Environmental Issues Essays (Examples)

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Environmental Issue in Florida Florida

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7906309

Wildlife which does not have natural predators in Florida was introduced by people who had bought those animals or reptiles and could not control them, or had to leave the state, and therefore abandoned them in the Everglades. The best example is the one of a Burmese python which was let go in the Everglades and had attached an alligator. Both animals did not survive the encounter, yet it shows that human are the main threat to the environment.

To summarize the environmental issues in Florida, we can say that the main issue is the development and encroachment into the Everglades. The lush mangrove and saw grass marshes of South Florida are the last of a great wilderness that, until the 20th century, stretched for hundreds of miles. Our Everglades refuge countless species, including endangered Florida panthers, Cape Sable seaside sparrows and American crocodiles. Many years of encroaching development have disrupted natural water flows, harmed wildlife with pollution run-off and destroyed more than half of the Everglades' unique, species-rich wetlands (NAI2).

Why at this day and age are we, as human, not capable to see what we destroying? Why do we have to be driven by enormous profit thinking, while…… [Read More]

Works Cited

NAI. Everglades. NDI Wild Places . 26 April 2010 < http://www.nwf.org/Wildlife/Wild-Places/Everglades.aspx >.

NAI2. Saving the Everglades. 2010. 26 April 2010 .

Natural Resources Defense Council. Florida Everglades. 20 September 2009. 26 April 2010 .

Parker, Karen. Wildlife 'rescues' can do more harm than good. 19 April 2010. 26 April 2010 .
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Environmental Policies Give an Example

Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279

The 1980s (the period when Ronald Reagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- Reagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANWR or Arctic National Wildlife Range, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm (DSP) that influence the public's opinion about the environment. Does our DSP limit our ability to respond appropriately to future environmental problems?

Protecting the environment involves sacrificing economic growth to a large extent since economic growth depends on environmental inputs. The forward march of the human civilization has resulted in…… [Read More]

References

Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm

Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.

Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
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Environmental Security the Environment and

Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46094940

The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while insecurity can impact the environment negatively as well. Specifically, refugees driven from their environment by political insecurity can place negative strain on their new environment, while war could result over a lack of resources.

It has also been mentioned above that environmental insecurity can provide a valuable resource for targeted…… [Read More]

Sources

Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.

Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11

Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
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Environmental Concerns in 1900 the

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3445105

Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. Everybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to a decrease in interest and the willingness to listen and change their views on the part of the population; this passivity induced by an afflux of information - neither useful nor concise - is a psychological truth which cannot be denied especially when trying to raise awareness on such an…… [Read More]

Europa (4 April 2007).

International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm

European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
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Environmental Crime the National Environmental

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29682431

..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)

The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)

An important part of this act and its implementation is the setting of safety and health standards. To this end the Act also makes provision for the setting of uniform safety and health standards for industrial and other work places. For this reason the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was established to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009.  http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund 

Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. (http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/)

Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
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Environmental Psychology as a Brief Introduction of

Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45575986

Environmental Psychology

As a brief introduction of this study, environmental psychology pertains to the Correlational approach and linkages that are focused on the relationship between human being and their environment. This is a scientific study that are focused on the importance of natural environments that can be utilized by human beings that are focused on the development and manipulation of prioritization of certain issues and challenges affecting the environment. In this manner, the existence of the environment is influential to the world of humans for the fact that the degree of the environment's capability improves the welfare of the society to make the quality of life achieved. The concept of environmental psychology has an interest for applying the principles of design that can be made as an important structure in the environment according to Davis (2011). This can be in the form of architectural design and infrastructures that involves the study of artistic expression that aims to change the view of the environment by integrating human design in the field of art as an instance to the study. Basing from the article, there are significant changes in the society that has been affected by the environment because it played an…… [Read More]

Reference

Davis, John (2011). Ecopsychology and environmental psychology. Accessed: http://www.johnvdavis.com/ep/index.htm.

Edgerton, Eddie (2009). Environmental Psychology. Available: http://www.c-s-p.org/flyers/9781847182180-sample.pdf.

Evans, Gary (2007). Environmental Stress. Accessed:  http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~scohen/environstress.pdf .

