greater economic gains are either off set or even outweighed by economic losses from damages to ecosystems (p. 8). The study, quoting WHO figures, allocates very high cost-benefit…… [Read More]


Assessing Environment's Contribution to Poverty Reduction" (2005). United Nations Development Program for Poverty-Environment Partnership. Retrieved on June 13, 2007 at http://www.undp.org/pei/pdfs/AssessingEnvironmentsRoleinPovertyReduction.pdf

Sustaining the Environment to Fight Poverty and Achieve the MDGs." (2005). United Nations Development Program for Poverty-Environment Partnership. Retrieved on June 13, 2007 at http://www.undp.org/pei/pdfs/SustainingEnvironmentFightPoverty.pdf

UNDP is United Nations Development Program; UNEP is United Nations Environment Program; IIED is International Institute for Environment and Development; IUCN is World Conservation Union; and WRI is World Resource Institute

The perception is based on the controversial 'environmental Kuznets curve' (EKC) hypothesis, which suggests that environmental assets are degraded in the early stages of economic development, but they improve after some income threshold has been passed
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Environmental Engineering -- Contrails Are

Words: 1144 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23080508

Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.

The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley Research Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)

The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment than emissions that are released on the ground." (Murray, 2006) the environmental impact from contrails is attributed to being a similar threat to that of the CO2 emissions speculation that is considered to be a trigger to Global Warming.

Contrails are one of many contributors to the supposed Global Warming…… [Read More]


Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.

Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.

Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.

Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
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Environmental Risk Analysis Process

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86774057

Environmental Risk Analysis Process

Environmental Risk Analysis (ERA) is "a process for estimating the likelihood or probability of an adverse outcome or event due to pressures or changes in environmental conditions resulting from human activities" (Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, 2000). ERA should be a scientific process, when that is possible. "In general terms, risk depends on the following factors: How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), how much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and the inherent toxicity of the chemical" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). All of these factors help the assessor determine the "potential adverse effects that human activities have on the living organisms that make up ecosystems. The risk assessment process provides a way to develop, organize and present scientific information so that it is relevant to environmental decisions" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011).

The first goal in the ERA process is to determine how much exposure the environment or humans will have to the potential contaminant or pollutant. This involves examining the process and the risk of exposure that is inherent in the process. This consideration may…… [Read More]


Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.

Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website:  http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf 

Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks. (2000, July). Environmental risk assessment (ERA):

An approach for assessing and reporting environmental conditions. Retrieved January 7,
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Environmental Issues Business Ethics

Words: 2756 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35667109

Environmental Issues, Business Ethics

Background history on business ethics

The term "business ethics" has contexts in different ways making the history of business ethics vary according to how one perceives the subject. The history is likely to vary on the historians. How they also perceive the term, what facts they seek to find as first hand information, and the importance the historians see on those facts. This subject solely depends on the historian, but at the end of it all, the facts should prompt some discussion, and someone else grasps it giving a different story on the same.

The term business ethics has at least three different usages, although all the three have an evident similarity. The way that one chooses to prioritize gives meaning to the nature of history on the subject. The first source of the term dates back to 1970, when the term originally used in the United States. Its origin here associated the term with academic writing, meetings, and in development of an academic field of teaching research, and publication. Later on, the term got more usage in the media and public discourse. In these two places, it got association with business scandals what they called…… [Read More]


George, T.D. (2012). A History of Business. Santa Clara University. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/conference/presentations/busine ss-ethics-history.html

Dove, I. (1997). Business Ethics in the Middle East. Journal of Business ethics, 16, 1555. Borkar, R. (2010). Environmental Issues. Buzzle.

Shaw, W.H. (1998). Business Ethics 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub Co.

Herde, E. (2005). Perspectives on responsible Business Practices in the Middle East.
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Environmental Ethical Issues in the

Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86819609

On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).

Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile threats against NATO forces in Bosnia after U.S. military operations in both regions in the early 1990s (Attfield, 2003).

Within the last fifty years, there has been an ever-increasing concern for the preservation of wildlife, particularly with respect to its depletion as a result of human activity (Attfield, 2003; Poiman…… [Read More]


Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.

Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:

West Legal Studies.
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Environmental Impact of Fukushima Nuclear

Words: 1672 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72943911

This will help them to live and address their short-term challenges. At the same time, there will be a retraining and jobs creation program for these individuals. This will ensure that they are able to quickly transition into new careers to support themselves. ("Fukushima Nuclear Clean Up," 2012)

To take on the longer term issues, the government should have the plant's owner (Tokyo Electric) pay some kind of damages to property owners and farmers. This can be accomplished through having a land program that will allow these families to relocate to other communities and purchase select amounts of property. Over the course of time, this approach will help everyone that was impacted by the disaster to recovery financially. ("Fukushima Nuclear Clean Up," 2012)

To address the health related issues, the government must recommend that individuals from the exclusion zone receive regular checkups (for a various conditions caused by radiation exposure). This will help to limit the number of cancer and other related deaths from the accident. If this kind of an approach is used, it will address the needs of the people through: taking on the economic and lingering health related issues from the disaster. ("Fukushima Nuclear Clean Up," 2012)…… [Read More]


Fukushima Exclusion Zone. (2012). Fox News. Retrieved from:


Fukushima Nuclear Clean Up. (2012). Guardian. Retrieved from:

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Environmental Pressures

Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52094195

Environmental and Organizational



Individual Commitment to Environment

Retain Employment

Family pressures

Contribute to Profits

Social Pressures


Environmental vs. Organizational Pressure

Change is disruptive and can be the source of much anxiety and stress. Regardless of these fears, changes within organizations are inevitable and are guaranteed to happen sooner or later. To better manage these changes it is helpful to compare and contrast the different types of pressures an individual may feel when working in a corporate environment. The purpose of this essay is to discuss these pressures in an organizational and environmental context to decipher their influence on organizations. For purposes of this essay I will utilize my job working for Astra Zeneca as a guide to explain these influences and how change can best be managed.

The environment contains the organization and is large in size and scope, and, in theory affecting everyone who falls under its influence. Delmas & Toffel (2012) explained that "a broad literature has emerged over the past decades demonstrating that firms environmental strategies and practices are influenced by external stakeholders and institutional pressures, " (p.229). In other words these pressures are external from the organization.

For me, the most…… [Read More]


Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol30/30_3/pom30_3.pdf

Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment. Bansal, Pratima, and Andrew Hoffman, Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 229-247

Donovan, F. (2013). Organizational pressures creating schizophrenia within IT. Fierce Enterprise Communications, 30 Mar, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fierceenterprisecommunications.com/story/gartner-organizational-pressures- creating-schizophrenia-within-it/2013-03-30
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Environmental Issues

Words: 2082 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67135693

Environmental are vital to the survival of the human beings, animals, and plants in relation to the planet earth. One of the essential environmental issues across the globe drawing critical debate is the aspect of global warming. This relates to the rapid increase in the levels of temperatures thus realizations of the droughts and famine because of climate change. One of the major causes of global warming is human activity. The concept of industrialization is an essential part of the development in the context of the 21st century. It is essential to note that industrialization is one of the major contributors of the increase in the level of carbon or greenhouse gases. This contributes massive towards the essence of global warming or climate change thus the need for the adoption and implementation of accurate and extensive measures towards the limitation of the level of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere. In the execution of this research, the focus will be on the examination of the social perspective of global warming. This is through focusing on five critical ecological influences of global warming: intrapersonal, interpersonal, institutional, community, and public policy.

Intrapersonal/individual factors

This focuses on the examination of the individual characteristics…… [Read More]


Hernandez-Deckers, D., & von Storch, J. (2012). Impact of the Warming Pattern on Global

Energetics. Journal Of Climate, 25(15), 5223-5240

Weart, S. (2011). Global warming: How skepticism became denial. Bulletin Of The Atomic

Scientists, 67(1), 41-50.
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Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation What

Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87383522

Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation

What are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? What are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.

The Main Environmental Challenges

While there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population explosion.

