Environmental Protection Essays Examples

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Environmental Justice & Executive Order

Words: 9648 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26252107

For example, unequal protection may result from land-use decisions that determine the location of residential amenities and disamenities. Unincorporated, poor, and communities of color often suffer a "triple" vulnerability of noxious facility siting." (Bullard, 1998)

Finally, 'Social Equity' is that which "assesses the role of sociological factors (race, ethnicity, class, culture, life styles, political power, etc.) on environmental decision making. Poor people and people of color often work in the most dangerous jobs, live in the most polluted neighborhoods, and their children are exposed to all kinds of environmental toxins on the playgrounds and in their homes." (Bullard, 1998)


The National Preservation Institute states that the term 'cultural resource' is not defined in NEPA or even in any other Federal law and yet there are "several laws and executive orders that deal with particular kind of 'resources' that are 'cultural' in character." The following is a description of various sources and their definitions of regulations relating to cultural resources and the human's interaction with their environment.

NEPA and CEQ regulations: makes a requirement of agencies to consider the effects of their actions on all aspects of the 'human environment'.

The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA)…… [Read More]

Bullard, Robert D. (1998) Environmental Justice in the 21st Century. Environmental Justice Resource Center. Online available at http://www.ejrc.cau.edu/ejinthe21century.htm

O'Neil, Sandra George (2007) Superfund: Evaluating the Impact of Executive order 12898. Environmental Health Perspectives
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Environmental Policies Give an Example

Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279

The 1980s (the period when Ronald Reagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- Reagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANWR or Arctic National Wildlife Range, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm (DSP) that influence the public's opinion about the environment. Does our DSP limit our ability to respond appropriately to future environmental problems?

Protecting the environment involves sacrificing economic growth to a large extent since economic growth depends on environmental inputs. The forward march of the human civilization has resulted in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm
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Environmental Health

Words: 910 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66508186

Environmental Health Website Review

Environmental Health

In today's technologically complex society we are all exposed to potentially harmful agents at work, home, school, and in the great outdoors. Tracking the levels of exposure in the United States is the responsibility of the Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), but other non-governmental organizations have been formed in response to this concern and are providing complementary information to the public. This essay examines the online information that is available concerning environmental agents that pose a risk to human health.

Federal Agencies

The CDC has been tracking the levels of 219 known or suspected toxic chemicals, or their metabolites, in the blood and urine of a cohort of American citizens, for the purpose of determining toxicity levels and potential associations with negative health outcomes (2011, National report on human exposure). The information thus gathered will be used to alter official policy, so that exposure levels are reduced and associated health risks reduced. An agency within the CDC, the Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry, maintains a complementary website that provides information on toxic agents and associated diseases (2011). This site provides information on specific toxic…… [Read More]

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. ATSDR.cdc.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from www.atsdr.cdc.gov

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). National report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. CDC.gov. Retrieved 11 Dec. 2011 from  http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/ 
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Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37679198

Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le Roy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical

The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.

Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing, as well as "a burning feeling in the lungs" (EPA, no date, p. 1). It can even be fatal. Although there are numerous factors that can account for this condition, one of the most prevalent is air pollution. Additionally, it is worth noting that while there are measures individuals can…… [Read More]

Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf 

Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf
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Environmental Crime the National Environmental

Words: 1696 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29682431

..as long as those programs were at least as effective as the federal program." (the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act)

The passing of this Act by congress is therefore aimed at ensuring adequate health and safety standards for all workers. In terms of employers, the Act was designed to make sure that the place of employment was free of any hazards that might be injurious or detrimental to safety and health. This may include aspects such as the exposure to toxic chemical and materials as well as other environmental factors, for example excessive noise levels. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act) the Act cover a wide range of possible health and safety measures and is also intended to ensure that physical and mechanical dangers in the workplace are avoided, as well as unsanitary conditions. (Summary of the Occupational Safety and Health Act)

An important part of this act and its implementation is the setting of safety and health standards. To this end the Act also makes provision for the setting of uniform safety and health standards for industrial and other work places. For this reason the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was established to…… [Read More]

Background: The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act: RCRA. http://www.chemalliance.org/tools/background/back-rcra.asp

Britannica Concise Encyclopedia: Superfund. February 7, 2009.  http://www.answers.com/topic/superfund 
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Environmental Justice Policies and Issues

Words: 5141 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35478705

Environmental Justice in the United States:

Policies, Beliefs & People/Places Involved

During the course of my college career, my interests and passions have changed, gradually evolving to an intensified mix of all that my Interdisciplinary Studies major encompasses. I began my college career seeking a Mass Communication degree; a course of study that focused primarily on community organization and mobilization. After feeling the harsh reality of advertising and public relations evils, I decided that Social Work was my calling. I felt a deep need to help others in situations where if they only had some assistance their lives could be changed for the better. However, after taking an Introduction to Environmental Issues course, I felt strongly that a change of studies was necessary. I began to formulate a study plan that included all of my previous interests and integrated a whole new section-policy and law. I was particularly interested in the politics of environmental issues and how government and society view the environment and handle problems or issues that arise. Thus, when my senior project topic was due, the obvious choice for me was to research environmental justice within the United States. The Environmental Justice Movement has elements of my…… [Read More]

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Environmental Risk Analysis Process

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86774057

Environmental Risk Analysis Process

Environmental Risk Analysis (ERA) is "a process for estimating the likelihood or probability of an adverse outcome or event due to pressures or changes in environmental conditions resulting from human activities" (Ministry of Environment, Land, and Parks, 2000). ERA should be a scientific process, when that is possible. "In general terms, risk depends on the following factors: How much of a chemical is present in an environmental medium (e.g., soil, water, air), how much contact (exposure) a person or ecological receptor has with the contaminated environmental medium, and the inherent toxicity of the chemical" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2012). All of these factors help the assessor determine the "potential adverse effects that human activities have on the living organisms that make up ecosystems. The risk assessment process provides a way to develop, organize and present scientific information so that it is relevant to environmental decisions" (United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2011).

The first goal in the ERA process is to determine how much exposure the environment or humans will have to the potential contaminant or pollutant. This involves examining the process and the risk of exposure that is inherent in the process. This consideration may…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation. (2009, June). Ecological risk assessments.