Graetz, Ken. (2009). Environment Learning Moments. Retrieved from: http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ERM0663.pdf.
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Environmental Justice Policies and Issues

Words: 5141 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35478705

Environmental Justice in the United States:

Policies, Beliefs & People/Places Involved

During the course of my college career, my interests and passions have changed, gradually evolving to an intensified mix of all that my Interdisciplinary Studies major encompasses. I began my college career seeking a Mass Communication degree; a course of study that focused primarily on community organization and mobilization. After feeling the harsh reality of advertising and public relations evils, I decided that Social Work was my calling. I felt a deep need to help others in situations where if they only had some assistance their lives could be changed for the better. However, after taking an Introduction to Environmental Issues course, I felt strongly that a change of studies was necessary. I began to formulate a study plan that included all of my previous interests and integrated a whole new section-policy and law. I was particularly interested in the politics of environmental issues and how government and society view the environment and handle problems or issues that arise. Thus, when my senior project topic was due, the obvious choice for me was to research environmental justice within the United States. The Environmental Justice Movement has elements of my…… [Read More]

References

Adams, John H. (1994, spring) Message From the Director: Environmentalism and Justice at NRDC, Amicus J. (statement of the Executive Director of the Natural Resources Defense Council).

Alternatives for Community and Environment (ACE) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at  http://www.Ace-ej.org 

Commununities of a Better Environment (CBE). Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.cbecal.org

Community coalition for Environmental Justice (CCEJ) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at http://www.ccej.org, online.
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Environmental Health

Words: 910 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66508186

Environmental Health Website Review

Environmental Health

In today's technologically complex society we are all exposed to potentially harmful agents at work, home, school, and in the great outdoors. Tracking the levels of exposure in the United States is the responsibility of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but other non-governmental organizations have been formed in response to this concern and are providing complementary information to the public. This essay examines the online information that is available concerning environmental agents that pose a risk to human health.

Federal Agencies

The CDC has been tracking the levels of 219 known or suspected toxic chemicals, or their metabolites, in the blood and urine of a cohort of American citizens, for the purpose of determining toxicity levels and potential associations with negative health outcomes (2011, National report on human exposure). The information thus gathered will be used to alter official policy, so that exposure levels are reduced and associated health risks reduced. An agency within the CDC, the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, maintains a complementary website that provides information on toxic agents and associated diseases (2011). This site provides information on specific toxic…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR.cdc.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.atsdr.cdc.gov

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). National report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from  http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/ 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Workplace safety & health topics: Indoor environmental quality. CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/indoorenv/

Center for School Mold Help. (2007). The Center for School Mold Help: Comprehensive school mold prevention, education, & solutions. SchoolMoldHelp.org. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from http://www.schoolmoldhelp.org/
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Environmental Ethical Issues in the

Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86819609

On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).

Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile threats against NATO forces in Bosnia after U.S. military operations in both regions in the early 1990s (Attfield, 2003).

Within the last fifty years, there has been an ever-increasing concern for the preservation of wildlife, particularly with respect to its depletion as a result of human activity (Attfield, 2003; Poiman…… [Read More]

References

Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.

Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:

West Legal Studies.
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Environmental Benefits of Reusable Bags

Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7648446

2007, para.7).

There are also a number of other environmental consequences to using these bags that should be considered. Plastic bags clog storm drains and they also block the natural flow of oxygen and water through the soil -- all of which contributes to placing increasing pressure on the sustainability of the environment and ecosystems. (Single-Use Plastic Shopping Bags. Presentation to the Transportation and Environment Committee, 2008)

2. The advantages of non-reusable bags

It therefore follows from the above discussion that fewer plastic bags in circulation means less toxic chemical and less pollution of the environment. As one commentator writes, "if people were to use reusable bags instead of plastic ones, dependence on these non-renewable resources would be significantly less" (Go green! Benefits of reusable bags). The increase in usage of reusable bags would also mean a significant reduction in the need for plastic -- and it must be remembered that plastic in itself emits toxic chemicals into the environment. An important statistic in this regard is that it takes about 430,000 gallons of oil to produce 100 million plastic bags, and the U.S. produces 380 billion bags a year (Single-Use Plastic Shopping Bags. Presentation to the Transportation and Environment…… [Read More]

References

Benefits of Reusable. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.reusablebagsdepot.com/reusable-bag-benefits.html

Go green! Benefits of reusable bags. Retrieved September 4, 2009, from http://www.helium.com/items/976541-go-green-benefits-of-reusable-bags

Knight M. (2007) Plastic bags fly into environmental storm. Retrieved September 4,

2009, from  http://edition.cnn.com/2007/TECH/11/14/fsummit.climate.plasticbags/index.html
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Environmental Psychology The Field of Environmental Psychology

Words: 886 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98418405

Environmental Psychology:

The field of environmental psychology is a specialized discipline within psychology whose major developments have been totally adopted into mainstream psychology. In past few decades, the much of the positive and negative visibility of environmental psychology have been lost. One of the significant visibilities to be lost is the initial enthusiasm that came from the common desire by designers and social scientists in developing buildings that would work better for people. In addition to being incorporated into mainstream psychology, environmental psychology has also been adopted into other areas of psychology including social psychology and health psychology. Consequently, environmental education has now become a major area within education and various organizations are increasingly studying human behavior and the physical environment.

