Unfortunately, there is quite a diverse array of forms of pollution of the water and the air on Earth. The paper will only focus upon a few types, with the intention of providing insight regarding the results of the pollution upon various forms of life on the planet. As far as any type of pollution, formal environmental agencies, whether public, private, or of the government, all have standards by which they determine the type of pollution and its classification. With respect to all forms of pollution, most environmental agencies have come to a consensus regarding the overall classification of pollution as it affects life. Those standards of pollution are primary forms of pollution and secondary forms of pollution.
There are two types of standards -- primary and secondary. Primary standards protect against adverse health effects; secondary standards protect against welfare effects, such as damage to farm crops and vegetation…… [Read More]
With growing population in the city, greater pressures on infracture and natural resources has affected the environment in greater ways. Increase in population causes infracture to deteriorate, traffic congestion, lower air and water quality, and loss of open space. Population increase brings with it more vehicles on the roads that put greater emissions in the air and greater pollution problems that affect the land and water quality. All of this will cause more health problems. In order to deter the greater pollution with the increase in population, more measures of pollution control need to be implemented.
Pollution control legislation for point measures would cost an estimated 0.3 million. The focus could be on making the weaknesses in already existing law stronger with stronger enforcement. The emissions standards that establish annual amounts and kinds of pollutants emitted into the air and water by users of certain products has disadvantages…… [Read More]
" (Norris, 2004)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
Pollution prevention and reduction in the use of toxics and reduction in waste are greatly at focus for the Environmental Health and Safety Guidelines (2007) which are guidelines that can be specifically tailored to the established hazards and risks for each individual process depending upon the various factors that are applicable at each site. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is a federal environmental law that regulates solid and hazardous wastes from being generated during disposal. Hazardous wastes are those that may ignite, that are corrosive or reactive and those which are toxic. (Ohio EPA, nd) Pollution prevention is also important in establishment of operation practices that are considered best practice as well in substitution of materials, and during process changes and recycling. (Ohio EPA, nd)
The three pillars of sustainable development are stated in the work of Norris (2004) to include those…… [Read More]
d.), Miller Brewing was the first brewery to "recover excess carbon dioxide from the brewing process for sale…to food processors for refrigeration purposes." Likewise, Miller resells its brewer's yeast to food processors instead of wasting it.
The brewery is saving money by administering its pollution prevention program. Taken together, source reduction and recycling annually are saving the company $3 million (North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance n.d.). "Capital outlays for the bulk quantity handling and storage systems and the recycling machinery total $200,000. No additional labor costs have been incurred to maintain the reduction and recycling initiatives. Accounting for capital depreciation, the payback period for Miller Brewing's waste reduction initiatives is less than 3 years," (North Carolina Division of Pollution Prevention and Environmental Assistance n.d.).
Electronics: Hamilton Beach/Proctor-Silex, Inc.
The electronics manufacturing industry has a lot of room for improvement and Hamilton Beach/Proctor-Silex is taking some steps…… [Read More]
Pollution in the environment has become an important subject for consternation in today's world, where pollution of all kinds affects the daily lives of people as well as the environment in such a way that most people find it difficult to continue their normal routines on account of the pollution. Pollution can affect either the air or the water of our Planet Earth, and although the pollutants that are emitted are in different ways, it is a definite fact that they affect all kinds of living organisms because of the harmful effect that they produce. Air pollution is for the most part caused by the emission of the fumes from automobiles and other vehicles, through the exhaust, from a combination of the combustion of fossil fuels, while water pollution is generally caused by industrial wastes as well as the several environmental accidents that have been happening of late. The sad…… [Read More]
This designation has been challenged by the DuPont Company, which discharges wastewater from its chemical plants on each side of the river. The company feels there has not been enough evidence presented to earn the designation, and "warned that businesses could face unjustified restrictions on wastewater permits because of the designation (Montgomery)."
Officials argued that "recent research confirmed previous warnings to 1996 that the river only partially supported aquatic life between the Pennsylvania line and Killcohook National ildlife Refuge in New Jersey (Montgomery)."
There are groups which are dedicated to preserving the river. One group is the Delaware Riverkeeper which "is the voice of the Delaware River and its streams, championing their rights as living members of the community, and is leader for the Delaware Riverkeeper Network. The Delaware Riverkeeper and the Delaware Riverkeeper Network stand as vigilant protectors and defenders of the River, it tributaries and its…… [Read More]
Pollution in the Potomac iver
The Pollution Problem in the Potomac iver
The problem which is to be addressed in this paper is that of pollution in the Potomac iver. It has been recognized that as development of residential and industrial centers has progressed along the river, a decline in the quality of the water has been noted as various chemical pollutants have been introduced to the water. This is crucial to address, as the levels of pollution being reached may have potentially disastrous consequences for the flora and fauna along the river and the ecosystem as a whole.