Retrieved January 7, 2013 from Department of Environmental Conservation website:  http://dec.alaska.gov/spar/csp/guidance/eco_risk.pdf 
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Environmental Concerns in 1900 the

Words: 1656 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3445105

Firstly, it is crucial to raise awareness and to actually make people listen, care and then act accordingly. Everybody needs to understand that the environment should be everyone's concern because it truly affects all of us as we are all inhabitants of the same planet. This is achieved through information which in turn, is achieved through long-term campaigns which have the mission to reach as many people as possible. This is where the civil society needs to really step in and help improve the quality of information as not everything we hear or see on television is actually scientific information. In fact, spreading untrue or simply unscientific information can be very harmful to society and its attitude towards the environment because people do not know what to believe. On the other hand, there is the danger of over exposing a certain topic, in this case environmental issues, which leads to a decrease in interest and the willingness to listen and change their views on the part of the population; this passivity induced by an afflux of information - neither useful nor concise - is a psychological truth which cannot be denied especially when trying to raise awareness on such an…… [Read More]

Europa (4 April 2007).

International Issues. Environment. Retrieved September 14 from Website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/international_issues/agreements_en.htm

European Environment Agency (29 Nov. 2005). The European Environment - State and outlook 2005. Retrieved September 13, 2007 from Website: http://reports.eea.europa.eu/state_of_environment_report_2005_1/en
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Environmental Case Study Ten Years Ago the

Words: 455 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64953055

Environmental Case Study

Ten years ago, the United States Environmental Protection Agency established the Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control Requirements. The rule accomplished a comprehensive single national program to control emissions of heavy-duty vehicles by regulating the both the vehicles and the diesel fuel used in the engines. The aim was to reduce nitrogen oxide (NOX ) by 2.6 million, non-methane hydrocarbons by 115,000 tons, and particulate matter by 109,000 tons by 2030. By 2006, most areas of the country sold only ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. By 2007, the only new diesel engines sold required ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel. One looming problem was that diesel engines are durable and have a long product life -- the change to cleaner engines would take until about 2020.

Problem Statement

Diesel fuel is the cause of one-third of the nitrogen oxide (NOX) and one-fourth of the particulate matter that come from transportation. The connection between air pollution and respiratory disorders, including lung cancer, has long been established. The Puget Sound region was found by the National Air Transportation Association (NATA) to be in the national top 5 percentile for exposure to air toxins. An air toxics assessment found…… [Read More]

Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicle Standards and Highway Diesel Sulfur Control Requirements, EPA420-F-00-057. (2000, December). United States Environmental Protection Agency, Air and Radiation Office of Transportation and Air Quality Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/otaq/highway-diesel/regs/f00057.pdf

Puget Sound Clean Air Agency Diesel Solutions Case Study, Pollution Prevention (P2). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Retrieved http://www.epa.gov/p2/
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Environmental Law Swancc vs US Army Corps of Engineers

Words: 2968 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 567474

Environmental Case Study

Case Title:

SWANCC v. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers


The Petitioner is the Solid Waste Agency of Northern Cook County (SWANCC) and the respondent is the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit


The petitioner, SWANCC, is a consortium of 23 suburban Chicago cities and villages that united in an effort to locate and develop a disposal site for baled nonhazardous solid waste. SWANCC had purchased a 533-acre parcel, located in Northern Illinois that straddled the Cook County and Kane County line. The site had been abandoned by a sand and gravel mining operation in about 1960 and had given away to a successional stage forest with its remnant excavation trenches evolving into a scattering of permanent and seasonal ponds of various sizes and depths.

SWANCC was required by law to file for various permits from Cook County and the State of Illinois. Because the operation called for the filling of some of the permanent and seasonal ponds, SWANCC contacted the respondent, the Corps, to determine if a federal landfill permit was required under Section 404(a) of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. Section 1344(a). Section 404(a) grants…… [Read More]

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Environmental Security the Environment and

Words: 3409 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46094940

The author therefore appears to suggest that the holistic approach poses a risk of costly time delays for approval that might prove too little too late for any true difference to be possible.

Brown (2005) asserts that the political involvement of security in natural resource issues holds the risk of conflict and insecurity. Indeed, competition relates to power and control issues arise where resources are abundant, while competition for resources occur where these are scarce. Brown, like Levy, asserts that there is little question that security and environmental issues are integrated. The risk lies in whether security is specifically integrated in mitigation measures, and the degree to which this is done.

It has been mentioned above that the environment directly affects human survival and well-being. Brown further addresses the interrelation between the environment and security be asserting that they are interdependent: in other words, the environment can cause insecurity, while insecurity can impact the environment negatively as well. Specifically, refugees driven from their environment by political insecurity can place negative strain on their new environment, while war could result over a lack of resources.

It has also been mentioned above that environmental insecurity can provide a valuable resource for targeted…… [Read More]

Bretherton, C. & Vogler, J., the European Union as a Global Actor (Routledge, 1999), Chapter 3.

Dalby, S. Security, Modernity, Ecology: The Dilemmas of Post-Cold War Security Discourse Alternatives, 17:1 (1992), pp.95-134.
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Environmental Engineering -- Contrails Are

Words: 1144 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23080508

Additionally, Bollier further states the contrail emissions to cause warmer weather.

The duration of contrails in the atmosphere can last for days, according to (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010). Trails may last for days and spread over hundreds of miles. According to Patrick Minnis, senior research scientist at NASA's Langley Research Center in Virginia, "It helped us get a very good handle on the relationship between natural cirrus clouds and contrails, and separate the two effects. We estimate that contrails have an overall warming effect which is at least the same as aircraft CO2 exhaust, if not more." (Harris, Kuper, Lebel, 2010)

The white streaks (Murray, 2006), which characterize the contrail left by a flying aircraft is suggested by Murray to be removed as a contaminant by lowering the altitude of the aircraft during flight. Additionally, "because contrails are released at high altitudes, have a more potent effect on the environment than emissions that are released on the ground." (Murray, 2006) the environmental impact from contrails is attributed to being a similar threat to that of the CO2 emissions speculation that is considered to be a trigger to Global Warming.

Contrails are one of many contributors to the supposed Global Warming…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Fast, E. 2002, "Can contrails alter climate?," Environment, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 7.