The Discipline of Environmental Psychology:

The discipline of environmental psychology can be defined as the study of the relationship between human behavior and the physical environment. Since this discipline seeks to explain the interaction between individuals and the environment in various ways, it focuses on analyzing the person-environment system itself, as a holistic area of evaluation. The history of environmental psychology can be traced back to 1890s and 1900s when Kurt Lewin and Roger Barker examined the environment. While…… [Read More]

References:

Clayton, S. & Myers, G. (2009). Conversation Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell.

Evans, G.W. (n.d.). Current Trends in Environmental Psychology. Retrieved February 12, 2012,

from http://www.ucm.es/info/Psyap/iaap/evans.htm

Stewart, A.E. (2007, March1). Individual Psychology and Environmental Psychology. Journal of Individual Psychology, 63(1), 67-85. Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/eds/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=683c2681-82da-4688-ab5c-e765114727dd%40sessionmgr111&vid=4&hid=115
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Environmental Racism the Color of

Words: 2243 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52802873

Poor peoples and poor nations in the world accept the false and harmful notion that the lack of development meant risky, low-paying jobs and pollution. The economically vulnerable and poor communities, poor states, poor nations and poor regions have succumbed to the notion. The movement demanded that no community, nation, whether rich or poor, whatever the color should be made dumping grounds for these deadly wastes. The movement also alerted the governments of these nations and regions to set up their own measures to protect the health and environment of their own people and areas (Bullard).

Citizen Action and Litigation

Many of the initial activities of the environmental justice movement were in the form of citizen action and litigation (Crossman 2005). Among them were the EPA's disparate-impact regulations, pursuant to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. These prohibited recipients of federal funding from engaging in racially discriminatory activities (Crossman).

Four Major Threats to Health

Four major environmental health hazards were identified as plaguing specifically the children in the United States (Bullard 2003). More specifically, the hazards were affecting people of color. These were lead poisoning, toxic housing, toxic schools, and the asthma epidemic (Bullard).

Reports said that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bullard, R.D. (2007). Dismantling toxic racism. 4 pages. The New Crisis: Crisis Publishing Company, Inc.

2003). Environment justice for all. 6 pages

Bullard, R. D and Glenn S. Johnson (2000). Environmental justice. 20 pages. Journal of Social Issues: Plenum Publishing Corporation

Crossman, B. (2005). Resurrecting environmental justice. 20 pages. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review: Boston College School of Law
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Environmental Pressures

Words: 1125 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52094195

Environmental and Organizational

ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURE

ORGANIZATIONAL PRESSURE

Individual Commitment to Environment

Retain Employment

Family pressures

Contribute to Profits

Social Pressures

Discipline

Environmental vs. Organizational Pressure

Change is disruptive and can be the source of much anxiety and stress. Regardless of these fears, changes within organizations are inevitable and are guaranteed to happen sooner or later. To better manage these changes it is helpful to compare and contrast the different types of pressures an individual may feel when working in a corporate environment. The purpose of this essay is to discuss these pressures in an organizational and environmental context to decipher their influence on organizations. For purposes of this essay I will utilize my job working for Astra Zeneca as a guide to explain these influences and how change can best be managed.

The environment contains the organization and is large in size and scope, and, in theory affecting everyone who falls under its influence. Delmas & Toffel (2012) explained that "a broad literature has emerged over the past decades demonstrating that firms environmental strategies and practices are influenced by external stakeholders and institutional pressures, " (p.229). In other words these pressures are external from the organization.

For me, the most…… [Read More]

References

Angell, L (1999). Environmental and Operations Management Face the Future. Decisions Sciences, May 1999. Retrieved from http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol30/30_3/pom30_3.pdf

Delmas, Magali A. And Michael Toffel. "Institutional Pressures and Organizational Characteristics: Implications for Environmental Strategy." The Oxford Handbook of Business and the Natural Environment. Bansal, Pratima, and Andrew Hoffman, Eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 229-247

Donovan, F. (2013). Organizational pressures creating schizophrenia within IT. Fierce Enterprise Communications, 30 Mar, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fierceenterprisecommunications.com/story/gartner-organizational-pressures- creating-schizophrenia-within-it/2013-03-30
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Environmental Pressures of the Military

Words: 1860 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87160203

Environmental and Organizational Pressures Sample

Create a table where at least three (3) organizational pressures and at least three (3) environmental pressures in the organization are illustrated and rank those pressures according to their influence.

