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Water is an important natural resource upon which all the living beings rely for their existence and growth. Nature has blessed the earth with uncountable water resources but usable quantity is limited. Hence, it is important to use water sparingly. The irony is, human activities result is high water pollution which further shortens the water supply for use.
"In an age when man has forgotten his origins and is blind even to his most essential needs for survival, water along with other resources has become the victim of his indifference" (Carson, 2002, p. 39).
Water is considered to be most crucial one among all the world's natural resources. Although it covers the largest part of the earth's surface (70%), yet it is the limiting factor most of the times. This is because most of this water is not available for use in agriculture or for other human needs…
Carson, R. (2002). Silent Spring. New York: Houghten Mifflin.
Chiras, D.D. (2012). Environmental Science. Burlington: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Dowdeswell, E. (1996, October). Water. Our planet. Retrieved from http://www.ourplanet.com/imgversn/83/editoral.html
Duhigg, C. (2009, September 17). Health Ills Abound as Farm Runoff Fouls Wells. New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com /2009/09/18/us/18dairy.html
Water Global Human Needs
System Thinking and Transformative Social Systems in Sustainability
It is a fact that above 70% of the surface of the Earth is water. However, the real issue despite the abundance of water is the availability of fresh water (Amanda, 2013). Of the total waters on Earth, 97.5% of this is salty water; this leaves only a 2.5% as fresh water. To add on this deafening fact, of all the fresh water, about 70% of this water remains solid in the Antarctica and Greenland icecaps. Moreover, the residue of the fresh water is at hand as soil moisture or lies in aquifers deep dissident as ground water not reachable for use. Amazingly, less than 1%, amounting to approximately 0.007% of all fresh water is accessible for the direct consumption for human needs. This is the water in fresh water lakes, rivers, reservoirs and tapped shallow underground sources.…
Amanda, S. (2013). Global water supply. Mother Earth News, 255. p. 16.
In the absence of proper waste management laws and regulations, as well as poor enforcement of existing waste disposal laws, an increase in the number of manufacturing entities would inevitably increase instances of water pollution. According to Goel (2006), the mere fact that smaller cities report less instances of water pollution than larger cities is a clear indicator of the relationship that exists between population density and water pollution levels. In the final analysis, "population growth and industrialization, both work synergistically to increase the levels of pollution" (Goel, 2006).
With the various issues presented in the text above in mind, prevention remains one of the best and most valid solutions to the problem of water pollution. To begin with, there exists a need to ensure that all toxic chemicals are disposed off in a proper and safe way. Proper treatment of waste material is also another critical preventive measure. The…
Girard, J. (2009). Principles of Environmental Chemistry (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Goel, P.K. (2006). Water Pollution: Causes, Effects, and Control. New York: New Age International.
McKinney, M.L., Schoch, R.M. & Yonavjak, L. (2007). Environmental Science: Systems and Solutions (4th ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Miller, G.T. & Spoolman, S. (2008). Environmental Science. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
The vast majority -- over 70% -- of our earth is covered by water. Unfortunately for our thirst, 97.5% of all the water on the planet is salt water. Only 2.5% of the water on planet earth is fresh drinking water. Given that there is such a small percentage of drinkable water on the planet, the resource has become a scarce commodity. Making matters worse is the fact that much of the available drinking water on the planet is becoming polluted -- contaminated by the same people who rely on it to sustain life. There are many sources of water pollution, including untreated human waste from sewage, lack of sanitation, agricultural chemicals, and factory chemical runoff. If nothing is done to prevent these sources of pollution from continuing to contaminate water, waterborne illnesses and infectious disease could become more prevalent. Scarcity could also be an issue, as the…
Walls-Thuma, D. (n.d). How can water pollution affect animals, homes, and health? National Geographic. Retrieved online: http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/can-water-pollution-affect-animals-homes-health-2921.html
Water.org. Website: http://water.org/
"Water Pollution and Plants," (2008). Pollution and Plants. Retrieved online: http://pollution-plants.blogspot.com/2008/02/water-pollution-and-plants.html
Wieman, B. (n.d.). How does pollution affect all living things? National Geographic. Retrieved online: http://greenliving.nationalgeographic.com/pollution-affect-living-things-including-humans-2193.html
Although the Murray-Darling River covers only about 14% of Australia's irrigated land, 50% of Australia's sheep and 25% of Australia's cattle rely on this source. Also, 40% of the nation's rice crop and 80% of its canned fruit product relies on the Murray-Darling River Complex. In all, three-quarters of Australia's water comes from the Murray-Darling River (Hussainy, p. 205).
Of course there are conflicts when so much is at stake. For one, the river carries about 2.5 tons of sale into South Australia "every minute," Hussainy writes. Inflows of saline groundwater are attributable to the problem -- and also, the removal of "native vegetation" and irrigation causes the salt to become a problem. hen the native vegetation is replace with shallow rooted crops, it is bad ecologically. The authors say that "sustainable development ecology should be regarded as part of economics" but the "myopic view of technocrats" views ecology and…
Brown, F. Lee. "Water Markets and Traditional Water Values: Merging Commodity and Community Perspectives." Water International Vol. 22 (1997): 2-5.
Global Water Partnership / Technical Advisory Committee. "Integrated Water Resource
Management. TAC Background Papers No. 4.
Gopalakrishnan, Chennat, Tortajada, Cecilia, and Biswas, Asit K. Water Institutions: Policies,
Given water scarcity, the high costs of desalinisation and other unconventional methods of supplying water, and the pollution of surface and ground waters, Israel sought other natural supplies of water from the Litani" (Dolatyar, 2002). The Israeli then invaded Lebanon, but were met with extreme resistance.
1990 - Present - Period of return to bargaining tactic
The fall of the Soviet Union, the Gulf War (1990-1991) and the interference of the United States led to more amiable relationships between the countries of the Middle Eats, which were committed to creating the "New Middle East." Several treaties were signed which were aimed to increase the collaboration and lead to the resolution of impending problems, such as environmental concerns and water resources. "For example, the peace treaty between Israel and Jordan, signed on October 26, 1994, includes five annexes, two of which address water and environmental issues. Negotiations between Israel and Syria…
Amery, H.A., Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat, the Geographical Journal, Volume 168, 2002
Associate Professor at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado, Hussein a. Amery holds a BA, an MA and a PhD in geography. Water Wars in the Middle East: A Looming Threat is based on extensive research of the previous works on water issues in the Middle East. It debates on issues such as causes for conflicts and the characteristics of the water shortage in Palestine and Israel.
Dale, W.N., Middle East Water Problems, American Diplomacy, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, http://www.unc.edu/depts/diplomat/archives_roll/2001_07-09/dale_water/dale_water.htmllastaccessed on April 7, 2008
William N. Dale was a minister-counselor in Tel-Aviv, Israel during 1946-1968, when he got the opportunity to first hand analyze the problems of the Middle East. His findings are formulated in a clear and unbiased way and his American nationality helped look at the isses with an objective eye.
The case of the orld Commission on Dams is a good example of how this tendency to centralize water resource management can be mitigated, if not completely eliminated.
The political reality of the world is that government represents more than just laws and policies, just as management and governance has to be about more than just enacting laws and edicts, but should reflect the values of the community and the interests of the communities that will be summarily affected by those policies. In the case of water resource management, this means that it must be a prerequisite to involve a wider variety of community stakeholders as part of the decision-making process in order to make more "equitable and sustainable use of rivers. But in most countries, the cards are stacked heavily against an inclusive and more balanced process. Patterns of governance for the most part still reflect the utilitarian mind-set…
Bates, Sarah F., Getches, David H., MacDonnell, Lawrence J., and Wilkinson, Charles F. Searching out the Headwaters: Change and Rediscovery in Western Water Policy. Washington, DC: Island Press, 1993.
