Environmental Protection Essays (Examples)

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Environmental Justice & Executive Order

Words: 9648 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26252107

For example, unequal protection may result from land-use decisions that determine the location of residential amenities and disamenities. Unincorporated, poor, and communities of color often suffer a "triple" vulnerability of noxious facility siting." (ullard, 1998)

Finally, 'Social Equity' is that which "assesses the role of sociological factors (race, ethnicity, class, culture, life styles, political power, etc.) on environmental decision making. Poor people and people of color often work in the most dangerous jobs, live in the most polluted neighborhoods, and their children are exposed to all kinds of environmental toxins on the playgrounds and in their homes." (ullard, 1998)

V. EXAMINATION of CULTURAL RESOURCES

The National Preservation Institute states that the term 'cultural resource' is not defined in NEPA or even in any other Federal law and yet there are "several laws and executive orders that deal with particular kind of 'resources' that are 'cultural' in character." The following is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bullard, Robert D. (1998) Environmental Justice in the 21st Century. Environmental Justice Resource Center. Online available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/ejinthe21century.htm

O'Neil, Sandra George (2007) Superfund: Evaluating the Impact of Executive order 12898. Environmental Health Perspectives

• VOLUME 115 | NUMBER 7 | July 2007. Online available at http://www.ehponline.org/members/2007/9903/9903.pdf

Pellow, David Naguib (2004) Garbage Wars: The Struggle for Environmental Justice in Chicago. MIT Press 2004. Google Books Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=P_8g761DKFAC&pg=PA67&lpg=PA67&dq=Environmental+Justice+Movement,+Chicago,+Executive+Order+12898&source=bl&ots=ZC3pkDW6PB&sig=lwIdweolIL9q613JulaJ1RKvrCs&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=10&ct=result#PPA81,M1
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Environmental Policies Give an Example

Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279

The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…… [Read More]

References

Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm

Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.

Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
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Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37679198

Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical

The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.

Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf 

Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf

Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from  http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html 

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
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Environmental Crime the National Environmental

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29682431

..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)

The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)

An important part of this…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009.   http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund  

Clean Air Act. February 4, 2009. (http://www.epa.gov/air/caa/)

Clean Water Act (CWA). February 4, 2009. http://www.epa.gov/oecaagct/lcwa.html
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Environmental Justice Policies and Issues

Words: 5141 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35478705

Environmental Justice in the United States:

Policies, Beliefs & People/Places Involved

During the course of my college career, my interests and passions have changed, gradually evolving to an intensified mix of all that my Interdisciplinary Studies major encompasses. I began my college career seeking a Mass Communication degree; a course of study that focused primarily on community organization and mobilization. After feeling the harsh reality of advertising and public relations evils, I decided that Social Work was my calling. I felt a deep need to help others in situations where if they only had some assistance their lives could be changed for the better. However, after taking an Introduction to Environmental Issues course, I felt strongly that a change of studies was necessary. I began to formulate a study plan that included all of my previous interests and integrated a whole new section-policy and law. I was particularly interested in…… [Read More]

References

Adams, John H. (1994, spring) Message From the Director: Environmentalism and Justice at NRDC, Amicus J. (statement of the Executive Director of the Natural Resources Defense Council).

Alternatives for Community and Environment (ACE) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at  http://www.Ace-ej.org 

Commununities of a Better Environment (CBE). Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at  http://www.cbecal.org 

Community coalition for Environmental Justice (CCEJ) Accessed May 12, 2004. Available at  http://www.ccej.org , online.
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Environmental Risk Analysis Process

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86774057

Environmental isk Analysis Process

Environmental isk Analysis (EA) is "a process for estimating the likelihood or probability of an adverse outcome or event due to pressures or changes in environmental conditions resulting from human activities" (Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, 2000). EA should be a scientific process, when that is possible. "In general terms, risk depends on the following factors: How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), how much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and the inherent toxicity of the chemical" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). All of these factors help the assessor determine the "potential adverse effects that human activities have on the living organisms that make up ecosystems. The risk assessment process provides a way to develop, organize and present scientific information so that it is relevant to environmental decisions"…… [Read More]

References

Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.

Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website:  http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf 

Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks. (2000, July). Environmental risk assessment (ERA):

An approach for assessing and reporting environmental conditions. Retrieved January 7,
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Environmental Concerns in 1900 the

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3445105

Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. verybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to…… [Read More]

Europa (4 April 2007).

International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm

European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
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Environmental Case Study Ten Years Ago the

Words: 455 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64953055

Environmental Case Study

Ten years ago, the United States Environmental Protection Agency established the Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control equirements. The rule accomplished a comprehensive single national program to control emissions of heavy-duty vehicles by regulating the both the vehicles and the diesel fuel used in the engines. The aim was to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX ) by 2.6 million, non-methane hydrocarbons by 115,000 tons, and particulate matter by 109,000 tons by 2030. By 2006, most areas of the country sold only ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. By 2007, the only new diesel engines sold required ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. One looming problem was that diesel engines are durable and have a long product life -- the change to cleaner engines would take until about 2020.

Problem Statement

Diesel fuel is the cause of one-third of the nitrogen oxide (NOX) and one-fourth of the particulate matter…… [Read More]

References

Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control Requirements, EPA420-F-00-057. (2000, December). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Radiation Office of Transportation and Air Quality Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/otaq/highway-diesel/regs/f00057.pdf

Puget Sound Clean Air Agency Diesel Solutions Case Study, Pollution Prevention (P2). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/p2/

pubs/casestudies/pugetsound.htm
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Environmental Law Swancc vs US Army Corps of Engineers

Words: 2968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 567474

Environmental Case Study

Case Title:

SWANCC v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Parties:

The Petitioner is the Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) and the respondent is the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

Facts:

The petitioner, SWANCC, is a consortium of 23 suburban Chicago cities and villages that united in an effort to locate and develop a disposal site for baled nonhazardous solid waste. SWANCC had purchased a 533-acre parcel, located in Northern Illinois that straddled the Cook County and Kane County line. The site had been abandoned by a sand and gravel mining operation in about 1960 and had given away to a successional stage forest with its remnant excavation trenches evolving into a scattering of permanent and seasonal ponds of various sizes and depths.

SWANCC was required by law to file for various permits from Cook County…… [Read More]

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Environmental Security the Environment and

Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46094940

The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while…… [Read More]

Sources

Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.

Dannreuther, Roland (ed.) European Union Foreign and Security Policy (Routledge, 2004) Chapter 11

Deudney, D. The case against linking environmental degradation and national security, Millennium, 19:3 (1990), pp.461-76.
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Environmental Engineering -- Contrails Are

Words: 1144 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23080508

Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.

The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley esearch Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)

The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment…… [Read More]

References

Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.

Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.

Bollier, S. 2007, "High Flyers and the Grounding of Equality," Multinational Monitor, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 31.

Harris, P., Kuper, S. & Lebel, C. 2010, Sandals Optional: Stories - Environment - Insight; Not all heroes of the green revolution fit the left-liberal activist stereotype.., the Financial Times Limited.
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Environmental Racism the Color of

Words: 2243 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52802873

Poor peoples and poor nations in the world accept the false and harmful notion that the lack of development meant risky, low-paying jobs and pollution. The economically vulnerable and poor communities, poor states, poor nations and poor regions have succumbed to the notion. The movement demanded that no community, nation, whether rich or poor, whatever the color should be made dumping grounds for these deadly wastes. The movement also alerted the governments of these nations and regions to set up their own measures to protect the health and environment of their own people and areas (ullard).

Citizen Action and Litigation

Many of the initial activities of the environmental justice movement were in the form of citizen action and litigation (Crossman 2005). Among them were the EPA's disparate-impact regulations, pursuant to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. These prohibited recipients of federal funding from engaging in racially discriminatory…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bullard, R.D. (2007). Dismantling toxic racism. 4 pages. The New Crisis: Crisis Publishing Company, Inc.

2003). Environment justice for all. 6 pages

Bullard, R. D and Glenn S. Johnson (2000). Environmental justice. 20 pages. Journal of Social Issues: Plenum Publishing Corporation

Crossman, B. (2005). Resurrecting environmental justice. 20 pages. Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review: Boston College School of Law
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Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law

Words: 3051 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96085136

Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation

With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.

