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Environmental are vital to the survival of the human beings, animals, and plants in relation to the planet earth. One of the essential environmental issues across the globe drawing critical debate is the aspect of global warming. This relates to the rapid increase in the levels of temperatures thus realizations of the droughts and famine because of climate change. One of the major causes of global warming is human activity. The concept of industrialization is an essential part of the development in the context of the 21st century. It is essential to note that industrialization is one of the major contributors of the increase in the level of carbon or greenhouse gases. This contributes massive towards the essence of global warming or climate change thus the need for the adoption and implementation of accurate and extensive measures towards the limitation of the level of greenhouse gases emissions into the atmosphere.…
Hernandez-Deckers, D., & von Storch, J. (2012). Impact of the Warming Pattern on Global
Energetics. Journal Of Climate, 25(15), 5223-5240
Weart, S. (2011). Global warming: How skepticism became denial. Bulletin Of The Atomic
Scientists, 67(1), 41-50.
Environmental Issues, Business Ethics
Background history on business ethics
The term "business ethics" has contexts in different ways making the history of business ethics vary according to how one perceives the subject. The history is likely to vary on the historians. How they also perceive the term, what facts they seek to find as first hand information, and the importance the historians see on those facts. This subject solely depends on the historian, but at the end of it all, the facts should prompt some discussion, and someone else grasps it giving a different story on the same.
The term business ethics has at least three different usages, although all the three have an evident similarity. The way that one chooses to prioritize gives meaning to the nature of history on the subject. The first source of the term dates back to 1970, when the term originally used in the…
George, T.D. (2012). A History of Business. Santa Clara University. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/conference/presentations/busine ss-ethics-history.html
Dove, I. (1997). Business Ethics in the Middle East. Journal of Business ethics, 16, 1555. Borkar, R. (2010). Environmental Issues. Buzzle.
Shaw, W.H. (1998). Business Ethics 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Pub Co.
Herde, E. (2005). Perspectives on responsible Business Practices in the Middle East.
. . political and law enforcement cronyism and corruption. . . And last, an surprising astonishing level of incompetence which symbolizes much of the authorized intelligence- meeting and investigative developments (Block, 1985, p.310).
This lack of enforcement taking part in helping with the waste especially after a natural disaster such as a tornado will possibly allow such practices as illegal dumping to last unchecked.
"The ideal answer to hazardous waste problems is to alter the industrial processes so that hazardous waste materials are not produced any longer"(Kiefer, 1981, p.51). Nevertheless, in all reality this is extremely unlikely. It would basically be almost impracticable to make any large alterations to plants that are already in process. Many believe that part of the solution will lie in how the government will deal with large organizations that are pertaining to hazardous waste. If the government were to provide tax breaks to those businesses…
Mineta proposes stronger hazardous material legislation. (2001). The Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 42(11), N13-N13. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/219145772?accountid=34899
Aini, M.S., Fakhrul-Razi, A., Ibrahim, W.M.N., Tangavelu, S.K., & Daud, M. (2001). Study on emergency response preparedness of hazardous materials transportation. Disaster Prevention and Management, 10(3), 183-188. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214378341?accountid=34899
Allen, Loyd V, Jr.,PhD., R.Ph, & Okeke, Claudia C, PhD., R.Ph. (2009). Considerations for implementing United States pharmacopeia chapter pharmaceutical compounding-sterile preparations, part 11: HAZARDOUS DRUGS. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, 13(1), 56-62. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/212075546?accountid=34899
Ashley, S. (1995). Destroying hazardous material at sea. Mechanical Engineering, 117(10), 40-40. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/230156145?accountid=34899
Environmental Issues Faced in 21st Century Aviation
Communication and Coordination
Tools and Metrics
Technology, Operations and Policy
Aviation and the Environment
Effects on the health
Local Air Quality
Total Climate impacts from aircraft
Mobility, Economy and National Security
Interactions between Government, Industry and Groups
Aviation Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Local Airport Issues
A Framework for National Goals
ealities and Myths
Environmental Issues Faced in 21st Century Aviation
Environmental awareness in regards to 21st century aviation among the public and politicians has been growing ever since the 1960s. It turned out to be extensively documented that human activities were having damaging and large-scale effects on the environment (Suzanne & Fallacaro, 2011). Engineering and scientific research is also playing a growing role in both protecting and understanding the environment. esearch has established the significance of the environment to human…
45 BEACON: AMS 21ST CENTURY CAMPAIGN. (2006). Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 87(12), 1764-1765.
A greener future for aviation. (2002). Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, 74(1), 82.
Aviation, the environment and planning law. (1997). The Geographical Journal, 163, 326.
Charba, J.P., Reynolds, D.W., McDonald, B.E., & Carter, G.M. (2003). Comparative verification of recent quantitative precipitation forecasts in the national weather service: A simple approach for scoring forecast accuracy. Weather and Forecasting, 18(2), 161-163,165-183.
That is precisely what has occurred in Iran to date (Ajami, 2008; Larsen, 2007). However, the danger posed by continued Western reliance on OPEC oil in the form of financing that ultimately funds anti-western terrorism may be even more significant.
Ultimately, the principal question raised is not whether or not nuclear energy is safe and economical and beneficial to the atmosphere; it is whether nuclear energy is comparable to or preferable to fossil fuel energy sources and whether the full spectrum of their respective potential negative consequences are similar. Given all the likely considerations, nuclear power may not be the most important aspect of renewable energy reform, but it may very well be a helpful and very necessary part of the solution, particularly in the relatively short-term.