Beam, S. 2005, "The Trouble with Contrails," Environment, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 4.
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Environmental Racism the Color of

Words: 2243 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52802873

Poor peoples and poor nations in the world accept the false and harmful notion that the lack of development meant risky, low-paying jobs and pollution. The economically vulnerable and poor communities, poor states, poor nations and poor regions have succumbed to the notion. The movement demanded that no community, nation, whether rich or poor, whatever the color should be made dumping grounds for these deadly wastes. The movement also alerted the governments of these nations and regions to set up their own measures to protect the health and environment of their own people and areas (Bullard).

Citizen Action and Litigation

Many of the initial activities of the environmental justice movement were in the form of citizen action and litigation (Crossman 2005). Among them were the EPA's disparate-impact regulations, pursuant to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. These prohibited recipients of federal funding from engaging in racially discriminatory activities (Crossman).

Four Major Threats to Health

Four major environmental health hazards were identified as plaguing specifically the children in the United States (Bullard 2003). More specifically, the hazards were affecting people of color. These were lead poisoning, toxic housing, toxic schools, and the asthma epidemic (Bullard).

Reports said that…… [Read More]

Bullard, R.D. (2007). Dismantling toxic racism. 4 pages. The New Crisis: Crisis Publishing Company, Inc.

2003). Environment justice for all. 6 pages
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Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law

Words: 3051 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96085136

Environmental Crimes and Health and Safety Law Violation

With the current changes in weather patterns, strange climatic conditions and other uncontrollable natural disasters, there has been a lot of attention directed towards the environment and the way people may be contributing to the degradation of the environment in small ways that is summed up results into the disasters that we see on daily basis. The environment is becoming unpleasant on an increasing trend each and every day, this is a cause to worry about for each government that cares to see the consequences of our careless handling of the environment.

There are also man's contribution to the insecurity that surrounds us on a daily basis since people no longer care for the safety of the workers that work in their industries and sadly to some extent, some don care even about themselves and the safety that may be protecting their very being. There is need therefore to look at the various forms of safety law violations, the consequences as well as how to curb this trend of violations. Environmental crimes can therefore be referred to as the acts of man that are directed or intended at harming the environment (Environmental…… [Read More]

Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Republic of South Africa, (2012). Stepping up

Enforcement Against Environmental Crimes. Retrieved April 4, 2012 from http://www.environment.gov.za/Services/booklets/Environmental/EnviroCrimesEMI.pdf
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Environmental Policies and Problems in

Words: 2855 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65016873

" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:

China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;

Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)

Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) Studies conducted in the United States have shown that "emission reduction programs provide much greater benefit than their costs." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007) It is interesting to note that emission controls are generally not…… [Read More]

Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2

Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html 
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Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal What Is Environmental

Words: 2358 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51447096

Environmental Stewardship Project Proposal

What is Environmental Stewardship?

What are the problems?

Why do we need to be concerned about Air Pollution?

A proposed Innovative Strategy for Pollution Awareness

Today Environmental stewardship is on the rise and really needed in the community. This is because an increasing amount of people are out there making knowledgeable choices in their what they do every day, such as in the work places, and communities. These choices are considered to be good for the environment, for their finances, and for complete quality of life. By most, these actions are probably looked at as being inspiring because it shows and evidence of a developing societal commitment to environmental stewardship.

This report gives an outline of what I believe is the next step in a continuing evolution of policy objectives from pollution control to pollution sustainability and prevention. It likewise gives a reflection on the important reality -- that although the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and our state associates share responsibility for making sure that the nation's environmental progress to date could be much better. It is clear that environmental stewardship has always been part of our exceptional American experience -- there is a unique history…… [Read More]

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Environmental Regulations in Public Transit

Words: 2971 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60710599

Environmental Regulations in Public Transit

The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and statues take place as some widespread pollutants erode stone. Decrease in visibility due to smog caused by air pollution can affect national parks and at times meddle with aviation. (Why should you be concerned about air pollution?)

The biggest segment of the nation's population occupies swiftly growing metropolitan and urban…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005

Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
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Environmental Conditions Impacting Organizational Forecasting

Words: 601 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71529883

Insofar as many
of the nations now impacted so drastically by the food scarcity crisis are
also those developing theatres in which globalizing companies have sought
to operate, it is becoming more difficult all the time to find an
appropriate context for operation. Thus, organizations pursuing offshore
production interests, outsourced service laborers and overseas contract
management must immerse themselves in many settings where poverty,
instability and widespread suffering are all increasingly characteristic.
Forecasting organizational performance and opportunity under these terms is
marked by challenge.
So too is this case in navigating the uncertainties of legal policy
concerning environmental conditions. Under the Bush Administration, we
have experienced a significant decline in standard protections for both
dumping and emissions, due to the president's composition of ironically
entitled bills such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. Both of
these, in spite of their titles, were marked for their historical roll-
backs of already existent environmental protection standards. This is a
condition which impacts the decisions and costs of large organizations,
effecting competition and resource expenses. Thus, it is even more
obfuscating of future policy outcomes that now, "New York and 13 other
states have sued the U.S. Environmental Protection…… [Read More]

Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at

Reuters. (2008). States sue EPA over ozone pollution standards. Thomson
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Environmental Planning Can Involve a

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72169269

Meantime the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first law establishing "the broad national framework for protecting the environment"; any proposal for an airport, or military complex, highway, parkland and other federal activities are proposed (www.purdue.edu/environsoft/grants/src/laws.htm#NEPA).

An example of the government taking steps to address environmental planning is found in Executive Order 13148, signed into law April 21, 2000. The president ordered that environmental management strategies shall be developed by "each [federal] agency" to ensure that there is compliance to all federal environmental laws and that leadership programs, policies and procedures are established and followed (http://ceq.hss.doe.gov). Another example is the final rule issued through CERDLA/EPCRA regarding an "exemption for air releases of hazardous substances from animal waste at farms" (EPA / Office of Emergency Management). The exemption is that they don't have to report the release of hazardous substances from animal waste to the air under CERCLA section 103 (but they still must report to the CERCLA under the 1984 rule).