There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their…… [Read More]

References

Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up

Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1998). Final Guidance for Incorporating

Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/compliance/ej/resources/policy/ej_guidance_nepa_epa0498.pdf.
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Environmental Policies and Problems in

Words: 2855 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65016873

" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:

China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;

Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)

Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2

Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html 

Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)

Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
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Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal What Is Environmental

Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51447096

Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal

What is Environmental Stewardship?

What are the problems?

Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?

A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness

Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.

This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important…… [Read More]

References

Ayres, J.R. (2012). Air pollution and health. London: Imperial College Press.

Berry, T. (2009). The Christian Future and the Fate of the Earth. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

Boff, L. (2009). Cry of the Earth, Cry of the Poor. Maryknoll: Orbis.

Bourne, J. (2009). Understanding Leicestershire & Rutland Place-Names, Heart. Wymeswold: Leicestershire.
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Environmental Regulations in Public Transit

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60710599

Environmental egulations in Public Transit

The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…… [Read More]

References

Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005

Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005

Clean Air Act. Retrieved from  http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act  Accessed on 28 May 2005

Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from  http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm  Accessed on 28 May 2005
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Environmental Conditions Impacting Organizational Forecasting

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71529883

Insofar as many
of the nations now impacted so drastically by the food scarcity crisis are
also those developing theatres in which globalizing companies have sought
to operate, it is becoming more difficult all the time to find an
appropriate context for operation. Thus, organizations pursuing offshore
production interests, outsourced service laborers and overseas contract
management must immerse themselves in many settings where poverty,
instability and widespread suffering are all increasingly characteristic.
Forecasting organizational performance and opportunity under these terms is
marked by challenge.
So too is this case in navigating the uncertainties of legal policy
concerning environmental conditions. Under the Bush Administration, we
have experienced a significant decline in standard protections for both
dumping and emissions, due to the president's composition of ironically
entitled bills such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean ater Act. Both of
these, in spite of their titles, were marked for their historical…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at
http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/lessons-from-biofuels-10-768.html

Reuters. (2008). States sue EPA over ozone pollution standards. Thomson
Reuters. Online at
http://www.reuters.com/article/environmentNews/idUSN2843108220080528
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Environmental Management As Seen From Env Psychology

Words: 1388 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17082645

Environmental management: as seen from Env. Psychology

The main idea is a description of environmental psychology (EP) and how it is practiced.

EP involves principles of Environmental Management (EM), i.e. The best way to regulate / run / modify / look after a certain environment so that it achieves its maximum benefit. The environment can be both in a rural / urban / green setting (such as a park), or in an organization (a cultural environment, such as a business or for the government).

EPs try to incorporate principles of sustainability into their work so that the work that they do is beneficial not only for the present generation and for the clients, but for future generations too. In order to ensure sustainability and integrity, they have to follow certain rules and standards (both national and international) that are outlined in this essay.

Environmental Management (EM): Definition

EM is the…… [Read More]

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Environmental Planning Can Involve a

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72169269

Meantime the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first law establishing "the broad national framework for protecting the environment"; any proposal for an airport, or military complex, highway, parkland and other federal activities are proposed (www.purdue.edu/environsoft/grants/src/laws.htm#NEPA).

An example of the government taking steps to address environmental planning is found in Executive Order 13148, signed into law April 21, 2000. The president ordered that environmental management strategies shall be developed by "each [federal] agency" to ensure that there is compliance to all federal environmental laws and that leadership programs, policies and procedures are established and followed (http://ceq.hss.doe.gov). Another example is the final rule issued through CERDLA/EPCRA regarding an "exemption for air releases of hazardous substances from animal waste at farms" (EPA / Office of Emergency Management). The exemption is that they don't have to report the release of hazardous substances from animal waste to the air under CERCLA section 103…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). CERCLZ/EPCRA Administrative Reporting

Exemption for Air Releases of Hazardous Substances from Animal Waste at Farms.

Retrieved April 2, 2011, from http://www.epa.gov/emergencies.

Executive Order (2000). Greening the Government Through Leadership in Environmental
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Environmental Fraud

Words: 860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8839582

Enviromental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation

Environmental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation

ecently, issues related to global warming have been center-stage of various political debates. Debate has been centered to examine human influences to environment malfunctioning. Poorly treated environment poses a significant danger to the local community and the atmosphere. For this reason, the law has been configured to ensure that the environment is satisfactorily protected. Besides, states have been pursuing local policies, which are parallel to federal laws in relation to environmental protection. This report will assess the Virginia Beach city pollution. The report identifies Care A lot as a polluter and some of the EPA's regulations tackling the issue. The report will also identify two primary laws responding to Virginia Beach's environmental concerns.

Virginia Pollution

In Virginia Beach, there has been evidence on the presence of fecal contamination, which is realized in the city's brackish waters. This contamination is a…… [Read More]

References

Belden R.S. (2001). Clean Air Act. Washington: American Bar Association

Byrnes A.E. (2001). Saving the Bay: People Working for the Future of the Chesapeake. Upper Saddle River, NJ: JHU Press

Swarup, R. Mishra, S.N. & Jauhari V.P. (1992). Environmental Pollution Ecology. Washington: Mittal Publications

U.S. Government Printing Office, (2009). Code of Federal Regulations, Volume 40, Issues 266-299. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office
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Environmental Cues Shape Behavior Most People Spend

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7347413

Environmental Cues Shape Behavior

Most people spend their daily lives completing tasks, which involve waiting or queuing on a line. With this situation of waiting like at ATMs, others avoid, postpone, or even abandon their endeavors. Other people endure the wait even though they feel frustrated or dissatisfied by the experience (Horowitz, 2007).

It is evident that irrelevant environmental cues like queue barriers used in airports, banks of ATMs serve as barriers that split people waiting in two categories. The first category comprises those who are within the system and the other category involves those outside the system. In-system people show increased persistence in task completion, action initiation and overall optimism (Ahmad & Prasad, 2012).

Situational cues have a substantial impact on behavior. For instance, wine shops that play French music have demonstrated an increase in the purchase of French wine. This suggests that cues not directly connected to a…… [Read More]

References

Ahmad, P. & Prasad, M. (2012). Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change. New York: Springer New York.

Cormier, L., Nurius, P., & Osborn, C.J. (2009). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive behavioral interventions. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.

Horowitz, F.D. (2007). Exploring developmental theories: Toward a structural/behavioral model of development. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.
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Environmental Systems in the Past

Words: 12463 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 751326

Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).

In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such…… [Read More]

References

Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.

McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.

Recardo, R. & Jolly, J. (1999). Organizational culture and teams. SAM Advanced Management

Journal, 62(2), 4-5.
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Environmental Safety in Contemporary Society

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58330375

In fact, the changes in technology and complexities of modern life enhance this idea. This is nowhere as apparent as it is in the idea of environmental safety and health, for actions taken in one part of the world do have a profound effect on other parts of the world. Even in modern, developed nations like the United States, we find mercury from Chinese factories, dust from Saharan Africa and smog from Mexico -- accounting for about 30% of the nation's ozone problems (Watson, 2005).

The Gaia Hypothesis, in fact, is a theory that the entire planet is large and complex living organism. This proposes that everything on earth, organic and inorganic, are completely integrated into a single and self-regulating complex system that maintains the conditions for life on earth (Gribbin, 2009). The complexity is so vast that we may not be able to completely understand it at present. For…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Our Nation's Air: Status and Trends Through 2010. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/airtrends/2011 / report/fullreport.pdf

Gribbin, J. (2009). James Lovelock: In Search of Gaia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Watson, T. (March 14, 2005). Air Pollution from Other Countries Drifts into USA. USA Today -- the Nation. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-03-13-pollution-_x.htm

World Health Organization. (2006). Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/preventingdisease/en/
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Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude

Words: 9344 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22808838

Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage

Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:

http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.

AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:

http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm. August 1, 2004.
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Environmental Issues on Eco Product Purchase Case of German Retailers

Words: 2383 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58432515

Environmental Concern on Green Products Purchase: Empirical Study of German etailers

Evaluation of results

The analysis exhibits various results about the perceptions of German consumers with reference to green products. The findings have been able to achieve the research objectives and test the hypothesis based on the demographic characteristics of the sample population. The results reveal that all the sample population is well educated with 84% of participants have completed the graduate programs. Thus, the participant has advanced knowledge of health benefits of green products. They also have knowledge about the impact of conventional products on the environment, which influences consumer buying decisions of sustainable products. Larsson, & Arif Khan (2011) argue that green awareness motivates consumer's choice of pursuing the green criteria, and consumer's choice of product is also influenced by earlier purchases experience. When informed consumers decide to purchase sustainable products, they search for both primary and secondary…… [Read More]

Reference

Andrea K. M. (2016). Buying organic -- decision-making heuristics and empirical evidence from Germany, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 33(7): 552 -- 561.

