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The authors further note that the National esearch Council (2003) state that the "obligation to treat individuals as autonomous agents whose decisions on whether or not to participate in research are to be respected and not overridden by a researcher" (as sited in Nolen & Vander Putten, 2007, p. 402). When considered in the context of students as a protected research group in a K- 12 classroom this obligation may raise issues involving conflict of interest. After all, in addition to minors being unable to formally consent to research study participation, students probably would not be prone declining participation in studies run by researchers on whom they are dependent for their grades, access to resources, and enriching experiences while in school. Furthermore, one must also consider the ability of students to decline participation in research that is conducted as part of the normal school day as this circumstance may deprive…
Brown, B.L. (2002). Improving teaching practices through action research. (Doctorial disertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 2002) Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest Information and Learning Company.
Dick, B. (2006, October). Action research literature: Themes and trends. Action research, Vol. 4 (4), 439-458. Retrieved October 3, 2010, from Sage Publications: http://arj.sagepub.com/content/4/4/439
Donato, R. (2003, December). Action research. Center for applied linguistics. Washington, DC: Eric Digest. Retrieved October 3, 2010 from www.cal.org/ericccll
Ferrance, E. (2000). Action research. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University. Providence, RI: LAB at Brown University, the Educational Allience.
Action esearch on the Impact of Video Technology Classrooms on Student Achievement
Audio-Visual Technology & Student Achievement
esearch problem / topic. The proposed research study will examine the impact of integrating video technology in classroom lessons on the achievement of students. In this study, consideration will also be given to students' perceptions of the impact of integrated video on their achievement and gender-based differences in achievement related to the integration of video into classroom lessons. Today's students have grown up in an ever changing visual world. With the evolution of television, video cameras, cell phones, GPS navigational systems, and gaming systems there is video everywhere you look. Our students in the twenty-first century have been exposed to some form of video technology in almost every aspect of their lives. Why would it not follow that the use of audio/visual technology in the classroom would help improve student achievement?
ATLAS.ti. (2012) Retrieved http://www.atlasti.com/ .
Bitner, N. And Bitner, J. (2002). Integrating technology into the classroom: Eight keys to success. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10.
Christensen, C.M. (1997; 2000). The innovator's dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. New York, NY: Harper Collins, 1997 and 2000).
Christensen, C.M., and Michael E. Raynor, M.E. (2003). The innovator's solution. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Action research as related to education is a process by which a teacher, group of teachers, school, school district, or university observes a problem, creates a plan for action, implements that plan (action), observes the results (research), and plans on further action (Ferrance, 2000, 26). It is in this way that an individual teacher becomes aware of the advantages and disadvantages of her own teaching methods and improves the performance of her students (Ferrance, 2000, 3). It is also in this way that a teacher increases reliance on herself and her own teaching abilities, concurrently enhancing, over the long-term, the progress of her students.
While most of the literature for this assignment seems to focus on action research as related to K-12 education, I believe that it is also appropriate to higher education. he basic steps of action research are these: (1) observe a problem, (2) develop a plan for…
This example creates a number of opportunities for action research. It could be applied on the individual level. That is, individual professors have the potential to take the problem into their own hands. They already know the problem: it is now more difficult for students to complete this major. Creating a plan of action, they could decide to introduce new teaching methods and new types of learning material. After they have implemented their plan, they can observe the various effects. Once the effects have been recorded and understood, they now have a new set of information to work with. For example, new teaching method A increased students' examination scores as well as did new teaching method B. While both teaching methods were improvements on teaching methods implemented before action research began, teaching method A was more effective. Just as in the circular direction often referred to in action research literature, this new information could then be used for more research on how to maximize the effects of teaching method A, or to isolate what exactly made teaching method A work so well.
Another way this situation presents an opportunity for action research is by allowing a group of people (the department) to collaborate as a team on the issue. In this way, more than a couple new teaching methods could be tested, which would naturally lead to more accurate end results. Not only will this process generate more insight into what works and enhanced student performance, but it will also create "stronger relationships" and "increased sharing and collaboration" among members of the department (Ferrance, 2000, 14).
Action research, which "seeks to create knowledge, propose and implement change, and improve and practice performance," is fully appropriate for addressing problems in both K-12 and higher education (Donato, 2003). Its cyclical nature allows for any teacher or professor to test their own solutions to classroom problems, observe the results, build on these results, and so on.
Action esearch in the Classroom
To what extent is team-based learning effective in helping children learn? Although team-based learning is often touted as helpful in teaching students to how to work together on a social level, monitoring the degree to which learning is actually taking place can be challenging because of the degree of 'social loafing' that may transpire. Students may allow one student to assume the majority of the burden of work, and the conscientious student is often unwilling to complain. The result is that the final project does not accurately reflect the full knowledge level of the entire group, merely that of one student.