Bauer, Carl J. Siren Song: Chilean Water Law as a Model for International Reform. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future, 2004.
Bauer, Carl. "Water Resources Management." A World Bank Policy Paper. Washington, DC: The World Bank, 1993.
Briscoe, John, Salas, Pablo Anguita, and Pena, Humberto. "Managing Water as an Economic Resource: Reflections on the Chilean Experience." Environmental Economics Series. Washington, DC: The World Bank, April 1998.
They can also enable countries to become more self-reliant rather than relying on international sources of energy. In these five ways, dams may prove very beneficial to countries utilizing them.
Many cities that build dams take advantage of damns as a resource for tourism and revenues. Because dams often pose a majestic view, and provide the opportunity for recreation in the form of boating and camping, many cities use them as a secondary source of revenue. In this sense dams are positive because they attract commerce in cities that need additional capital or revenues. However, along with these advantages come some disadvantages or problems, discussed below.
As with anything dams also have many disadvantages. For every five advantages dams provide, five disadvantages may be defined. For example, Qing & Sullivan (1999) note that while dams can stimulate economic growth and provide greater energy and power for a city, they…
EPA. (2006). Safe Water Drinking Act. Environmental Protection Agency, Retrieved October 16th, 2007: http://www.epa.gov/safewater/sdwa/index.html
Mayhew, S. (2004). A dictionary of geography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved October 16th, 2005:
University of Texas. (2005). Water surplus and deficit. UTexas.com. Retrieved October
While these solutions are expensive, and are certainly years away, the City of Lubbock should begin studies now, to ensure a safe and secure water supply for the future. In addition, the city should look at tougher restrictions for new building and landscaping as alternate ways to save water and ensure a consistent water supply for the future. Basing a block billing system on water usage in the winter is simply a route to disaster. The block billing system does not encourage water savings, as the current water emergency clearly indicates. It is not enough to ensure residents have enough water, it is based on faulty calculations, and it has already been overtaken by Stage Four emergency restrictions. It is too little too late and other ways of conserving water must be addressed. It took three years to implement this system, over much controversy and dissent. It seems now that…
Blackburn, E. (2007). New water rates discourage use of high volume. Retrieved from the Lubbock Avalanche Journal Web site: http://lubbockonline.com/stories/022307/loc_022307069.shtml22 June 2007.
2007). Comprehensive water conservation requirements. Retrieved from the City of Santa Fe Web site: http://santafenm.gov/waterwise/newcompwaterconservreq.pdf22 June 2007.
Editors. (2007). Water rate information calculation method. Retrieved from the Lubbock Power and Light Web site: http://www.lpandl.com/waterrates.htm22 June 2007.
Editors. (2007.) Desalination. Retrieved from the General Electric Web site: http://www.gewater.com/equipment/membranehousing/desal.jsp22 June 2007.
In contrast, hot water systems are basically used to warm the water through various heating elements before the warm water enters a home.
The advantages of using the city water system is that these systems can serve an entire community more efficiently and their ability to produce water of premium quality. However, the city water systems have several disadvantages such as the possibility of the additives used to affect the taste of the water and inability of individuals to manage the water supply or source. On the contrary, water well has the advantage of enabling community members to manage the water themselves. Nonetheless, the disadvantage of these water systems is that it time consuming and energy consuming to treat the water.
There are some necessary calculations or water supply information that are important to firefighters in the community including the maximum daily consumption, the required gpm flow, and the…
"Water Demand." (n.d.). Lesson 3 -- Introduction to Water Treatment Math. Retrieved from Mountain Empire Community College website: http://water.me.vccs.edu/courses/ENV115/lesson3_2.htm
"What Are the Different Types of Water Systems?" (n.d.). Wise Geek -- Clear Answers to Common Questions. Retrieved July 16, 2012, from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-the-different-types-of-water-systems.htm
With this information, people can make informed decisions regarding the water they consume. Which additives are healthful? Which are not? These are examples of only some of the questions responsible consumers should have when choosing their water. Regarding the use of plastics, the solution is simple. By simply changing their habits from plastic water bottles to stainless steel or any of the other alternatives, not only is the consumer choosing something that supports of the well-being of the planet, but also supports the well-being of themselves.
This is merely one solution of many meant to work towards a more sustainable lifestyle across the globe. That the consumption of water increased so quickly, all over the world, signifies the impact of advertising on consumer choices. This can be a reason for hope, since just as quickly the use of stainless steel water bottles and clean water can be brought into individual…
7. Fluoride Action Network, Health Effects, ( http://www.fluoridealert.org/health ...)
8. Fluoridation/Flouride, Toxic Chemicals in Your Water, ( http://www.holisticmed.com/fluoride/ )
9. Worth Health Organization, Water Related Diseases, ( http://www.who.int/water_sanitation ...)
But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."
TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…
Clausen, Jan. (2000). Northwest Tribes Fight Against Formidable Odds to Save Endangered
Salmon. Nation. 270(3), 22-24.
Gelt, Joe. (2005). Managing the Interconnecting Waters: The Groundwater-Surface Water
Dilemma. University of Arizona. Retrieved Oct. 16, 2007, at http://cals.arizona.edu/axwater/arroyo/081con.html .
Questions: Why are there different forms of precipitation? Why would it make sense that the water cycle regulates the amount of water on earth?
Actvities: Analyze different forms of precpitation by following a drop of water through water cycle. Why is it important that some water be stored in ice or snowpacks? (See: http://www.proteacher.com/redirect.php?goto=5347)
Focuses on a particular aspect of experience and demonstrates conceptual understanding.
Questions: Does salt water act the same way as fresh water in the water cycle?
Activity: Place appropriate terms for water cycle in visual representation, as the one from the U.S. Geological Survey. (3 stage learning technique; identification, understanding, evaluation/explanation). See: http://www.proteacher.com/redirect.php?goto=5347
Challenge and extend conceptual understanding and skills through new, deeper, and broader activities.
Questions: What impact has civilization had on the water cycle? Are there dangers to irrigation or transforming arid areas into agriculutural areas? What about the polar ice caps?…
The Water Cycle. (2009). Cited in: U.S. Geological Survey.
Water Facts. (2011). Water.org. Cited in:
Water Awareness and Education for Sustainable Watershed Management
Today, the human society continuously deals with the issue of limited resources, as compared to an extensively growing amount of needs. Among these limited resources, water is vital, not only because mankind cannot survive without it, but also because it is essential to producing so many other secondary items, including food and clothing. At the same time, water and watersheds are an essential part of the environment, home to numerous species of animals and plants. Conservationism and environmental protection has a definite impact on the existence and evolution of mankind as well.