Rank

Environmental Pressure

Organizational Pressure

Carbon emissions and overall sustainability

Ranking and promotion characteristics with the military.

Heavy bureaucracy

Dependency on natural resources and their overall depletion

The ability to attract, hire and retain talented individuals to serve in the military

Identifying and using alternative energy and packaging solutions

Cultural sensitivity and its meaning within the organization.

Describe in detail the environmental and organizational pressures that exist in the organization and how they have evolved over time.

In regards to organization pressures within the military, much has changed due to varying societal norms. What was once deemed unacceptable by society has now become acceptable for society overall. As such, these changes have manifested themselves in the military. One such aspect is cultural sensitivity in regards to the overall work environment. The emergency of globalization, and is subsequent welcoming by the developed work, has ushered in a new form of thinking. In many instances, varying cultures are now needed to help identify and understand very complex…… [Read More]

Reference:

1) Visser, Wayne, Dirk Matten, Manfred Pohl, and Nick Tolhurst (Editors) (2007). The A to Z. Of Corporate Social Responsibility. London, England; New York, NY: Wiley. ISBN 978-0-470-72395-1

2) Armstrong, Scott (1977). "Social Irresponsibility in Management." Journal of Business Research (Elsevier North-Holland Inc.) 15: 115 -- 203. http://marketing.wharton.upenn.edu/ideas/pdf/armstrong2/social.pdf.

3) Kalinda, B. (Ed.). Social Responsibility and Organizational Ethics. (2001). Encyclopedia of Business and Finance (2nd ed., Vol. 1). New York: Macmillan Reference
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Environmental Themes

Words: 5447 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33113853

Environmental Themes in Grapes of Wrath

This essay reviews environmental themes from the following five books: Dust Bowl by Donald Worster, The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, Everglades: River of Grass by Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Killing Mr. Watson by Peter Matthiessen, and River of Lakes by Bill Belleville. This paper discusses the role that culture has played in environmental issues during the past century. Five sources used. MLA format.

Environmental Themes

Humans from the very beginning of their existence have had an impact, for better or worse, on the environment. Man has for the most part tried to control the environment to suit his needs or tastes of the era. Over-grazing, over hunting, ignoring the importance crop rotations, dam building, and toxic dumping, are but a few of the ways man tries to control. Few societies have ever considered any of the above when it comes to the environment. There are a few pockets of them in history and even today, but they are indeed few and far between. Organic farming or sustainable agriculture is the closest that most have come to being simpatico with the environment, to truly understanding the cause and effect of their actions. Money seems…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belleville, Bill. River of Lakes. University of Georgia

Press. 2001.

Douglas, Marjory Stoneman. The Everglades River of Grass.

Pineapple Press. 50th Anniversary Edition. 1997.
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Environmental Sciences Obama Turns to Web to

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50361966

Environmental Sciences

Obama Turns to Web to Illustrate the Effects of a Changing Climate

This article discusses how the use of technology and the internet can aid in the overall global warming education process. The article explains how President Obama is using a mobile app to depict the effects of global warming in local communities. Through technology, Obama hopes to create awareness of the overall global warming issue, and its impact on communities. The article states that out that individuals given a list of 20 issues, rank global warming as 19th. Through the use of the app, the Obama administration hopes to create an overall sense of urgency within the general public.

A particularly interesting aspect of the article was the amount of detailed coordination needed to produce the app. The mobile app is unique in that it attempts to depict the impact global warming has on communities' overtime. As such, geographically aspects will need constant surveillance and monitoring to accurately depict damage caused by global warming. To complete this task effectively requires technological expertise and coordination. The article mentions that private companies such as Google, local governments, and even federal agencies all work together to create the technology used…… [Read More]

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Environmental Ethical Issues the Question

Words: 1692 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98545675

This is a pertinent observation and one that is possibly central to understanding the problem of environmental ethics today.

Bugeja goes on to state that "…the new technologies that now keep us constantly connected also keep us constantly distracted" (Bugeja, 2008). He also makes the important point that, "Digital distractions now keep us from addressing the real issues of the day. Each of us daily consumes an average of nine hours of media through myriad technological platforms…" (Bugeja, 2008). In other words, we have become distracted from the holistic view of reality by modern communications technology to the extent that we are out of contact with the environmental issues that surround us.