Ajami, F. "Iran's Sly Games in Iraq" U.S. News & World eport (April 21, 2008): 30-32.
Allison, G. (2004). Nuclear Terrorism:…
Ajami, F. "Iran's Sly Games in Iraq" U.S. News & World Report (April 21, 2008): 30-32.
Allison, G. (2004). Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. New York: Henry Holt
Attfield, R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Environmental Issues of Today
Environmental issues have been a topic of much debate lately. With the drastic weather changes and uncontrollable climate, global warming has received much deserved attention. Despite the warning of the potential damage that global warming can cause the Earth, no one has really paid much attention to it. However, now that there has been plenty of proof and numerous events that have occurred as a direct result of global warming, the topic is beginning to be taken more seriously.
The environmental issue that I have been most aware of is global warming, despite there also being other problems that need to be taken into consideration. It is worrisome to think of the effects that global warming will have on the future of our planet. Although it can be difficult to think that far ahead, the effects that our grandchildren will feel are real. According to both…
Sustainable Development Compatible With Human Welfare?
Julie L. Davidson, from "Sustainable Development: Business as Usual or a New Way of Living?" Environment Ethics (Spring 2000)
esearcher Julie argues that a radical conversion to sustainable development offers a way to make future humans freedom possible and consistent with the wider social and ecological good.
There are many logical points made to consider sustainable development. The main argument or weighting factor is freedom for the use of the environment's resources over future generations to come along with generations of many other ecosystems which will prolong the existence of the human race, and their social needs.
NO: Jacqueline . Kasun, from "Doomsday Every Day: Sustainable Economics, Sustainable Tyranny," The Independence eview (Summer 1999)
NO: Economics professor Jacqueline . Kasun asserts that sustainable development poses threats to human freedom, dignity, and material welfare. How does it pose a threat to human freedom?
Harrison, Paul, Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Theodore, D. Goldfarb. State University of New York at Stony Brook McGraw-Hill/Duskin, 2001.
Hartmann, Betsy, Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Environmental Issues. Ed. Theodore, D. Goldfarb. State University of New York at Stony Brook: McGraw-Hill/Duskin, 2001.
"Toyota is currently working to achieve this voluntary target by 2009 within the context of its own 2010 Global Vision and zero emissions vehicle goal through, in part, increasing the mix of hybrids within its model line up."
In terms of design, it should not be forgotten that Toyota pioneered the world's first mass produced petrol/electric car, the Prius, which went on sale in Japan in 1997.
It is also a noteworthy point that the company does not see hybrid technology as a sideline or an interim move to impress with its intention and capableness, but rather sees this technology as, "... A viable, stand alone technology that can improve the efficiency of most fuels."
There are a number of related aspects that should also be mentioned here. Toyota is responsible for the development of the Eco-VAS (Eco-Vehicle Assessment System) in 2005, which is "...a valuable environment management tool for…
Commission wants binding cuts on car emissions [essay online]; available at http://www.euractiv.com/en/climate-change/commission-wants-binding-cuts-car-emissions/article-161531;Internet : accessed 2 December 2007
LOW CARBON LEADERS: TRANSPORT BRIEFING SEPT 2005. [essay online]; available at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:eEHACL700k0J:theclimategroup.org/assets/resources/low_carbon_leader_transport_briefing.pdf+%22+in+all+its+areas+of+activity,+from+design+and+planning+to+recycling+of+end-of-life+vehicles+%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=za;Internet: accessed 2 December 2007.
Organizational Information [essay online]; available at http://www.oneworldtrust.org/?display=toyota;Internet : accessed 2 December, 2007.
Toyota [essay online]; available at http://www.theclimategroup.org/reducing_emissions/case_study/toyota/;Internet : accessed 2 December, 2007.
Health and Environmental Issues in the Middle East and Third World Countries
The World health organization states that "More than three million children under five die each year from environment-related causes and conditions. This makes the environment one of the most critical contributors to the global toll of more than ten million child deaths annually..." (The environment and health for children and their mothers) This report serves to illustrate the fact that third world and developing countries in the Middle East, Africa and Asia suffer for a vast array of health and environmental issues. These include aspects such as pollution, inadequate sanitation, toxic hazards, and numerous diseases as well as retarded or degraded ecosystems and societal infrastructures.
The Word Health Organization (WHO) points out that these issues are particularly serious in developing countries where " environmental hazards and pollution are a major contributor to ....deaths, illnesses and disability ... "…
A Continent in Chaos: Africa's Environmental Issues. July 14, 2005. http://chora.virtualave.net/focus.htm
Acute HIV Infection. New Mexico AIDS InfoNet. 2004. http://www.thebody.com/nmai/acute_infection.html
Death Stalks a Continent. Time Magazine, February 12, 2001
Clay Rebecca. A Continent in Chaos: Africa's Environmental Issues. 1994. Accessed July 15, 2005. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1994/102-12/focus.html
Environment and the Two Major Political Parties
When one thinks of Democrats and epublicans thoughts typically run to images of two diametrically opposed platforms. Yet, despite political ranting, both parties have been concerned for the environment in which we live, for more than 40 years. This paper will look at the two parties, and their basic differences, then examine the history of environmental legislation. From this, an understanding will be brought forth regarding what efforts each party has put into protecting and preserving the environment, in the past, and what efforts are being currently put for regarding the future of environmental conservation, and how in the end, political party has little to do with whether or not someone is concerned with the environment.
The Environment and the Two Major Political Parties
When one thinks of Democrats and epublicans thoughts typically run to images of two diametrically opposed platforms. Yet,…
Blodgett, J. (1994, Dec. 19). Environmental reauthorizations and regulatory reform: Recent developments. Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.ncseonline.org/nle/crsreports/legislative/leg-7.cfm?&CFID=16426360&CFTOKEN=10723153.