Delafrooz, N. Taleghani, M. & Nouri, B. (2013). Effect of green marketing on consumer purchase behaviour. QScience Connect:5.

Larsson, S. & Arif Khan, M. (2011). A Study of Factors That Influence Green Purchase. Umea School of Business and Economics.

Moser, A.K. (2016). Consumers' purchasing decisions regarding environmentally friendly products: An empirical analysis of German consumers. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services. 31: 389 -- 397.
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Environmental History

Words: 1808 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30080459

Just this past week, the Environmental Protection Agency released a report on the effects and reality of global warming. In the investigative commission that yielded the findings, an admission was submitted that there is no way to fully determine how much of the planet's climatic change has been due to natural variation in weather and temperature patterns. However, the report did assert the certainty that global warming is in large part due to human behavior and environmental practices. Particularly, global warming is partially the result of extensive burning of fossil fuels such as oil, thus placing a great deal of blame on an international practice upon which economies and political systems have operated for a great many years. And it has been in the last two decades that these proclivities have begun to catch up with environmental conditions and, subsequently, various ecosystems and the broader social structures that are dependent…… [Read More]

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Environmental Case Law

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72189317

BLm - Bureau of Land Management

Environmental Impact Statement

FLPMA - Federal Land Policy Management Act

NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act

FA - eligious Freedom estoration Act

Environmental Justice Case of South Fork Band Council of Western Shoshone of Nevada v. U.S. Department of Interior

Detailed background history of the case

The subject refers to a prospective gold-mining project in the Western Shoshone sacred site of the Cortez Mining District, situated in Lander County, Nevada, near Mt. Tenabo. With gold mining an important industry since 1950, in Lander County, and the identification of two new gold sources near the existing Cortez Mine, Cortez proposed an elaborate 850 acre additional mining facility, which would involve Cyanide heap-leach processing and de-watering of ground water to prevent the mines from getting flooded. The total additional acreage concerned were 6,571 acres of public land and 221 acres belonging to Cortez (FindLaw, n.d.).

When…… [Read More]

References

FindLaw, (n.d.), Law Article: United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, Retrieved from http://caselaw. findlaw.com/us-9th-circuit/1498619.html.

Akilah, J.K. (2011), Indigenous Consent: Rethinking U.S. Consultation Policies In Light Of the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, VOL. 53, 2011, Retrieved from www.arizonalawreview.org/pdf/53-4/53arizlrev1301.pdf.
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Environmental Concerns in New Jersey

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31811686

Disposing of Waste Properly

The superfund site that is the subject of this assignment is Chemsol, Incorporated. This site is located in the town of Piscataway, New Jersey. It is on a "40-acre tract of land" (EPA, 2015). Moreover, it is in the midst of an inhabited, residential region. This region includes both single family homes and apartments. The site was active throughout the 1950's until approximately the midway point of the 1960s. Other significant points of interest about the site itself are its proximity to large numbers of people. The site is near one of New Jersey's Interstate highways, which is traversed by myriad people all times of day and night. Additionally, there is a railroad that borders the site, which has also accommodated copious amounts of traffic both during the time the site was operable and in the many decades since it became inoperable. It is also worth…… [Read More]

References

Environmental Protection Agency. (2015). EPA Superfund Program: Chemsol, Inc., Piscataway, NJ. http://cumulis.epa.gov / Retrieved from http://cumulis.epa.gov/supercpad/cursites/csitinfo.cfm?id=0200607

Environmental Protection Agency. (2015). Site information for Chemsol, Inc. http://cumulis.epa.gov / http://cumulis.epa.gov/supercpad/cursites/dsp_ssppSiteData1.cfm?id=0200607#Status
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Protection of the Environment

Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24120195

Federal Agencies and Climate Change

Climate change is today affecting communities and environment across the world. In response, the federal governments have taken action to help people to adapt to current and potential risks through programs and policies. The federal agencies are taking leadership roles in enabling the state and communities in their adaptation planning and projects. In many countries, such as the United States, policy is set by the President, while the congress has the role to set laws. The Supreme Court on the other hand, is responsible for resolving the conflict of policy (ussell, 2013). This paper will therefore research on the federal agencies and cabinet departments which are important in determining causes of climate change as well as, identifying the ones that formulate and execute policies in response to assertions of climate change.

There are a number of federal agencies and cabinet departments which are responsible in…… [Read More]

References

Russell, P.R. (2013). Federal Agencies Tackle Climate Change. Roll Call. Retrieved June 11, 2014, from http://www.rollcall.com/news/federal_agencies_tackle_climate_change-223053-1.html

Stephenson, J.B. (2006). Climate change federal agencies should do more to make funding reports clearer and encourage progress on two voluntary programs: testimony before the Subcommittee on Energy and Resources, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Accountability Office.

Wellman, L. (2014). Climate Change Policy Analysis. EInternational Relations. Retrieved June 11, 2014, from  http://www.e-ir.info/2012/10/20/climate-change-policy-analysis/
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Does the United States Government Have Environmental Ethics

Words: 2987 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27254600

Environmental Ethics

US Government and Environmental Ethics

The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…… [Read More]

Work Cited

American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp.

The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D..

The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/.

BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from,  http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
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A Concise Analysis of Environmental Industrial Management

Words: 2089 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99308057

Environmental Industrial Management

Corporate social responsibility (CS) has been a hot topic in business circles for decades. The topic has gained even greater attention in the last few decades in the wake of increased attention to the impact of business activities on the environment, economy, and the society (Flammer, 2013; Schrempf-Stirling, Palazzo and Phillips, 2016). This paper discusses the principles of CS; the integration of social, economic, and environmental aspects in the organisational agenda; the importance of transparency, accountability, and stakeholder engagement in CS; and the notions of materiality in CS and sustainability reporting as outlined in the Global eporting Initiative (GI) G4 guidelines.

Whereas there is no commonly agreed definition, CS generally refers to the activities business organisations deliberately undertake with the aim of promoting social, economic, and environmental sustainability (Crowther and Aras, 2008). It denotes the pursuit of economic objectives while at the same time consciously pursuing social…… [Read More]

References

Barclays, 2013. Citizenship Report 2013. [online] Available at: [Accessed 9 December 2016]

Crowther, D. and Aras, G., 2008. Corporate social responsibility. New York: Ventus Publishing.

Flammer, C., 2013. Does corporate social responsibility lead to superior performance? A regression discontinuity approach. Management Science, 61(11), 1-27.

Foote, J., Gaffney, N. and Evans, J., 2010. Corporate social responsibility: implications for performance excellence. Total Quality Management, 21(8), 799-812.
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Protection Against Abuse

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17376208

Protection against Abuse (deterrence)

Deterrence and the legal system

The notion of deterrence plays a significant role in the present system. In most cases, laws are put in place to ensure those who break the laws do not escape unpunished but also to discourage potential offenders from committing the offenses. This is the reason the state has opted to pass laws that ensure citizens sort their trash to enable recycling of the wastes to be much easier. The objective of the regulation is not to punish offenders, but to prevent them from disposing recyclable material inappropriately.

Sorting out of waste disposal

Different households produce different wastes, and this becomes a problem to dispose the wastes especially in urban areas. In instances that piles of garbage are left unattended in residential areas and offices, they become a nuisance. This is because of their biological as well as chemical decomposition that produce…… [Read More]

References

Paul, J.A.J., & Daniel, T., (January 01, 2008). Standardization of Sampling Method for Physical

Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 5, 1, 95-98.

Wilcox, C. (2009). Earth-friendly waste management. Minneapolis, Minn: Lerner.
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Environmental Case Study Solving a Puzzle

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21639584

Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)

Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.

Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:

Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.

Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
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Environmental Hazards Open Dumps an

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77953367

Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.

Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (epa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top…… [Read More]

References

Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenkerala.net%2Fpdf%2Fkey_issue_on_open_dumps.pdf&ei=Vy9uUcyuBamy7AbDo4GYBQ&usg=AFQjCNFUTQkrQnIxwkIgJOzwJtptbNSfGw&bvm=bv.45368065,d.ZWU

Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.republicservices.com/Corporate/Planet/SustainabilityProjects/San-Antonio-Atlanta.aspx

Skye, J. (2011).Environmental problems: Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from  http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Environmental_Problems:_Landfills
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Environmental Ethical Issues in the

Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86819609

On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).

Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile…… [Read More]

References

Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.

Cambridge, UK: Polity.

Halbert T. And Ingulli E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment. Cincinnati:

West Legal Studies.
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Environmental Law the Offshore Oil and Gas

Words: 3773 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54004240

Environmental Law

The offshore oil and gas industry is complex in its rules and regulations

There are many different regulatory bodies that have some control over the industry, and they do not always work together as well as they should. This can become a serious issue for companies that are interested in oil and gas production, because they can have trouble keeping all the regulations straight. With UNCLOS, MAPOL, OSPA, and the EU all offering regulations and requirements, it becomes very difficult for companies who work with oil and gas to be clear on the requirements

Unfortunately, that can lead them to make mistakes, to misunderstand rules, and to ignore or avoid other regulations because they seem too complicated or they are not sure if they are even applicable. That can get a company into serious trouble, so it is very important that these companies focus in on how to…… [Read More]

References

Books

Barnard, Catherine (2007). The Substantive Law of the EU: The four freedoms (2 ed.). Oxford University Press.

Benson, D. And Adelle, C. (2012) European Union environmental policy after the Lisbon Treaty, In: Jordan, A.J. And Adelle, C. (eds) Environmental Policy in the European Union: Contexts, Actors and Policy Dynamics (3e). Earthscan: London and Sterling, VA.

Bindi, Federiga, ed. The Foreign Policy of the European Union: Assessing Europe's Role in the World (Brookings Institution Press; 2010). The E.U.'s foreign-policy mechanisms and foreign relations, including with its neighbours.
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Environmental Management Read Instructions File 1 Files

Words: 2172 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22459058

Environmental Management ead Instructions File #1 Files Attached

Environmental management

The Water Permitting Board

Natural gas represents an important resource within the United States and more efforts are made to create energy sustainability using the resource. Still, the creation of a Schuylkill Energy LLC power plant and gas drilling facility in Mock County is not hereby a recommended course of action.

The arguments in support of this recommendation are drawn from the specialized literature; are all objective and based on scientific facts. The dangers to gas drilling are far too significant for the population and the environment and they are real, even if only visible in the long-term.

Another problem associated with gas processing and drilling is represented by the lack of contingency plans and alternative solutions in case energy situations materialize. In such a setting then, it is recommended to focus on solar and wind energy generation, and to…… [Read More]

References:

Calborn, T., Kwiatkowski, C., Schultz, K., Bachran, M., 2011, Natural gas operations from a public perspective, The International Journal of Human and Risk Assessment

Finkel, M., Law, A., 2011, The rush to drill for natural gas: a public health cautionary tale, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 101, No. 5

Inhofe, J.M., Fannon, F., 2005, Energy and the environment: the future of natural gas in America, Energy Law Journal, Vol. 26, No. 2

Osborn, S.G., Vengosh, A., Warner, N.R., Jackson, R.B., 2011, Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing, PNAS, Vol. 18, No. 20
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Environmental Stewardship

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23075175

Environmental Stewardship can be simply described as "the comprehensive understanding and effective management of critical environmental risks and opportunities related to climate change, emissions, waste management, resource consumption, water conservation, biodiversity protection and ecosystem services" ("Environmental Stewardship," 2010). Thus, environmental stewardship is actually the responsibility for environmental superiority shared by everyone by whose actions the environment is affected. This sense of responsibility is that rare value that is mirrored through the choices that individuals, businesses, societies, and government make to shape the environment, society, and economy (Johnson, 2005). Environmental stewardship can also be regarded as a behavior that is exhibited by means of incessant upgrading and enhancement of environmental performance along with a dedication to "efficient use of natural resources, protection of ecosystems, and, where applicable, ensuring a baseline of compliance with environmental requirements" (Johnson, 2005 ).

In the contemporary society, environmental stewardship is on the increase. Nowadays, a majority…… [Read More]

References

Environmental Stewardship Strategy: Overview and Resource for Corporate Leaders. (2010). Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/Environmental_Stewardship_Strategy.pdf

Johnson, S.L. (2005). Everyday Choices: Opportunities for Environmental Stewardship. Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/osem/pdf/rpt2admin.pdf

Manning, D.J. (2004). Benefits of Environmental Stewardship. Review of Business, 25 (2), Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.questia.com/read/1G1-119108637/benefits-of-environmental-stewardship
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Environmental Policy Specifically Eis Statement

Words: 4542 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 458151

" (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

The draft environmental impact statement elicited over 1.1 million responses which the Forest Service identified and summarized into six major issue categories including:

1) Public access;

2) Identification of other unroaded areas;

3) Exemptions and exceptions

4) Environmental effects;

5) Local involvement; and 6) the effect on communities with strong natural resource affiliations. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

These issues served to guide the process through:

1) Determining the scope of the proposal;

2) Development of a range of alternatives;

3) Direction of the analysis of potential environmental, social and economic effects;

3) Identification of possible mitigation and 4) Ensuring that the agency is operating within legal authorities. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

Two sets of alternatives were developed:

Four alternatives, including a No Action Alterative that cover the range of possible…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation (2000) United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Washington Office November 2000. Final Environmental Impact Statement Summary. Online available at http://roadless.fs.fed.us/documents/feis/documents/summarynb.pdf

NEPA Documentation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)(2000) Project Development. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Online available at http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/projdev/docueis.asp
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Environmental Psychology

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29994840

Environmental Psychology

This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.

Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future

Altman, I., Christensen, K. (Eds.). 'Environment and Behavior Studies: Emergence of Intellectual Traditions,' pp. 169 -- 185
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Environmental Economics

Words: 2913 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16139129

Environmental Economics

Economics and Nature Conservation

From early childhood, one is taught of the importance of the surrounding environment in all human activities. Forests for instance are crucial sources of fresh air and clean water, as well as raw commodities that support life. Nevertheless, mankind continues to trash the woodlands, and as such jeopardize the future of the next generations. In a context in which next to 5 million hectares of forests are lost on annual basis due to deforestations and fires, causing a multitude of environmental, economic and social effects, the global authorities must intervene to better regulate the sector.

The modern day individual is characterized by a myriad of features, such as the reduced time to cook and the obvious tendency to either eat out, either grab some fast food. Other elements refer to the increased pace of technological development, with which he has to keep up; the…… [Read More]

References:

Bratkovich, S., Gallion, J., Leatherberry, E., Hoover, W., Reading, W., Durham, G., Forests of Indiana: Their Economic Importance, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,  http://na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/forestprod/indiana_forest04/forests_of_IN04.htm  last accessed on November 24, 2009

Burgees, P., Cheek, K.A., Policy Review

Johnson, K.N., Holthausen, R., Shannon, M.A., Sedel, J., Case Study

Nelson, J.E., Management Review
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Environmental Crime Economic Globalization and

Words: 2261 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2165518

A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.

Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Gaudet, Mary. "Without a Trace: Controversy Buzzes around the Mysterious Disappearance of Bees on Prince Edward Island." Alternatives Journal July 2005: 32.

"Give a Weed an Inch, it'll Take a Smile." The Register-Guard (Eugene, or) 12 June 2005: c1.
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Environmental Biology

Words: 2097 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88934326

Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean

The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adler, T. (1996, Feb.). The expiration of respiration; oxygen - the missing ingredient in many bodies of water. Science News, (149) 88.

Boukhari, S. (1998, July-Aug.). Marine blues. UNESCO Courier, (2) 47.

Conformer." Glossary of Marine Biology. Retrieved November, 7, 2002 from:  http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/glossary.c.html .