With that in mind, this project proposal will focus on identifying a set of solutions that the inhabitants in the Medina River Watershed (exar & Medina County TX) can use to address water pollution in this area, as well as the means by which water conservation can be consolidated and…
1. Engel, F.L. (n.d.) Geomorphic Classification of the Lower San Antonio River, Texas. Texas Water Development Board. Project 0604830637. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/0604830637_LowerSanAntonioRiver.pdf
2. HDR Engineering [HDR] (2000, December). The Edwards Aquifer Watershed Brush Control Planning Assessment & Feasibility Study. Texas State Soil & Water Conservation Board. Retrieved on July 12, 2011 from website http://www.nueces-ra.org/II/brush/
3. Moore, E.A., & Koontz, T.M. (2003). Research Note A Typology of Collaborative Watershed Groups: Citizen-Based, Agency-Based, and Mixed Partnerships. Society & Natural Resources, 16(5), 451. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
4. O'Neill, K.M. (2005). Can Watershed Management Unite Town and Country? Society & Natural Resources, 18(3), 241-253. doi:10.1080/08941920590908097
Water, Gatorades and Powerades
I am a registered dietician, presenting my piece of work on the different types of beverages. I am giving this presentation because water is an overlooked nutrient in the hydration process while it can be an excellent sports beverage. Water is the most essential nutrient in the body because death can occur rapidly in the absence of water than any other nutrient. Knowing this, does not take much imagination when dehydration occurs during sports performance or training. Around 60% of the human body is inside water called intracellular cells, and the muscle tissues have 70% of water which is critical during exercise.
Gatorade and PowerAde contain added proteins, sodium and carbohydrates, which help in increasing blood glucose levels and high cycling performance. PowerAde has low calories while Gatorade is lightly flavored with enhanced vitamins also with low calories. These power drinks are moderately isotonic because, they…
Heather, F.A. (2011). Practical Applications In Sports Nutrients. Atlanta: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Jones, R.S. (2010). Nutrition for Sport and Exercise. Atlanta: Jonnes and Bartlett Publishers.
"Raw water and post-treatment water are tested for bacterial, physical, and chemical standards, particularly pH, color, and turbidity. The Safe Drinking ater Act of 1974 established maximum contaminant levels, which are the national drinking water standards. These apply to any water distribution system that serves at least twenty-five units daily. Standards may vary from state to state, but they cannot be lower than those prescribed by the federal government" (Robson 2010).
"astewater treatment means removing all the contaminants that are found in wastewater. This is a type of water that is composed of wastes found in industries, hospitals, homes, and other establishments that can be found in a particular community…. food scraps, soap, oil, human waste, and chemicals" ("astewater," 2010, All ater purification). In contrast to water that is rendered safe for drinking, wastewater is merely rendered safe for disposal into the environment, to ensure that it does not imbalance…
Robson, Mark G. "Water treatment." Encyclopedia of Public Health. January 24, 2010.
"Wastewater treatment." All water purification. January 24, 2010.
Therefore, it will be the teacher's responsibility to streamline the use of a standard bike pump and the erection of a launch tube, ensuring that this common denominator does not impact differently any group's experimental design.
Using a wide open space such as a soccer field which is not in the direct proximity of any structures or populated areas, groups could affix their respective design to the launch tube and retain it by tethering it to a length of twine. The student selected as the launch captain for each group would stand at a distance of at least 20 feet with the free end of the string at hand while another student from the group, selected as Ground Control, would activate the bike pump. Upon the point at which the compressed air reaches the top of the water bottle and pressure begins to build, the launch captain would release the…
Johnson, D. (1998). Water Rocket Annex. Dog Rockets. Online at http://dogrocket.home.mindspring.com/WaterRockets/index.html
Mazza, D. (2005). All About Water Rockets. NASA. Online at http://exploration.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/BottleRocket/about.htm
Wikipedia. (2009). Water Rocket. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Wikipedia1. (2009). Newton's Laws of Motion. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Water Crisis in the Middle East
What is the Six Day War, and what are the various events that led to the War? What is the background of the War, and what were its consequences? The Six Day War took place in the month of June 1967. The crisis had actually begun in the early months of 1965, when the PLO, through Fatah, led a campaign of attacks on the borders along Jordan and Lebanon. This campaign was severely criticized and opposed by not only the people of the country but also by the Arab Government, and this led to the Fatah attempting to adopt a totally new strategy that came to be known as the 'entanglement theory'. According to this strategy, Israel would be forced to adopt an 'offensive' position with the technique of 'sabotage', and this meant that the Arabs would become more wary and would in turn…
Anita Roddick, Dame. Troubled Water - Saints, Sinners, truth & Lies about the Global Water Crisis. 1 October, 2004. Retrieved From
http://www.ecademy.com/node.php?id=31940 Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Grunfeld, Lilac. Jordan River Dispute. ICE Case Studies, Case number 6. Spring 1997. Retrieved From http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/jordan.htm Accessed on 21 February, 2005
Israel 1948 to 1967, the Six-Day War Background. Retrieved From
Understanding the water cycle
The cycle of evaporation and condensation that controls the distribution of the earth's water as it evaporates from bodies of water, condenses, precipitates, and returns to those bodies of water.
The targeted students need to posses a prior knowledge of living things and general knowledge of the earth and the earth's physical settings. During this unit the students will have the opportunity of learning new terminology, use technology, posing questions, and seeking answers.
The student should be able to not only identify but also describe the four main phases of the water cycle which include Evaporation, Condensation, and Collection and distinguish the functions played by each phase.
The student will be able to recognize the relationship that the water cycle and weather have.
Students will have a discussion covering the effect of human on the environment (or weather) both locally…
Water infrastructure and safety issues are far more pressing in the developing world, and large numbers of research teams and laboratories are engaged in developing better and safer water system in Africa and much of Latin America (Helmholz 2009). A lack of clean drinking water and reliable systems is a growing problem in much of the world, and so attention is shifted away from infrastructure issues in the developed world to where there is a greater need (Helmholz 2009). This leads to a lack of research in domestic water supply infrastructure issues.
Briscoe, J. (1983). "Selective primary health care revisited: water supply and health in developing countries." Arlington, Virginia, Water and Sanitation for Health Project NO. 28, pp. 18. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.popline.org/docs/0627/023354.html
Helmholz. (2009). "esearch to secure a safe water supply." Helmholz association of German research centres. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/03/20/research.secure.a.safe.water.supply
Briscoe, J. (1983). "Selective primary health care revisited: water supply and health in developing countries." Arlington, Virginia, Water and Sanitation for Health Project NO. 28, pp. 18. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://www.popline.org/docs/0627/023354.html
Helmholz. (2009). "Research to secure a safe water supply." Helmholz association of German research centres. Accessed 11 October 2009. http://esciencenews.com/articles/2009/03/20/research.secure.a.safe.water.supply
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.
This also means that consumption and price will be completely and directly linked, incentivizing reductions in water uses more so than they are under current pricing structures (though consumption is still charged per-unit, the lack of marginalization distributes prices less equitably in terms of actual expenditure to supply water). This will also give clear signals as to the extent that alternative water supplies should be investigated as a means of augmenting the water supply.
The marginal costs of water will make large urban consumers (i.e. municipalities) more likely to consume and agricultural consumers somewhat less so, possibly damaging the agricultural industry in California. Pricing structures that are not attached to volume of consumption in a linear fashion might also meet with more opposition from the public. Finally, estimating long run marginal costs can be quite complex and runs the risk of underestimation, which could lead to underfunding.