Brodine, V.W. (1996, Feb. 2). GOP has 'contract' against the environment. Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.pww.org/archives96/96-02-17-2.html .
Calavita, N. (1995, June). Legislative history of the environmental goals and policy report. Retrieved October 10, 2004, at http://www.csus.edu/calst/government_affairs/reports/es04.pdf .
Crichton, M. (2004, Mar.). Environmentalism as religion run amok. USA Today, 132(2706). Retrieved October 10, 2004, from ProQuest database.
" (Rosenbaum, p. 12-13)
This demonstrates the uphill climb facing President Obama, not just in terms of gaining political momentum to return the United States to a place of respect in the global environmental movement but also to develop regulatory goals and standards that will have a meaningful impact on environmental standards. It is important for Obama to differentiate himself from his predecessors during this campaign with a policy agenda that does more than pay political lip service to important environmental issues.
Regulatory Energy Policy:
America's energy policy also carries extremely complex and nuanced political implications. Today, the world is coming to terms with the reality of a global oil shortage. The petroleum which has constituted the dominant and exponentially consumed energy source of the last century is becoming scarcer and more costly. The race is on to determine the most practical substitute for this precious but environmentally destructive, politically…
Mazria, E. (2008). 2030 Challenge Stimulus Plan: Emission reductions, jobs, and economic benefits across the country. Grist.
Rosenbaum, W.A. (2007). Environmental Politics and Policy. CQ Press; 7th Edition.
Vig, N.J. & Kraft, M. (2005). Environmental Policy: New Directions for the Twenty-First Century. CQ Press; 6th Edition.
Airports and Their Effects on the Environment
Airports are a necessary part of today's fast-paced global environment. It goes without saying that our world would certainly be a different place without them. Millions depend on them every day to get them to their destinations. However, airports have many negative effects as well, especially to the local environment. Airports are a source of smog, contaminate waterways, contribute to global warming through the emission of greenhouse gases, and generate significant amounts of noise pollution (NADC, 1996).
According to the National Airport Defense Council, many airports rank among the top 10 pollution sources in the city where they are located. Although, airport pollution only contributes about 1% of total smog-forming gases in the United States, these numbers will continue to grow as the need for travel increases (NADC, 1996). This is the issue the Federal Aviation Administration and other government agencies must work…
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2001 CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances. Division of Toxicology. Atlanta, GA. Updated on January 25, 2002. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/clist.html#info Accessed February, 2002.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) (2000). Airports, AIRCRAFT NOISE: How We Measure It and Assess its Impact Community and Environmental Needs Division, Office of Environment and Energy. Publication AEE-100. 2000.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) (1985). Airport Environmental Handbook. Chapter 8. Environmental Impact Statement Contents. Order 5050.4A October 8, 1985 Initiated by: APP-600
Natural Resources Defense Council (NADC) (1996). Flying Off Course: Environmental Impacts of America's Airports, October 1996 report. last revised 10.17.96 http://www.nrdc.org/air/transportation/qairport.asp . Accessed February 2002.
Green vs. Green
Environmentalists vs. Corporations in the 1990s
It is a sad fact, that the word "green" means different things to different people. For some, "green" is the color of leaves, and of grass, and of hillsides and forests. It is the symbol of a vibrant and flourishing Earth. For others, however; "green" is the color of money, and of profits, and of big business and unbridled capitalism. It is the keystone of corporate America. The 1990s, in particular, were a period in which these two definitions of "green" came into often bitter conflict. Environmental groups became increasingly alarmed at what they saw as the destruction of the natural habitats of many animal, bird, fish, and plant species. The Amazon rainforest, for example, was being cut down at an alarming rate by companies that appeared concerned only to make use of its natural resources -- wood, agricultural land, and…
David E. Cuesta Camacho, ed. Environmental Injustices, Political Struggles: Race, Class, and the Environment. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1998.
Ledgerwood, Grant, and Arlene Idol Broadhurst. Environment Ethics and the Corporation. Houndmills: Macmillan, 2000.
Santos, Miguel A. The Environmental Crisis. Ed. Randall M. Miller. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Shurmer-Smith, Pamela. Globalization and Change. London: Arnold, 2000.
President of Big Bags, I would make a couple of points with respect to our product. While plastic bags have been cast as villains, articles such as those by Bruce mith of Green Earth paint only one side of the story. I am writing this op-ed in order to tell our side of the story.
The first thing that I would like the audience to know is that Big Bags, Inc. is not just a supplier of plastic bags. We supply a wide range of plastic products. hopping bags are among those product, but so too are sandwich bags, garbage bags, and the little bags they have out at the dog park for picking up dog…stuff. Arguably, there has to be a certain amount of cognitive dissonance to take issue with plastic shopping bags, when there are clearly many other products made from plastic that nobody is concerned about.
Smith further claims that our plastic bags are cluttering up landfills. He cites that one billion bags are not recycled each year. We take issue with that claim. Our bags are recyclable, and in jurisdictions that have plastic recycling programs, nearly 60% of our bags are diverted away from the landfill, at least until they have been used to clean the litter box or down at the dog park. The reality is that even when one of our bags ends up in the landfill, it has often been used multiple times, usually for some other form of waste. A like-for-like comparison would be to compare such bags to the thicker, heavier garbage bags that also end up in the landfill.