Background on the Issue
There have been many studies which have indicated there to be a growing problem with pollution in the Potomac iver, with many also indicating varied consequences of this problem. Studies have shown that water quality varies markedly along the course of the river, with markedly…… [Read More]
More than 90% of the commercial fisheries and seafood products breed in these kinds of areas. In addition, dozens of species of migratory birds breed in the marshes and raise their young there. Commercial fishing and its dependent industries would not survive long without these areas intact. As it is, commercial fishing of wild species is being badly impacted by aquaculture, which was another unforeseen consequence of development, in this case, economic development.
These estuaries and marshes are also important protection for the coastline. They furnish the barrier islands with purified sediment and absorb all the overflow during a storm. The barriers islands serve as the first frontal protection for the coastlines. They are constantly built up from both sides. New Orleans has lost much of its barrier island acreage and the accompanying marshes and estuaries to development. Systems of levees were created for flood control protection from Lake Ponchetraine.…… [Read More]
Recycle as much as possible.
Think carefully about the type of activities you do in your spare time. Think about whether they cause an increase in carbon emissions or not (hat is a Carbon Footprint, 2009).
The second question of the three can be answered by simply just saying that there will be a great improvement. And the more that people do the bigger that the improvement will be. If everyone does their part to reduce their own carbon footprint it will benefit everyone in the long run. Researchers have concluded that greenhouse gas emissions need to be slowed and then reversed. And those nations that are industrialized need to make substantial cuts in their emissions. If everyone does their part we can get to the point where we are not only as dependent on fossil fuels but we will have a much cleaner plant and will have to worry…… [Read More]
In addition, fuel emissions for vehicles must be carefully monitored and government agencies should work to ensure that they meet safe and acceptable standards to reduce pollution. (How can we prevent the damaging effects of air pollution?)
The purpose of this paper is to discuss global warming and pollution.
e found that global warming occurs because of an accelerated green house effect. e found that pollution occurs because of harmful emissions caused by fossil fuels and industrialization. Our investigation found that pollution can result in serious health problems including lung cancer. e also found that pollution can stunt lung growth in children and irritate existing conditions. Finally, we asserted that preventative measures must be taken to reduce air pollution. Preventative measures can take place with the development of alternative fuels and hybrid vehicles.
Global arming in Brief. 2000 http://www.globalwarming.org/article.php?uid=65
How can air pollution hurt my health?
http://www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/pollution-main.html…… [Read More]
Effects on Humans and Animals and hat Can Be Done
The long-term effects of water, soil, and air pollution on the human and animal populations can be quite severe. All animals need water and air to live, and the pollutants that exist in them often do not leave the tissues of the consuming animal. Compounds like mercury and lead are absorbed by animals further down on the food chain and are collected in higher and higher levels as each animal is consumed on its way up the food chain (ADEQ, 2009). ith humans on the top of this food chain, it is easy to see how all of the aggregate mercury contamination in Arizona's fish and cattle populations would end up pooling in the human population. Soil contamination affects everyone for generations to come, since homes and businesses will likely be built on mine tailings and other polluted areas of…… [Read More]
Considering that the functionality requirements have been met, there is the need to ensure that the system is able to satisfy customer demands. In this order of ideas, the banking institution must select the types of services it desires to offer through mobile banking. The most common such applications include the ability to verify the balance in one's account and make transfers to other accounts. Additional applications could be made available to further increase customer satisfaction and these could include information on exchange rates or even the ability to convert one currency into another currency. ajnish Tiwari and Stephan Buse (2007) mention the existence of three categories of services offered through mobile banking -- mobile accounting, mobile brokerage and mobile financial information services. The authors go on to explaining that while information services can be offered as independent services, accounting and brokerage are always dependent on information and will be…… [Read More]
Without a business being ethical, they cannot succeed in the business since they will have serious lawsuits for the lack of safety in the workplace. The case study does not lead us to reassess the validity of the arguments advanced by the authors since it enhances the previous readings and continues to build knowledge on the previous readings.
Which points or the arguments discussed, do you agree with and which do you disagree with? And why?
I am in agreement with the government having to compensate the workers for the effects suffered by the workers in terms of the compensation package paid out to the employees and the money they had to pay for the cleanup of the environment to revert the harmful effects caused by the exposure to the plutonium.