There are certainly political and economic implications that go along with environmental planning laws. The cost to developers to hire experts in tax laws, federal laws, and other laws is expensive. Politically, there are always reasons for local…… [Read More]

Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). CERCLZ/EPCRA Administrative Reporting

Exemption for Air Releases of Hazardous Substances from Animal Waste at Farms.
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Environmental Management As Seen From Env Psychology

Words: 1388 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17082645

Environmental management: as seen from Env. Psychology

The main idea is a description of environmental psychology (EP) and how it is practiced.

EP involves principles of Environmental Management (EM), i.e. The best way to regulate / run / modify / look after a certain environment so that it achieves its maximum benefit. The environment can be both in a rural / urban / green setting (such as a park), or in an organization (a cultural environment, such as a business or for the government).

EPs try to incorporate principles of sustainability into their work so that the work that they do is beneficial not only for the present generation and for the clients, but for future generations too. In order to ensure sustainability and integrity, they have to follow certain rules and standards (both national and international) that are outlined in this essay.

Environmental Management (EM): Definition

EM is the basis of environmental psychology. It is the philosophy around which the work of EP devolves. It is also the work of EP. EM refers to anything done to a certain setting (environment) that leads to changes far beyond its immediate environment. The environment can be both physical (such as a…… [Read More]

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Environmental Isses Explain the Greenhouse

Words: 658 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23072951

its environmentally friendly replacement (Pollan, 2008, p.1). but, Pollan argues: "for us to wait for legislation or technology to solve the problem of how we're living our lives suggests we're not really serious about changing (Pollan, 2008, p.2). Pollan hopes that soon, "Driving an S.U.V. Or eating a 24-ounce steak or illuminating your McMansion like an airport runway at night might come to be regarded as outrages to human conscience. Not having things might become cooler than having them" (Pollan, 2008, p.3). Cooler on a literal as well as a metaphorical level, that is!

What steps can individuals take to reduce greenhouse gases?

Replacing regular light bulbs with energy-efficient designs. Turning off the lights, or other appliances when not using them. Using more energy-efficient appliances. Driving a hybrid vehicle or at least a smaller, used vehicle. Walking or riding a bike more often. Eating less meat and dairy products. Planting a garden to reduce the need to ship products far distances and to release environmentally friendly gases into the air. Buying less products produced by industrialization. Voting for environmentally-friendly politicians who believe in the reality of global warming. Turning down the thermostat. Planting trees. Raising awareness in the local community.…… [Read More]

The Greenhouse Effect." The Environmental Protection Agency. 20 Apr 2008. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/kids/greenhouse.html

How are extra greenhouse gases produced?" CBBC Newsround. Global Warming.
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Environmental Fraud

Words: 860 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8839582

Enviromental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation

Environmental Fraud: Virginia Beach Situation

Recently, issues related to global warming have been center-stage of various political debates. Debate has been centered to examine human influences to environment malfunctioning. Poorly treated environment poses a significant danger to the local community and the atmosphere. For this reason, the law has been configured to ensure that the environment is satisfactorily protected. Besides, states have been pursuing local policies, which are parallel to federal laws in relation to environmental protection. This report will assess the Virginia Beach city pollution. The report identifies Care A lot as a polluter and some of the EPA's regulations tackling the issue. The report will also identify two primary laws responding to Virginia Beach's environmental concerns.

Virginia Pollution

In Virginia Beach, there has been evidence on the presence of fecal contamination, which is realized in the city's brackish waters. This contamination is a result of Enterococci bacteria that indicate the possibility of potentially harmful organisms and chemical pesticides. As a result, the presence of the bacteria may present augmented health risk to recreational beach users. General illnesses experienced in this area are gastrointestinal, which causes abdominal, diarrhea, fever, nausea, or vomiting. There are…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Belden R.S. (2001). Clean Air Act. Washington: American Bar Association

Byrnes A.E. (2001). Saving the Bay: People Working for the Future of the Chesapeake. Upper Saddle River, NJ: JHU Press
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Environmental Cues Shape Behavior Most People Spend

Words: 1262 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7347413

Environmental Cues Shape Behavior

Most people spend their daily lives completing tasks, which involve waiting or queuing on a line. With this situation of waiting like at ATMs, others avoid, postpone, or even abandon their endeavors. Other people endure the wait even though they feel frustrated or dissatisfied by the experience (Horowitz, 2007).

It is evident that irrelevant environmental cues like queue barriers used in airports, banks of ATMs serve as barriers that split people waiting in two categories. The first category comprises those who are within the system and the other category involves those outside the system. In-system people show increased persistence in task completion, action initiation and overall optimism (Ahmad & Prasad, 2012).

Situational cues have a substantial impact on behavior. For instance, wine shops that play French music have demonstrated an increase in the purchase of French wine. This suggests that cues not directly connected to a person's objectives could have a significant impact in a task setting: influencing cognition and the way in which the job is done (Cormier, Nurius & Osborn, 2009).

Individuals have a tendency of locating physical markers in their environments defining and creating boundaries. They can do this consciously and unconsciously. For…… [Read More]

Ahmad, P. & Prasad, M. (2012). Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change. New York: Springer New York.

Cormier, L., Nurius, P., & Osborn, C.J. (2009). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive behavioral interventions. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
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Environmental Systems in the Past

Words: 12463 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 751326

Although the research tools provided by the ISO 14001 framework are both qualitative and quantitative, this approach is consistent with the guidance provided by Neuman (2003) who points out that, "Both qualitative and quantitative research use several specific research techniques (e.g., survey, interview, and historical analysis), yet there is much overlap between the type of data and the style of research. Most qualitative-style researchers examine qualitative data and vice versa" (p. 16). Indeed, researchers have used qualitative and quantitative surveys to assess consumer reactions to proposed environmental initiatives at the local level (Neuman, 2003).

In fact, quantitative and qualitative research methods are characterized by a number of similarities that lend themselves to environmental systems analyses and development (as well as some differences) (Neuman, 2003). The distinct differences in the qualitative and quantitative research suggest that the use of quantitative data for environmental system development is highly appropriate, but that such data must be interpreted by taking into account a wide range of potentially qualitative factors that will not be possible using one approach to the exclusion of the other research approach (Neuman, 2003).

A summary of the foregoing research methods for environmental system development is provided in Table 1 below.…… [Read More]

Bonlac Foods. (2012). Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved from http://investing.business week.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=883342.