Comparing test grades of students after they study two chapters within the same subject area together -- one of which is assessed using a team-based project, the other of which is assessed with an individual project -- can provide guidance as to the impact…
Action research project. (2012). Teaching foreign languages: K-12 workshop. Retrieved:
The case studies compiled and edited by Caro-Brice (2007) provide a somewhat broader perspective than the singular case study conducted by Coles-Ritchie and Lugo (2010). These studies are all geared towards promoting equality in instructional methods and learning rates in diverse classroom settings, however, making them directly useful in this review and plan development.
ome of the central common findings of the studies compiled by Caro-Brice (2007) and the lessons that can be drawn from these findings include the importance of attitude and interpersonal approach throughout the action research/instructional supervision process, especially in its initial stages, and the importance of demonstration and reevaluation during and following the implementation phase of the action research plan. The truly collaborative nature of action research in these contexts is also emphasized, and the reasons for this importance -- namely increased efficacy and confidence -- are clearly outlined.
Mitchell et al. (2009) examined the use…
Some of the central common findings of the studies compiled by Caro-Brice (2007) and the lessons that can be drawn from these findings include the importance of attitude and interpersonal approach throughout the action research/instructional supervision process, especially in its initial stages, and the importance of demonstration and reevaluation during and following the implementation phase of the action research plan. The truly collaborative nature of action research in these contexts is also emphasized, and the reasons for this importance -- namely increased efficacy and confidence -- are clearly outlined.
Mitchell et al. (2009) examined the use of action research in the development and assistance of new teachers, which yields insights into other potential uses and effects of action research as well. Examining some of the typical identified problems that new teachers face and the abundant literature addressing most of these common problems, Mitchell et al. (2009) demonstrate effective means of action research interaction that is more case-specific and less general than typical seminars. This enables newer and less experienced teachers to more effectively identify and confront issues early on (Mitchell et al. 2009).
This study is especially useful for the details provided regarding the interaction of the instructional supervisor and the instructor during the action research process. The communication of information in this relationship is key to the process' success, and the details provided by Mitchell et al. (2009) demonstrate a clear understanding and explanation of how this relationship best operates.
Action esearch and Its Key Working Principles
Examine the most salient challenges and advantages of the Internal A person.
Based on my readings, action research is a methodological approach to research that provides a useful framework in which effective solutions to seemingly intractable problems can be identified. In sharp contrast to other social science research approaches, one of the main advantages of action research is that it seeks to identify generalizable solutions that are applicable in all situations (Coghlan, 2003). By using a holistic view of a given situation, action research can help A practitioners better understand the competitive environment in which companies operate and determine optimal courses of action that can help improve their performance (Coghlan, 2003). An especially advantage of the A approach is its emphasis on including the subjects of research into the analysis (Coghlan, 2003). These same advantages, though, introduce some challenges because action research can…
Stringer, E.T. (2007). Action research (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage Publications
Clearly, if there is motivation from the parents to encourage English literacy, whether that be to help them or simply to focus the student on succeeding and graduating, studies see a 30-40% increase in scores in individuals in which the parents are actively involved in the ESL class. Thus, there are a number of proven successes that are available to help increase the efficacy of English instruction in the secondary schools. As well, from a practical point-of-view, increased English literacy in the broad context can only encourage.
This study examines one particularly learning environment, Yokota West Elementary School, and will use a mixed-method questionnaire to examine various ways in which ESL learners can achieve greater performance actualization and success within their environment. Data showed that there is a clear need within the educational community. The English as a Second Language program data supports the need for the school to improve…
Do you ever read English for pleasure? If yes, include follow-up question below.
Follow-up: What do you like to read in English? [Interviewer could have several examples of ESOL reading materials to help identify specific examples here.]
3. Do you seek help when you don't understand something you read? If no, include follow-up question below?
Follow-up: Are there peer-tutoring resources available to you? Have you used these resources in the past? If so, what was your experience?