I disagree with the way the previous owners of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant hid and refused to disclose…… [Read More]
Blue Jean Waste video is shocking in many ways, because it shows the damage that is being done to developing countries by big corporations. However, it is also not shocking in that many people are no longer surprised that big corporations treat developing countries in that way. Since these countries do not have the kinds of regulations that are seen in the United States and other developed countries, it is much easier for companies to pollute and damage them without any real risk of recourse. If I were a leader of one of the corporations involved, I would take action to stop the pollution and the ridiculous mistreatment of valuable resources. It is not just the people who are being harmed by the pollution, but the very planet itself. Too many people treat the planet as an infinite resource, but that is simply not the case. Clean air, water, and…… [Read More]
History River Ganges? - famous? -Why considered holy? -Talk religious traditions surrounding . -famous floods disasters river caused river? -talk polluted -talk clean . -How river affect living ? Scope Essay: The focus essay River Ganges Varanasi.
Ganges is the sacred river of India and this country's history and traditions are closely linked to it. It is important for the economy, including because of transportation facilities, and for many other reasons. However, primarily, it is core to Indian identity, linking the present to the mythological past and to the future.
Despite all these aspects, the Ganges remains under serious threat because of the pollution levels in the water. Despite governmental efforts to curb pollution and solve some of the stringent aspects of this negative phenomenon, pollution remains a big problem (Agrawal 1994, 46). Human and industrial waste, as well as the side effects of national festivals that involve bathing in…… [Read More]
C. Global warming, rampant pollution, and unchecked carbon emissions into the atmosphere are so serious that, in theory, they could negatively impact earth's entire ecology. If we think of the earth as an organism, with the great forests as the lungs, the river systems as veins, the oceans as kidneys, etc., it is easy to see that any solution must be long-term and be formed in a manner that takes into consideration the inter-relationships between climate zones and regions, irrespective of political boundaries (Kimball, 2008).
D. One of the key changes in the late 20th and early 21st centuries is that of the movement in economics (trade, etc.), politics, and culture toward a more global, less regional stance. With this, the complex nature of modern life shows us that regardless of the political unit, issues that affect the eco-system are broad-based enough to have both positive and negative effects on…… [Read More]
Pollution and Prevention
In a multi-pronged approach, communities can institute public education pollution prevention programs that include publicly maintained depositories for collecting hazardous waste. Public education is crucial to reducing nonpoint source pollution (NPS) through the use of strategies that reduce pollution in water and in the soil. Nonpoint source pollution occurs when rainwater or snowmelt picks up natural and man-made pollutants from diverse sources and eventually deposits those pollutants into coastal waters, ground waters, lakes, rivers, steams, and wetlands. When people are ignorant of the collective impact of their behaviors and habits, they are not equipped to take positive action to reduce pollution and protect the environment. Although the amount of pollutants may seem small, the collective amount of chemicals and other pollutants that is picked up and carried through storm drains to surface waters can be huge. When casual disposal of chemicals and pollutants into storm drains occurs…… [Read More]
Since the Industrial evolution, and especially since the proliferation of automobiles worldwide, air pollution has been a serious problem. Any industrial activity that involves the use of energy can cause pollution. This is because creating energy requires the consumption, or burning, of one source to create the desired product such as heat, light, or motion. The use of synthetic chemicals in modern industry has led to the emission of potentially deadly chemical compounds into the environment. Many of these compounds enter the surface air, and people may be exposed to them at their workplace or in their homes. Other chemicals enter the earth's atmosphere, where it lingers in the form of smog. Some chemical compounds enter different layers of the earth's atmosphere like the ozone layer.
Air pollution tends to be concentrated in large cities with dense populations for several reasons. For one, cities have an increased numbers of…… [Read More]
Multiple forms of pollution are quickly becoming a focal point of concern for many societies concerned with both human and natural environments. One of the primary difficulties with controlling pollution is that it frequently comes from many sources and possesses the power to contaminate numerous aspects of life. Additionally, companies and corporations are often very resistive to implementing pollution controls, as they can have substantial costs associated with them. Ordinary citizens, as well, tend to resist actions that potentially could help the environment simply because they are time consuming or conflict with other aims. Nevertheless, as the population of the earth grows and Americans continue to utilize an ever increasing amount of the world's resources and energy, pollution is reaching levels that threaten lives and the traditional functioning of society.