McComb, S. (2010). Green building & green business informatics tool. Elusor. Retrieved from http://www.environmentalaccountingtools.com/magazine/tag/building.
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Environmental Safety in Contemporary Society

Words: 712 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58330375

In fact, the changes in technology and complexities of modern life enhance this idea. This is nowhere as apparent as it is in the idea of environmental safety and health, for actions taken in one part of the world do have a profound effect on other parts of the world. Even in modern, developed nations like the United States, we find mercury from Chinese factories, dust from Saharan Africa and smog from Mexico -- accounting for about 30% of the nation's ozone problems (Watson, 2005).

The Gaia Hypothesis, in fact, is a theory that the entire planet is large and complex living organism. This proposes that everything on earth, organic and inorganic, are completely integrated into a single and self-regulating complex system that maintains the conditions for life on earth (Gribbin, 2009). The complexity is so vast that we may not be able to completely understand it at present. For example, a flood in India may have a slight effect on the weather patterns of northern Europe. However, if we do believe in this concept, then the basic premise of environmental safety is the responsibility on the micro level of the individual, flowing to the macro level for governments. We…… [Read More]

Gribbin, J. (2009). James Lovelock: In Search of Gaia. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Watson, T. (March 14, 2005). Air Pollution from Other Countries Drifts into USA. USA Today -- the Nation. Retrieved from: http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-03-13-pollution-_x.htm

World Health Organization. (2006). Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/preventingdisease/en/
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Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude

Words: 9344 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22808838

Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage

Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. Both crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are lubricants, asphalt, perfumes and insecticides. There are, approximately, more than 4,000 different petrochemical products obtained from refining of crude oil that have commercial value. Plastics, synthetic fibers, synthetic rubbers, detergents and chemical fertilizers are some of the consumer products that are generated from crude oil. The proven crude oil reserves…… [Read More]

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Environmental History

Words: 1808 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30080459

Just this past week, the Environmental Protection Agency released a report on the effects and reality of global warming. In the investigative commission that yielded the findings, an admission was submitted that there is no way to fully determine how much of the planet's climatic change has been due to natural variation in weather and temperature patterns. However, the report did assert the certainty that global warming is in large part due to human behavior and environmental practices. Particularly, global warming is partially the result of extensive burning of fossil fuels such as oil, thus placing a great deal of blame on an international practice upon which economies and political systems have operated for a great many years. And it has been in the last two decades that these proclivities have begun to catch up with environmental conditions and, subsequently, various ecosystems and the broader social structures that are dependent upon them. Aside from the obvious trends, inherent to global warming, of seasonally higher temperatures across the boards and raised sea levels, the continuing alteration of the world's basically accepted meteorological tendencies will have a multitude of diverse and far-reaching effects. In the United States alone, the current trend will…… [Read More]

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Environmental Case Law

Words: 1766 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72189317

BLm - Bureau of Land Management

Environmental Impact Statement

FLPMA - Federal Land Policy Management Act

NEPA - National Environmental Policy Act

RFRA - Religious Freedom Restoration Act

Environmental Justice Case of South Fork Band Council of Western Shoshone of Nevada v. U.S. Department of Interior

Detailed background history of the case

The subject refers to a prospective gold-mining project in the Western Shoshone sacred site of the Cortez Mining District, situated in Lander County, Nevada, near Mt. Tenabo. With gold mining an important industry since 1950, in Lander County, and the identification of two new gold sources near the existing Cortez Mine, Cortez proposed an elaborate 850 acre additional mining facility, which would involve Cyanide heap-leach processing and de-watering of ground water to prevent the mines from getting flooded. The total additional acreage concerned were 6,571 acres of public land and 221 acres belonging to Cortez (FindLaw, n.d.).

When this proposal reached BLM, they decided that, this being a Federal action, NEPA would require and EIS report prepared, which would also be subject to FLPMA. Consequent upon publishing the intent to prepare an EIS, in December 2005, BLM went about the process meticulously, by involving the South Fork and…… [Read More]

FindLaw, (n.d.), Law Article: United States Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit, Retrieved from http://caselaw. findlaw.com/us-9th-circuit/1498619.html.

Akilah, J.K. (2011), Indigenous Consent: Rethinking U.S. Consultation Policies In Light Of the U.N. Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, VOL. 53, 2011, Retrieved from www.arizonalawreview.org/pdf/53-4/53arizlrev1301.pdf.
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Environmental Concerns in New Jersey

Words: 646 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31811686

Disposing of Waste Properly

The superfund site that is the subject of this assignment is Chemsol, Incorporated. This site is located in the town of Piscataway, New Jersey. It is on a "40-acre tract of land" (EPA, 2015). Moreover, it is in the midst of an inhabited, residential region. This region includes both single family homes and apartments. The site was active throughout the 1950's until approximately the midway point of the 1960s. Other significant points of interest about the site itself are its proximity to large numbers of people. The site is near one of New Jersey's Interstate highways, which is traversed by myriad people all times of day and night. Additionally, there is a railroad that borders the site, which has also accommodated copious amounts of traffic both during the time the site was operable and in the many decades since it became inoperable. It is also worth noting that part of the site is in close proximity to land that has been dedicated to commercial usage. That commercial usage of the land includes both retail and wholesale activity, the former of which is likely frequented by those living in the residential portion of the land bordering the…… [Read More]

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Does the United States Government Have Environmental Ethics

Words: 2987 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27254600

Environmental Ethics

US Government and Environmental Ethics

The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount of funding that these agencies receive always fluctuates depending on the political mood of the country and the strength of the local environmental activists in the area. The National Parks Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service best show the ethic of environmental protection…… [Read More]

American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp.

The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D..
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Protection Against Abuse

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17376208

Protection against Abuse (deterrence)

Deterrence and the legal system

The notion of deterrence plays a significant role in the present system. In most cases, laws are put in place to ensure those who break the laws do not escape unpunished but also to discourage potential offenders from committing the offenses. This is the reason the state has opted to pass laws that ensure citizens sort their trash to enable recycling of the wastes to be much easier. The objective of the regulation is not to punish offenders, but to prevent them from disposing recyclable material inappropriately.