Bugeja is also of the opinion that this situation has deprived us of the important aspect of critical thought. Critical thinking is defined as "… the ability to engage in reflective and independent thinking, and being able to think clearly and rationally" (Lau, 2009). The importance of critical thinking is that it forces us to think outside the confines of certain norms or parameters that may blind us to the reality of life. This has important implications for ethics and particularly environmental ethics in that, without critical thinking…… [Read More]

References

Bugeja M. ( 2008) The Age of Distraction: The Professor or the Processor? The

Futurist, 42 (1).

Consequentialism: The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved from http://www.iep.utm.edu/c/conseque.htm.

Environmental Ethics. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/
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Environmental Education Approaching the Research

Words: 1038 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23300759



Meanwhile, if a teacher used the book, Awareness to Citizenship: Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child, and uses it fully in developing a philosophy of teaching, a child will never be scared because the information is down-to-earth, well-presented, and family-friendly. The authors insist that teachers need not "know everything or be able to identify everything," but on the other hand, they should explore environmental issues with their students, and "always be thinking about how they might encourage students...by introducing nature-related materials, nature-related themes and concepts, [and] student centered activities" (Basile, et al., 20).

A good philosophy to develop is that nature is always all around us; Basile encourages her students to observe and make journal entries about what they "see and hear in the schoolyard" (21). This engenders a sense that the environment isn't some vague place "out there," but rather, that conservation and ecology are right here in the school yard.

Indeed, not only is it important to bring students to a level of consciousness about the nearness of nature, but the goal of education - according to the book, Environmental Education: A Resource Handbook - should be inclusive of all students, even "challenged students" who have disabilities. And…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Basile, Carole; White, Cameron; & Robinson, Stacey. (2000). Awareness to Citizenship:

Environmental Literacy for the Elementary Child. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America, Inc.

Bowers, C.A. (1995). Educating For An Ecologically Sustainable Culture: Rethinking Moral

Education, Creativity, Intelligence, and Other Modern Orthodoxies. Albany, NY: State
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Environmental Problems in Latin America

Words: 1697 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85452921

FSC encourages businesses in Argentina using forest resources to promote a sustainable business policy and discourages businesses that neglect environmental and habitat concerns. Thus the FSC in effect is a global collaborative effort to minimize environmental damage and promote environmentally sustainable business practices and by doing so, protect our world from threats of global warming, acid rain, drastic climatic shifts and other serious consequences of environmental destruction and pollution. [FSC]

Conclusion

Argentina is one of the worst affected, economically as well as environmentally, among the Latin American countries. GM crops, in particular GM Soya, led an economic revolution, which unfortunately proved to be the environmental bane for the nation. GM cropping and Deforestation coupled to create a severe environmental debacle that has threatened to develop into catastrophic proportions. Thanks to the timely interventions from environmental groups like WWF, FVSA, FLR and other governmental agencies and NGO's, the situation has been checked under control and the rehabilitation projects are underway. It is hoped that the situation for Argentina will improve with the efforts of these environmental agencies.… [Read More]

Bibliography

WWF, "Environmental Problems in Argentina: More than 16 Million ha of Forest Cover Lost Between 1980 and 2000," Accessed May 15th 2007, available at http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/latin_america_and_caribbean/country/argentina/environmental_problems_argentina/index.cfm

WWF, "Argentina: Our Solutions," Accessed May 15th 2007,

Available at, http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/latin_america_and_caribbean/country/argentina/wwf_argentina_conservation/index.cfm

RTRS, "Round Table on Responsible Soy," Accessed May 15th 2007, available at http://www.responsiblesoy.org/eng/index.htm
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Environmental Economics

Words: 2913 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16139129

Environmental Economics

Economics and Nature Conservation

From early childhood, one is taught of the importance of the surrounding environment in all human activities. Forests for instance are crucial sources of fresh air and clean water, as well as raw commodities that support life. Nevertheless, mankind continues to trash the woodlands, and as such jeopardize the future of the next generations. In a context in which next to 5 million hectares of forests are lost on annual basis due to deforestations and fires, causing a multitude of environmental, economic and social effects, the global authorities must intervene to better regulate the sector.

The modern day individual is characterized by a myriad of features, such as the reduced time to cook and the obvious tendency to either eat out, either grab some fast food. Other elements refer to the increased pace of technological development, with which he has to keep up; the incremental pressures on the job, also pegged to the necessity to prove one's compulsory role within the business climate, now when employers engage in downsizing operations.

