Pollution Essays (Examples)

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Religious Reasons Why Purity and

Words: 1649 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34481879

Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.

However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.

Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…… [Read More]

References

Kinsley, D. 1982, 'Worship in the Hindu tradition' in Hinduisim: A cultural perspective, Prentice

Hall, New Jersey, pp. 105-121.

Martin, B. 1974. 'New interpretations of Judaism' in a History of Judaism, Basic Books, New

York, pp. 232-262.
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Control of Indoor and Noise

Words: 1713 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22609257



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References

Blondeau, P., Tiffonnet, a.L., Damian, a., Amiri, O., and Molina, J.L. (2003). Assessment of contaminant diffusivities in building materials from porosimetry tests. Indoor Air, 13(3), 310-318.

Daisey, J.M., Angell, W.J., and Apte, M.G. (2003). Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information. Indoor Air, 13(1), 53-64.

Fink a. (1998). Conducting research literature reviews: From paper to the Internet . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Overmeire, M.V., Verbrandt, F.J.R. & Jonckheere, R.E. (1999) Noise Pollution: Causes, effects and control. In Environmental Management in Practice: Compartments, Stressors, and Sectors. Volume: 2, eds. Nath, B. Hens, L. Compton, P. & Devuyst, D. London: Routledge.
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Artificial Lighting -- Impacts on

Words: 3253 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61636063

The authors explain that "Large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation…" that results from urban sprawl is a major cause of the lack of biodiversity within the insect species (Acharya, 1999, 27). Even the building of a new road, or street lights, in places where previously there were no roads or lights, what the authors call "undisturbed areas," has an impact on insect biodiversity, Acharya explains. Meanwhile, moths, which are known to be drawn to light, have trigger mechanisms that detect the echolocation signals of bats; and on the other hand bats feed "…heavily" on moths, Acharya continues; in fact many bat species use moths as their "main food item" (Acharya, 27).

The point of that information (and of this study) in this peer-reviewed piece is that if "…eared moths" exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid bat attacks, they would not be caught as often by bats and hence this would…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Acharya, Lilita, and Fenton, Brock M 1999. 'Bat attacks and moth defensive behaviour around street lights.' Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 77, 27-32.

Chepesiuk, Ron. 2009. 'Missing the Dark: Health Affects of Light Pollution.' Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 117, 20-27.

Conrad, Kelvin F., Warren, Martin S., Fox, Richard, Parsons, Mark S., and Woiwod, Ian P. 'Rapid declines of common, widespread British moths provide evidence of an insect biodiversity crisis.' Biological Conservation, vol. 132, 279-291

Duverge, Laurent P., Jones, Gareth, Rydell, Jens, and Ransome, Roger D. 2000. 'Functional significance of emergence timing in bats.' Ecography, vol. 23, 32-39.
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Promoting Fuel Efficient Cars Establishing Green Spaces

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4937518

promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.

Fuel efficient cars

Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.

Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.

Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)

The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…… [Read More]

Sources

Future-Method. Fuel Efficient Hybrid Cars -- Initiatives to Reduce Pollution. http://www.futuremethod.org/418/fuel-efficient-hybrid-cars-initiatives-to-reduce-pollution

The benefits of alternative transportation http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/library/CR-007047.pdf

Supnithadnaporn, (2007), Do Vehicles Passing Emission Test Pollute Less-Georgia Institute of Technology http://www.spp.gatech.edu/faculty/WOPRpapers/AnupitWOPRFinal.pdf
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Polluting Water and Poisoning Fish

Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79641449

Water Pollution

Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. )

The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm

Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury

Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005.  http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html 

The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
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Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead

Words: 2494 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74696952

Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines

Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction…… [Read More]

References

Alternative Fuels Data Center. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site.

http://www.afdc.energy.gov/vehicles/electric_basics_phev.html >

Eto, Joseph. 1996. The Past, Present, and Future of U.S. Utility Demand-Side Management Programs.

Imperial College. Environmental Planning and Management. Imperial College Press.
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Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37679198

Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le Roy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical

The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.

Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…… [Read More]

References

Centers for Disease Control National Asthma Control Program. (2010). Asthma's impact on the nation. www.cdc.gov. Retrieved from  http://www.cdc.gov/asthma/impacts_nation/asthmafactsheet.pdf 

Environmental Protection Agency. (No date). Asthma and outdoor air pollution. www.epa.gov. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airnow/health-prof/Asthma_Flyer_Final.pdf

Islam, T., Gauderman, J., Berhane, K., McConnell, R., Avol, E., Peters, J., Gilliland, F.D. (2007). Relationship between air pollution, lung, function and asthma in adolescents. www.thorax.bmj.com. Retrieved from http://thorax.bmj.com/content/62/11/957.full.pdf+html

Natural Resources Defense Council. (2005). Asthma and air pollution. www.nrdc.org. Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/health/effects/fasthma.asp
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Trinity River an Environmental Study

Words: 1364 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81348502

"From the junction of the East and West Forks the Trinity River continues southeast, forming all or part of the county lines between Kaufman and Ellis, Ellis and Henderson, Henderson and Navarro, Freestone and Anderson, Anderson and Leon, Leon and Houston, and Houston and Madison counties. It then cuts across northern Walker County to form a portion of the county line between Walker and Trinity counties and continues as the county line between Trinity and San Jacinto and Polk counties. At the northern line of Liberty County the Trinity turns almost directly south, cutting across Liberty and Chambers counties, to drain into Trinity Bay just west of Anahuac (at 29°45' N, 94°42' W)."

So it is easy to see how complicated any undertaking at revitalization of the river would be. The pollution that plagues the Trinity are not so unlike other rivers across the country that have been successfully revitalized;…… [Read More]

Handbook of Texas Online, s.v.," http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/TT/rnt2.html (Accessed May 8, 2007).

Ingrassia, 2000, p. 20.

United Way 2000-2002 Annual Report to Metropolitan Chicago, p. 6.
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Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Cities

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41457498

Environmental Pollution Scenario: Review and Summary

Although cities contribute to both waste and global warming because of population density and the demands of urban life, they also offer the potential to conserve energy in terms of transportation costs, in comparison to suburban and rural areas. The compact nature of cities makes alternative transportation such as buses, subways, walking, jogging, and bicycle use a feasible alternative to using cars. Regarding the effectiveness of public transportation, in terms of mitigating the effects of global warming it is estimated that "public transit reduces carbon monoxide emissions by nearly 745,000 tons annually. This equals nearly 75% of the carbon monoxide emissions by all chemical manufacturers in the United States" (How public transportation helps the environment, 2014). Public transportation also reduces smog-generating pollutants by 100,000 tons per year (How public transportation helps the environment, 2014).

Finally, using public transportation reduces U.S. dependency on oil in…… [Read More]

References

Baur, J. (2014). grrl power: encouraging more female riders key to city's cycling health.

Fresh Water. Retrieved: http://www.freshwatercleveland.com/features/boostingfemaleridership031314.aspx

Grynbaum, M. & Connelly, M. (2012). Bicycle lanes draw wide support among New Yorkers, survey finds. The New York Times. Retrieved from:

http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/22/nyregion/most-new-yorkers-say-bike-lanes-are-a-good-idea.html?_r=0
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Sustainable Systems Many Businesses in This Day

Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29106871

Sustainable Systems

Many businesses in this day and age seek to demonstrate stewardship and resolve to do business within a guideline of corporate social responsibility. In this quest many have chosen to focus on greening their business often including both procurement and manufacture, seeking to reduce the effect of their business on the environment. The different systems approaches that an organization can utilize to demonstrate more effective environmental sustainability are almost as varied as the companies themselves. The utilization of pollution prevention programs depends almost entirely on what it is a company does and what wastes they challenge to control. Additionally companies seek to demonstrate their compliance utilizing various accounting tools that are often made public and become incorporated in their systems designs. These designs will incorporate procurement, logistics, on demand manufacture, i.e. lean manufacture and many other possible systems designs to both demonstrate cost savings and produce a more…… [Read More]

Resources

Barrow, C.J. (2005). Environmental Management and Development. London: Routledge.

Eyeontransport, Green Logistics Forum "Download the Green Transportation & Logistics Global Report Now," at http://www.greenlogisticsforum.com/2008/free_report.shtml

Motavalli, J., & Harkinson, J. (2002, September/October). Buying Green: Harnessing the Incredible Procurement Power of Governments, Hospitals, Colleges and America's Biggest Corporations to Protect the Environment. E, 13, 26.