Population: Indeed, much of the available literature on future environmental challenges reflects that earth's escalating population -- which is expected to reach 9 billion people by 2050 -- will have a great deal to do with the quality of (and sustainability of) the environment in the future. Jim Foley…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emmott, S. (2013). Humans: the real threat to life on Earth. The Guardian / The Observer.

Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com.

Foley, J. (2012). Earth in 20 Years. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www1.umn.edu.

General Motors. (2013). Innovation: Environment / Waste Reduction. Retrieved February 21,
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Environmental Ethical Issues the Question

Words: 1692 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98545675

This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.

Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.

Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to think clearly and rationally" (Lau, 2009). The importance of critical thinking is that it forces us to think outside the confines of certain norms or parameters that may blind us to the reality of life. This has important implications for ethics and particularly environmental ethics in that, without critical thinking…… [Read More]


Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The

Futurist, 42 (1).

Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm.

Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
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Environmental Law the Offshore Oil and Gas

Words: 3773 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54004240

Environmental Law

The offshore oil and gas industry is complex in its rules and regulations

There are many different regulatory bodies that have some control over the industry, and they do not always work together as well as they should. This can become a serious issue for companies that are interested in oil and gas production, because they can have trouble keeping all the regulations straight. With UNCLOS, MARPOL, OSPAR, and the EU all offering regulations and requirements, it becomes very difficult for companies who work with oil and gas to be clear on the requirements

Unfortunately, that can lead them to make mistakes, to misunderstand rules, and to ignore or avoid other regulations because they seem too complicated or they are not sure if they are even applicable. That can get a company into serious trouble, so it is very important that these companies focus in on how to handle the regulations with which they must deal.


UNCLOS, or the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is an international agreement that was created and came into play in 1994

. It defined the responsibilities that nations had when it comes to the oceans, and also…… [Read More]



Barnard, Catherine (2007). The Substantive Law of the EU: The four freedoms (2 ed.). Oxford University Press.

Benson, D. And Adelle, C. (2012) European Union environmental policy after the Lisbon Treaty, In: Jordan, A.J. And Adelle, C. (eds) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.

Bindi, Federiga, ed. The Foreign Policy of the European Union: Assessing Europe's Role in the World (Brookings Institution Press; 2010). The E.U.'s foreign-policy mechanisms and foreign relations, including with its neighbours.
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Environmental Management Read Instructions File 1 Files

Words: 2172 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22459058

Environmental Management Read Instructions File #1 Files Attached

Environmental management

The Water Permitting Board

Natural gas represents an important resource within the United States and more efforts are made to create energy sustainability using the resource. Still, the creation of a Schuylkill Energy LLC power plant and gas drilling facility in Mock County is not hereby a recommended course of action.

The arguments in support of this recommendation are drawn from the specialized literature; are all objective and based on scientific facts. The dangers to gas drilling are far too significant for the population and the environment and they are real, even if only visible in the long-term.

Another problem associated with gas processing and drilling is represented by the lack of contingency plans and alternative solutions in case energy situations materialize. In such a setting then, it is recommended to focus on solar and wind energy generation, and to integrate more scientific findings in the processes involving natural gas.

Literature review

The impact of the energy industry upon the health of both humans as well as the surrounding environment has represented a common concern for the members of the academia. And sufficient evidence has been promoted to reveal the…… [Read More]


Calborn, T., Kwiatkowski, C., Schultz, K., Bachran, M., 2011, Natural gas operations from a public perspective, The International Journal of Human and Risk Assessment

Finkel, M., Law, A., 2011, The rush to drill for natural gas: a public health cautionary tale, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 101, No. 5

Inhofe, J.M., Fannon, F., 2005, Energy and the environment: the future of natural gas in America, Energy Law Journal, Vol. 26, No. 2

Osborn, S.G., Vengosh, A., Warner, N.R., Jackson, R.B., 2011, Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing, PNAS, Vol. 18, No. 20
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Environmental Factors Wal-Mart the Public

Words: 829 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61417936

In what the economic stability of the United States is concerned, this has been of great use for Wall Mart, since it allowed it to develop a rather monopolistic position for itself. Thus, there have been many cases in which the goods' producers have complained because they could not sell their products at the prices they desired, when having Wall Mart as the main great buyer. When it comes to the global plan, as it has been outlined above, the economic stability should be seen as a sine-qua-non condition for choosing a country on which territory the company would expand.