Aside these features however, an increase in the responsible behavior towards the natural environment is also observable. The civilized populations have understood the necessity…… [Read More]

References:

Bratkovich, S., Gallion, J., Leatherberry, E., Hoover, W., Reading, W., Durham, G., Forests of Indiana: Their Economic Importance, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,  http://na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/forestprod/indiana_forest04/forests_of_IN04.htm  last accessed on November 24, 2009

Burgees, P., Cheek, K.A., Policy Review

Johnson, K.N., Holthausen, R., Shannon, M.A., Sedel, J., Case Study

Nelson, J.E., Management Review
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Environmental Concern Case Study for

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86031362

He did clean up the area around the store from garbage lying around but never did anything apart from that. He did express interest in being a part of any group working towards helping out with the environment. He denied that his Chinese background might have had any impact on his attitude.

The individual from the Hispanic background was deeply involved with activities to help out with environmental issues. He is a computer Science major and manages had two websites dealing with those issues. He also maintains a blog about environmental hazards that he encounters. He takes pictures of whatever he thinks might be important and uploads them to his blog. He mentioned how he wants to use his skills in web design to reach out to students and make them aware of such issues. He has listed a lot of ways to get involved on his websites and uses social networking to promote them. He said that his Hispanic background did not have any specific impact on his attitude towards the environment. Everything he did was because he wanted to and no one else in his family was a part of any related social group.

The individual from the…… [Read More]

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Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation What

Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87383522

Environmental Challenges Facing the Current Generation

What are the most challenging environmental issues that will face humanity over the next 50 years? And what are the best ideas for options in the face of these challenges? What are some companies doing to mitigate (reduce, reuse, and recycle resources) the problems on a local level? These and other issues and questions will be approached in this paper.

The Main Environmental Challenges

While there is no one single most serious environmental challenge that all scholars, scientists, researchers, policy makers, journalists and others agree on, any cursory research into future environmental challenges and issues for Planet Earth will turn up the alarming and well-documented consequences of climate change. Of course climate change is not just a future issue but very much a current worry for citizens, scientists and policy makers. Many other critical issues are related to global climate change, including the population explosion.

Population: Indeed, much of the available literature on future environmental challenges reflects that earth's escalating population -- which is expected to reach 9 billion people by 2050 -- will have a great deal to do with the quality of (and sustainability of) the environment in the future. Jim Foley…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emmott, S. (2013). Humans: the real threat to life on Earth. The Guardian / The Observer.

Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com.

Foley, J. (2012). Earth in 20 Years. University of Minnesota. Retrieved February 21, 2014, from http://www1.umn.edu.

General Motors. (2013). Innovation: Environment / Waste Reduction. Retrieved February 21,
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Issues on Recycling a Cleaning Product

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48287203

Environmental Issues in Reusing Cleaning Solvents

Solvent recycling depicts the process of taking dirty and used solvents, cleaning them to return a pure form of the solvent or any other acceptable form. It encompasses fractionating and distillation of the used solvents placed in a solvent recycler (Shen, 2013). Nationwide pollution prevention program have focused on reducing solvent wastes. The use of solvents occurs as a vital element in water and air pollution, making it a prominent contributor of hazardous waste. Depletion of the ozone layer has depicted the impact of chlorinated solvents. Increased awareness and calls for environmental protection have stimulated the adoption of ways in reducing solvent wastes.

Environmental conservation and cost reduction emanate as the significant benefits of this technique. Organizations can take advantage of the recovery of solvents through the distillation processes. Solvent recycling also poses various disadvantages that include required capital for purchasing recycling equipment and additional operational costs among others (Boodhoo & Harvey, 2013). In overall, the benefits of supersede the associated challenges in adopting solvent recycling in the long run.

Pros

Reducing reporting (Manifesting): Recycling and reuse of solvents reduce the time and resources spent on completing the manifest, a document containing details such…… [Read More]

References

Boodhoo, K. & Harvey, A. (2013). Process Intensification Technologies for Green Chemistry: Engineering Solutions for Sustainable Chemical Processing. New York: Springer Science & Business Media

Shen, T. (2013). Industrial Pollution Prevention. New York: Springer Science & Business Media
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Environmental Institutions in The Effectiveness

Words: 1050 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2239448

As Andresen points out, their quasi-legal or soft status renders intergovernmental groups legally powerless in general. Thus, intergovernmental groups need to bolster their efficacy by linking more strongly with local and state law enforcement organizations.

Another weakness of intergovernmental environmental organizations that Biermann points out in "The Case for a World Environment Organization" is the poor communication and coordination between existing organizations. A plethora of related institutions may be working on the same environmental issue without pooling resources, when it would be far more efficient and effective to tackle global environmental threats in a cooperative manner. Likewise, Biermann cites capacity building as a key aspect of institutional coordination and cooperation.