New, S., Green, K., & Morton, B. (2000). 3 Buying the Environment. In The Business of Greening, Fineman, S. (Ed.) (pp. 35-53). London: Routledge.
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Carbon Tax in Australia

Words: 1277 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26623378

Carbon emissions during recent decades have generated much controversy and some communities have taken harsh measures in order to combat effects associated with the process. The Australian Federal Government introduced a carbon tax of $23AUD per ton of emitted carbon dioxide on a series of fossil fuels in order to effectively deal with pollution. Finances gained from the process have been used to reduce income tax and provide Australian citizens with several benefits. While the legislation has been welcomed by many local and international bodies, some have frowned upon it and have called for its repeal on account of how it produced much damage both on a small level by increasing cost of living and on a larger level by preventing businesses from being able to experience progress.

Tony Abbott's article "THE COALITION'S PLAN TO ABOLISH THE CARBON TAX" is among the most recognized criticisms regarding the carbon tax in…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bell, L. "Australian Voters Energetically Reject Concocted Climate Crisis And Carbon Tax Disasters." Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/larrybell/2013/09/29/australian-voters-energetically-reject-concocted-climate-crisis-and-carbon-tax-disasters/

Gardner, T. "U.S., China agree to cut emissions from vehicles, coal." Retrieved October 19, 2013, from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/07/10/us-climate-usa-china-idUSBRE9690VM20130710

Ryan, R. "Kevin Rudd says Labor 'got it wrong' on introducing carbon tax without mandate." Retrieved October 19, 2013, from  http://www.abc.net.au/news/2013-08-25/rudd-says-labor-got-it-wrong-on-carbon-tax/4910690 

Taylor, L. "Tony Abbott insists carbon tax will end on 1 July -- even if Senate blocks repeal." http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/oct/15/tony-abbott-insists-carbon-tax-will-end-on-1-july-even-if-senate-blocks-repeal
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Sacramento San Joaquin Delta Issue

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39008966

San Joaquin Delta Pollution

Throughout the annals of American history the development of California from a parched desert to thriving center of agriculture and commerce remains one of the nation's most incredible achievements. In order to supply continual supplies of fresh water for farming, drinking and municipal uses massive bodies of running water were diverted, channeled and harnessed so that California may one day be hospitable for millions of American citizens. Perhaps no other place showcases the tremendous feats of engineering and ingenuity which gave rise to California than the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta, the largest estuary in the country and one of the world's only inverted river deltas. Through a gradual process of constructing earthen levees the early residents of the state diverted the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers to form a network of small irrigation channels which watered individual ranches and tracts of farmland. These lifelines connected settlers…… [Read More]

References

California Legislative Analyst's Office, (2009). 2009-10 budget analysis series: resources delta issues and the calfed bay -- delta program . Retrieved from  http://www.lao.ca.gov/analysis_2009/resources/res_anl09004004.aspx 

Rothert, S. American Rivers, (2009). America's most endangered rivers: 2009 edition. Retrieved from http://www.americanrivers.org/newsroom/press-releases/2009/sacsj-press.html

State of California Department of Waterways, California Coastal Commission. (2011). Keep the delta clean. Retrieved from http://www.coastal.ca.gov/ccbn/keep_the_delta_clean.html
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Features of the Ocean Floor Continental Margins

Words: 1092 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52991531

Features of the Ocean Floor

Continental Margins

As one travels away from the continents, water depths increase in a systematic manner.

Closest to the continents are continental shelves with water depth typically less than 1000 m. Continental shelves were formed as rivers carried tons of particles of sand and soil from the land out to sea. This sand and soil then settled as layers of sediments, or layers of particles of rock and animal remains.

Commonly at the distal edge of the continental shelves, there is a marked continental slope where water depths increase quickly. The continental slope separates the continental shelf from the ocean floor.

The continental rises, located at the base of the continental slopes, mark the beginning of the deep ocean basins.

Submarine canyons commonly occur along continental margins and transport sediment from the margins down into the deep ocean basins.

B. Mid Ocean Ridges

Long mountain…… [Read More]

References

Loomis, Jennifer. "Observe the origins of some ocean floor sediments. " Exploring Earth.

Exploring Earth. 18 Mar. 2005 < http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es2305/es2305page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization>.