Other areas of water engineering include flood prevention and a multitude of environmental specialties, many of which relate to other areas of water engineering. Finding ways to divert runoff to prevent erosion, for example, has both civil and environmental applications, and involves identical principles in most situations (Kalle 2009). Effective strategies for collecting and draining runoff water in a way that doesn't simply divert the problem can be a lot more complex than it might at first seem, especially in environmental situations, and this is precisely why water engineers remain must have a comprehensive view of many different areas of engineering, including fluid mechanics, a knowledge of different materials for conducting water, effective ways of filtering and/or treating water, etc. The amount of knowledge required to take on any major water engineering project virtually guarantees that the engineer will have the knowledge and skill set for other jobs, too, meaning…
BLS. (2009). "Engineers." Occupational Outlook Handbook, U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos027.htm
DOT (2003). "Civil Engineering Occupations." Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.occupationalinfo.org/defset1_880.html
Kalle, M. (2009). "Water engineer: Job description and activities." Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/water_engineer_job_description.jsp
NACE (2009). "New & Emerging Occupations: Science and Engineering Occupations." National Association of Colleges and Employers. Accessed 17 November 2009. http://www.jobweb.org/studentarticles.aspx?id=1795
England's tendency to accentuate surroundings (streets, storefronts, lawns, balconies) with plants and flowers lends a natural beauty, grace, and charm to cities -- as though a piece of the countryside were still a part of them. If people in L.A. find that they can afford to do the same, why should they not? For some it will seem like a waste of money, but let the facts tell the story: those who will protest are the same who are likely to offend in less tasteful ways.
As for sticking to native plants -- I believe it is a novel idea. There is something to be said for sticking to nature's plan: if cacti are what are most natural, then let us plant cacti. This may be the highest wisdom to prevail in these discussions. For those who wish to surround themselves with fauna and flora of a different climate, there…
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
Water in Sub-Saharan Africa is of special interest because of my background but water is a fascinating issue in general, one that I think will play an increasingly large role in the 21st century, as the effects of population growth and climate change bring about significant changes to our water usage and availability. A lack of water in particular has a substantial destabilizing effect.
Water as a social issue combines a lot of different elements. As an issue, water sits at the intersection of social justice, politics, economics and agriculture are all areas weather. This is probably because water is so essential to human life. We drink it, we use in for domestic purposes, agricultural, industrial, transportation. Yet clean water is not always easy to come by. Some feel that access to clean water is a human right. So there is a significant importance attached to water in most parts…
Acerman, M. & Hollis, G. (1996). Water management and wetlands in sub-Saharan Africa. IUCN: Switzerland.
Bayliss, K. & Fine, B. (2007). Privatization and alternative public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa: Delivering on electricity and water. Palgrave MacMillan.
Bojo, J. (1996). The costs of land degradation in sub-Saharan Africa. Ecological Economics. Vol. 16 (2) 161-173.
Conway, D., Persechino, A., Ardoin, S., Hamandawana, H., Dieulin, C. & Mahe, G. (2008). Rainfall and water resources variability in sub-Saharan Africa during the 20th century. Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Retrieved April 18, 2014 from http://tyndall.ac.uk/sites/default/files/wp119.pdf
This person has been involved in water taxi projects before, so should be a good source of information about getting such a project under way.
I know a little bit about the topic in terms of having seen these types of projects before. Several cities have them and they seem quite popular. I also know that Miami is a water-oriented city with Biscayne Bay, and a lot of canals. Putting these two things together is the genesis of the water taxi idea.
O1. How would you describe the challenges in getting a water taxi venture running?
O2. hat is the role that the public and private sectors can play in a water taxi project?
O3. How have these programs been received in the past, by the public and by politicians?
hat is the current ridership of your water taxi program?
C2. Is your water…
Cooke, A., Mahon, R. & McConney, P. (2007). A livelihood analysis of the water taxi operators in the Grenadines. CERMES Technical Report No. 9. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://cermes.cavehill.uwi.edu/Technical_Reports/Cooke_2007_livelihoods_analysis_water_taxi_Grenadines_CTR.pdf
Damart, S. & Roy, B. (2009). The uses of cost-benefit analysis in public transportation decision-making in France. Transport Policy. Vol. 16 (2009). 200-212.
Savas, E. (2000). Privatization and public-private partnerships. CES Madrid. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from http://www.cesmadrid.es/documentos/sem200601_md02_in.pdf
Water Rocket Launch
6. How do you think the rocket would have behaved differently if it were launched in a weightless atmosphere?
In essence, weightlessness has got to do with the absence gravitational pull. As Newton’s first law points out, “an object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force” (Winterberg, 2015). In that regard, therefore, a rocket in its launch pad is at rest and has no unbalanced forces acting upon it. When it is launched, the forces are unbalanced by the thrust after the ignition of the engines. Gravity pulls the rocket down as it ascends. Ideally, the rocket eventually slows down when fuel runs out and gravity ‘pulls’ it back to earth after it attains the flight’s highest point. With no gravitational pull, and as per Newton’s first law, the…
This makes the issue a complex one without a clear answer; carbon dioxide is preferable to other potential byproducts of fossil fuel combustion due to the ease with which it can be trapped and its relative innocuousness in these sinks, but undesirable due to its volume and the lack of current capabilities to provide adequate sinks.
7) While it is understandable that the EPA would desire to increase public safety by revising standards for ground level ozone production and concentration, in reality this move is not entirely necessary. As business owners and operators, you know all too well the incessant environmental regulation can create significant operational difficulties and reduce if to eliminate profitability, often with no effect on environmental risks or damage. The EPA itself has found that ground-level ozone quickly dissipates and presents a minimal danger to health if properly vented and dispersed, yet they are revising regulations as…
Clegg, S. & Abbatt, J. (2001). Oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 on ice surfaces at 228 K: a sink for SO2 in ice clouds. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions 1:77-92.
EPA. (2011). Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks. Washington, DC.
Garrison, T. (2004). Oceanography. New York: Thomson Brooks.
water in your area? ("Your perspective on water differs whether you live near the Great Lakes, in the arid west, or by the coast."(McCarthy, 2009)
Outline a brief water conservation plan for your own daily use. How will these changes affect your personal life? What impact will it have on your local water supply?
There is plentiful water in my region (I live in the Great Lakes region). Nonetheless, a brief water conservation plan is the following:
To use water for just its needs and to ensure that tap water is not left running in between those needs.
To double used bathwater as water that can be used for washing the floor.
To, as much as possible, use rainwater for gardening
In order to supply water to humans certain technologies must be utilized.
Desalination is one of the methods that are used for promoting pure water supply. It literally means…
FAO report reveals GM crops not needed to feed the world http://www.psrast.org/faonowohu.htm
Forbes.com (11/03/2012) GMO Food Debate in the National Spotlight http://www.forbes.com/sites/rachelhennessey/2012/11/03/gmo-food-debate-in-the-national-spotlight/ )
Greenopolis. Top 10 Environmental Success Stories and 10 Future Challenges. http://greenopolis.com/goblog/joe-laur/top-10-environmental-success-stories-and-10-future-challenges
Groves, J (19 December 2009 ) Climate change summit accepts 'toothless' U.S.-backed agreement - but deal is not legally binding DailMail.com http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1236659/Copenhagen-climate-change-conference-World-leaders-reach-Copenhagen-agreement -- officials-admit-enough.html#ixzz2Cg3714zQ
The role of community in achieving proper water and sanitation standards in times of disaster
It is important to note that whenever a natural or manmade disaster hits a particular region, the entire community is put at risk since it is them who suffer the direct results of the disaster. These negative outcomes of the disaster could be social, economic and even psychological. It is therefore necessary to properly educate the entire community on how they can cope with water shortage and sanitation problems that are as a result of either flooding or hurricanes. The various community drinking water treatment plants should have elaborate emergency plans that are to be put in action should there be a disruption of the service. It is integral that the community water treatment facilities comply with the stringent requirements that are laid down by both the federal and state regulations.
After the emergency for…
Associated Contents,(2010) The Importance of Water to Health and to Human Life
Copeland, C (2005). Hurricane-Damaged Drinking Water and Wastewater Facilities:Impacts,
Needs, and Response
Water People analyzes the situation in which, traditional land-based humans are to live with a new specie called the water people. The paper covers the topic through the author's perspective and outlines the consequences of creating discrimination among land-based humans and water people. This paper also covers the topic through various scenarios and emphasizes on the fact that no matter what, humans should always take the responsibility of their actions.