Perceived legitimacy of intergovernmental environmental organizations is also a major concern, as many developing nations may be viewing the UNEP and other groups as being representative of Western (U.S./European) hegemony (Biermann). How to allocate funding is another critical concern, reflecting the poor coordination of resources among intergovernmental environmental groups. A cohesive body of international environmental law may be necessary to strengthen perceived legitimacy and effectiveness on a practical level.

In "The Case Against a New International Environmental Organization," Adil Najam echoes what Andresen points out about the failures of intergovernmental…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andresen, Steinar. The effectiveness of UN environmental institutions. Int Environ Agreements (2007) 7:317 -- 336.

Bauer, Steffen and Biermann, Frank. Does Effective International Environmental Governance Require a World Environment Organization? The State of the Debate Prior to the Report of the High-Level Panel on Reforming the United Nations. Global Governance Working Paper No 13. Amsterdam, Berlin, Oldenburg, Potsdam: The Global Governance Project. 2004. Available at www.- glogov.org

Biermann, Frank. The Case for a World Environment Organization. Environment, Nov2000, Vol. 42 Issue 9, p22, 10p

Najam, Adil. "The Case Against a New International Environmental Organization." Global Governance 9(2003): 367-384.
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Environmental Governance

Words: 1366 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69447319

Environmental Governance

Responsible Leadership is the culmination of Moody-Stuart's forty-five years of work in the oil, gas, metal, and mineral extraction industries. Moody-Stuart draws from his experience and observations to provide an analysis of how business has been, and can become more, responsible champions of social and environmental issues. The book includes two Forewords, one by Sir Robert Wilson, former Executive Chair of Rio Tinto, and another by UN Deputy Secretary-General Mark Malloch-Brown. Moody-Stuart offers fifteen chapters, all related in some way to issues of economic development, globalization, free markets, free trade, corporate responsibility, and corporate ethics. The book includes Moody-Stuart's political philosophy, his opinions on nearly every major global conflict extant at the time of publishing, and on issues both relevant and irrelevant to the primary topic of the book, which is the role of business in the current global scenario.

The book begins with an introduction that outlines three of the countries in which Moody-Stuart had worked under the auspices of the Shell company: Oman, Malaysia, and Nigeria. Oman and Malaysia are offered as examples of exemplary and effective governance, in which political leaders simultaneously protected the rights of the people while also welcoming business growth and economic…… [Read More]

Reference

Moody-Stuart, M. (2014). Responsible Leadership. Sheffield: Greenleaf.
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Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineers of

Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84085324



Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal…… [Read More]

Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.

Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.
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Environmental Systems in the Past

Words: 12463 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 751326

Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).

In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such data must be interpreted by taking into account a wide range of potentially qualitative factors that will not be possible using one approach to the exclusion of the other research approach (Neuman, 2003).

A summary of the foregoing research methods for environmental system development is provided in Table 1 below.…… [Read More]

References

Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.

McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.

Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management

Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
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Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude

Words: 9344 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22808838

Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage

Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. Both crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are lubricants, asphalt, perfumes and insecticides. There are, approximately, more than 4,000 different petrochemical products obtained from refining of crude oil that have commercial value. Plastics, synthetic fibers, synthetic rubbers, detergents and chemical fertilizers are some of the consumer products that are generated from crude oil. The proven crude oil reserves…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:

http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.

AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:

http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm. August 1, 2004.
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Environmental Problem in the World

Words: 1473 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14910790

Some forms of energy, such as wave and tidal energy and hydrogen fuel cells are still being studied. Another writer states, "Techniques to harness the energy found in the oceans are best developed for tidal power, wave power and ocean thermal energy conversion" (Middleton 52). Many other types of alternative energy, such as solar, wind, biomass, and geothermal energies are all being used where they make sense. Other solutions include nuclear energy, but the problem of disposing of the nuclear waste is a big problem, and so, no new nuclear facilities are being built. Authors Ottinger and Williams continue "Nuclear energy is excluded [...] because of its high capital and operating costs, complex technical requirements for operation and maintenance, and unresolved problems of proliferation and waste disposal" (Ottinger and Williams 331).

None of these solutions are being used enough to remedy the problem, and there are many reasons why they are not being more heavily used. Many of the long-term projects are very expensive to build and operate, and so utilities are hesitant to invest in them. Around the world, many countries are investing in alternative power, such as wind power. Another writer notes, "India, China, and a dozen European…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not Available. "Causes of Global Warming." EchoBridge.org. 2005. 21 July 2005. http://www.ecobridge.org/content/g_cse.htm

Cristol, Hope. "New Concern About Acid Rain: Trees' Immune Systems may be Damaged by Pollution." The Futurist Nov.-Dec. 2002: 8+.

Cruver, Philip C. "Lighting the 21st Century." The Futurist Jan.-Feb. 1989: 29+.