The results of the interviews could also be tabulated using this instrument.
ecommendation as to Which esearch Scenario Would be Most Beneficial to the Instructional Setting or Field
Taken together, the foregoing research approaches have their respective advantages and disadvantages, but overall, the quantitative action research approach appears to possess several attributes that make it the most appropriate for the purposes of the type of study needed to improve motivation to read…
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Leedy, P.D. (1997). Practical research: Planning and design (6th ed). Upper Saddle River,
Neuman, W.L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Action esearch Study
According to Dana and Yendol-Hoppey (2010), action research is a "systematic, intentional study by teachers of their own classroom practice" (p. 6). Because the intention of action research is to effect meaningful change in real-world classroom settings, action research must be focused on practice issues of interest to reading teachers. The seven steps described by Brighton (2009) can help guide the action research process by providing a systematic framework in which the analysis can be conducted. By first identifying a practice area of interest, for example, the likelihood of a successful outcome is enhanced. Likewise, by connecting the action research project with reading teachers' own problem areas, there is more flexibility in how the action research project should be conducted. Implementing and administering the action research project will also provide a centralized focus for the practice area of interest, and the feedback received from mentors and peers…
Cooper, K. & White, R. E. (2012, October). The recursive process in and of critical literacy: Action research in an urban elementary school. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 41-44.
Putting Research Into Action
Action research provides the process by which educators can resolve issues and problems specific to their classrooms, schools, and organizations. Action research is defined as a formative research of progress that is commonly practiced by teachers in schools (Lesha, 2014). This formative study of progress is carried out by teachers to help enhance their effectiveness in teaching and promoting development of their students. Given its significance and benefits, action research would play a critical role in my professional development as an educator. Action research can be used to study and reflect on professional practice by conducting consistent and collaborative inquiry on teaching practices and their impact on student development and outcomes. In this regard, student learning and outcomes would be examined in relation to the teaching strategies and process. This implies that student learning data would be the premise for studying and reflecting on professional practice…
Hine, G.S.C. (2013). The Importance of Action Research in Teacher Education Programs. Issues in Educational Research, 23(2), 151-163.
Lesha, J. (2014, May). Action Research in Education. European Scientific Journal, 10(13), 379-386.
Parent Opposition to the Common Core and Educational eform
While it might seem intuitively obvious that parents wish to provide a better education for their children, in many instances there has been extremely vociferous opposition amongst parents to standards-based reform in education. In New York State, for example, the ability to opt out of standards-based testing has been selected by an overwhelming percentage of the population. In 2014, "the parents of 60,000 New York students refused to have their children take the [standardized] test ... The superintendent of the Comsewogue Schools has test refusal letters for 80% of his students" and these numbers are increasing rather than decreasing (Burris 2015). Assuming parents want the best for their children, this indicates a sharp divide between parents' perceptions of what is necessary to improve their children's educational prospects for the future and administrators who are attempting to redesign the curriculum and use…
Bidwell, A. (2014). Intense Common Core opposition is higher among parents. U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved from: http://www.usnews.com/news/articles/2014/06/26/intense-common-core-opposition-is-higher-among-parents
Burris, C. (2015). As testing begins parental opposition to common core ramps up.
Hechinger Report. Retrieved from: http://hechingerreport.org/as-testing-begins-parental-opposition-to-common-core-ramps-up/
Mehta, J. (2015). The dad who wrote a check using Common Core math doesn't know what he's talking about. Patheos. Retrieved from: http://www.patheos.com/blogs/friendlyatheist/2015/09/21/the-dad-who-wrote-a-check-using-common-core-math-doesnt-know-what-hes-talking-about/
Action Research Proposal
The number of school-age English Language Learners in the state of Alberta is increasing at a fast pace. As these students begin studying, they experience a great deal of challenges, which can impact the acquisition and learning of the English language (New York University, 2018). In particular, one of the key challenges faced by these students is pronunciation. What is more, unlike mathematics, English language does not have a material set of rules or guideline as to what sound every letter of the alphabet signifies. For instance, the letter e can be pronounced as e, eh. In addition, the tenses of verbs can also hamper learning. Cultural differences also play a key role in acquisition of the English language (Wold, 2006). There have been deliberations regarding the most efficacious approaches of second language instruction. Picture seeing texts and hearing sounds that do not correspond with those that…
The problem being researched or evaluated
The presenting problems are inattentive and non-cooperative behavior in two special education students during classroom instruction. The teacher needs to get the attention of the students and get them to sit in their seats in order to engage them in instruction. The teacher will need to determine how to reward the students for attending and engaging in the lessons being presented to them.
• The design label and overview of what the design might look like (example, if I use mixed-methods, is it sequential or concurrent? If a program evaluation, what kind?)
The research design will be action research in order to engage the practitioners in an evaluative endeavor that will encompass their behavioral and academic instruction with the students.
• ationale for the design based on the problem
The action research design will need to be designed to provide answers to…
Guskey, T. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press.