The specie of Water People, created during the year 2010, might be new for human beings inhabiting planet Earth but the case of distinction created between two different species or race on the basis of different creed is very old and stretches as far as the beginning of time. It has always been a norm for humans belonging to one class/race to reject humans from another class/race. If history is carefully searched than one can easily determine that…
The water from my hometown in the Greater Cincinnati region is produced by the Miller Treatment Plant, which takes surface water from the Ohio River and is responsible for providing almost all of the region’s drinking water.
Water is first tested before entering the treatment plant and the region has a number of alerts in place to allow it to proactively monitor the water situation. For example, there is a detection system used on the Ohio River that “warns treatment plants downstream about spills so that measures can be taken before the spill reaches water intakes” (GCWW, 2017). Since the Ohio River is susceptible to contamination, it is important that these detection systems be in place to avoid any problems in the treatment process.
To protect drinking water, the Greater Cincinnati Waterworks (GCWW) can turn off the intake and water in storage while pollution dissipates and passes in the…
Synthesis: This quote is similar to a comment Nick makes about the Tom and Daisy Buchanan in F. Scott Fitzgerald's the Great Gatsby: "They were careless people, Tom and Daisy -- they smashed up things and creatures and then retreated back into their money or their vast carelessness or whatever it was that kept them together, and let other people clean up the mess they had made" (188). Though the Buchanans are not exactly like Mama Elena in their motives, and completely unlike her in their "carelessness" because Mama Elena's destructive impulses are controlled and purposeful, both quotes demonstrate the selfishness and amount of control that the characters involved like to exert on the others around them.
Dialectic Journal #2
Quote: "Each person has to discover what will set off these explosions in order to live, since the combustion that occurs when one of them is ignited is what nourishes…
The examples and the codes show that healthy competition is good, but must not lead to disrespectful cut-throat practices. Further, as these documents say, the engineer must resist the drive for individual gain if it puts the entire profession at stake. Everyone wants to profit, but the engineer in particular must be driven by a sense of duty and pride in solid work that goes beyond the individual to consider the needs and well-being of the public. Engineering ethics is profoundly social. The engineer must always remember that lives are in their hands when he or she is designing some product or working on a project. Nothing should stand in the way of performing this responsibility with absolute integrity, even if there are other forces pressuring the engineer to break down, whether in deception or inaccuracy or in any other way. At all times, safety should be the priority.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers. AIChE Code of Ethics. March 20, 2010. < http://www.aiche.org/About/Code.aspx >. New York: Author, 2003.
Boisjoly, Roger M. "The Challenger Disaster: Moral Responsibility and the Working Engineer." Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA, January 7, 1987.
National Society of Professional Engineers. NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers. March 20, 2010. . Alexandria, VA: Author, 2007.
Slater, Lauren. "In the Event of a Water Landing: Darley and Latane's Training Manual -- a Five Step Approach." In Opening Skinner's Box: Great Psychological Experiments of the Twentieth Century, 94-112. New York W.W. Norton, 2004.
Sustainability of the Water Supply in the Caribbean
Water sustainability is not merely an environmental problem. It is a political and social issue as well. esearch articles such as "Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean" by Iglesias (et al. 2007) focus on issues which specifically impact environmental changes such as global warming but do so in a manner to suggest specific policy prescriptions to scientists attempting to curtail crises created by the phenomenon. The paper suggests a different framework to cope with water scarcity that emphasizes preparation and prevention rather than taking a crisis management approach only after scarcity is in evidence. "The importance of local management at the basin level is emphasized, but the potential benefits depend on the appropriate multi-institutional and multi-stakeholder coordination" (Iglesias et al. 2007: 775). Stakeholder analysis is still required: something can be feasible on a technical…
Iglesias, A., Moneo., M, Garrote, L., & Flores, F. 2007. Challenges to manage the risk of water scarcity and climate change in the Mediterranean. Water Resources Management, 21 (5): 775-788
Rijsberman, F. n.d., Water scarcity: Fact or fiction. Agricultural Water Management, 80 (1)
Xu, Z., Takeuchi, K., Ishidaira, H., & Zhang, X. 2002. Sustainability analysis for Yellow River.
Pricing Water From a Utility Perspective
Water is usually a scarce commodity but not in all situations, such as in Virginia, which is characterized by plentiful ground water supply. However, the relevant agencies in this state incur costs relating to drilling and pumping water from the ground, procurement and infrastructure costs. Because of this, pricing of water has become an important factor in water management. For utility companies in Virginia and other states, selling the water at the appropriate price is increasingly important since low costs do not cover operational costs, whereas high costs contribute to inadequate sales. The determination of the most suitable pricing model or scheme requires critical evaluation from a utility perspective and whether this commodity is affected by the same principles of economics as other goods and services or utilities.
Price Sensitivity of Water
From a utility perspective, water has seemingly weak price sensitivity as compared…
Gaudin, Sylvestre, Ronald C. Griffin, and Robin C. Sickles (2001). Demand Specification for Municipal Water Management: Evaluation of the Stone Geary Form. Land Economics, 77(3), 399-422.
Gaudin, S. (2007, February 2). Effect of Price Information of Residential Water Demand.Applied Economics, 38(4), 383-393.
Gaudin, S. (2004, March).Transparent Prices for Municipal Water: Impact of Pricing and Billing Practices on Residential Water Use. Retrieved from Department of Economics -- Oberlin College website: https://new.oberlin.edu/dotAsset/96202.pdf
Howe, C.W. & Linaweaver, F.P. (1967).The Impact of Price on Residential Water Demand and Its Relation to System Design and Price Structure.Water Resources Research, 3(1), 13-32.
Waters Troubled: The Life of Ida B. Wells by Linda O. McMurry. Specifically it will contain a critical review of the book. Ida B. Wells was a black activist who came of age after the Civil War in the American South. She was influential, perhaps one of the most influential black women in American history. The author wanted to portray her history so people would have a greater understanding of what she did and who she was, and she did that admirably. She included great detail as to how Wells accomplished her goals and brought attention to many occurrences in the South, but she also focused on many items of Wells life that really had nothing to do with her many accomplishments.
The ultimate goal of Ida Wells' activist work was to bring attention to the practice of lynching of blacks in the South. Wells was orphaned at the age…
Esquivel, Laura. Like Water for Chocolate. New York: Doubleday. 1992.
Yoshimoto, Banana. Kitchen. New York: Grove Press, 1988.
Rachel Carson, she asserts that water is our most precious natural resource and goes on to state that "most of the earth's abundant water is not usable for agriculture, industry, or human consumption because of its heavy load of sea salts" (1) and therefore "in the midst of this plenty we are in want" (1).
Okay, so let's examine this particular argument; first she says that the earth's abundant water is not usable for consumption etc., due to the fact that the water contains a heavy load of sea salts. Really? Rachel offers no facts and no figures to back up her assertion, instead she implies that we are desperately in need of drinking water because most of the water is so heavily sedated with salt that it is undrinkable.