It is also worth pointing out that there are some errors with respect to Smith's claims about Big Bag, Inc. And our corporate social responsibility record. We pay many of our employees a living wage, for one, and provide them with an opportunity to buy health insurance under the Affordable Care Act. We were a pioneer in the hiring of minorities, and many of our plants are overrepresented in terms of most minority groups. We even serve a Christmas ham each year, as a token of appreciation, and starting in 2014 we offered a pork-free alternative for our Jewish and Muslim employees. We are a family-oriented company that truly values our workers and treats them well. We were ranked in the Top 50 employers in Southwest Des Moines in 2004, an award that stands as testament to our hard work. We have even gone 183 days without a workplace accident, the sign outside the factory tells me.
So while Bruce Smith launches his one-sided screed against our company, I can assure the readers of the New York Times that Big Bag Inc. works with government to provide recycling options for our bags, we have an excellent track record of corporate social responsibility, and quite frankly, we make a product that most Americans choose to utilize, because it is the best product of its kind.
ildlife which does not have natural predators in Florida was introduced by people who had bought those animals or reptiles and could not control them, or had to leave the state, and therefore abandoned them in the Everglades. The best example is the one of a Burmese python which was let go in the Everglades and had attached an alligator. Both animals did not survive the encounter, yet it shows that human are the main threat to the environment.
To summarize the environmental issues in Florida, we can say that the main issue is the development and encroachment into the Everglades. The lush mangrove and saw grass marshes of South Florida are the last of a great wilderness that, until the 20th century, stretched for hundreds of miles. Our Everglades refuge countless species, including endangered Florida panthers, Cape Sable seaside sparrows and American crocodiles. Many years of encroaching development have…
NAI. Everglades. NDI Wild Places . 26 April 2010 .
NAI2. Saving the Everglades. 2010. 26 April 2010 .
Natural Resources Defense Council. Florida Everglades. 20 September 2009. 26 April 2010 .
Parker, Karen. Wildlife 'rescues' can do more harm than good. 19 April 2010. 26 April 2010 .
Global Environmental Issues
Organisms have to deal with both abiotic and biotic factors to succeed living in a given environment. Such physical and chemical environmental conditions as salinity, light, wind, pressure and heat, constitute abiotic factors. Biotic factors include the whole set of biological conditions that a species faces including the abundance of both predator and prey, space available, food availability, inter and intra species competition (Sherbinin, Alex de et al. 1). The relationships of interdependent nature among and between the living organisms; also referred to as the biotic aspects of an ecosystem can be classed in terms of whether they are harmful or beneficial to a given species. They may also have no effect on a given organism in focus. Human-environment interaction leads to changes and shifts in the global environment via a series of associated causes. These causes change the environments in certain ways to the extent of…
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.
Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.
Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.
Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.
It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…
Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.
Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11
Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…
Europa (4 April 2007).
International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm
European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)
The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)
An important part of this…
Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009. http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund
Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. ( http://www.epa.gov/ air/caa/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
As a brief introduction of this study, environmental psychology pertains to the Correlational approach and linkages that are focused on the relationship between human being and their environment. This is a scientific study that are focused on the importance of natural environments that can be utilized by human beings that are focused on the development and manipulation of prioritization of certain issues and challenges affecting the environment. In this manner, the existence of the environment is influential to the world of humans for the fact that the degree of the environment's capability improves the welfare of the society to make the quality of life achieved. The concept of environmental psychology has an interest for applying the principles of design that can be made as an important structure in the environment according to Davis (2011). This can be in the form of architectural design and infrastructures that involves the…
Davis, John (2011). Ecopsychology and environmental psychology. Accessed: http://www.johnvdavis.com/ep/index.htm.
Edgerton, Eddie (2009). Environmental Psychology. Available: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/9781847182180-sample.pdf.
Evans, Gary (2007). Environmental Stress. Accessed: http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/environstress.pdf.
Graetz, Ken. (2009). Environment Learning Moments. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0663.pdf .
On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).
Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile…
Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.
Cambridge, UK: Polity.
Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:
West Legal Studies.
There are also a number of other environmental consequences to using these bags that should be considered. Plastic bags clog storm drains and they also block the natural flow of oxygen and water through the soil -- all of which contributes to placing increasing pressure on the sustainability of the environment and ecosystems. (Single-Use Plastic Shopping Bags. Presentation to the Transportation and Environment Committee, 2008)
2. The advantages of non-reusable bags
It therefore follows from the above discussion that fewer plastic bags in circulation means less toxic chemical and less pollution of the environment. As one commentator writes, "if people were to use reusable bags instead of plastic ones, dependence on these non-renewable resources would be significantly less" (Go green! Benefits of reusable bags). The increase in usage of reusable bags would also mean a significant reduction in the need for plastic -- and it must be remembered…
Benefits of Reusable. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.reusablebagsdepot.com/reusable-bag-benefits.html
Go green! Benefits of reusable bags. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.helium.com/items/976541-go-green-benefits-of-reusable-bags
Knight M. (2007) Plastic bags fly into environmental storm. Retrieved September 4,
2009, from http://edition.cnn.com/2007/TECH/11/14/fsummit.climate.plasticbags/index.html
The field of environmental psychology is a specialized discipline within psychology whose major developments have been totally adopted into mainstream psychology. In past few decades, the much of the positive and negative visibility of environmental psychology have been lost. One of the significant visibilities to be lost is the initial enthusiasm that came from the common desire by designers and social scientists in developing buildings that would work better for people. In addition to being incorporated into mainstream psychology, environmental psychology has also been adopted into other areas of psychology including social psychology and health psychology. Consequently, environmental education has now become a major area within education and various organizations are increasingly studying human behavior and the physical environment.