Energy Intelligence Group. (2002, May). Oil spills play small role in ocean pollution.
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Environmental Aquatic Buffers Maintaining Environmental

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62161185

Several important factors all contribute to better efficiency and cleaner water areas. For example, shallow grades in the buffer zones are ore effective than steeper grades of 5 degrees or more. Also, compacted soil proves to be less efficient than loose soil in the absorption of polluted storm and urban water runoff, (Stormwatercenter.net). Strategic placement of buffer zones is also a major factor in the effectiveness of the buffer areas. Mature forests and vegetated areas are ideal in choosing buffer zone sites. It has been shown through several studies that the more root systems in the ground of buffer zones, means the more pollutants absorbed from the ground water.

However, the three buffer zones working in harmony with environmental factors prove to be more efficient, and are a great asset in keeping local environments less polluted from residential and urban developments. Effective implementations of these strategic buffer zones can help…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Center of Watershed Protection. (). Article #41. Watershed Protection Techniques. http://www.cwp.org/Downloads/ELC_PWP41.pdf

Mulligan, Gerard E. (Feb 2007). "Aquatic Buffers." Westchester County Soil and Water Conservation District. http://www.westchestergov.com/planning/environmental/Reports/WaterResourceBufferBroch.pdf

Stormwatercenter.net. (2007) "Aquatic Buffers Fact Sheet."  http://www.stormwatercenter.net/Assorted%20Fact%20Sheets/Tool3_Buffers/BufferZones.htm
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Environmental Assessment Is an Integral

Words: 4249 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9743736

Strategic assessment

2. Project Preparation

3. Project Implementation'

4. Facility Operation

These four assessment tools are to be standalone tools that are applied at specific stages of the Gipsy Lane brickworks road extension and the industrial development project life cycle. The assessment with one of the tools has no link or dependence with earlier stages. The tools of assessment are to be designed in a manner that they are applicable throughout the planning stage up to the point of making decisions in the project life cycle (See figure 1.).

The process of protocol assessment (Source: IHA, 2010).

The tools are to undergo repeated application so as to help in the continuous improvement of the process.

Strategic Assessments section

This section is important for the assessment of the strategic basis of the Gipsy Lane brickworks project. This part is most applicable at the stage when the Gipsy Lane brickworks is still…… [Read More]

References

Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2003). Research methods for sport studies. New York: Routledge.

Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process. Mahwah,

NJ:

Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineers of

Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84085324



hough the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

he role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can…… [Read More]

Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal of environmental engineering is to create and uphold these environmental standards it can be seen that environmental engineers necessarily hold up their ethical duties when they perform their jobs successfully. There may, of course, be certain dilemmas that arise in the course of environmental engineer's cuties; pressures to downplay environmental effects from corporate interests, or to divert problems and cut corners, could be very high in this type of work. Truly adhering to the engineering principles of the work however, also mandates adherence to the roper ethical behaviors and standards of the job.

Of all of the areas of engineering, environmental engineering is one of the most rapidly expanding and diversifying fields. There is a great amount of good that can be done in the field, as well as a great deal of interesting and innovating work that would be personally and intellectually fulfilling for the right candidate. From both a personal and a global perspective, then, environmental engineering is an exciting and increasingly relevant new field.
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Water Legislation Origins of Environmental

Words: 11427 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87395038

The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.

Legislation Arising From Public Anger

At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…… [Read More]

Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."

"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.

"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."

Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.

First Nations
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United States Military and Environmental Law

Words: 6165 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54567760

U.S. MILITAY AND ENVIONMENTAL LAW

Military & Environmental Law

Environmental Analysis and Impact of the United States Military

Military activity affects the environment in direct and indirect ways. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of military training and readiness activities and the impact of armed conflict and war on the environment. Most environmental impact that results from armed conflict and war occurs in foreign and not domestic environments. However, military training and readiness activities have the potential to impact both domestic and international environments. Different standards apply to the regulation of military activity based on the geographic, national, and political arenas in which military activity occurs. Another dimension that affects the environmental impact standards to which the military is held accountable is based on the perceptions and attitudes of lawmakers, citizens, and warriors toward peacetime and readiness operations vs. armed conflict and war. This paper will…… [Read More]

References

Bearden, D.M. (2007). Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: Background and Issues for Congress, CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22149.pdf

Boelaert-Suominen, S. AJ. (XXXX) The Effect of Marine Safety and Pollution Conventions During International Armed Conflict, International Environmental Law and Naval War, Defense Institute of International Legal Studies. Retrieved http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/navy/np15_envir_law_naval.pdf

Currents Magazine, (2010, Fall). Navy Air Systems Command, Environmental Issues. Retrieved http://www.enviro-navair.navy.mil/index.cfm?pg=currents

Customary International Humanitarian Law. (2010). ICRC, Customary IHL Database, International Committee of the Red Cross, Retrieved http://www.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v1_rul_rule44
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Multilateral Environmental Agreements and Global Economy

Words: 1894 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39508296

Multilateral Environmnetal Agreements

Multilateral Environmental Agreements & Global Economy

Annotated ibliography

This document addresses an important issue of inconsistency between World Trade Organization's measures and multilateral environmental agreements. The document presents an argument on how the inconsistency between the MEAs and WTO can be mitigated and how clear trade facilitating policies which give equal consideration to environmental protection measures can be promulgated and maintained globally.

The document mainly presents an argument regarding a strong need of development of an organization which can have a strong control over environmental issues and which can actually act as a unilateral platform for hundreds of MEAs can mitigate the harsh impacts of WTO's measures. For this purpose, a foundation of World Environmental Organization will be exactly what is needed (and North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC) can actually act as its prototype). Furthermore, an elaboration of organizational structure and its functions is also…… [Read More]

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European and International Environmental Laws Research Essay

Words: 3095 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87773564

European and International Environmental Laws esearch Essay

How do practices of consumption, disposal, and disassembly of everyday electronic objects, such as personal computers and mobile phone effect on sustainable development? Organic chemicals and heavy metals are often found near plants where electronics are manufactured, as well as in garbage dumps where the electronics are disposed of later. This can be evidenced by the presence of lead, cadmium, mercury etc. which are the basic components used for and in electronic products. Other organic chemicals, like flame- retardants, and lead power, have also been discovered near these kinds of cites. Many theorize that these chemicals may even be stored in the human body, and may present as the source of heavy neurological damage, especially in children. Clearly, e-waste impacts on societies in Europe, South Asia and America in several ways -- socially, economically, and biologically. This in turn impacts sustainable development.

esearch…… [Read More]

Resources Law, 1994

3. Focus on European environmental law, L Kramer, 1997, biblio.ugent.be, Ghent University

4. Manual of European environmental law, A Kiss, 1993, cabdirect.org

5. EU environmental law: challenges, change and decision-making, M Lee, 2005, Hart Publishing, Oxford, U.K.

6. Towards effective environmental regulation: innovative approaches in implementing and enforcing European environmental law and policy, New York University. School of Law - 2001 - centers.law.nyu.edu
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Corporate Environmental Responsibility in the

Words: 2346 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73453955



Green alternatives for corporations outside don't just stop at the roof though. Natural landscaping can be used to reduce irrigation requirements. Roof drainage can be reclaimed, along with storm runoff, to be used in irrigation.

For corporations that utilize refrigeration systems, these should be retrofitted to reduce or eliminate chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons, as part of corporate environmental responsibility. In their place, natural systems, utilizing ammonia or carbon dioxide, produce no ozone depleting effect nor have components associated with global warming. Central refrigeration systems should be designed for ease of disassembly, so that individual components can be replaced, as needed, instead of the entire piece of equipment needing to be replaced ("Greener'").

Both interior and exterior lighting are excellent areas to target for environmentally and ecologically ethical alternatives, for corporations in the 21st century. Light fixtures can be replaced with high-efficiency units. or, organizations may with to simply install high-efficiency bulbs…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Greener' Profits." Refrigerated Transporter 44(1) Jun 2008: p. 29-30.

Jeffers. a. "Development of a Framework to Measure the Financial & Managerial Implications of Green Accounting in U.S Corporations." Review of Business Research 8(6) 2008.: p. 72-84.

Mazurkiewicz, P. Corporate Environmental Responsibility: Is a Common CSR Framework Possible? No date. World Bank. April 13, 2009 .
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International Environmental Law International Law

Words: 850 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93300879

The recognition of the need for a multilateral agreement with the world's major whaling nations on board was landmark, and paved the way for other agreements in future, such as the near-global ban on the ivory trade.