In terms of technology, it has been assumed that it plays an important role in enforcing both domestic and global marketing decisions. For example, the Internet is the main means through which the CEO of Wall Mart Inc. communicates its decisions to the Managers of the company's hypermarkets in other countries. Thus, new approaches for electronic communication and e-commerce help solve problems. For example, many companies are using the Internet, fiber-optic telephone lines, or satellite transmission systems to immediately transfer data from a computer at one location to another."

On the other hand, social responsibility and ethic have both been…… [Read More]


McCarthy, E. & Perreault, W. (2002). Basic marketing (14th ed.). McGraw-Hill/Irwin. 2002 New York, NY., pp. 549

Wal-Mart, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wal-Mart

Wall Mart Inc., at  http://www.answers.com/topic/wal-mart-stores-inc 

Wall Mart, at http://www.walmartstores.com/GlobalWMStoresWeb/navigate.do?catg=316
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Environmental Racism the Color of

Words: 2243 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52802873

Poor peoples and poor nations in the world accept the false and harmful notion that the lack of development meant risky, low-paying jobs and pollution. The economically vulnerable and poor communities, poor states, poor nations and poor regions have succumbed to the notion. The movement demanded that no community, nation, whether rich or poor, whatever the color should be made dumping grounds for these deadly wastes. The movement also alerted the governments of these nations and regions to set up their own measures to protect the health and environment of their own people and areas (Bullard).

Citizen Action and Litigation

Many of the initial activities of the environmental justice movement were in the form of citizen action and litigation (Crossman 2005). Among them were the EPA's disparate-impact regulations, pursuant to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. These prohibited recipients of federal funding from engaging in racially discriminatory activities (Crossman).

Four Major Threats to Health

Four major environmental health hazards were identified as plaguing specifically the children in the United States (Bullard 2003). More specifically, the hazards were affecting people of color. These were lead poisoning, toxic housing, toxic schools, and the asthma epidemic (Bullard).

Reports said that…… [Read More]


Bullard, R.D. (2007). Dismantling toxic racism. 4 pages. The New Crisis: Crisis Publishing Company, Inc.

2003). Environment justice for all. 6 pages

Bullard, R. D and Glenn S. Johnson (2000). Environmental justice. 20 pages. Journal of Social Issues: Plenum Publishing Corporation

Crossman, B. (2005). Resurrecting environmental justice. 20 pages. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review: Boston College School of Law
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Environmental Psychology

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32530301

Environmental Psychology

The objective of this paper is to examine the discipline of environmental psychology with an additional goal of defining it and comparing and contrasting some underlying theoretical approaches to environmental psychology. "Developmental psychology, as a discipline, is currently undergoing a paradigmatic/world view change. Consequently, several different theoretical approaches to the study of development and the life course have been proposed and advocated." (Wolf, 2009) There are three major world views and some developmental issues in regard to environmental psychology and this short response will attempt to outline them.

To begin, it is best to define the subject matter. Environmental psychology studies the ways in which humans perceive their environment. Human beings have certain ways in which they interact with their environment. Environmental psychology examines and makes assumptions based on these interactions such as interpretation, evaluation, operation, and response to stimuli. The bulk of environmental psychology focuses on a notion of behavioral geography which tries to understand the processes of interpretation and evaluation. By understanding these areas, environmental psychologists hone in on the description of images, milieus, and other perceived mental maps. Consider how changes in our physical world or our immediate physical space alter our thoughts and behaviors…… [Read More]


Das, Jagannath P., and Naglieri, Jack A. (1997). The Cognitive Assessment System. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2004). The Psychology of Worldviews. Review of General Psychology. 2004, Vol. 8, No. 1, 3 -- 58.

Woolf, Linda M. (2009). Theoretical Perspectives Relevant to Developmental Psychology. Retrieved on December 5, 2009, from Webster at http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/theories.html.