The Discipline of Environmental Psychology:
The discipline of environmental psychology can be defined as the study of the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment. Since this discipline…
Clayton, S. & Myers, G. (2009). Conversation Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell.
Evans, G.W. (n.d.). Current Trends in Environmental Psychology. Retrieved February 12, 2012,
Stewart, A.E. (2007, March1). Individual Psychology and Environmental Psychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 63(1), 67-85. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=683c2681-82da-4688-ab5c-e765114727dd%40sessionmgr111&vid=4&hid=115
Environmental and Organizational
Individual Commitment to Environment
Contribute to Profits
Environmental vs. Organizational Pressure
Change is disruptive and can be the source of much anxiety and stress. egardless of these fears, changes within organizations are inevitable and are guaranteed to happen sooner or later. To better manage these changes it is helpful to compare and contrast the different types of pressures an individual may feel when working in a corporate environment. The purpose of this essay is to discuss these pressures in an organizational and environmental context to decipher their influence on organizations. For purposes of this essay I will utilize my job working for Astra Zeneca as a guide to explain these influences and how change can best be managed.
The environment contains the organization and is large in size and scope, and, in theory affecting everyone who…
Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol30/30_3/pom30_3.pdf
Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment. Bansal, Pratima, and Andrew Hoffman, Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 229-247
Donovan, F. (2013). Organizational pressures creating schizophrenia within IT. Fierce Enterprise Communications, 30 Mar, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fierceenterprisecommunications.com/story/gartner-organizational-pressures - creating-schizophrenia-within-it/2013-03-30
Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample
Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.
Carbon emissions and overall sustainability
anking and promotion characteristics with the military.
Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion
The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military
Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions
Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.
Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.
In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in…
1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1
2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf .
3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference
Environmental Themes in Grapes of rath
This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald orster, The Grapes of rath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. atson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.
Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment.…
Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia
Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.
Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
Obama Turns to Web to Illustrate the Effects of a Changing Climate
This article discusses how the use of technology and the internet can aid in the overall global warming education process. The article explains how President Obama is using a mobile app to depict the effects of global warming in local communities. Through technology, Obama hopes to create awareness of the overall global warming issue, and its impact on communities. The article states that out that individuals given a list of 20 issues, rank global warming as 19th. Through the use of the app, the Obama administration hopes to create an overall sense of urgency within the general public.
A particularly interesting aspect of the article was the amount of detailed coordination needed to produce the app. The mobile app is unique in that it attempts to depict the impact global warming has on communities' overtime. As…
This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.
Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.
Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to…
Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The
Futurist, 42 (1).
Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm .
Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
Meanwhile, if a teacher used the book, Awareness to Citizenship: Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child, and uses it fully in developing a philosophy of teaching, a child will never be scared because the information is down-to-earth, well-presented, and family-friendly. The authors insist that teachers need not "know everything or be able to identify everything," but on the other hand, they should explore environmental issues with their students, and "always be thinking about how they might encourage students...by introducing nature-related materials, nature-related themes and concepts, [and] student centered activities" (Basile, et al., 20).
A good philosophy to develop is that nature is always all around us; Basile encourages her students to observe and make journal entries about what they "see and hear in the schoolyard" (21). This engenders a sense that the environment isn't some vague place "out there," but rather, that conservation and ecology are right here in the…
Basile, Carole; White, Cameron; & Robinson, Stacey. (2000). Awareness to Citizenship:
Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.
Bowers, C.A. (1995). Educating For An Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral
Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies. Albany, NY: State
He did clean up the area around the store from garbage lying around but never did anything apart from that. He did express interest in being a part of any group working towards helping out with the environment. He denied that his Chinese background might have had any impact on his attitude.
The individual from the Hispanic background was deeply involved with activities to help out with environmental issues. He is a computer Science major and manages had two websites dealing with those issues. He also maintains a blog about environmental hazards that he encounters. He takes pictures of whatever he thinks might be important and uploads them to his blog. He mentioned how he wants to use his skills in web design to reach out to students and make them aware of such issues. He has listed a lot of ways to get involved on his websites and uses…
Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation
hat are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? hat are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.
The Main Environmental Challenges
hile there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population…
Emmott, S. (2013). Humans: the real threat to life on Earth. The Guardian / The Observer.
Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com .
Foley, J. (2012). Earth in 20 Years. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www1.umn.edu .
General Motors. (2013). Innovation: Environment / Waste Reduction. Retrieved February 21,
Environmental Issues in eusing Cleaning Solvents
Solvent recycling depicts the process of taking dirty and used solvents, cleaning them to return a pure form of the solvent or any other acceptable form. It encompasses fractionating and distillation of the used solvents placed in a solvent recycler (Shen, 2013). Nationwide pollution prevention program have focused on reducing solvent wastes. The use of solvents occurs as a vital element in water and air pollution, making it a prominent contributor of hazardous waste. Depletion of the ozone layer has depicted the impact of chlorinated solvents. Increased awareness and calls for environmental protection have stimulated the adoption of ways in reducing solvent wastes.
Environmental conservation and cost reduction emanate as the significant benefits of this technique. Organizations can take advantage of the recovery of solvents through the distillation processes. Solvent recycling also poses various disadvantages that include required capital for purchasing recycling equipment and…
Boodhoo, K. & Harvey, A. (2013). Process Intensification Technologies for Green Chemistry: Engineering Solutions for Sustainable Chemical Processing. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
Shen, T. (2013). Industrial Pollution Prevention. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
As Andresen points out, their quasi-legal or soft status renders intergovernmental groups legally powerless in general. Thus, intergovernmental groups need to bolster their efficacy by linking more strongly with local and state law enforcement organizations.