Another significant conference was the so-called "Earth Summit," in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. This summit resulted was the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and produced non-binding commitments by signatory nations to reduce their output of greenhouse gases.

An ongoing conference is the meeting of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas, which is currently meeting in Brazil and will consider the fate of the Atlantic bluefin tuna, whose stocks have become severely depleted in manner similar to the experience of the whaling industry in the early part of the 20th century.

Many agreements have entered into international environmental law. A binding agreement that flowed from the UNFCCC was…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

No author. (2008). Codification and Progressive Development of International Law. United Nations. Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://www.un.org/law/lindex.htm

Convention on Biological Diversity website, various pages. (2009). Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://www.cbd.int

Currie, D. (2007). Whales, sustainability, and international environmental governance. Review of European Community and International Environmental Law. Vol. 16,1,45-57.

International Whaling Commission website, various pages. (2009). Retrieved November 15, 2009 from http://www.iwcoffice.org/
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Multilateral Environmental Agreements Multi-Lateral Environmental

Words: 952 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18735187

When this happens, there is a possibility that these countries could lose their competitive edge because of the new guidelines. (Markowitz, 2011, pp. 139-151) (Jebberger, 2011)

Moreover, there are concerns about sovereignty and the scope of authority for international organizations (when operating inside the borders of a specific nation state). At the heart of these challenges, is if they have the power to enforce these provisions (when a particular individual or entity could go to the courts and negate these decisions). Once this happens, is the point that there will be areas of contention as to who is the final authority in these kinds of matters. (Markowitz, 2011, pp. 139 -- 151) (Jebberger, 2011)

A good example of this can be seen with observations from Markowitz (2012). He said, "Central to closing the gap between policy goals and environmental protection are the people and institutions charged with assuring compliance with…… [Read More]

References

Jebbergrer, C. (2011). Multilateral Environmental Agreements. (IFO Working Paper 98). New York, NY: UN Printing Office.

Markowitz, K. (2012). The Importance of the Judiciary in Environmental Compliance. Pace Environmental Law Review, 538, 139 -- 151

O'Neill, M. (2002). Agriculture, the EC and the TWO: A legal critical analysis of the concepts of sustainability and multi-functionality. Environmental Law Review, 4: 144-155.
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Aldo Leopold and Environmental History in Answering

Words: 2037 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50103453

Aldo Leopold and Environmental History

In answering the question of whether the United States has improved on environmental policy since the 1930s, the cyclical nature of the political system must be considered. A generational reform cycle occurs every 30-40 years, such as the Progressive Era of 1900-20, the New Deal of the 1930s and the New Frontier and Great Society of the 1960s and early-1970s. All of the progress that the United States has made in conservation, wilderness preservation and other environmental issues has happened in these reform eras. Barack Obama represents yet another reform cycle and his environmental record is better by far than any other president over the last forty years, although much of what he attempted to accomplish has been blocked by the Republicans and the corporate interests that fund them. In conservative eras like the 1920s, 1950s and 1980s and 1990s, almost nothing worthwhile happens with…… [Read More]

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Article Analysis and Paraphrasing Environmental

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96733743

S. government to be deeply
committed to an 'alternative' fuel policy that is widely criticized for its
inefficiency. The EPA article shows that the United States government and
its oil, auto and agro industry partners have collectively pushed forward
with an alternative fuel policy dominated by corn-based ethanol and biofuel
strategies. Specifically, according to the Environmental Protection
Agency, "the Renewable Fuel Standard program will increase the volume of
renewable fuel required to be blended into gasoline to 7.5 billion gallons
by 2012. The RFS program was developed in collaboration with refiners,
renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders." (EPA 2008, p. 1)
This passage is a revealing one which demonstrates that under the
existing policy and for at least the coming three years, the United States
will balk at making real overtures toward the movement away from fossil
fuels. The goals projected here show that the EPA remains steeped in…… [Read More]

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Business' Environmental Responsibilities and Stewardship

Words: 4956 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82302299

In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid, environmentalleader.com)

elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.

efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Ross, W.D. Translator). Retrieved fromhttp://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/aristotle/Ethics.pdf September 30, 2010

Hartman Laura P. & Joe DesJardins. Business Ethics Decision Making for Personal integrity & Social Responsibility, Second Edition
Jonas, Hans. The imperative of responsibility. Chicago: University of Chicago Press,1984

Kant, I. Fundamental principles of the metaphysics of morals. NuVision Publications, 2007
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Biology Thoughts on Environmentalism Environmental Studies Are

Words: 771 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96777020

Biology

Thoughts on Environmentalism

Environmental studies are sometimes seen as an area that, based in the genuineness of nature itself, and has little necessity for theory. It has become progressively obvious that this viewpoint is very innocent and that people's pledges in dealing with the environment need to be based both politically and theoretically. Typically, environmentalists find that their arguments are either derivative or dualist. The derivative approach is based on the notion that nature delivers a directive principle for politics and society. The dualist approach, on the other hand, says that Western ideas and contemporary Western thought in particular is categorized by a fundamental nature-culture contrast, in that politics and human culture normally are completely set apart from nature. In spite of these differences, these arguments share a mutual foundation in that the application to nature is the rule for a future ecological state (Hay et al., 2004).

Environmental…… [Read More]

References

Hay, P., Meyer, J.M., Biro, A., Minteer, B.A., & Taylor, B.P. (2004). Main currents in western environmental thought [political nature: Environmentalism and the interpretation of western thought] [democracy and the claims of nature: Critical

perspectives for a new century]. Alternatives Journal, 30(1), 46-48.

Paehlke, R. (2008). Break through: From the death of environmentalism to the politics of Possibility/The landscape of reform: Civic pragmatism and environmental thought in America. Alternatives Journal, 34(2), 32-33.

White, C. (2007). The Ecology of Work. Orion Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.orionmagazine.org/index.php/articles/article/267/
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Chemical Exposure Public Health Concerns & Environmental

Words: 1254 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36785770

Chemical Exposure, Public Health Concerns, & Environmental Impact

Chemical Health Effects

A.) Mercury

Health isks

Neurological damage (adolescent)

Neurological damage and developmental disabilities (in utero, neonatal stage)

Low I.Q

B.) Asbestos

Health isks

lung cancer

breathing difficulty

death

C.) Lead

Health isks

Mental etardation

Stunted Growth

Visual/Hearing Impairment

D.) adon

Health isks

Lung Cancer

Mercury

Mercury has long been identified as an environmental hazard and of great concern to public health. Mercury is toxic to vital organs and is deadly when entered into the bloodstream in quantities greater than trace amounts. ecently, mercury has been observed in oceanic fish that are caught in the wild and sold at markets and in fish caught at reservoirs.

"Mercury has been found in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from five South Carolina reservoirs. According to investigators, "mercury concentrations in largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) bass were compared among five reservoirs in South Carolina. Three of…… [Read More]

References

Brittle, C., & Zint, M. (2003). Do newspapers lead with lead? A content analysis of how lead health risks to children are covered National Environmental Health Association. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/219711518?accountid=13044 

Environmental health; mercury is found in largemouth bass from five south carolina reservoirs (2006). NewsRx. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/211440363?accountid=13044 

Kovarik, W. (2007). Environmental public health policy for asbestos on schools: Unintended consequences Oxford University Press, UK. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/216116437?accountid=13044 

LaDou, J., Landrigan, P., Bailar, J., Foa, V., & al, e. (2001). A call for an international ban on asbestos: CMAJ Canadian Medical Association. Retrieved from  http://search.proquest.com/docview/204818505?accountid=13044
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Corporate Social and Environmental Reporting Companies Have

Words: 1787 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17585803

Corporate Social and Environmental eporting

Companies have presented investigations about their motivation towards voluntarily social and environmental as insolvent. This paper argues in agreement with Adam's view that the goal of CS reporting is to promote credibility and corporate image of stakeholders operating in a particular industry. Whereas companies must focus their efforts on enhancing their profitability, they should also ensure that the welfare of other stakeholders is protected.