Even assuming that her assertion was true, the logical answer to the dilemma is that the water would have to…
Operation and Data Management at the Water-Authority: will there be a sustainable water supply for the next century. A case study of Water Infrastructure Management in the Caribbean. As the research problem implies, I intend to conduct a case study examining water infrastructure management in the Caribbean with the goal of determining whether existing water infrastructure management will provide sustainable water usage for the next century. The nature of the research problem requires a comparison of the currently available water resources, the renewable water resources, current water usage, and projected water demand over the coming century to determine if the water resources are adequate and will continue to be adequate for the foreseeable time period. Although the question could be approached from a quantitative perspective or a mixed-methods perspective, I believe that water usage and water management are as much about perceptions and beliefs as they are about quantitative analysis…
Brikci, N., Green, J. 2007. A guide to using qualitative research methodology. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
Shah, A. 2010. 'Water and Development', Global Issues. Available from:
. [2 September 2014].
Landscape ecology conventionally has been constrained to the knowledge of earthly methods; nevertheless, the inquiries and approaches describing the science are similarly linked for oceanic and seaside structures. The author points out that the shared relationship among longitudinal design, and ecological processes and the overarching sense of proportion on this relationship was being explored in some marine, and coastal settings as the general rule of landscape ecology were changing throughout the last 20 years of the last century. It was clear that the author intent of this article was to highpoint a study regarding changing the tools of landscape ecology to answer questions that are ecological.
The article stressed that there was a risky strategy for many organisms that inhabited spatially extensive marine landscapes which were the larval dispersal. It was fascinating to learn that a lot of the present work has put a lot of emphasis on the biophysics…
Elizabeth K. Hinchey, M.C. (2007, July). Preface: Marine and coastal applications in landscape. Landscape Ecology, 1-5.
Water is the most precious environmental asset and natural resource on earth. Approximately seventy percent of the earth's surface is covered by water and it affects every facet of life and ecology. However, despite this obvious and crucial fact, many rivers, lakes and oceans are becoming increasingly more polluted, creating a serious ecological and environmental problem. Not only is pollution the cause of the death of many organisms essential to ecological balance, but human drinking water has also been affected. This is particularly relevant with regard to the spread of disease. " Estimates suggest that nearly 1.5 billion people lack safe drinking water and that at least 5 million deaths per year can be attributed to waterborne diseases." (Krantz D. And Kifferstein, . )
The waterways and oceans of the world have been seen as an easy dumping ground for refuse and waste. This includes pollution from raw…
Krantz D. And Kifferstein, B. WATER POLLUTION AND SOCIETY. May 22, 2005. http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/waterpollution.htm
Mercury in Fish and Shellfish. May 22, 2005. http://www.oceansalive.org/eat.cfm?subnav=mercury
Rubin K. Sources of Water Pollution. May 21, 2005. http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/waterpol3.html
The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. May 21, 2005. http://response.restoration.noaa.gov/spotlight/spotlight.html
ater ars: Georgia, Florida and Alabama
The 'water wars' between Georgia, Florida, and Alabama specifically revolve around the ownership and allocation of water "in two major river basins that cross their borders (the Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa and the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint basins)" ("Tri-State water wars"). Georgia, an 'upstream user' of these bodies of water is concerned about having enough water to fuel development in the cities of Atlanta and Columbus while also having enough money to support the state's agriculture. Alabama, in contrast, is a downstream user and needs water to support its power industry, to ensure it has enough municipal supplies for residents, and to support its fishing industry ("Tri-State water wars"). Florida is also concerned about the impact that a limited water supply could have upon its fisheries as well as its critical agricultural products such as oranges. "The dispute has involved several local, state and federal agencies, courts and mediators, and…
"Chattahoochee blues." The Economist. 16 Sept 2010. Web. 2 Apr 2015.
Cotterell, Bill. "Water wars between Florida, Georgia advance at U.S. Supreme Court."
Reuters 3 Nov 2014. Web. 2 Apr 2015.
Oforiaa-Amoah, Abigale. "Water wars and International Conflict." Water is Life. 2004. Web.
The World Water Council estimates that approximately 1.1 billion people, which translates to one-sixth of the world population, lacks access to safe drinking water. Another 2.6 billion lack access to proper sanitation facilities (World Water Council, n.d.). It is estimated that by 2025, almost 3 billion people will be finding it almost impossible to meet their basic water needs (Concern Worldwide, 2012). This text discusses the potential causes of the current water scarcity problem, its implications on the environment, and the various strategies that could be used to ease or eliminate the problem.
Population growth, industrialization, and inefficient agricultural/food supply systems are the main causes of water scarcity in the world today. Population increases that are not matched with concurrent increases in the available resources put a strain on the existing resource base and increase the risk of faster depletion. Forests are cleared to create more room for…
Concern Worldwide. (2012). Water: How can we Improve the World's Access to Clean Water? Concern Worldwide. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://gcc.concernusa.org/content/uploads/2014/08/Water.pdf
The World Water Council. (n.d.). Water Crisis: Towards a Way to Improve the Situation. The World Water Council. Retrieved April 22, 2015 from http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/index.php?id=25
Toledo, V.J. & Harvey, M. (2015). Thirsty Crops Cause Water Shortages and Pollution. WWF Global. Retrieved April 22, 105 from http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/about_freshwater/freshwater_problems/thirsty_crops/
"Water is starting to become an issue" in Harper County, Kansas, where groundwater reserves are running dry (Vaidyanathan and Gilmer, 2012). Low rates of precipitation, coupled with diversion of groundwater to the oil industry, are threatening to diminish available water used for farming and domestic use. Therefore, it is important to understand the nature of groundwater in Harper County, Kansas and the flow rate of pumps in order to prepare for the future.
Harper County is in south-central Kansas, and abuts Oklahoma. The county "lies partly in the Wellington Lowland minor division of the Arkansas iver Lowland section of the Central Lowland province and partly in the ed Hills minor division of the Dissected High Plains section of the Great Plains province," (Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960). More recent geological surveys divide Harper County into six main areas: the Upland area, the Bluff Creek area (with Pleistocene deposits), the…
Barlow, Paul M. And Leake, Stanley A. 2012. Streamflow Depletion by Wells -- Understanding and Managing the Effects of Groundwater Pumping on Streamflow. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved online: http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1376/pdf/circ1376_barlow_report_508.pdf
Ellis, Blake. Water grab in Kansas oil boom. CNN Money. 12 June 2012. Retrieved online: http://money.cnn.com/2012/06/12/pf/kansas-water-america-boomtown/index.htm
Kansas Geological Survey Bulletin, 1960. Geology of groundwater resources of Harper County, Kansas. Retrieved online: http://www.kgs.ku.edu/General/Geology/Harper/index.html
Kansas Geological Survey, 2005. Retrieved online: http://www.kgs.ku.edu/Publications/Bulletins/ED10/04_occur.html
Contaminants in Drinking Water and Wastewater and Effects on Environment
Drinking water and wastewater contamination pose a significant threat to the public health sector. The contaminants affect the society in various ways, including causing diseases, developmental and growth problems. The causes of the problem are identifiable and can be managed by using the most applicable strategies. As such, necessities for the adoption of strategies that will help identify the contributing factors, results and adopt effective strategies that will prevent and reduce waterway pollution. Therefore, the research provides analysis on the effects, studies, and recommendations appropriate in reducing drinking water and wastewater contamination.