Another weakness of intergovernmental environmental organizations that Biermann points out in "The Case for a orld Environment Organization" is the poor communication and coordination between existing organizations. A plethora of related institutions may be working on the same environmental issue without pooling resources, when it would be far more efficient and effective to tackle global environmental threats in a cooperative manner. Likewise, Biermann cites capacity building as a key aspect of institutional coordination and cooperation.
Perceived legitimacy of intergovernmental environmental organizations is also a major concern, as many developing nations may be viewing the UNEP and other groups as being representative of estern (U.S./European) hegemony (Biermann). How to allocate funding is another critical concern, reflecting…
Andresen, Steinar. The effectiveness of UN environmental institutions. Int Environ Agreements (2007) 7:317 -- 336.
Bauer, Steffen and Biermann, Frank. Does Effective International Environmental Governance Require a World Environment Organization? The State of the Debate Prior to the Report of the High-Level Panel on Reforming the United Nations. Global Governance Working Paper No 13. Amsterdam, Berlin, Oldenburg, Potsdam: The Global Governance Project. 2004. Available at www.- glogov.org
Biermann, Frank. The Case for a World Environment Organization. Environment, Nov2000, Vol. 42 Issue 9, p22, 10p
Najam, Adil. "The Case Against a New International Environmental Organization." Global Governance 9(2003): 367-384.
esponsible Leadership is the culmination of Moody-Stuart's forty-five years of work in the oil, gas, metal, and mineral extraction industries. Moody-Stuart draws from his experience and observations to provide an analysis of how business has been, and can become more, responsible champions of social and environmental issues. The book includes two Forewords, one by Sir obert Wilson, former Executive Chair of io Tinto, and another by UN Deputy Secretary-General Mark Malloch-Brown. Moody-Stuart offers fifteen chapters, all related in some way to issues of economic development, globalization, free markets, free trade, corporate responsibility, and corporate ethics. The book includes Moody-Stuart's political philosophy, his opinions on nearly every major global conflict extant at the time of publishing, and on issues both relevant and irrelevant to the primary topic of the book, which is the role of business in the current global scenario.
The book begins with an introduction that outlines…
Moody-Stuart, M. (2014). Responsible Leadership. Sheffield: Greenleaf.
hough the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
he role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can…
Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.
The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.
Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.
Environmental Concern on Green Products Purchase: Empirical Study of German etailers
Evaluation of results
The analysis exhibits various results about the perceptions of German consumers with reference to green products. The findings have been able to achieve the research objectives and test the hypothesis based on the demographic characteristics of the sample population. The results reveal that all the sample population is well educated with 84% of participants have completed the graduate programs. Thus, the participant has advanced knowledge of health benefits of green products. They also have knowledge about the impact of conventional products on the environment, which influences consumer buying decisions of sustainable products. Larsson, & Arif Khan (2011) argue that green awareness motivates consumer's choice of pursuing the green criteria, and consumer's choice of product is also influenced by earlier purchases experience. When informed consumers decide to purchase sustainable products, they search for both primary and secondary…
Andrea K. M. (2016). Buying organic -- decision-making heuristics and empirical evidence from Germany, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33(7): 552 -- 561.
Delafrooz, N. Taleghani, M. & Nouri, B. (2013). Effect of green marketing on consumer purchase behaviour. QScience Connect:5.
Larsson, S. & Arif Khan, M. (2011). A Study of Factors That Influence Green Purchase. Umea School of Business and Economics.
Moser, A.K. (2016). Consumers' purchasing decisions regarding environmentally friendly products: An empirical analysis of German consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 31: 389 -- 397.
Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).
In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…
Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.
McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management
Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
Some forms of energy, such as wave and tidal energy and hydrogen fuel cells are still being studied. Another writer states, "Techniques to harness the energy found in the oceans are best developed for tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal energy conversion" (Middleton 52). Many other types of alternative energy, such as solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies are all being used where they make sense. Other solutions include nuclear energy, but the problem of disposing of the nuclear waste is a big problem, and so, no new nuclear facilities are being built. Authors Ottinger and Williams continue "Nuclear energy is excluded [...] because of its high capital and operating costs, complex technical requirements for operation and maintenance, and unresolved problems of proliferation and waste disposal" (Ottinger and Williams 331).
None of these solutions are being used enough to remedy the problem, and there are many reasons why they…
Author not Available. "Causes of Global Warming." EchoBridge.org. 2005. 21 July 2005. http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_cse.htm
Cristol, Hope. "New Concern About Acid Rain: Trees' Immune Systems may be Damaged by Pollution." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 2002: 8+.
Cruver, Philip C. "Lighting the 21st Century." The Futurist Jan.-Feb. 1989: 29+.
Johnson, Dan. "Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide." The Futurist Aug.-Sept. 1998: 15.
When a company such as Wal-Mart goes green, it is because they see a profit in it, and customers are demanding it, and that is the case with the fashion industry, as well.
In conclusion, the fashion industry is becoming much more eco-friendly largely because of consumer demand. People are becoming increasingly aware of just what goes into the products they consume, and they are demanding new products that use less energy to produce and use eco-friendly fibers and fabrics, as well. The public is becoming much more aware of environmental issues such as global warming and climate change, and it seems that the demand for eco-friendly products, including fashions will continue to rise. Smart fashion designers and companies will jump on this growing trend. They need to take the earth and its survival into consideration, but even more than that, they need to continue to fill consumer's shelves to…
Belli, Brita. "The Eco Fashion Revolution: Getting Consumers to Care about What They Wear." E. Sept.-Oct. 2007: 26+.