"Unit 7: The Ocean Floor." Pass.leon.k12.fl.us. Pass.leon.k12.fl.us. 18 Mar. 2005 <

http://www.pass.leon.k12.fl.us/PDF/New%20Folder/Unit%207%20pages%20159-168%20MS.pdf>.
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Environmental Impact of the Gulf

Words: 1595 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14052889

These are the organisms that are accountable for the development of red tides. These algal blooms later destroy additional aquatic species by interfering with their respiratory organs. Among the numerous species of microscopic algae that comprises the foundation of the aquatic food chain, about eighty-five species are said to be deadly (Carlisle, n.d).

Recommendations

Legislation should be passed to govern the maritime activities such as oil drilling and crude oil shipping in order to set specific safety guidelines and risk mitigation approaches. Hefty fines should be imposed on the parties that contravene these legislations. Cleanup activities should also be put in place to eliminate both the short-term and long-term effects of the previous oil spill. The aim is to rehabilitate and rejuvenate the level of aquatic and human health.

Conclusion

Oil spill are dangerous to aquatic and human life forms. They should therefore be avoided and controlled at all cost…… [Read More]

References

Achenbach, J. (2008) "A 'Dead Zone' in the Gulf of Mexico: Scientists Say Area That Cannot

Support Some Marine Life Is Near Record Size," Washington Post

Carlisle, E. (n.d) the Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone and Red Tides.

 http://www.tulane.edu/~bfleury/envirobio/enviroweb/DeadZone.htm . Accessed on February 24, 2011
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Prosperity in the Developing Nations

Words: 6827 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41299090

Because transportation infrastructure and services are important components of the urban system, they need to be sustainable and contribute to economic growth rather than harm the people that rely on them for their livelihoods. According to Asri and Hidayat (2005), "The expansion of social and economic activities has resulted in rising pollution and environmental degradation following the economic crisis in Jakarta Metropolitan area where environmental regulations were largely disregarded" (p. 1792). Taken together, these issues represent a growing public health threat that requires informed solutions, and these issues are discussed further below at they relate to the aims and objectives of the study.

Aims and Objectives

This research has an aim and several objectives. The aim of this research is to find out how the pollution levels occurred in several main roads in Jakarta and explore some strategies to reduce carbon pollution levels by using some schemes and scenarios. These…… [Read More]

References

Asri, D. U & Hidayat, B 2005. Current transportation issues in Jakarta and its impact on environment. Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 5, 1792

-- 1798.

Barth Boriboonsomsin. 2009. Real-World CO2 Impacts of Traffic Congestion. (ONLINE)

Available at: http://www.uctc.net/papers/846.pdf (Accessed 18 May 2012)
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Marpol Annex VI Requirements on

Words: 7615 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85648999

At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to Wang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).

The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.

Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.

Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.

Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
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Environmental Policies and Problems in

Words: 2855 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65016873

" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:

China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;

Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)

Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Energy Futures and Urban Air Pollution: Challenges for China and the United States (2007) Development, Security, and Cooperation (DSC) Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United States - Development, Security and Corporation: Policy and Global Affairs. National Academy of Engineering and National Research Council of the National Academies and the Chinese Academy of Engineering Chinese Academy of Sciences. Online Pre-publication Release available at http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=R2

Holder, Kevin (2007) Chinese Air Pollution deadliest in World - National Geographic News 9 July 2007. Online available at  http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/07/070709-china-pollution.html 

Kim, Juli S. (2007)Transboundary Air Pollution - Will China Choke On Its Success? - A China Environmental Health Project Fact Sheet. 2 Feb. 2007. China Environment Forum in partnership with Western Kentucky University on the U.S. AID-supported China Environmental Health Project (CEHP)

Wang, Alex (nd) The Downside of Growth: Law, Policy and China's Environmental Crisis. Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 2. Online available at http://www.oycf.org/Perspectives/8_103100/downside_of_growth.htm
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Toxic Waste Feasibility of Market

Words: 3454 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26566486

Another unfortunate reality is that simply banning the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will only stymie efforts to improve the economic situation of the region. New mining, agricultural, and electrical interests are being encouraged to invest in the region because they will facilitate economic growth and propel communities out of poverty. An outright ban on the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will have the net result of undermining economic growth and crippling the communities that already rely on this economic base for their livelihood.

Many communities and governments, however, are experimented with market-based solutions to situations in which the interests of many firms, individuals, and organizations must be balanced with the larger desire to protect valuable environmental resources so that all can utilize them. The Australian government, in particular, has pioneered efforts to introduce market economic into pollution control and regulation. Their experiences with this method…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Helmer, Richard and Hespanhol, Ivanildo (eds.). "Water Pollution Control -- a Guide to the Use of Water Quality Management Principles." London: Thomson Professional, 1997.