One form of pollution that has received increased attention in recent years has been noise pollution. Usually, the problem is…… [Read More]
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…… [Read More]
Urban Pollution by Joel a. Tarr
Joel Tarr's article, "Urban Pollution -- Many Long Years Ago" is largely about the form of urban pollution that preceded that created by automobiles. In short, this pollution was largely caused by horses, which were used as the dominant form of transportation from the end of the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century. The author is essentially establishing a comparison between the pollution caused by horses and that caused by automobiles, although he devotes the vast majority of the article to elaborating on the fact that the pollution caused by horses was considered as big of a problem as the pollution caused by automobiles in the 1970s. If one examines the amount of space he uses for detailing the concerns regarding horse pollution to that of automobile pollution, one can infer that the former appears to be worse than…… [Read More]
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…… [Read More]
Yellow River Pollution
A report published by Terra Daily (2006) reports that the famous Yellow River of China "is becoming more polluted, with water flow dropping despite billions of tons of waste being pumped into it…" The largest part of the discharge is reported to be coming from factories in China and the discharge increased "by 88 million tons from 2004, and more than 66% of the water in the river was unfit for drinking." (Terra Daily, 2006) According to officials, "excessive exploitation of the river's water resources had resulted in lower sections totally drying up on more than 1,000 days between 1972 and 1999." (Terra Daily, 2006)
Another source reports that in 1972 that the Yellow River, for the first time in the recorded history of China had "dried up in patches and failed to reach the sea." (Time World, 2006) It is reported that while the central government…… [Read More]
Both women suffer hard and endure their pain gracefully. Wang Ya-Ming cries but does not feel sorry for herself. Her tears are like a symbolic means of self-purification. She stood "with her back to the classroom," and did not make a habit of crying (3). Her inner strength is evident in her self-composure. Wang Ya-Ming is stalwart and self-contained. She studies hard and for the most part ignores and quietly endures the taunting and teasing. At one point in the story, the narrator notices that her chin was "tilted slightly higher than usual, as through she were calmed by a feeling of repose and a sense of contentment," (3). When she is forced to sleep on a hard bench outside of the dorm bedroom, she comments, "Sleep is sleep no matter where you lie down, so what's the difference," (5). In a similar way, Hsiang Lin's Wife demonstrates remarkable strength…… [Read More]
Reduction of air pollution (PM 2.5) in Beijing, China
The environmental challenge of pollution has been at the top of the agenda in any conferences where the environmental conservation is the theme. There are various categories of pollution that are experienced and one of the major one, and sadly the fasted growing and dangerous, is air pollution. There are various cities that are considered worse off in terms of air pollution and Beijing, China happens to be one of the leading cities in air pollution.
Over the years, there has been a serious problem of air pollution within Beijing, with some levels going so high that the reach the 151-200 air quality index (AQI) such that the residents of these areas have to use masks (U.S. Department of State, 2014 Mission China: Beijing). The main sources of pollution within this city have been noted over time to be exhaust from…… [Read More]
Riding a bike to work or school immediately reduces the carbon footprint that otherwise would be left from the exhaust of your car. Taking a bus, a trolley, carpooling or walking -- any of these modes of transportation is being "green" instead of contributing to pollution and to global climate change. it's true that every mile you drive your car, you produce exhaust waste, and so over a year's time of driving your car to work or school, you are adding thousands of pounds of pollutants to the air that every one breathes.
When shopping for groceries, use a cotton bag or other reusable shopping bag rather than letting the checker fill plastic bags with your purchases. Plastic bags (it is well-known) find their way onto the sidewalks, roadways, in fields and in waterways, and they cause injuries and death to wildlife, and so it is always a good way…… [Read More]
In the article titled: "Plastic garbage in oceans: Understanding marine pollution from microplastic particles," discussion starts with the danger posed by microplastic particles to numerous marine life that inhabit the oceans and seas. These "large quantities of globally produced plastics end up in the oceans where they represent a growing risk." The smallest objects within the range of particles that make up the pollution are microplastic particles which not only pose the greatest risk in harming marine wildlife, but also remain the least investigated pollutant. The article wishes to show how efforts are being undertaken to establish standardized guidelines to help record and characterize microplastic particles in the sea for analysis and measurement of its impact on marine wildlife.