A number of chemicals play a significant role in influencing human activities of the daily living. They enable the development of new technologies and improve the standards and quality of life. Because of the widespread use of technology, chemicals enter the environment. Although, it is unintentional in…
Altaf, M.M., Masood, F., Malik, A., 2008. Impact of Long-Term Application of Treated Tannery Effluents on the Emergence of Resistance Traits in Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum. Turk J. Biol. 32, 1 -- 8
Bolong, N., Ismail, A.F., Salim, M.R., Matsuura, T., 2009. A review of the effects of emerging contaminants in wastewater and options for their removal. Desalination 239, 229 -- 246
Chen, M., Ohman, K., Metcalfe, C., Ikonomou, M.G., Amatya, P.L., Wilson, J., 2006. Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disruptors in Wastewater Treatment Effluents and in the Water Supply System. Water 41, 351 -- 364
Focazio, M.J., Kolpin, D.W., Barnes, K.K., Furlong, E.T., Meyer, M.T., Zaugg, S.D., Barber, L.B., Thurman, M.E., 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States -- II) Untreated drinking water sources. Sci. Total Environ. 402, 201 -- 216
Lady in the ater, the 2006 major motion picture by writer/director/actor Manoj Nelliyattu Shyamalan that make it a quintessential allegory. The names of the major characters in the film (such as Story and Healer) obviously represent the ideas, as well as the virtues, that they are named after. Further contributing to this theme in the film is the fact that this movie is based upon a children's story. An immense body of literature exists that demonstrates that several children's stories, and several elements in such tales, are allegorical and representative of ideas that may be too advanced for an author to directly address in literature for young people (Luthra 2009. As such, the two principle rhetorical devices that Shyamalan employs to deliver his own messages in Lady in the ater is symbolism and the unique role he gives to each of his characters, who represent various symbolic concepts. Collectively, the…
Ebert, Roger. "Lady in the Water." Chicago Sun-Times. 2006. Web. http://rogerebert.suntimes.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20060720/REVIEWS/60720002
Lowry, Brian. "Lady in the Water." Variety. Web. 2006.
Luthra, Neelima. "Allegories of the Self: Subjectivity and Sexuality in Enchanted Lands in Oscar Wilde's Fairy Tales. The Oscholars. 2009. Web http://www.oscholars.com/TO/Specials/Tales/Luthra.htm
Shyamalan, M. Night. Lady in the Water: A Bedtime Story. New York: Little Brown Young Readers. 2006. Print.
Building a Water Park
Statement of Work Project- Project Description and Project Product
The project will be to develop a water park. It is both an indoor and outdoor facility. The basic idea is to offer consumers with an assortment of rides throughout the year. We intend to do this, by purchasing a 500 acre property and developing two parts of it. The basic idea is to have enough room to address the current needs and expand in the future. The steps that will be taken include: buying the land, constructing the park, building a following of customers and continuously expanding to meet their needs. The final product will have a heated indoor wave pool. It offers over 30 different slides everyone can enjoy. In the summer, this will be connected with the outdoor pools and slides. (Mill, 2007)
The tangible outputs are the access to the rides,…
Mill, R. (2007). Resorts: Management and Operations. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
As will be shown below, the bottled water market is increasingly competitive and consumers have a dazzling array of choices available to them. It is clear that Voss has taken this into account when developing its sophisticated packaging, some samples of which are shown in Figure ____ below.
Figure ____. epresentative Sampling of Voss Packaging Techniques.
Source: noisedfisk.com/illustrations/vosswater.jpg, www.uncrate.com/men/images/voss-water.jpg, http://www.urbanfare.com/featuredfare/images/weeklyad/voss_water.jpg
In fact, one new admirer of the Voss brand unashamedly proclaimed that even though she liked the water, it was the "wicked cool" Voss packaging that sold her: "Yesterday, I drank a few bottles of Voss Artesian Water from Norway. One was Still. One was Sparkling. Both were pretty good but its wicked cool glass bottle is the best thing about it. My friend Sharon said she paid $20 for a bottle of Voss at the tres upscale Michael Mina estaurant in San Francisco, which was more than she…
AquaMaestro: The Source for Fine Waters. (2007). Available: http://www.aquamaestro.com/innerview.asp?catid=33 .
Aras, Bulent. (2004). "The Future of Liberal Islam," Futures, 36(9), 1034.
Beer, Cider and FABs in Turkey to 2010," 2007, MarketResearch.com. Available: http://www.market research.com/product/display.asp?productid=1474151&xs=r.
Brown, F.E., S.J. Neary and M.S. Symes. The Urban Experience: A People Environment Perspective (London: E & FN Spon), 1994.
The larger particles can influence the absorption rates of solar energy by a factor of three over particulates such as phytoplankton and minerals (Stramski and Woz'niak, 2005). This means that a small concentration of these particles can do a lot for the absorption rates of the water they are suspended in. The smaller particles can also have this effect, but their concentrations need to be proportionately higher to exact this same influence. The smaller particles are more influential as far as backscattering is concerned, and represent a massive shift in the way that scientists think about light diffusion and backscattering within the ocean. Previously, scientists thought that only the larger of these particles combined with other particulates were responsible for most of the solar radiation absorption (Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L., 1981). Now scientists understand that in shallow, mineral-rich waters, even a small presence of these tiniest of…
Babin, Marcel, and Dariusz Stramski. (2004). "Variations in the mass-specific absorption coefficient of mineral particles suspended in water." Limnology Oceanography. 49(3), pp. 756 -- 767.
Bricaud, a., Morel, a. And Prieur, L. (1981). "Absorption by dissolved organic matter of the sea
(yellow substance) in the UV and visible domains." Limnology, Oceanography 26 (1). pp.43-53.
Dera, J., S. Sagan, and D. Stramski. (1993). "Focusing of sunlight by sea surface waves: new results from the Black Sea." Oceanologia, 34. pp. 13-25.
Gray Water System
As the world's population continues to grow, there will be an ever greater need for potable or purified water. Most people are completely unaware of just how big the problem of world water consumption is because they never think past turning on their sink or sprinkler system. Take into consideration the demands on the water supply by less obvious factors such as livestock and farming. There is an economy of scale: those massive agricultural irrigation systems that suck water out of rivers, lakes, streams and ponds consume hefty amounts of water that cannot then be used for any other purpose. Farms, cities, industry and the many other levels of human consumption place a great deal of pressure on Mother Nature. Globalization has actually increased the demand for water and has strained many regionally dry areas into even worse water deficits. For example, "industries and communities located in…
The establishment of the MWD right after the aqueduct was approved is another milestone, because the MWD administers the water even today, and regulates how much water goes to each of its member water districts. The final milestone in the Colorado iver Aqueduct is the Seven States Water Management Agreement, which was signed in April 2007. The agreement spells out how the river's water will be managed in the future, and allows for more freedom for some of the member states to access water. Many people feel it is the most important milestone of Colorado iver management since the original Compact was signed in 1922. Obviously, all the milestones help spell out how the water is managed and who gets how much of the stored water in Lake Powell and Lake Mead. However, the agreement also encourages water agencies to develop alternative forms of water management, some of which the…
Editors. (2007). California's Colorado River allocation. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2008 from the Metropolitan Water District's Web page: http://www.mwdh2o.com/mwdh2o/pages/yourwater/supply/colorado/colorado04.html.
Editors. (2008). The Colorado River. Retrieved 25 Feb. 2008 from the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power Web site: http://wsoweb.ladwp.com/Aqueduct/historyoflaa/coloradoriver.htm.
Hofer, G. (2007). A new day on the Colorado. Aqueduct. 1-2.
Schulte, S.C. (2002). Wayne Aspinall and the shaping of the American West. Boulder, CO: University Press of Colorado.