Sagor, R (2003). How to conduct collaborative action research. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Indeed, it may be argued that action research is uniquely suited to the conditions within the classroom. So reports the text by Ferrance, which indicates that "action research is a process in which participants examine their own educational practice systematically and carefully, using the techniques of research. It is based on the following assumption. . . teachers and principals work best on problems they have identified for themselves." (p. 1)
The implication here is that the constant state of flux revealed by day-to-day activities within a course and in interaction between professor, students, content and other entities justify the use of a research framework which is similarly mutable. As the source by Ferrance argues, the improvement of one's own practice of education may well be based on the ability of the instructor to evolve in harmony with an evolving understanding of the community systems, social networks, cultural inclinations and academic…
Dick, B. (2000). A Beginner's Guide to Action Research [Online]. Available at http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/guide.html
Ferrance, E. (2000). Action Research. Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University.
Leading Action esearch in an Elementary School Setting
One of the risks that is routinely encountered classroom teachers is the potential to become mired in a set of educational practices that may or may not be suitable for their students at any given point in time. ather than remaining in a teaching rut, though, a growing number of reading teachers have recognized the value of action research to inform and improve their classroom practices. In order for this method of inquiry to be effective, though, all stakeholders must be educated concerning the tenets of action research, what areas of interest are most appropriate for study and their respective roles in the process. To determine the facts about these issues, this paper reviews the relevant literature concerning leading action research in an elementary school setting, including an assessment of the current degree of comfort that exists at the author's school and…
Brkich, K. L. & Shumbera, K. (2010, Summer). Action research: How to create your own professional development experience. Science and Children, 47(9), 47-51.
Cooper, K. & White, R. E. (2012, October). The recursive process in and of critical literacy: Action research in an urban elementary school. Canadian Journal of Education, 35(2), 41-45.
Eisner, E. W. & Day, M. D. (2004). Handbook of research and policy in art education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gruenert, S. & Whitaker, T. (2015). School culture rewired: How to define, assess, and transform it. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
appreciative inquiry, action research and process consultation, a high level of participation among the members of the system desiring change is important. There are a couple of reasons for this. The first is that the consultant is an outsider, and as such cannot know everything about the organization. The internal stakeholders are critical to understanding the issues and dynamics at work within the organization. The second reason is that all organizational change efforts require a high level of cooperation from the internal stakeholders. Ultimately, it is the people within the company that need to implement the ideas, and without their buy-in it will be all but impossible to effectively bring about organizational change. By involving them through a high level of participation in the process, they are aware of what is going on throughout the process, have an opportunity to have their say and to influence the process. Ultimately, when…
Boss, R.W. (1979). Essentials for successful organization development efforts. Group & Organization Studies (Pre-1986), 4(4), 496.
Chapman, J. (1998). Do process consultants need different skills when working with nonprofits? Leadership & Organization Development Journal,19(4), 211 -- 215.
Dent, E.B. (2001). Seinfeld, professor of organizational behavior: The psychological contract and systems thinking. Journal of Management Education, 25(6), 648.
Hiltrop, J.M. (1996). Managing the changing psychological contract. Employee Relations, 18(1), 36 -- 49.
An Ecological Approach
Community psychology uses an ecological or systems approach, recognizing that individuals are inseparable from their social networks and communities. According to Dalton, Elias & Wandersman (2012), community psychology also works with seven core values. Those values include individual and family wellness, a sense of community, respect for human diversity, social justice, empowerment and citizen participation, collaboration and community struggle, and empirical grounding. Thus, community psychology can be viewed as an interface between traditional individualistic psychology, sociology, and social work. Community psychology has been called a “common sense” approach given its broad focus on the ecological connections between individuals and their environments (Scileppi, Teed & Toerres, 1999, p. 1). Rather than focus only on individual variables, community psychologists take into account multiple dimensions and contextual constraints and influences on human behavior, identity, and relationships.
Using a systems or ecological approach also transforms the nature of the social scientist’s…
Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.
In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…
Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (n/s). Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research. Retrieved from University of South Alabama website: http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec2.htm
Ndunda M. (2004). Introduction to Educational Research. Retrieved from College of Charleston website: http://www.cofc.edu/~ndundam/NOTESSPRING2001/635chapt1.htm
Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Different Research Methods. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from https://explorable.com/different-research-methods
com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec
Fitday.com. (2006) Nutritional information database retrieved 13 Dec 2006
Severson, Kim. (13 Dec 2003) "New York Gets Ready to Count Calories."
The New York Times. Retrieved 13 Dec 2006 at
Schlosser, Eric. (2005) Fast Food Nation. New York: Harper Perennial.
"Supersize Me." (2004). Directed by Morgan Spurlock.
"Overweight and Obesity."(2006) CDC: Council for Disease Control.