When observing the source of these microplastic particles, the investigators note the water bottles in and around the shorelines and the pieces of plastic floating in the water creating the…… [Read More]
urban area of Tampa, Florida, and serves as an instrumental case study of how an urban locale can address problems of environmental health and safety. Specifically, this study assesses the failures and successes of Tampa to regulate and reduce water, air and waste pollution through various programs. Through quantitative analysis of city managers' statistics and survey of the population (random sampling), findings indicate that positive steps have been taken through initiatives like S.W.E.E.P. and the attention given to Tampa's estuaries and water sources so as to maintain healthy ecosystems. However, air pollution has yet to be addressed, as the state has eliminated its vehicle emissions testing. Coal-burning power plants like Big Bend also contribute to air pollution and a discussion of the beneficial impact of wind power is provided as a recommendation for addressing this issue.
Environmental Health and Safety Case Study: Tampa, Florida
Urban areas in the U.S.…… [Read More]
Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.
Air Pollution Emission
One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. eported as…… [Read More]
9% of the turtles" -- and "plastics" dominated the debris found (Katsanevakis, p. 75). The list of plastic trash found in those turtles is too long to include in this research.
Seabirds (especially pelicans, gannets and gulls) often fall prey to "monofilament line"; albatrosses, petrels, penguins and grebes are not found entangled in plastic fishing line or other plastic debris as often as pelicans and gulls (Katsanevakis, 2008, p. 69). hat is particularly insidious about plastic is when it is ingested by marine animals is releases "toxic chemicals" due to the chemical additives that are added to the plastic during the manufacturing process. Once in the abdomen of the animal the toxic materials can block the digestive tract and block "gastric enzyme ingestion, diminished feeding stimulus, nutrient dilution, reduced growth rates, lowered steroid hormone levels, delayed ovulation and reproductive failure," Katsanevakis asserts (p. 71).
There is lethal danger for small…… [Read More]
China's Health Indicators
China has gone through impressive economic development over the past few years, and has experienced a big reduction in poverty along with other positive achievements. Due to improvement in living conditions, nutrition, and healthcare, there have been " ... declines in infant mortality and deaths from infectious diseases," according to The New England Journal of Medicine (He, 2005). But there have also been negatives associated with urbanization and industrialization -- in particular China's stubborn air pollution and its negative impacts on health -- that have increased the risk of " ... chronic disease, including vascular disease and cancer" (He, 1125). This paper reviews the health indicators for China along with other pertinent data and information relating to the well-being of the Chinese people.
China's Demographics and Data on Health Issues
The population of China (based on 2013 data from the orld Health Organization -- HO) is approximately…… [Read More]
Urban air pollution is one of the biggest environmental concerns for my community. And not just my community; air quality has seriously deteriorated in many cities around the globe over the last 60 or so years. The increasingly poor urban air quality has been largely caused by industrialization. Vehicles exhaust has also contributed to the poor air quality. In most urban areas, air pollution is a mixture of gas-phase and particle pollutants. Air pollution has serious negative effects on the quality of life especially in terms of health. In my community, the pollution sometimes gets so bad that it is visible. In other cities and mega cities around the world industrial smog is so bad it affects visibility on the road (Liu et al., 2016).
Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Urban Air Pollution
Accidently making things worse
One of the ethical dilemmas is the fear that in dealing with certain sources of…… [Read More]
This method makes effective use of ability of metals to float on surfaces of leachates on their own. Due to the high proven efficiency of this method, it is widely used for removal of heavy metals such as iron and humic acid from leachates in many parts of the world.
emoval of Plastic from Municipal Waste
Plastic is a non-biodegradable waste that has low recycling margin. Unfortunately, plastic is widely used in everyday products is heavily present in the municipal waste. The environmental threat posed by the presence of plastic in municipal waste is another major issue. Major plastic types that are commonly found in UK municipal waste include PET, high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other plastics such as melamine. Major source of these types of plastic are fizzy drink bottles, bottles of detergents and washing liquids, plastic plates cups and spoons, bin bags,…… [Read More]
That particular ethical concern may be harder to define precisely, simply because it may be too restrictive and no different from the types of decisions considered appropriate in the U.S. In that regard, provided it violates no domestic or foreign laws and that it is not undertaken for the purpose of shifting the environmental risk (osenstand, 2008), the relocation is no different from situating a similar plant in any local community that does not benefit from the existence of the plant.
osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics.…… [Read More]
Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges
"SYSTEMS THINKING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINAILITY CHALLENGES"
POLLUTION IN THE OCEANS
"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"
Pollution in the Oceans
Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.
'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is…… [Read More]
Bahrain's National Action Charter, the Bahrain Economic Vision 2030, and the National Strategic Master Plan 2030 all promote sustainable economic development. A number of formal governmental and private sector organizations help to inform actual strategies for improving Bahrain's environmental assessments. The key issues the Kingdom of Bahrain faces in the early 21st century include water access, air pollution, urban development, rising sea levels, the pollution of the ocean by the petrochemical industries, and ineffective waste management.