Sorting out of waste disposal

Different households produce different wastes, and this becomes a problem to dispose the wastes especially in urban areas. In instances that piles of garbage are left unattended in residential areas and offices, they become a nuisance. This is because of their biological as well as chemical decomposition that produce noxious smells and can be a source of an infection. This forces the council to properly take care of the waste disposal. It is also the responsibility of households to ensure they sort out the wastes to ensure smooth and easy recycling. This is the reason the council has come…… [Read More]

Paul, J.A.J., & Daniel, T., (January 01, 2008). Standardization of Sampling Method for Physical

Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste. Asian Journal of Water, Environment and Pollution, 5, 1, 95-98.
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Environmental Case Study Solving a Puzzle

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21639584

Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)

Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or economically beneficial to the province or entire Canada (Fairley 52).

These developments of events surrounding the oil sands make it critical for the creation or formulation of effective and efficient solution to the puzzle facing Alberta and the planet. The responsibility for development of economic, social, and political policies in…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.

Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at: < http://www.strategywest.com/downloads/StratWest_OSProjects.pdf >
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Environmental Hazards Open Dumps an

Words: 845 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77953367

Linear systems are constructed with layers of natural materials with low permeability. Leachate collection system is designed to remove liquid that is found in the liners. Waste is placed above the collection leachate system in layers.

Modern landfills are now built in locations which protect environment and human health as well as having structural integrity. There is restriction of the construction of modern landfills in floodplains, wetland or fault areas (Repa, 2010). Once the modern landfills reach the height which is permitted it is closed down an engineered in such a way that it prevents the infiltration of water through the installation of a cap low in permeability which is same as the linear system. On top of the low-permeability barrier there is a granular drainage layer that diverts water from the top of the landfill. There is a protection cover at the filter blanket's top as well as top soil which is placed for growth of vegetation. The system of engineering in the modern landfills is in such a way that it ensures protection of environment and human health through the containing of leachate which could otherwise contaminate ground water. At the same time there is collection of gases…… [Read More]

Repa, E. (2010). Modern Landfills. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&cad=rja&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.greenkerala.net%2Fpdf%2Fkey_issue_on_open_dumps.pdf&ei=Vy9uUcyuBamy7AbDo4GYBQ&usg=AFQjCNFUTQkrQnIxwkIgJOzwJtptbNSfGw&bvm=bv.45368065,d.ZWU

Republic Services, (2013). Solar-Gas Innovation. Retrieved April 18, 2012 from http://www.republicservices.com/Corporate/Planet/SustainabilityProjects/San-Antonio-Atlanta.aspx
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Environmental Ethical Issues in the

Words: 868 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86819609

On the largest scale, the U.S. population is disproportionately responsible for the depletion of fossil fuels and other natural resources in that Americans consume approximately one-quarter of those valuable energy resources despite constituting less than five percent of the entire global population (Attfield, 2003; Poiman & Poiman, 2007).

Besides consuming such a disproportionate amount of natural resources, another major environmental ethics issue arises in connection with the deliberate export of hazardous waste from wealthy countries to poor countries and the outsourcing of dangerous jobs, such as some of those that are strictly prohibited by domestic environmental laws (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008; Poiman & Poiman, 2007). United States military operations have also contributed to new environmental ethics concerns, such as the contamination of soil and water supplies in Iraq and Central Europe by the millions of depleted uranium shells left by tactical aircraft supporting ground troops in Iraq or engaging hostile threats against NATO forces in Bosnia after U.S. military operations in both regions in the early 1990s (Attfield, 2003).

Within the last fifty years, there has been an ever-increasing concern for the preservation of wildlife, particularly with respect to its depletion as a result of human activity (Attfield, 2003; Poiman…… [Read More]

Attfield R. (2003). Environmental Ethics: An Overview for the Twenty-First Century.

Cambridge, UK: Polity.
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Environmental Issues Business Ethics

Words: 2756 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35667109

Environmental Issues, Business Ethics

Background history on business ethics

The term "business ethics" has contexts in different ways making the history of business ethics vary according to how one perceives the subject. The history is likely to vary on the historians. How they also perceive the term, what facts they seek to find as first hand information, and the importance the historians see on those facts. This subject solely depends on the historian, but at the end of it all, the facts should prompt some discussion, and someone else grasps it giving a different story on the same.

The term business ethics has at least three different usages, although all the three have an evident similarity. The way that one chooses to prioritize gives meaning to the nature of history on the subject. The first source of the term dates back to 1970, when the term originally used in the United States. Its origin here associated the term with academic writing, meetings, and in development of an academic field of teaching research, and publication. Later on, the term got more usage in the media and public discourse. In these two places, it got association with business scandals what they called…… [Read More]

George, T.D. (2012). A History of Business. Santa Clara University. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/conference/presentations/busine ss-ethics-history.html

Dove, I. (1997). Business Ethics in the Middle East. Journal of Business ethics, 16, 1555. Borkar, R. (2010). Environmental Issues. Buzzle.
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Environmental Law the Offshore Oil and Gas

Words: 3773 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54004240

Environmental Law

The offshore oil and gas industry is complex in its rules and regulations

There are many different regulatory bodies that have some control over the industry, and they do not always work together as well as they should. This can become a serious issue for companies that are interested in oil and gas production, because they can have trouble keeping all the regulations straight. With UNCLOS, MARPOL, OSPAR, and the EU all offering regulations and requirements, it becomes very difficult for companies who work with oil and gas to be clear on the requirements

Unfortunately, that can lead them to make mistakes, to misunderstand rules, and to ignore or avoid other regulations because they seem too complicated or they are not sure if they are even applicable. That can get a company into serious trouble, so it is very important that these companies focus in on how to handle the regulations with which they must deal.


UNCLOS, or the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is an international agreement that was created and came into play in 1994

. It defined the responsibilities that nations had when it comes to the oceans, and also…… [Read More]


Barnard, Catherine (2007). The Substantive Law of the EU: The four freedoms (2 ed.). Oxford University Press.
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Environmental Management Read Instructions File 1 Files

Words: 2172 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22459058

Environmental Management Read Instructions File #1 Files Attached

Environmental management

The Water Permitting Board

Natural gas represents an important resource within the United States and more efforts are made to create energy sustainability using the resource. Still, the creation of a Schuylkill Energy LLC power plant and gas drilling facility in Mock County is not hereby a recommended course of action.