Controlling water infrastructure
Much contemporary research and literature over the need for water include recognition of ethical issues for example water like a public good assert Gleick (2004) and Tipping et al. (2005). Hence, overall scope of management should be extended to incorporate the social size of water systems; which means all stakeholders have to be informed and incorporated in making decisions for the development and use of long-term sustainability water systems. Exterior systems or water stresses could possibly be the primary change motivators for controlling water systems. Global warming might be one particular example heavily affecting water systems because of elevated frequency of extreme weather for example flooding, storms and droughts (Clemitt, 2007). Around Australia, droughts and water stress within the primary metropolitan areas forced the adoption of an entire new selection of methods to controlling water. Water sector is facing institutional changes that need modernization as well…
Ashley, R. And Cashman, A. (2006). The impacts of change on the long-term future demand for water sector infrastructure. Infrastructure to 2030, Chapter 5 OECD, pp. 241 -- 349.
Clemitt, M. (2007). Ageing infrastructure: is neglected maintenance putting Americans in danger? Congressional Quarterly Researcher, 17 (34), pp. 793 -- 816.
Copeland C, Tiemann M. (2008). Water infrastructure needs and investment: review and analysis of key issues. Congregational research service report, RL31116.
Doshi, V., Schulman, G. And Gabaldon, D. (2007). Lights! water! motion! Booz Allen Hamilton.
operation and data management of the water-authority with a specific focus on the ability to provide a sustainable water supply for the next century in the Caribbean. This literature review will examine previous studies (both qualitative and quantitative) of water sustainability and specific problems related to water quality, such as the build-up of nitrogen in the water supply. It will also review ways to assess water quality through the use of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) as a feasible tool of water management. The review will conclude with different philosophies of water delivery in the developing world, specifically the use of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and the philosophy's pros and cons.
According to Gleick (1998), the impending water crisis is one which will have seismic political and environmental consequences, if not addressed soon: "as human populations continue to grow, these problems are likely to…
Al-Barqawi, H. & Zayed, T. 2008. Infrastructure management: Integrated AHP/ANN model to evaluate municipal water mains' performance. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 14:305-318.
Aspinall, R. & Pearson, D. 2000. Integrated geographical assessment of environmental condition in water catchments: Linking landscape ecology, environmental modelling and GIS
Journal of Environmental Management (2000) 59, 299 -- 319
The purpose of this experiment is to determine whether one of two methods of cleaning murky water is efficient or better than the other. The two methods used are capillary action method and filtration method. Capillary action uses a clean cloth to drip water into a dish and filtration uses a filter to catch debris from water poured through.
Methods and Materials
Materials needed for this experiment include a jar filled with murky water consisting of water and soil (a teaspoon of dirt in a quart of water). Two empty dishes of at least 3 inches in height are needed to test the first method. A clean cloth (such as a cloth dish towel) is also required. A jar, sand, and a filtration system with a filter (such as a coffee filter) are needed to test the second method.
The method of using capillary action requires the receiving container…
In many ways, this is also responsible for and compounded by the bad eating habits and obesity so prevalent in today's Western societies.
Electrolytes work in conjunction with the water levels in the body, and is responsible for conducting electricity within the body. This is essential for the normal functioning of cells and organs. odium and potassium are both positive ions, or cations, within the body, while chloride is a negatively charged anion. odium and Chloride are found in fluids outside of cells, while potassium is found inside of cells. odium is responsible for water regulation in the body, as well as electrical signals to and from the brain. Too much or too little sodium can be fatal. Excess is discarded through urine. Inside cells, potassium regulates the heartbeat and function of muscles. A lack or excess of this electrolyte can also be fatal, as it can lead to heart…
Klotter, Jule. (2001, Aug). Physiological Effects of Dehydration: Cure Pain and Prevent Cancer. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. Article database: FindArticles.com.
REACT. (2007). Functions of Water in the Human Body. http://www.resultsproject.net/water_functions.html
Stoppler, Melissa Conrad. (2007). Dehydration: How to Recognize and Prevent its Effects. Medicinenet.com. http://www.medicinenet.com/dehydration/article.htm
Stoppler, Melissa Conrad (2006). Electrolytes. Medicinenet.com. http://www.medicinenet.com/electrolytes/article.htm
Oceans & Waters
Surface runoff is the water that makes its way to water collection sites, streams, rivers, lakes and ultimately to the oceans when the ground itself is beyond the capacity to hold it. If this water works its way through places where many people live, it can pick up various chemical, materials and pollutants, which is what is often referred to as well as urban runoff. Surveys suggest that the public believes industry is mostly responsible for the damaging effects of this process, when in fact it is individual activities that make up the greatest concern (CA EPA 2001).
CONTOL OF PET WASTE: People tend to be misinformed about where the water goes that enters street drains. It does not go to treatment facilities, but usually gets diverted to local water holdings or into ground waters (CA EPA 2001). In waste plants, the waters are cleaned and given…
Bulkheads and Seawalls. Unattributed web posting. No date. .
California EPA. Urban runoff and water pollution. California Environmental Protection Agency, Regional Water Control Agency, Santa Ana Region 8. July 2001. < http://www.waterboards.ca.gov/rwqcb8/water_issues/programs/nps/docs/urbanrunoff.pdf >.
LKBlog. Global warming now threatening marine food chain. Mendo Coast Current. July 28, 2010. < http://mendocoastcurrent.wordpress.com/2010/07/28/global-warming-now-threatening-marine-food-chain/ >.
Puget Sound Shorelines. Bulkheads can change the beach. Department of Ecology. .
Southern California Water issue
The issue of water shortage is a fact that lives with the entire world taking into account the ever receding usable water levels. These are due to pollution, lack of access and misuse at the domestic level. The misuse at the domestic level and the very basic domestic solutions that there can be within the society as seen in other countries especially in the Middle East and desert countries is the prime focus of the paper since it is here that there are many fallacies and wrong arguments that surround the water conservation issue and yet therein to lies the solution to the water conservation approach among them being Xeriscaping.
One of the faulty logics commonly used by people at the homestead level to argue for domestic waste of water is the faulty logic of circular reasoning. Many argue that they have to use water…
Utah Valley State College, (2013). Types of Writing: Logical fallacies. Retrieved November 08, 2013 from http://www.uvu.edu/owl/infor/pdf/content_organization/fallacies.pdf
Wilson C & Feutch J., (2007). Xeriscaping: Creative Landscaping. Retrieved November 10, 2013 from http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/garden/07228.html
Many parts of the United States have had droughts at one time or another. However, they generally go away and they generally do not last all that long. That being, California has been a different story in more than one way. The high agricultural use of water in the state combined with the lack of rainwater coming into the water table has led to a situation that is already dire and is getting worse by the day. This issue is important because the long-term viability of the water in California is a major concern for everyone that works and lives there or that will do either in the future years and generations. This report shall cover the totality of the problem and then offer solutions. While desalinization and shifting of agricultural priorities are seemingly on the horizon, the current prospects of the water resources and status in California…
Differentiations are always brought up by the contemporary mainstream economists and their theories regarding ontological questions and assumptions or mere recognition regarding conformity of preference structures regarding some rules can be approximated usefully. This is done by the commodities' association or there quantities uses. Taking into account that preference can as well be taken as a usefulness determinant, departing of this conception from the usefulness concept should not take place. Different marginal utilities may occur for diverse people regarding same object for any customary conception.
Market price and diminishing marginal utility
In a case whereby the stock flow or the flow of goods and services in a country is of lower marginal utility as compared to the commodities that the same country trade for with other country, then decision to affecting that trade is only upon the country. Evidently, business transaction involves a case of exchange of goods whereby there…
Venkatesh, B. (2003). The diamond-water paradox. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/iw/2003/01/05/stories/2003010500241300.htm
Yousuf, D (1996). Adam Smith and the division of labour. Retrieved August 31, 2010, from