Until 1925, Bahrain relied on freshwater springs. By the 1980s, almost all of those freshwater sources had ceased flowing, and now the Kingdom relies on "non-conventional sources of water," namely desalination (Bahrain Economic Development Board, 2017). Bahrain has four desalination plants. Still, Bahrain has a terrible water consumption ratio and is ranked as the second most wasteful water user in the world, measured in water per square centimeter of land (Bahrain Economic Development…… [Read More]
clarion call for the people and leaders of El Paso to better focus (or at least start focusing) on the subject of soil erosion, water runoff and sedimentary issues relating the land and material around the roads and bridges of our town. While some may treat this subject as relatively or completely unimportant, this could not be further from the truth. As shown by what can happen with things like flash floods, landslides and so forth, the proper management of waste and rain water runoff is very important and should be handled in an evidence-based way rather than a cobbling together of a budget line item here and there. While a lot of the calls for more infrastructure funding and better infrastructure management are over the top, this is not one of those messages and not one of those subjects that should be easily dismissed or set aside.
The…… [Read More]
Therefore, the Pentateuch plays a very important formal role in the Jewish faith.
However, the oral Torah may be as important to the Jewish people. One of the underlying components of Judaism is that the Jews are God's chosen people. As God's chosen people, even the non-religious history of the Jewish people becomes religious. This is because God informs their activities in a way that is not necessarily acknowledged in other religions. For example, a history of Christianity should include the Crusades, because they were driven by religion, but because Christianity is not envisioned as a living religion in the same way as Judaism, the history is not viewed in the same way. In contrast, the history of the Jewish people is not separable from the religious relationship that the Jewish people have with God as his chosen people.
Frankel's viewpoint of the Oral Torah, particularly the Siddur and Mahzor,…… [Read More]
Blondeau, P., Tiffonnet, a.L., Damian, a., Amiri, O., and Molina, J.L. (2003). Assessment of contaminant diffusivities in building materials from porosimetry tests. Indoor Air, 13(3), 310-318.
Daisey, J.M., Angell, W.J., and Apte, M.G. (2003). Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information. Indoor Air, 13(1), 53-64.
Fink a. (1998). Conducting research literature reviews: From paper to the Internet . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Overmeire, M.V., Verbrandt, F.J.. & Jonckheere, .E. (1999) Noise Pollution: Causes, effects and control. In Environmental Management in Practice: Compartments, Stressors, and Sectors. Volume: 2, eds. Nath, B. Hens, L. Compton, P. & Devuyst, D. London: outledge.
Palfrey, J. (1994) Community child health: An action plan for today. Westport, CT: Praeger
Pope, C.A., Thun, M.J., Namboodiri, M.M., Dockery, D.W., Evans, J.S., Speizer, F.E., and Heath, C.W. (1995). Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of…… [Read More]
promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.
Fuel efficient cars
Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.
Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.
Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)
The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…… [Read More]
The authors explain that "Large-scale habitat loss and fragmentation…" that results from urban sprawl is a major cause of the lack of biodiversity within the insect species (Acharya, 1999, 27). Even the building of a new road, or street lights, in places where previously there were no roads or lights, what the authors call "undisturbed areas," has an impact on insect biodiversity, Acharya explains. Meanwhile, moths, which are known to be drawn to light, have trigger mechanisms that detect the echolocation signals of bats; and on the other hand bats feed "…heavily" on moths, Acharya continues; in fact many bat species use moths as their "main food item" (Acharya, 27).
The point of that information (and of this study) in this peer-reviewed piece is that if "…eared moths" exhibit behaviors that allow them to avoid bat attacks, they would not be caught as often by bats and hence this would…… [Read More]
Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )
The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…… [Read More]
Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines
Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction…… [Read More]
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…… [Read More]
"From the junction of the East and West Forks the Trinity River continues southeast, forming all or part of the county lines between Kaufman and Ellis, Ellis and enderson, enderson and Navarro, Freestone and Anderson, Anderson and Leon, Leon and ouston, and ouston and Madison counties. It then cuts across northern Walker County to form a portion of the county line between Walker and Trinity counties and continues as the county line between Trinity and San Jacinto and Polk counties. At the northern line of Liberty County the Trinity turns almost directly south, cutting across Liberty and Chambers counties, to drain into Trinity Bay just west of Anahuac (at 29°45' N, 94°42' W)."