The arguments in support of this recommendation are drawn from the specialized literature; are all objective and based on scientific facts. The dangers to gas drilling are far too significant for the population and the environment and they are real, even if only visible in the long-term.

Another problem associated with gas processing and drilling is represented by the lack of contingency plans and alternative solutions in case energy situations materialize. In such a setting then, it is recommended to focus on solar and wind energy generation, and to integrate more scientific findings in the processes involving natural gas.

Literature review

The impact of the energy industry upon the health of both humans as well as the surrounding environment has represented a common concern for the members of the academia. And sufficient evidence has been promoted to reveal the…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Calborn, T., Kwiatkowski, C., Schultz, K., Bachran, M., 2011, Natural gas operations from a public perspective, The International Journal of Human and Risk Assessment

Finkel, M., Law, A., 2011, The rush to drill for natural gas: a public health cautionary tale, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 101, No. 5
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Environmental Stewardship

Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23075175

Environmental Stewardship can be simply described as "the comprehensive understanding and effective management of critical environmental risks and opportunities related to climate change, emissions, waste management, resource consumption, water conservation, biodiversity protection and ecosystem services" ("Environmental Stewardship," 2010). Thus, environmental stewardship is actually the responsibility for environmental superiority shared by everyone by whose actions the environment is affected. This sense of responsibility is that rare value that is mirrored through the choices that individuals, businesses, societies, and government make to shape the environment, society, and economy (Johnson, 2005). Environmental stewardship can also be regarded as a behavior that is exhibited by means of incessant upgrading and enhancement of environmental performance along with a dedication to "efficient use of natural resources, protection of ecosystems, and, where applicable, ensuring a baseline of compliance with environmental requirements" (Johnson, 2005 ).

In the contemporary society, environmental stewardship is on the increase. Nowadays, a majority of people are making conversant selections in their daily lives, places of work, and neighborhoods that are good for their atmosphere, money, and for general quality of life. Such actions are really enthusing and point towards a promising communal loyalty to environmental stewardship. However, this phenomenon is not a new…… [Read More]

Environmental Stewardship Strategy: Overview and Resource for Corporate Leaders. (2010). Retrieved August 18, 2012 from http://www.unglobalcompact.org/docs/issues_doc/Environment/Environmental_Stewardship_Strategy.pdf

Johnson, S.L. (2005). Everyday Choices: Opportunities for Environmental Stewardship. Retrieved August 19, 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/osem/pdf/rpt2admin.pdf
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Environmental Policy Specifically Eis Statement

Words: 4542 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 458151

" (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

The draft environmental impact statement elicited over 1.1 million responses which the Forest Service identified and summarized into six major issue categories including:

1) Public access;

2) Identification of other unroaded areas;

3) Exemptions and exceptions

4) Environmental effects;

5) Local involvement; and 6) the effect on communities with strong natural resource affiliations. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

These issues served to guide the process through:

1) Determining the scope of the proposal;

2) Development of a range of alternatives;

3) Direction of the analysis of potential environmental, social and economic effects;

3) Identification of possible mitigation and 4) Ensuring that the agency is operating within legal authorities. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

Two sets of alternatives were developed:

Four alternatives, including a No Action Alterative that cover the range of possible prohibited activities in inventories roadless areas consistent with the stated purpose and need; and Four alternative ways to apply toe prohibitions to the Tongass National Forest. (United States Department of Agriculture - Forest Services, 2000)

Also stated to have been developed were a third set of alternatives, which are procedural…… [Read More]

Forest Service Roadless Area Conservation (2000) United States Department of Agriculture. Forest Service. Washington Office November 2000. Final Environmental Impact Statement Summary. Online available at http://roadless.fs.fed.us/documents/feis/documents/summarynb.pdf

NEPA Documentation Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)(2000) Project Development. U.S. Department of Transportation Federal Highway Administration. Online available at http://www.environment.fhwa.dot.gov/projdev/docueis.asp
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Environmental Psychology

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29994840

Environmental Psychology

This is an interdisciplinary field which focuses on the relationship between humans and their surroundings. It defines the term environment broadly, including natural environments, social settings, built environments, learning environments, and informational environments. When solving problems in pertaining human-environment interactions, which might be global or local, you must have a model of human nature that predicts the environmental conditions under which humans will behave in a decent and creative manner. Such a model enables one to design, manage, protect and/or restore environments that foster reasonable behavior, predict ion likely outcomes which comes about when these conditions are not met, and identifies problem situations. This field develops a model of human nature by retaining a wider and inherently multidisciplinary view. It explores two different issues such as common property resource management, view finding in complex settings, the effect of environmental stress on human performance, the characteristics of restorative environments, human information processing, and the promotion of durable conservation behavior. Though it is said to be the best-known and most comprehensive description of the field, it is also known as human factors science, cognitive ergonomics, environmental social sciences, architectural psychology, socio-architecture, ecological psychology, ecopsychology, behavioral geography, environment-behavior studies, person-environment studies,…… [Read More]

Gifford, R. (2007). Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th ed.). Colville, WA: Optimal Books.

Proshansky, H.M. (1987). The field of environmental psychology: securing its future
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Environmental Economics

Words: 2913 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16139129

Environmental Economics

Economics and Nature Conservation

From early childhood, one is taught of the importance of the surrounding environment in all human activities. Forests for instance are crucial sources of fresh air and clean water, as well as raw commodities that support life. Nevertheless, mankind continues to trash the woodlands, and as such jeopardize the future of the next generations. In a context in which next to 5 million hectares of forests are lost on annual basis due to deforestations and fires, causing a multitude of environmental, economic and social effects, the global authorities must intervene to better regulate the sector.

The modern day individual is characterized by a myriad of features, such as the reduced time to cook and the obvious tendency to either eat out, either grab some fast food. Other elements refer to the increased pace of technological development, with which he has to keep up; the incremental pressures on the job, also pegged to the necessity to prove one's compulsory role within the business climate, now when employers engage in downsizing operations.