How the Scheme Works." Hunter River Salinity Trading Scheme. New South Wales Environmental Protection Agency. 27 Nov. 2003. 15 Nov. 2007 http://www.environment.nsw.gov.au/licensing/hrsts/how_the_scheme_works.htm.

James, David. "Environmental Incentives: Australian Experience with Economic Instruments for Environmental Management." Environmental Economic Research Paper No. 5. Australian Government: Department of the Environment and Water Resources. 1997. 15 Nov. 2007 http://www.environment.gov.au/about/publications/economics/incentives/trade.html.

Olifants River Basin, the." International Water Management Institute. 31 Oct. 2007. 13 Nov. 2007 http://www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Research_Impacts/Benchmark_Basins/Olifants.aspx.
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Poisoning Our Planet if it

Words: 8834 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68794962

From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)

Wetlands disappearing

Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of Reservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…… [Read More]

References

Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at http://www.geocities.com/narilily/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/acidrain.html. Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at http://www.mindfully.org/Sustainability/in-Our-Hands.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at http://darwin.bio.uci.edu/~sustain/bio65/lec05/b65lec05.htm. Accessed on 3 February, 2005
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Environmental Policies Give an Example

Words: 7072 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3648279

The 1980s (the period when Ronald Reagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- Reagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANWR or Arctic National Wildlife Range, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.

3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…… [Read More]

References

Bocking, Stephen. Nature's Experts: Science, Politics, and the Environment. Rutgers University Press. 2004.

Palmer, Mike. Pathways of Nutrients in the Ecosystem - Pathways of elements in ecosystem. http://www.okstate.edu/artsci/botany/bisc3034/lnotes/nutrient.htm

Redclift, M. R; Woodgate, Graham. The International Handbook of Environmental Sociology. Edward Elgar Publishing, 2000.

Schmidtz, David; Willott, Elizabeth. Environmental Ethics: What Really Matters, what Really Works. Oxford University Press U.S., 2002.
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International Environmental Laws on Oil Gas Production Effects

Words: 2138 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30626844

International Environmental Laws on Oil/Gas Production

Effects of Oil and Gas Production to the Environment in Norway

Over the years, oil and gas production companies have been a serious global concern. This is due to impacts on the environment associated with its production. International principles setup aims at governing the extraction and usage of such sources of energy. Norway is located in Europe, located near North Sea. Its high level of energy production has highly boosted the Gross National product (GNP) of Europe. Oil, gas and hydroelectric power having contributed significantly to the rapid development of industries in Europe and contribute around 50% to the economy. Discovery of oil and gas was in early 1960's, and currently, Norway is the seventh largest producer of oil and gas internationally. There have been contravenes between energy producing industries and the environmental activists. Several principles set to govern energy production have been set,…… [Read More]

References

Development of E.C.O.A., 2001. Environmental Performance Reviews: Norway. Holand: OECD publishers.

Edwards, J., 1998. Europe. Scandinavia: Nelson Thornes Publishers.

Fitzmaurie, M., 2010. Research Handbook on Iinternational Environmental Law. 3rd ed. New York: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Gardinerr, S., Caney, S. & Jamieson, D., 2003. Climate Ethics: Essential Readings. 1 ed. Chicago: Springer.
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Threat China Poses to the

Words: 2362 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68932349

Of course, the 2007 pet food scandal is also a result of this same lack of regulation and inspection in China. Pet food manufactured here in the United States and in Canada contained melamine, an ingredient used in the manufacture of plastic dinnerware, but also a key ingredient in many fertilizers. It sickened thousands of dogs and cats, and hundreds died as a result of eating the tainted pet food. This incident helped bring the dangers of Chinese imported food and other products into focus, and made it much more real for many Americans. As a result, many people are becoming more vigilant about Chinese products, and some Congressmen have called for bans on all Chinese foods that are not inspected, but that has not occurred.

Clearly, this poses a danger to American consumers, and it is one reason that Chinese imports are the biggest threat to America.

However, Chinese…… [Read More]

References

Comerford, Michael Sean. "Red Scare Fear Grows over the Quality, Inspection and Sheer Volume of Imports from China." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), 15 July 2007, 1.