So it is easy to see how complicated any undertaking at revitalization of the river would be. The pollution that plagues the Trinity are not so unlike other rivers across the country that have been successfully revitalized;…… [Read More]
Environmental Pollution Scenario: eview and Summary
Although cities contribute to both waste and global warming because of population density and the demands of urban life, they also offer the potential to conserve energy in terms of transportation costs, in comparison to suburban and rural areas. The compact nature of cities makes alternative transportation such as buses, subways, walking, jogging, and bicycle use a feasible alternative to using cars. egarding the effectiveness of public transportation, in terms of mitigating the effects of global warming it is estimated that "public transit reduces carbon monoxide emissions by nearly 745,000 tons annually. This equals nearly 75% of the carbon monoxide emissions by all chemical manufacturers in the United States" (How public transportation helps the environment, 2014). Public transportation also reduces smog-generating pollutants by 100,000 tons per year (How public transportation helps the environment, 2014).
Finally, using public transportation reduces U.S. dependency on oil in…… [Read More]
Many businesses in this day and age seek to demonstrate stewardship and resolve to do business within a guideline of corporate social responsibility. In this quest many have chosen to focus on greening their business often including both procurement and manufacture, seeking to reduce the effect of their business on the environment. The different systems approaches that an organization can utilize to demonstrate more effective environmental sustainability are almost as varied as the companies themselves. The utilization of pollution prevention programs depends almost entirely on what it is a company does and what wastes they challenge to control. Additionally companies seek to demonstrate their compliance utilizing various accounting tools that are often made public and become incorporated in their systems designs. These designs will incorporate procurement, logistics, on demand manufacture, i.e. lean manufacture and many other possible systems designs to both demonstrate cost savings and produce a more…… [Read More]
Carbon emissions during recent decades have generated much controversy and some communities have taken harsh measures in order to combat effects associated with the process. The Australian Federal Government introduced a carbon tax of $23AUD per ton of emitted carbon dioxide on a series of fossil fuels in order to effectively deal with pollution. Finances gained from the process have been used to reduce income tax and provide Australian citizens with several benefits. hile the legislation has been welcomed by many local and international bodies, some have frowned upon it and have called for its repeal on account of how it produced much damage both on a small level by increasing cost of living and on a larger level by preventing businesses from being able to experience progress.
Tony Abbott's article "THE COALITION'S PLAN TO ABOLISH THE CARBON TAX" is among the most recognized criticisms regarding the carbon tax in…… [Read More]
San Joaquin Delta Pollution
Throughout the annals of American history the development of California from a parched desert to thriving center of agriculture and commerce remains one of the nation's most incredible achievements. In order to supply continual supplies of fresh water for farming, drinking and municipal uses massive bodies of running water were diverted, channeled and harnessed so that California may one day be hospitable for millions of American citizens. Perhaps no other place showcases the tremendous feats of engineering and ingenuity which gave rise to California than the Sacramento/San Joaquin iver Delta, the largest estuary in the country and one of the world's only inverted river deltas. Through a gradual process of constructing earthen levees the early residents of the state diverted the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers to form a network of small irrigation channels which watered individual ranches and tracts of farmland. These lifelines connected settlers…… [Read More]
Features of the Ocean Floor
As one travels away from the continents, water depths increase in a systematic manner.
Closest to the continents are continental shelves with water depth typically less than 1000 m. Continental shelves were formed as rivers carried tons of particles of sand and soil from the land out to sea. This sand and soil then settled as layers of sediments, or layers of particles of rock and animal remains.
Commonly at the distal edge of the continental shelves, there is a marked continental slope where water depths increase quickly. The continental slope separates the continental shelf from the ocean floor.
The continental rises, located at the base of the continental slopes, mark the beginning of the deep ocean basins.
Submarine canyons commonly occur along continental margins and transport sediment from the margins down into the deep ocean basins.
B. Mid Ocean idges
Long mountain…… [Read More]
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…… [Read More]
Because transportation infrastructure and services are important components of the urban system, they need to be sustainable and contribute to economic growth rather than harm the people that rely on them for their livelihoods. According to Asri and Hidayat (2005), "The expansion of social and economic activities has resulted in rising pollution and environmental degradation following the economic crisis in Jakarta Metropolitan area where environmental regulations were largely disregarded" (p. 1792). Taken together, these issues represent a growing public health threat that requires informed solutions, and these issues are discussed further below at they relate to the aims and objectives of the study.