Aside these features however, an increase in the responsible behavior towards the natural environment is also observable. The civilized populations have understood the necessity…… [Read More]

Bratkovich, S., Gallion, J., Leatherberry, E., Hoover, W., Reading, W., Durham, G., Forests of Indiana: Their Economic Importance, United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,  http://na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/forestprod/indiana_forest04/forests_of_IN04.htm  last accessed on November 24, 2009

Burgees, P., Cheek, K.A., Policy Review
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Environmental Crime Economic Globalization and

Words: 2261 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2165518

A company working on such a goal might claim that the intent is to use less pesticides, but really they just want to decrease the cost of production.

Another example of why a food organism might be modified is to make the final product more resilient to the means of distribution, such as what is seen with tomatoes being genetically modified to have more resilient skins, so they can be grown, harvested and distributed in mass. Many think of these types of modifications as positive, for the development of sustainable food growth, to feed a growing population, more efficiently and effectively. In many ways the positive aspects of this trend are good, and yet genetically modified plants and foods also create potential threats. Some examples of this are plants that if left on their own can overcome natural and indigenous plants, such as are seen with grain crops that have resilient single rather than traditional natural bush like growth. As these plants overtake the grasses that grow in clumps, the protection for the soil changes, even outside of the agricultural area, and fires spread more rapidly. ("Give a Weed an" c1) Another example would be the modifications of plants to…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Cook, Guy. Genetically Modified Language: The Discourse of Arguments for GM Crops and Food. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Gaudet, Mary. "Without a Trace: Controversy Buzzes around the Mysterious Disappearance of Bees on Prince Edward Island." Alternatives Journal July 2005: 32.
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Environmental Biology

Words: 2097 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88934326

Environmental Biology: The Effects of Pollution in the Ocean

The oceans are being contaminated by pollution caused by oil spills, tanker discharges, untreated municipal wastes and agrochemical residues. Pollution is known to have destabilized many coastal ecosystems and is believed to be responsible for the decline in phytoplankton and consumable shellfish which usually thrive further out to sea. Medical wastes, beach visitors' garbage, waterfront businesses account for most of the toxic and most dangerous pollutants that lurk below the surface of the ocean. Oil spills and medical wastes only play a small part in ocean pollution (Energy Intelligence Group, 2002). Plants and factories spew over thirty-two billion gallons of poisonous chemicals and sewage into the sea every day. The Commerce Department's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2000) states that eighty percent of pollution to the marine environment comes from land-based sources, such as runoff pollution. Runoff pollution includes many small sources, like septic tanks, cars, trucks and boats, plus larger sources, such as farms, ranches and forest areas. Oceanographers contribute the loss of fish production and the choking of the coastal zone to the waste that is thrown into the ocean waters.

Pesticide residues affect the sea life habitats within…… [Read More]

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Environmental Aquatic Buffers Maintaining Environmental

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62161185

Several important factors all contribute to better efficiency and cleaner water areas. For example, shallow grades in the buffer zones are ore effective than steeper grades of 5 degrees or more. Also, compacted soil proves to be less efficient than loose soil in the absorption of polluted storm and urban water runoff, (Stormwatercenter.net). Strategic placement of buffer zones is also a major factor in the effectiveness of the buffer areas. Mature forests and vegetated areas are ideal in choosing buffer zone sites. It has been shown through several studies that the more root systems in the ground of buffer zones, means the more pollutants absorbed from the ground water.

However, the three buffer zones working in harmony with environmental factors prove to be more efficient, and are a great asset in keeping local environments less polluted from residential and urban developments. Effective implementations of these strategic buffer zones can help divert unwanted sediment and urban pollutants from natural spring water and wetlands. Several harmful elements are diverted in the most effective buffer areas. Pesticides, chemicals, toxins, and various sediments avoid entering wetland or stream areas through the success of the aquatic buffer systems implemented by counties across the country. Nutrients…… [Read More]

Center of Watershed Protection. (). Article #41. Watershed Protection Techniques. http://www.cwp.org/Downloads/ELC_PWP41.pdf

Mulligan, Gerard E. (Feb 2007). "Aquatic Buffers." Westchester County Soil and Water Conservation District. http://www.westchestergov.com/planning/environmental/Reports/WaterResourceBufferBroch.pdf
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Environmental Assessment Is an Integral

Words: 4249 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9743736

Strategic assessment

2. Project Preparation

3. Project Implementation'

4. Facility Operation

These four assessment tools are to be standalone tools that are applied at specific stages of the Gipsy Lane brickworks road extension and the industrial development project life cycle. The assessment with one of the tools has no link or dependence with earlier stages. The tools of assessment are to be designed in a manner that they are applicable throughout the planning stage up to the point of making decisions in the project life cycle (See figure 1.).

The process of protocol assessment (Source: IHA, 2010).

The tools are to undergo repeated application so as to help in the continuous improvement of the process.

Strategic Assessments section

This section is important for the assessment of the strategic basis of the Gipsy Lane brickworks project. This part is most applicable at the stage when the Gipsy Lane brickworks is still under consideration and no clear cut decisions have been made in order to invest in the project. The reasons for this are because probably no public statements have been released regarding the project, the project has not yet been tendered for the initial engineering design operations. The purpose of this…… [Read More]

Gratton, C., & Jones, I. (2003). Research methods for sport studies. New York: Routledge.

Fraenkel, J.R. & Wallen, N.E. (2001). Educational research: A guide to the process. Mahwah,
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Environmental Engineering Environmental Engineers of

Words: 766 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84085324

Though the methods for solving environmental problems might be new, the skills necessary to develop and implement these solutions are not. Along with the desire and ability to take in a wide array of information and make complex decisions based on this information, environmental engineers must have the ability to plan ahead using the possible developments in this information. Long-term planning abilities, as well as the ability to communicate environmental issues and their solutions to non-engineers, are both essential skills that environmental engineers must possess (Lindner & Nyberg 1973). Without these abilities, the work of environmental engineers would not be effectively developed or implemented; they must be practically applied in the long-term in order to be useful.

The role of the environmental engineer developed essentially as a response to an ethical issue -- namely the degradation of the environment -- and thus every aspect of en environmental engineer's job can be seen as in dialogue with certain ethical issues. This is directly and explicitly observable in the Institution of Engineers of Australia Code of Ethics (2000), which lists working "in conformity with accepted engineering and environmental standards" as a basic ethical tenet of all engineering, and as the primary goal…… [Read More]