Elwell, Craig K., Marc Labonte and Wayne M. Morrison. Is China a Threat to the U.S. Economy? Federation of American Scientists. [online]. 2007. http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL33604.pdf.

Hirsch, Steve. "Safety Warning Issued on Chinese ATV; Government Cites Lack of Front, Parking Brakes." The Washington Times, 6 June 2007, C08.

Murray, Geoffrey, and Ian G. Cook. Green China: Seeking Ecological Alternatives/. New York: Routledge, 2002.
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Markets & Economy a Budget

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19369386

Rational firms will choose the lowest-cost option between the two. The market is expected to be efficient, so that while some firms will find it cheaper to pollute, other firms will find it cheaper to install pollution abatement mechanisms.

Ultimately, the system will seek to deliver the lowest per-unit cost of abatement. This will be achieved because the firms that are going to abate their pollution are the ones for whom the cost of abatement is lower than the cost of polluting. With these firms focused on their abatement efforts, they will deliver a greater degree of pollution abatement at a lower per-unit cost with the marketable permits than any other system.

To see the value in this system, the alternative must be considered. If firms are mandated to reduce pollution, they will do so to bring themselves under the maximum allowable pollution levels. However, firms will have no economic…… [Read More]

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Ethical Implications of a Business Polluting a

Words: 1856 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30650218

ethical implications of a business polluting a third world country are fairly straightforward -- at first. Businesses are able to do such things in third world countries because of a number of factors that are intrinsically related to the innate poverty that exists in these nations. As such, it appears as though businesses are forsaking the health concerns of local inhabitants in order to maximize their profits and increase their commerce and productivity.

Doing so, of course, from a perspective that completely disregards basic humanitarian concern for citizens who have to live in polluted areas -- who breathe contaminated air, drink and bathe with contaminated water, and eat food raised from contaminated land and water sources -- is ethically irresponsible. This line of thinking presents a skewed cost-benefit analysis in which the ultimate costs of such an action are not the monetary ones a business must pay to dump or…… [Read More]

References

Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "National uniform emission standards for storage vessel and transfer operations, equipment leaks, and closed vent systems and control devices; and revisions to the national uniform emission standards general provisions." Federal Register. Retrieved from  https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2012/03/26/2012-5760/national-uniform-emission-standards-for-storage-vessel-and-transfer-operations-equipment-leaks-and 

Lawrence, A.T. (2008). Business and Society. New York: McGraw Hill Higher Education.

Wheeler, D. (1999). "Racing to the bottom: foreign investment and air pollution in developing countries." Development Research Group World Bank. Retrieved from http://elibrary.worldbank.org/docserver/download/2524.pdf?expires=1354319083&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=4DC6E96B9DC60BCE836D7375AAE10761
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Flags of Convenience

Words: 2900 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60047441

Flags of Convenience as they pertain to maritime oil pollution. The writer explores UN and MARPOL mandates and discusses the Flags of Convenience. The writer then ties them into maritime oil pollution and presents recommendations for how this might be solved. There were 15 sources used to complete this paper.

As the world populations continues to grow and live longer than ever before it has become apparent that natural resources must be guarded with the utmost care and protection. It is those natural resources allow mankind to survive therefore their preservation is paramount to the success of the future. One of the biggest threats to the eco-system today is the threat of oil pollution. Through spills, dumping and other accidents the oil pollution in the world has threatened significant areas of the eco-system that are depended on. In recent decades there have been measurements taken to prevent oil pollution from…… [Read More]

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Markets an Increased Budget Deficit

Words: 865 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74239332



4. One of the main issues with GDP is that it reflects economic activity rather than economic progress. Thus, Japan's efforts at rebuilding after the tsunami will appear as a boom in construction, when in fact the country has recorded a significant economic setback and the temporary boost in construction activity is simply going to get the country back to its previous level. The first thing that should be added to a new measure of GDP (or economic health) is an adjustment for negative economic activity. This can be a natural disaster, terrorist attack or other activity that detracts from a nation's economic growth but is not currently included in the GDP calculation.

The second issue is that the GDP per capita does not accurately reflect the wealth of a nation. Liechtensteiners do not live materially better than their Austrian and Swiss neighbors, but their per capita GDP says they…… [Read More]

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Disclosure and Financial Reporting

Words: 2209 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96004329

Failure-to-Disclose

Disclosure & Financial Accounting

Environmental and Financial Factors in the Petroleum Industry

The petroleum industry has a unique responsibility in the initiative to practice environmental safeguarding while producing the petroleum products in such great demand. The financial manager must be decide what weight to apply to costs in terms of new processes and methods that are efficient as well as environmentally friendly and complaint.