Claudio, Luz. "Environmental Impact of the Clothing Industry." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.9 (2007): 448+.
Editors. Sustainable Innovation: Cultivating Growth and Prosperity through Collaboration. Organic Exchange, Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2008. 1-8.
Citizen Groups Shaping Environmental Policy
The environmental issues have of late been a subject of concern to many people and many organizations. Governments all over the world have been under persistent pressure to implement policies and also enact laws that are friendly to the environment or are intentionally formulated to safeguard the environment. The Kyoto protocol was a pace setter in many aspects concerning the environmental care and conservation, hence many bodies borrow from it and help in the implantation of the guidelines that were outlined in that particular meeting of the global bodies and economic giants of the world. These groups that act as custodians of the environment include the citizen groups of diverse measures and backgrounds.
The citizen groups in this aspect include the industry groups, trade associations and the not-for-profit organizations. These are the renowned groups that use their influences to shape the perspectives that the government…
Desai Uday, (2002). Environmental Politics and Policy in Industrialized Countries. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=oa5ykgL3cjAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=how+citizen+groups+shape+environmental+policies&source=bl&ots=K0PXSyUbxC&sig=vCzf4TZzmmxojF_MgnqYV5w1S9U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wjA_Va-IHczVPL3IgLAG&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=how citizen groups shape environmental policies&f=false
Micehael E.K., (2002). Environmental Policy and Politics in the United States: Toward Environmental Sustainability? Retrieved April 26, 2015 from
environmental analysis helps any organization to recognize factors that impact its performance. The factors impacting an organization's performance may be internal to the organization and they can also be external. Environmental analysis is therefore critical to an overall strategic plan. Several methods of performing environmental analysis can help organizations like the Carolina Health Care System, including the PESTLE and SWOT analyses ("What is Environmental Analysis?" n.d.). These types of analyses help to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT), as well as political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental (PESTLE) factors impacting the organization. Without performing systematic environmental analyses, business and public sector administrators would be working blindly and likely lead their organizations to fail in key preventable ways. On the other hand, a skillful and deft environmental analysis helps managers to develop strategic plans for the future, buffer against possible challenges, mitigate crises, and ensure long-term success.
Arthur, L. (n.d.). The implications of environmental analysis on strategic plan. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved online: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/implications-environmental-analysis-strategic-plan-35303.html
Carolinas Health Care System (2016). About Carolinas Healthcare System. Retrieved online: http://www.carolinashealthcare.org/about-us
Henry Schein Medical Systems (2016). Advantages of electronic medical records. Retrieved online: https://www.micromd.com/emr/advantages.html
"What is Environmental Analysis?" (n.d.). Pestle. Retrieved online: http://pestleanalysis.com/what-is-environmental-analysis/
elieving Cassandra: An Optimist Looks at a Pessimist's World is a book about the environment, its blunderings, and the sustainability of our world. This is a book for people trying to understand our intricate world and how it is failing and succeeding. I found the approach this book takes to the environment to be entertaining and worthwhile, for not just the information it provides, but the fresh perspective it offers on environmental issues. The author restores the reader's optimism in the world and explains how we can do even better for our future. The people who have predicted the end of the world, AtKisson says, "have been proven wrong, and have served to relegate all environmentally concerned comments to the fate of Cassandra's mutterings: They are ignored. And so they should be." (p. 12) He says, the earth is not a lost cause. And that's why he's written the…
AtKisson, Alan, Believing Cassandra: an Optimist Looks at a Pessimist's World, Chelsea Green, 1999.
return of the Gray Wolf. The writer details the history of the species including their near extinction. The writer then discusses the comeback efforts that have been employed and their success levels. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
Earth Watch, The eturn of the Gray Wolf
For many decades the plight of the Gray Wolf was underplayed through the public's misunderstanding. The Gray Wolf brought to mind flickering movie screens in which gray wolves would howl at the moon and attack prey after dark. The image conjured up a strong and virile species that was destined to live forever in the wild for the public to fear and admire at the same time. The truth is the Gray Wolf was slowly dying off and was eventually threatened with extinction. The Gray Wolf was not a species that elicited warm fuzzy feelings nor did people think they should…
Author not available (1999). DEFENDERS OF WILDLIFE RELEASES FIRST COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL WOLF STRATEGY. U.S. Newswire, 12-17-1999.
Hebert, Josef. H.(2000). Gray Wolf Makes Remarkable Recovery. AP Online, 07-11-2000.
Uhlenbrock; Tom (1998).Of The Post-Dispatch, GRAY WOLF SHOT BY CAMPER IN ARIZONA IS SETBACK FOR A ST. LOUIS WILDLIFE GROUP MALE WAS REINTRODUCED INTO WILD., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 05-01-1998, pp B4.
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/ aboutepa/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Environmental Assessing Canada
More and more countries have gotten actively involved in protecting the environment and Canada makes no exception from the rule, taking into account that it installed a series of programs meant to assist nature and discourage individuals or groups that might be inclined to damage it. The Canadian Environmental Act is probably one of the most significant steps that the country has taken with the purpose of making it mandatory for people and communities to conduct environmental assessments for diverse projects that they propose. Canadians have acknowledged the fact that some actions might have negative effects on the environment and thus developed environmental assessments meant to remove or diminish a project's capacity to harm to environment.