Previous literature offers a revelation on various competing theories based on why companies make voluntarily report and engagements in corporate social responsibility. The major perspectives considered are within the scope of application include accountability and image promotion. Many studies hold consequential evidence towards accountability to shareholders making it difficult for organizations to distinguish relevance from accountability based on continued practice. The absence of actual legitimacy crises makes it hard to identify voluntarily reporting as a proactive measure in preventing future crises…… [Read More]

References

Adams, C. (2002). "Internal organizational factors influencing corporate social and ethical reporting beyond theorizing." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 223-250

Bebbington, J., Larringa-Gonzalez, C., and Moneva, J. (2008). "Corporate social responsibility reporting and reputation risk management." Accounting, Auditing, and Accountability Journal, Vol. 21 No. 3, pp. 337-361.

Brennan, N.M. And Merkl-Davies, D.M. (2013). "Accounting Narratives and Impression management," In Jackson, L., Davison, J., and Craig, R. (Eds.). Routledge Companion to Communication in Accounting. Routledge, pp. 109-132. (on blackboard)

Daft, R.L. (2011). The leadership experience (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Thomson, Southwestern
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Distributional Issues and Protection With

Words: 926 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68983768



A second loss refers to the reduced ability to sustain cultural experiences, as the number of tourists to and from the United States is restricted by financial criteria. This could easily translate in not only social and individual loses, but also issues related to the country's ability to acquire knowledge on the culture and civilization of other global regions. Additionally, it could also cost the United States as it would limit its inhabitants' abilities to share knowledge with specialists in other countries, include their own expertise, and as such sustain the development of their native country.

A protected airline industry has the third impact of reducing the quality of the products and services offered to the customer. This is generically possible due to the reduced levels of competition, which allow airline operators to rely on the services they offer, rather than striving to improve their offering. This translates into reduced…… [Read More]

References:

Cleveland, P.A., Jared, R., October 2002, Airline Protectionism Hurts Travelers, the Freeman Ideas on Liberty, http://www.thefreemanonline.org/featured/airline-protectionism-hurts-travelers / last accessed on October 26, 2009

2007, Leading Article: The Absurd Economics of a Protected Industry, the Independent, http://www.independent.co.uk/opinion/leading-articles/leading-article-the-absurd-economics-of-a-protected-industry-441441.html last accessed on October 26, 2009

World Tourism Organization, 1994, Seminar on GATS Implications for Tourism, ISBN 9284401461

World Trade Organization, 1998, Tourism Services, http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news01_e/w51.doc last accessed on October 26, 2009
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1989 Basel Convention Environmental Agreements

Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62654498

Basel Convention

In 1987, Gianfranco Raffaeli and Renato Pent of the firms Ecomar and Jelly ax established a contract with Sunday Nana of the firm Iruekpen Construction to store 18,000 drums of hazardous industrial waste in his backyard for $100 per month ("Nigeria aste Imports" par. 2-6). This contract was illegal, because it represented the dumping of toxic waste from Italian factories in Nigeria without government oversight or approval. hen the drums began to leak and the Nigerian government attempted to cover it up, Nigerian students in Italy notified the press in Koko, Nigeria about the scandal. The contents of the drums were so toxic that Nigerian cleanup crews became ill from the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs), asbestos, and dioxins contaminating the waste. The Italian government was forced to pay for the cleanup and ship the waste back home, but protests broke out at the ports where the waste was to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Basel Convention." Archive.Basel.Int. Geneva: Secretariat of the Basel Convention, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.

EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). "Chapter V -- Basel Convention." EPA.gov. n.p., 2012. Web. 7 Oct. 2012.

"Nigeria Waste Imports from Italy (Nigeria)." American.edu. Trade and Environment Database, n.d. Web. 7 Oct. 2012

Thai, Nguyen Thi Kim. "Hazardous Industrial Waste Management in Vietnam: Current Status and Future Direction." Journal of Material Cycles Waste Management 11.3 (2009): 358-262.
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Canada Environmental Policies & Politics

Words: 3601 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85863819

4-billion expansion after it was shut down in May by the province's environment ministry due to urine-like smells wafting in to neighbouring communities from the company's new technology." (Stephenson, 2006)

III. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY REVIEW

In the work of Ross McKitrick entitled: "Towards the Use of Emission Taxes in Canada" a paper presented to the Finance Committee Round Table on Green Taxes in Ottawa, Canada on May 31, 2001, it is stated that in the presentation of the paper covered are:."..three topics: the context (international and domestic) for environmental policy in Canada, the basic principles of pollution tax design, and the priority I would suggest for proceeding with this policy instrument." (McKitrick, 2001)

McKitrick states that "the theory of optimal environmental taxation was worked out by Agnar Sandmo in an article in the Swedish Journal of Economics in 1975. Some points that have emerged from Sandmo's work are the following:

There…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Macdonald, Doug (1995) Green Taxation and Environmental Policies - Presented to the annual meeting of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada, June 4, 1995. Online available at http://www.utoronto.ca/env/papers/macdon/macdon1.htm.

Planning for Sustainability (2000) Global Problems: Local Solutions - Transport Canada; Sustainable Transportation: The Canadian Context. Online available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/sd/monograph/solutions.htm.

Paehlke, Robert (2000) Environmentalism in One Country: Canadian Environmental Policy in an Era of Globalization. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 29, 2000.

CCME Task Force on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels (2005) 1.2 Motor Vehicle Emissions and Air Quality. 21 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/CAOL/OGEB/fuels/reports/ccme/ccme1_2_e.htm.
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The Environmental Sustainability and Corporations Engagement

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71203195

Corporations and Environmental Sustainability

Environmental conservation and sustainability has been viewed over the years as public relations activity and away of maintaining good relations with the community and other stakeholders like the government under c they operate. This has however significantly changed and the environmental conservation and sustainability is a social responsibility that any business or organization with a long-term vision has to take into account, plan for and effectively execute in order to not only earn acceptability by the government regulatory bodies, but also to contribute to their own future existence.

Proper and safe disposal of waste material and refuse is one of the major ways that corporations are gauged in their commitment to environmental protection and conservation. Corporations need to take deliberate steps to ensure their wastes area correctly categorized and disposed off in the recommended and approved manner. Toxic wastes must not find their way into the…… [Read More]

References

Armacell, (2015). Environmental Protection and Corporate Social Responsibility. Retrieved January 29, 2016 from http://corporate.armacell.com/en/about-armacell/sustainability/

Coca-Cola Company, (2012). Environmental Initiatives. Retrieved January 29, 2016 from http://www.coca-colacompany.com/stories/environmental-initiatives/

South London Waste Partnership, (2016). Why it's Important to Recycle and Compost. Retrieved January 29, 2016 from http://www.slwp.org.uk/what-we-do/recycling-composting/why-it-is-important-to-recycle-and-compost/
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Delphi Study Influence of Environmental Sustainability Initiatives on Information Systems

Words: 17687 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50666614

Delphi Study: Influence of Environmental Sustainability Initiatives on Information Systems

Table of Contents (first draft)

Green IT

Current Methods and Solutions

Green IT and energy costs

Green It and Email Systems

Green IT and ICT

Green IT and ESS

Green IT and TPS

Green IT and DSS

Green IT and other support systems

Green IT and GHG reduction

Green IT and the Government Sector

Green IT and the Corporate Sector

Future Prospects of Green IT in the software industry

The paper focuses on how the implementation of 'Green' IT incentives can help an organization succeed as well as manage or increase the overall efficacy of energy costs. Hence, the primary focal topic for this study will be energy cost reduction using numerous 'green' IT strategies. The paper will thus look into how the inclusion of new and advanced software can help assist a company or desist it. The paper will…… [Read More]

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Social and Environmental Justice it

Words: 2202 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15849528



In terms of Singer's work, although his solutions are not practical in the sense of Paehlke's work, his call for a change in the political system does make sense. Political leaders should be called away from their isolated mentality and use their power to effect the changes necessary for a better world.

oth authors recognize that globalization cannot be denied, and that some aspects related to the phenomenon are beneficial while others are not. Neither author uses either the benefits or costs as reasons to either diminish or elevate the status of globalization, and it appears that both have a realistic grasp of the concept. oth authors also call for equity and fairness, while they differ somewhat in how specifically to achieve this.

I agree with both authors that globalization is a force that cannot be wished away or denied. Furthermore it is undeniable that the phenomenon has some benefits,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Paehlke, Robert C. Democracy's Dilemma: Environment, Social Equity, and the Global Economy. New York, 2003.