Weighing Costs in Failure-to-Disclose

Environmental and Financial Factors in the Petroleum Industry

Environmental Hazards

Profitability Factors

Future Outlook

Findings Related to Cost Factor of Compliance

BP, Conoco, and Phillips

Primary Considerations

Summary & Conclusion… [Read More]

References

Environmental Impact of the Petroleum Industry: Environmental Update #12 (2003) Hazardous Substance Research Centers/South & Southwest Outreach Program online available at:

The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Probability, 1995-2001 Energy Finance online at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/perfpro/ref_pi2/.

The Impact of Environmental Compliance Costs on U.S. Refining Profitability: Preface Online available at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/perfpro/ref_pi/keyfind.html

U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Petroleum Refining.
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United States Military and Environmental Law

Words: 6165 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54567760

U.S. MILITARY AND ENVIRONMENTAL LAW

Military & Environmental Law

Environmental Analysis and Impact of the United States Military

Military activity affects the environment in direct and indirect ways. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of military training and readiness activities and the impact of armed conflict and war on the environment. Most environmental impact that results from armed conflict and war occurs in foreign and not domestic environments. However, military training and readiness activities have the potential to impact both domestic and international environments. Different standards apply to the regulation of military activity based on the geographic, national, and political arenas in which military activity occurs. Another dimension that affects the environmental impact standards to which the military is held accountable is based on the perceptions and attitudes of lawmakers, citizens, and warriors toward peacetime and readiness operations vs. armed conflict and war. This paper will…… [Read More]

References

Bearden, D.M. (2007). Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: Background and Issues for Congress, CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RS22149.pdf

Boelaert-Suominen, S. AJ. (XXXX) The Effect of Marine Safety and Pollution Conventions During International Armed Conflict, International Environmental Law and Naval War, Defense Institute of International Legal Studies. Retrieved http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/navy/np15_envir_law_naval.pdf

Currents Magazine, (2010, Fall). Navy Air Systems Command, Environmental Issues. Retrieved http://www.enviro-navair.navy.mil/index.cfm?pg=currents

Customary International Humanitarian Law. (2010). ICRC, Customary IHL Database, International Committee of the Red Cross, Retrieved http://www.icrc.org/customary-ihl/eng/docs/v1_rul_rule44
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Coal Fired Electicity Producing Plants in China Are Dangerous

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11777827

poor air quality in major cities in China has increasingly been viewed as a serious health threat -- and an economic problem as well -- over the past few years. The major culprit for this persistent pollution has been identified as coal-fired power plants, but auto emissions and factories are also contributors to this environmental problem. It has gotten so bad in Beijing, China, that on Tuesday December 8, Chinese leaders triggered a "red alert" closing schools, suspending factories, and keeping one-half of the vehicles off the streets (Mader, 2015). What are the health-related issues brought on by this hazardous smog in China? This question will be addressed in this paper.

China's Air Pollution Kills up to 500,000 People Each Year

According to Chen Zhu, the former Chinese Health Minister -- who is a professor of medicine and a leading molecular biologist in China -- the terrible smog that envelops…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kaiman, J. (2014). China's toxic air pollution resembles nuclear winter, say scientists.

The Guardian. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.theguardian.com.

Mader, I. (2015). China smog triggers closure. Associated Press. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.ap.com.

Moore, M. (2014). China's 'airpocalypse' kills 350,000 to 500,000 each year. The Telegraph. Retrieved December 11, 2015, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk.
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Electric Cars I Would Like

Words: 1301 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54377630

It also requires us to be involved in that region of the world in very costly ways that would not matter but for our dependence on Middle Eastern oil. We are now at the point where the next generation of Americans or the one immediately after the next generation will experience the complete depletion of the world's available oil reserves.