Aims and Objectives
This research has an aim and several objectives. The aim of this research is to find out how the pollution levels occurred in several main roads in Jakarta and explore some strategies to reduce carbon pollution levels by using some schemes and scenarios. These…… [Read More]
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…… [Read More]
Another unfortunate reality is that simply banning the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will only stymie efforts to improve the economic situation of the region. New mining, agricultural, and electrical interests are being encouraged to invest in the region because they will facilitate economic growth and propel communities out of poverty. An outright ban on the discharge of effluents into the Olifants River will have the net result of undermining economic growth and crippling the communities that already rely on this economic base for their livelihood.
Many communities and governments, however, are experimented with market-based solutions to situations in which the interests of many firms, individuals, and organizations must be balanced with the larger desire to protect valuable environmental resources so that all can utilize them. The Australian government, in particular, has pioneered efforts to introduce market economic into pollution control and regulation. Their experiences with this method…… [Read More]
Surveillance System for an Environmental Health Concern
Environmental health is an important concern for health care providers because it comprises the areas of human health that are impacted by external factors, such as chemical agents, biological agents, physical environment and so on. Issues that fall under environmental health are air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, chemical spills, and other areas (Laroque, 2009). Because of the risk of these areas negatively impacting human health, there is a need to monitor environmental health areas. One major area of environmental health that desperately needs surveillance is the quality of the air in urban areas near major airports. As Schlenker and Walker (2015) point out, airports are responsible for some of the highest concentrations of air pollution in the nation. An as West et al. (2016) show, air pollution is the cause of millions of premature deaths all over the earth. Thus, there is…… [Read More]
The 1980s (the period when onald eagan was the U.S. President) witnessed a series of government measures targeting environmental regulations. This resulted in public outrage against the anti-environmental policies of the government leading to a renewed interest in nature clubs and groups and the formation of radical groups who led strong movements to protect the environment. (vii) the post- eagan resurgence (1990s onwards) - President Bush and President Clinton did not take the radical stance of their predecessor. However, President George W. Bush has taken many measures which have weakened the environmental movement instead of strengthening it. This includes opposing curbs on greenhouse emissions via the Kyoto Protocol, supporting oil drilling in the ANW or Arctic National Wildlife ange, weakening clean air standards and lifting the ban on logging in forests.
3) How does economics determine the public's opinion regarding environmental issues? Discuss the values of the dominant social paradigm…… [Read More]
From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)
Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…… [Read More]
Haze in China
Pollution has become a major issue across the globe given the devastating impacts of human activities, particularly industrial processes, on the Earth’s Atmosphere. Environmental pollution is regarded as one of the major causes of global warming or climate change, which has negative impacts on the Earth’s ecosystems. China is one of the countries affected by environmental effects associated with human activities and industrial/manufacturing processes. The country has been struggling with haze and fog since 2013, which have generated public anxiety and official concerns. Regional haze is regarded as one of the most devastating weather events in China over the past few years. Even though haze can emerge from natural causes, it is largely man-made, especially due to coal emission, huge coal incineration, and winter heating. This paper examines haze in China in relation to its devastating impacts with a view of identifying the most suitable approach…… [Read More]
Of course, the 2007 pet food scandal is also a result of this same lack of regulation and inspection in China. Pet food manufactured here in the United States and in Canada contained melamine, an ingredient used in the manufacture of plastic dinnerware, but also a key ingredient in many fertilizers. It sickened thousands of dogs and cats, and hundreds died as a result of eating the tainted pet food. This incident helped bring the dangers of Chinese imported food and other products into focus, and made it much more real for many Americans. As a result, many people are becoming more vigilant about Chinese products, and some Congressmen have called for bans on all Chinese foods that are not inspected, but that has not occurred.
Clearly, this poses a danger to American consumers, and it is one reason that Chinese imports are the biggest threat to America.
However, Chinese…… [Read More]
Rational firms will choose the lowest-cost option between the two. The market is expected to be efficient, so that while some firms will find it cheaper to pollute, other firms will find it cheaper to install pollution abatement mechanisms.
Ultimately, the system will seek to deliver the lowest per-unit cost of abatement. This will be achieved because the firms that are going to abate their pollution are the ones for whom the cost of abatement is lower than the cost of polluting. With these firms focused on their abatement efforts, they will deliver a greater degree of pollution abatement at a lower per-unit cost with the marketable permits than any other system.
To see the value in this system, the alternative must be considered. If firms are mandated to reduce pollution, they will do so to bring themselves under the maximum allowable pollution levels. However, firms will have no economic…… [Read More]