Singer, Peter. One World. London, 2002.
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Analyzing Green Human Resource Practices and Environmental Performance

Words: 2079 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72049734

Geen" Human Resouce Pactices And Envionmental Pefomance

A numbe of entepises have histoically adopted the appoach of compliance within thei envionmental initiatives, and by consequence, ules and legislations guiding thei envionmental appoaches. Howeve, ove the last many yeas, new consume needs, consume boycotts, global envionmental standads, dynamic pefeences, and othe envionmental factos have influenced coe values and the fundamental business stategies of copoations (Daily, Bishop and Steine, 2007). Oganizations ae pat of society, and it is impeative that they function like team playes; this is whee the concept of "geen" management becomes elevant. A key schema now is that a company's outcome is stongly impacted by envionmental concens (Taiq, Jan & Ahmad, 2016).

Envionmental and human esouce (HR) management's effect in the business context elates powefully to a moe compehensive association between oganizations' economic and envionmental pefomance. In this context, it is fequently agued that impoved envionmental pefomance esults in…… [Read More]

references for sustainability and their impact on supply chain management. International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, 43, 380 -- 406.

Benn, S., Teo, S. T., & Martin, A. (2015). Employee participation and engagement in working for the environment. Personnel Review, 44(4), 492-510.

Boxall, P., Purcell, J., & Wright, P. (2009). Human resource management: Scope, analysis, and significance. In J. Storey, P. Wright, & D. Ulrich (Eds.), The Routledge companion to strategic human resource management (pp. 1 -- 17). New York: Routledge.

Crotty, J., & Rodgers, P. (2012). Sustainable development in the Russia Federation: the limits of greening within industrial firms. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 19(3), 178-190.

Daily, B. F., Bishop, J. W., & Steiner, R. (2007). The mediating role of EMS teamwork as it pertains to HR factors and perceived environmental performance. Journal of Applied Business Research, 23(1), 95.
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Lydersen Kari Three Environmental Groups

Words: 632 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88267896



4b. Why is there an issue at this location?

As a result of Chicago's reckless water treatment program (or lack thereof), raw sewage is basically being dumped into waters and is affecting communities of human and non-human residents many miles away.

Wastewater dumped into the south-flowing rivers in the Chicago area flow into the Gulf of Mexico.

The issue is also affecting regions closer to Chicago.

4c. Who (human or nonhuman) is impacted by this issue, and at what scale is the impact occurring?

All oceanic life is affected by the presence of the algae in the Gulf of Mexico.

Human beings are affected directly and indirectly: Directly because toxic levels of phosphorous are seeping into clean water reserves and also seeping into the food chain. Indirectly because what Chicago is doing affects tourism and fishing industries in the Gulf of Mexico region.

d) What solutions, if any, have been…… [Read More]

References

Winter, a. (2010). This Year's Gulf 'Dead Zone' Among Largest Ever. New York Times. Retrieved onlinehttp://www.nytimes.com/gwire/2010/08/03/03greenwire-this-years-gulf-dead-zone-among-largest-ever-24761.html
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Environmental Impact of Seaport Development

Words: 1846 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55802230

Dubai should be thinking about sustainability, since the seaport expansion and modernization has been damaging to the environment over the past decade. AS more and more ships begin to use the Dubai port, and as commerce and economic activity return after the global economic recession, the environmental challenges surrounding the port will likely increase as well.

eferences

Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly ecognizable

City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.

Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.

Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GIN Verlag: Berlin.

Burt, J; Bartholomew, A.; Usseglio, P; Bauman, A. And P.F. Sale. (2009). "Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural habitats for corals and fish in…… [Read More]

References

Bagaeen, Samer. (2007). "Brand Dubai: The Instant City; or the Instantly Recognizable

City." International Planning Studies. Vol. 12, No. 2. Pp. 173-197.

Balakrishnan, Melodena Stephens. (2008). "Dubai -- a star in the east: A case study in strategic destination branding." Journal of Place Management and Development. Vol. 1, No. 1. Pp. 62-91.

Betriebswirt; Dipl. And Noack, Sascha MBA. (2007). Doing Business in Dubai and the UAE. GRIN Verlag: Berlin.
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Environmental Policy

Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49385031

Exxon and Environmental Policy

Despite its assurance of the complete safety of its operations, the Exxon Valdez tanker hit a reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound at midnight of March 24, 1989 and poured 11 million gallons of Alaska North Slope crude oil from a ruptured hull of the ship (Explore North 1999). Within the next two months following the wreck, oil had spread to 470 miles to the southwest. The initial cleanup in the succeeding three years cost more than $2 billion, although no lives were lost. Wildlife destruction was staggering and the full impact of the disaster may never be known. The State of Alaska and the federal government filed both criminal and civil suits against Exxon in October 1991

In settling the civil charges, Exxon agreed to pay the State of Alaska and the United States $900 million within a 10-year period and the money would be…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. Alaska Oil Spill Commission. SPILL: the Wreck of the Exxon Valdez. Final report, State of Alaska, 1995. http://www.evostc.state.ak.us/facts/details.html

2. Earle, Sylvia. Sea Change: a Message of the Ocean. Perspectives on Marine Environment Quality Today. 1998-Year of the Ocean. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, 1995. http://www.yoto98.noaa.gov/yoto/meeting/mar_env_316.html

3. Explore North. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Disaster, 1998.  http://www.explorenorth.com/library/weekly/aa032499.htm 

4. Lefevre, Greg. The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. Cable News Network, Inc., 1998. http://www.cnnsf.com.newsvault/output/bigspill.html
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Environmental Impact of Turbines

Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25773200

Wind Turbines

The foundations of wind turbines have an impact on their local environment. Therefore, foundation selection is a primary consideration for developers and wind farm managers. Foundation selection is especially important for offshore wind turbines. The construction of turbine foundations and the use of scour protection materials have been notable impediments to shorebirds, seabirds, and the integrity of shallow water ecosystems including bedrock (Drewitt & Langston, 2006, p. 32). All wind turbines have an impact on birds, though, and the evidence suggesting that offshore wind turbines have a net worse impact on the avian community has been unsubstantiated (Fox et al., 2006). According to a Danish study, no more than two percent of total wind farm area is lost due to the turbine foundations or antiscour protection (Fox et al., 2006). The seabed habitat loss should, however, be monitored over time to provide more an accurate understanding of how…… [Read More]

References

Drewitt, A.L. & Langston, R.H.W. (2006). Assessing the impacts of wind farms on birds. Ibis 48(1): 29-42.

Fox, A.D., et al. (2006). Information needs to support environmental impact assessment of the effects of European marine offshore wind farms on birds. Ibis 148(1): 129-144.

Razizadeh, S.B. (2014). Life cycle analyses of the foundation of onshore wind energy structures.

Wind Energy EIS (2014). Wind energy development environmental concerns. Retrieved online:   http://windeis.anl.gov/guide/concern/
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Environmental Effects on Species Habitat in Southern California Mountains

Words: 3519 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92191166

Environmental Effects on Species Habitats in the Southern California Mountains

Southern California is not for everybody. "Some people view the climate and laid-back lifestyle with longing. Others perceive the area, and its inhabitants, as a little too far over the edge" (Hutchings 2001:4D-Z). hile the region may not appeal to all types of humans, it does attract a wide range of species who make their home in the mountainous areas of Southern California. In fact, Southern California is dotted with several mountain ranges, including the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San Jacinto, San Bruno, Santa Rosa, Cuyamaca, the Palomar Mountains and even the Chocolate Mountains (Havert, Gray, Adams & Gray 1996). One of the most biodiverse and well-studied of these ranges is San Gabriel (ake 1996). This paper will provide an overview of the ecosystems in these mountain ranges in general with an emphasis on the San Gabriel mountain range in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adams, Jonathan S., Lynn S. Kutner and Bruce A. Stein, eds. Precious Heritage: The Status of Biodiversity in the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Baur, Donald C. And Karen L. Donovan. The No Surprises Policy: Contracts 101 Meets the Endangered Species Act. Environmental Law, 27(3):767-90.

California's Plants and Animals. (November 24, 2003). Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game. Available: http://www.dfg.ca.gov/hcpb/species/lists.shtml.

Dasmann, Raymond F. (2004). Habitat Conservation. In Encyclopedia Britannica.com [premium service].