Even before the oil finally runs out, its price will increase so substantially because of the economic laws of supply and demand that it will bankrupt this country to remain dependent on foreign oil. Even now, our economy is already tied to oil in ways that are damaging to our welfare and some of the nations to whom we pay billions of dollars annually may actually support extremist Jihadist terrorists who are planning what they believe will be the destruction of the way of life in the United States and…… [Read More]

References

E & FN SPON (2009). Urban Traffic pollution. Retrieved July 8, 2009, from W.T. STURGES (2004). Pollution of the arctic Atmosphere

NATIONAL ACADEMY of ENGINEERING (2002).Energy Futures and Urban Air

Pollution

The ELECTRIC VEHICLE and the BURDEN HISTORY. (1999).
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Microecon Ethicality in a Globalizing

Words: 1396 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77804949



For the Mexican people, this indicates a conflict in the claims and realities of globalization. The investment of greater capital and production into the Mexican labor market has promised to bring jobs, wealth and economic robustness to the developing economy. But the opportunity to cut production costs by entering this venue where environmental regulations are weak or in some areas non-existent has inclined the pollution of Mexican air, water and soil. This has not only had terrible effects on the population of Mexico, but it has created a self-perpetuating resistance to the adoption of environmental improvements. The prospects of a global standard in the area of environmental protection is obstructed by the will of those nations and companies which have so much to gain by exploiting contexts such as Mexico. The greatest victim of this behavior are the citizens of nations such as Mexico, which have little to no say…… [Read More]

references are those which are evident in a nation like North Korea. Taken to its approach by a view toward communist oversight of a vast array of social, economic and political affairs, North Korea is an example of government becoming so big as to invade tyrannically every aspect of Korean life. So too is this evident in an Iran rippling with the desire for revolution, an indication that the public is no longer content to allow this big government to shape their affairs to violently and inhumanely.
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Water in the Middle East

Words: 22307 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58217118

While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter Beaumont, Gerald H. Blake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).

The conflict in the Future

It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.

Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html

Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm

Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
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Geology Office of Governor Rick

Words: 1188 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24745775

Your initiative in merging activities between Department of Land and Natural Resources (DLNR), Conservation International (CI), and the Harold K.L. Castle Foundation (HKL Castle) and in creating the Fisheries Enforcement Units will help sustain Hawaii's ecological, economic, and cultural well-being (as your yourself pointed out) in ensuring that valuable marine stock are responsibly fished and managed.

You are correct in presuming that the key to protecting Hawaii's fisheries is effective enforcement of laws, and that if you take care of the ocean will take care of you.

Healthy fisheries are important for local fishing communities, for aside from protecting the fish, we are what we eat.

Just as we are what we eat, the fish are too. And in a never-ending ecological cycle, our actions impact the state of the water, ipso the fish drink that water, ipso they become contaminated, and, again, ipso the food that we eat contaminates…… [Read More]

Sincerely,

(Source: Hawaii Reporter: (May 26th, 2011) State, Non-Profits, Partner on Fisheries Enforcement

http://www.hawaiireporter.com/state-non-profits-partner-on-fisheries-enforcement/123
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Canada Environmental Policies & Politics

Words: 3601 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85863819

4-billion expansion after it was shut down in May by the province's environment ministry due to urine-like smells wafting in to neighbouring communities from the company's new technology." (Stephenson, 2006)

III. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY REVIEW

In the work of Ross McKitrick entitled: "Towards the Use of Emission Taxes in Canada" a paper presented to the Finance Committee Round Table on Green Taxes in Ottawa, Canada on May 31, 2001, it is stated that in the presentation of the paper covered are:."..three topics: the context (international and domestic) for environmental policy in Canada, the basic principles of pollution tax design, and the priority I would suggest for proceeding with this policy instrument." (McKitrick, 2001)

McKitrick states that "the theory of optimal environmental taxation was worked out by Agnar Sandmo in an article in the Swedish Journal of Economics in 1975. Some points that have emerged from Sandmo's work are the following:

There…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Macdonald, Doug (1995) Green Taxation and Environmental Policies - Presented to the annual meeting of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada, June 4, 1995. Online available at http://www.utoronto.ca/env/papers/macdon/macdon1.htm.

Planning for Sustainability (2000) Global Problems: Local Solutions - Transport Canada; Sustainable Transportation: The Canadian Context. Online available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/sd/monograph/solutions.htm.

Paehlke, Robert (2000) Environmentalism in One Country: Canadian Environmental Policy in an Era of Globalization. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 29, 2000.

CCME Task Force on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels (2005) 1.2 Motor Vehicle Emissions and Air Quality. 21 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/CAOL/OGEB/fuels/reports/ccme/ccme1_2_e.htm.