Johnson, Dan. "Alternative Energy Sources Gain Worldwide." The Futurist Aug.-Sept. 1998: 15.
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Environmental Movement and the Fashion

Words: 1518 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80040453

When a company such as Wal-Mart goes green, it is because they see a profit in it, and customers are demanding it, and that is the case with the fashion industry, as well.

In conclusion, the fashion industry is becoming much more eco-friendly largely because of consumer demand. People are becoming increasingly aware of just what goes into the products they consume, and they are demanding new products that use less energy to produce and use eco-friendly fibers and fabrics, as well. The public is becoming much more aware of environmental issues such as global warming and climate change, and it seems that the demand for eco-friendly products, including fashions will continue to rise. Smart fashion designers and companies will jump on this growing trend. They need to take the earth and its survival into consideration, but even more than that, they need to continue to fill consumer's shelves to be successful. Creating eco-fashions that meet consumer concerns and yet are still stylish and wearable just makes good fashion and business sense.… [Read More]

References

Belli, Brita. "The Eco Fashion Revolution: Getting Consumers to Care about What They Wear." E. Sept.-Oct. 2007: 26+.

Claudio, Luz. "Environmental Impact of the Clothing Industry." Environmental Health Perspectives 115.9 (2007): 448+.

Editors. Sustainable Innovation: Cultivating Growth and Prosperity through Collaboration. Organic Exchange, Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2008. 1-8.
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Environmental Policies and Citizen Contribution

Words: 1129 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12528627

Citizen Groups Shaping Environmental Policy

The environmental issues have of late been a subject of concern to many people and many organizations. Governments all over the world have been under persistent pressure to implement policies and also enact laws that are friendly to the environment or are intentionally formulated to safeguard the environment. The Kyoto protocol was a pace setter in many aspects concerning the environmental care and conservation, hence many bodies borrow from it and help in the implantation of the guidelines that were outlined in that particular meeting of the global bodies and economic giants of the world. These groups that act as custodians of the environment include the citizen groups of diverse measures and backgrounds.

The citizen groups in this aspect include the industry groups, trade associations and the not-for-profit organizations. These are the renowned groups that use their influences to shape the perspectives that the government has or forms about the environment and the measures that it takes to protect the environment. This step of influencing the government becomes possible for these citizen groups since they have the economic resources and the political influence as well as the backing of the large numbers of citizens that…… [Read More]

References

Desai Uday, (2002). Environmental Politics and Policy in Industrialized Countries. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=oa5ykgL3cjAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=how+citizen+groups+shape+environmental+policies&source=bl&ots=K0PXSyUbxC&sig=vCzf4TZzmmxojF_MgnqYV5w1S9U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wjA_Va-IHczVPL3IgLAG&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=how citizen groups shape environmental policies&f=false

Micehael E.K., (2002). Environmental Policy and Politics in the United States: Toward Environmental Sustainability? Retrieved April 26, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=oa5ykgL3cjAC&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=how+citizen+groups+shape+environmental+policies&source=bl&ots=K0PXSyUbxC&sig=vCzf4TZzmmxojF_MgnqYV5w1S9U&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wjA_Va-IHczVPL3IgLAG&ved=0CCkQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=how citizen groups shape environmental policies&f=false

The Sierra Club, (2015). Citizen Groups Compelling U.S. EPA to Protect Appalchia's Water. Retrieved April 26, 2015 from http://content.sierraclub.org/press-releases/2015/01/citizen-groups-compelling-us-epa-protect-appalachia-s-water
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Environmental Politics

Words: 1321 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63717949

Cassandra

Believing Cassandra: An Optimist Looks at a Pessimist's World is a book about the environment, its blunderings, and the sustainability of our world. This is a book for people trying to understand our intricate world and how it is failing and succeeding. I found the approach this book takes to the environment to be entertaining and worthwhile, for not just the information it provides, but the fresh perspective it offers on environmental issues. The author restores the reader's optimism in the world and explains how we can do even better for our future. The people who have predicted the end of the world, AtKisson says, "have been proven wrong, and have served to relegate all environmentally concerned comments to the fate of Cassandra's mutterings: They are ignored. And so they should be." (p. 12) He says, the earth is not a lost cause. And that's why he's written the book.

According to AtKisson, "the definition of sustainability is neither vague nor abstract; it is very specific and is tied to measurable criteria describing how resources are used and distributed. Some of what currently gets called 'sustainable development' is no such thing, but that does not mean the concept should…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AtKisson, Alan, Believing Cassandra: an Optimist Looks at a Pessimist's World, Chelsea Green, 1999.