The 1868 Fisheries Act is probably one of the first significant environmental assessment programs that the government installed with the purpose of preventing individuals from harming the environment as a result…
Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, "Canada Enter the Nuclear Age: A Technical History of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited," (McGill-Queens, 1997)
"Fisheries Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Website: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/habitat/role/141/1415/14151-eng.htm
"Canadian Environmental Assessment Act," Retrieved November 11, 2012, from the Canadian Environmental Law Association Website: http://www.cela.ca/taxonomy/term/212
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…
Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/ airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Current events of the environmental ethics
Some of the major current events concerning the environmental ethics are the issue of global warming. One of the leading researchers (in the causes and effects of climate change; and in the field of allergies) in Europe has discovered that the burning of the fossil fuel that has increased over the recent past has resulted into the increase of the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide facilitates the growth of the ragweed- an invasive plant- moreover; the hay fever is triggered of by this plant's pollen grains. Both early and long seasons of allergy are caused by the bloom of the birch trees as a result of the warmer temperatures (White, 1967).
Non-environmentally friendly behaviors currently such as the increased acts of war has not only affected the environment by impoverishing the natural resources but has also caused stress in…
Carson, R. (1962). Silent Spring. California: Houghton Mifflin.
Van, W., & Peter C. (1997). Primitives in the Wilderness: Deep Ecology and the Missing
Human Subject. New York: SUNY Press.
Varner, G. (1998). In Nature's Interests? Interests, Animal Rights, and Environmental
Environmental isk Analysis Process
Environmental isk Analysis (EA) is "a process for estimating the likelihood or probability of an adverse outcome or event due to pressures or changes in environmental conditions resulting from human activities" (Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, 2000). EA should be a scientific process, when that is possible. "In general terms, risk depends on the following factors: How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), how much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and the inherent toxicity of the chemical" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). All of these factors help the assessor determine the "potential adverse effects that human activities have on the living organisms that make up ecosystems. The risk assessment process provides a way to develop, organize and present scientific information so that it is relevant to environmental decisions"…
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.
Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website: http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf
Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks. (2000, July). Environmental risk assessment (ERA):
An approach for assessing and reporting environmental conditions. Retrieved January 7,
Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.
The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)
The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.
Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.
Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.
Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (epa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top…
Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenkerala.net%2Fpdf%2Fkey_issue_on_open_dumps.pdf&ei=Vy9uUcyuBamy7AbDo4GYBQ&usg=AFQjCNFUTQkrQnIxwkIgJOzwJtptbNSfGw&bvm=bv.45368065,d.ZWU
Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.republicservices.com/Corporate/Planet/SustainabilityProjects/San-Antonio-Atlanta.aspx
Skye, J. (2011).Environmental problems: Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Environmental_Problems:_Landfills
Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)
Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…
Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:
Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.
Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation
With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.
There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…
Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up
Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating
Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/ compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal
What is Environmental Stewardship?
What are the problems?
Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?
A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness
Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.
This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…
Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.
Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.
Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.
Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.
This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments,…
Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.
Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future
Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp. 169 -- 185
Environmental Stewardship can be simply described as "the comprehensive understanding and effective management of critical environmental risks and opportunities related to climate change, emissions, waste management, resource consumption, water conservation, biodiversity protection and ecosystem services" ("Environmental Stewardship," 2010). Thus, environmental stewardship is actually the responsibility for environmental superiority shared by everyone by whose actions the environment is affected. This sense of responsibility is that rare value that is mirrored through the choices that individuals, businesses, societies, and government make to shape the environment, society, and economy (Johnson, 2005). Environmental stewardship can also be regarded as a behavior that is exhibited by means of incessant upgrading and enhancement of environmental performance along with a dedication to "efficient use of natural resources, protection of ecosystems, and, where applicable, ensuring a baseline of compliance with environmental requirements" (Johnson, 2005 ).
In the contemporary society, environmental stewardship is on the increase. Nowadays, a majority…
Environmental Stewardship Strategy: Overview and Resource for Corporate Leaders. (2010). Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/Environmental_Stewardship_Strategy.pdf
Johnson, S.L. (2005). Everyday Choices: Opportunities for Environmental Stewardship. Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/ osem/pdf/rpt2admin.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
These studies show development and growth is usually positive and normal in a home environment where there is sufficient care and/or love and in an environment that positively motivates learning and development. Conversely, the problems that can be experienced in a dysfunctional family can lead to problems even later in life. This is shown by the fact that juvenile criminals who become repeat offenders often come for broken or dysfunctional family environments.
The home and family are not the only environments that can have a profound influence on the individual. The school and educational environment is another environmental "space" that is important in normal human development. The school is an area that is particularly important in that it is an environment in which we first learn to interact and encounter the outside world. Therefore it is a crucial factor in social development. This can be seen in the fact that…
Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean
The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…
Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.
Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.
Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from: http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .
Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
On the other hand, nature-as-machine proponents view nature holistically, and the "whole is greater than the sum of its parts," (Oelschlaeger 1991 p. 130). Water is a lake, an ocean, or a river. Oelschlaeger calls seeing the forest instead of the trees "synoptic holism." The synoptic holism integral to the nature-as-organism view opposes the reductionistic atomism common to the nature-as-machine stance. In other words, where the reductionist sees a bunch of quarks, the holist sees a bird.
The nature-as-machine proponent also thinks in terms of external relations. Individual parts of the machine interact with other parts as independent entities; thus, they can be removed and replaced without upsetting the balance of nature. This stance supports the view of humanity as external to nature. On the other hand, the nature-as-organism proponent perceives nature in terms of internal relations, and human beings are part of nature's internal whole. Individual parts of nature…
Oelschlaeger, M. (1991). Wild nature. Chapter 4 in The Idea of Wilderness: From Prehistory to the Age of Ecology. New Haven: Yale University Press.