Retrieved 13 Dec
By attaching visual elements to specific words and even to specific sounds within those words, many learners that might struggle with simple auditory approaches attached only to visuals of the letter might be better able to commit letter/phoneme associations to memory (Fox, 2011). The use of pictures also seems more interactive and engaging with the learners than simply showing visuals of letters associated with sounds, as it speaks to the imagination of the learners and gives them something to respond to in addition to the simple reading facts being presented. In this way, both the educator and the learners can be drawn into the lesson more fully, it would seem, and there is definite evidence that pictures make both the lessons and the material more memorable when they are properly used (Fox, 2003).
Other issues raised on these two DVDs such as synthetic phonics are also fairly controversial, and seem…
Elam, S. (2010). Phonics primer. Accessed 19 March 2012.
Fox, B. (2011). Word identification strategies. Toronto: Lavoisier.
Solutions to incorporating fluency instruction in the classroom include repeated reading, auditory modeling, direct instruction, text segmenting, supported reading, and use of easy reading materials. Young readers may not always know what fluent reading should be like. Despite the awareness, oral reading fluency is a neglected aspect of the classroom (Allington, 1983). Therefore, according to Fluency for Everyone, written by asinski, "It seems clear that students need frequent opportunities to see and hear fluent reading. Since the most fluent reader in the classroom is the teacher, the teacher should be the primary model" (1989).
The method of auditory modeling can be used in several ways. Auditory modeling can dramatically improve fluency among readers (Dowhower, 1986). She says, "Auditory or oral modeling may be the most powerful of all techniques in encouraging prosodic reading." Prosodic reading can be described as reading with voice inflection and expression. Dowhower believes that modeling oral…
Abram, S. (nd) The Effects of Fluency Instruction Incorporating Readers Theatre on Oral Reading Fluency in an Eighth-Grade Classroom. Retrieved from: http://arareading.org/doc/Susan_Abram_Reading_Fluency_Action_Research.pdf
Anderson, R., Hiebert, E., Scott, J & Wilkinson, I. (1985). Becoming a Nation of Readers, Urbana, IL: The Center for the Study of Reading.
Cooper, D. (2000). Literacy: Understanding Literacy Learning and Constructing Meaning. Massachusetts: Houghton Muffin Company.
Fluency (nd) National Institutes of Health. Chapter 3. Retrieved from: https://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/nrp/Documents/ch3.pdf
It leads to further discoveries that may not have been possible with just one person.
Human Services implies action on the part of someone helping another human. This type of action we see everyday in our culture; service industries are expanding due to a shift in lifestyle by Americans. No longer is it a 9 to 5 work week with many families constantly on the go. Someone who works in Human Services whether it be in Health Care or Public Programs, needs to have the ability to investigate subjects further in order to be able to better understand and fulfill their needs. It is basic human sociology; this vital need for connection and understanding. Still we live in a society of distrust. New technology has made it easier to access to information that may be private and confidential. Much of the Human Services workers may of objective is to get…
In addition to changes in admission policies at universities, new workshops in education are beginning to address this issue head on, with teaching participants being taught that American history and education are both "written from the perspective of whites and that laws and policies benefit whites while putting minorities at an immediate disadvantage." (Fernandez, 1) This has helped to redirect the perspective on Affirmative Action within the profession, where institutions are beginning to espouse it as a legitimate means to balancing merit and racial fairness in both the admission of students and the courtship and hiring of teachers. A recent Supreme Court decision on student admission to the University of Michigan reflected this stance, offering real and applicable precedent that today reverberates in the collective movement to improve conditions for an ethnically diverse range of Americans.
In 2000, Gratz v Bollinger began the long process of defending the Constitutionality of…
Alon, S. (2009). The Evolution of Class Inequality in Higher Education: Competition, Exclusion, and Adaptation. American Sociological Review, 74(5), 731.
Austin, a. (2008). Reversal of Fortune. Washington DC: Economic Policy Institute, pp. 1.
Brunner, B. (2004). Timeline of Affirmative Action Milestones. Black History
Month. Online at http://www.infoplease.com/spot/affirmativetimeline1.html
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
theory-building, applied research is conducted to solve a problem. Action research is conducted to solve an immediate problem experienced by a practitioner; the problems that are addressed through action research exist in the context or environment in which they conduct their professional work. A construct is an abstraction -- an idea that exists in the mind; if an abstraction is based on something concrete or tangible, it is a concept, but if it is based on something hypothetical or inferential, then the abstraction is a construct. The most important difference between qualitative research and quantitative research is that quantitative research is deductive in relation to the hypothesis, which is determined before the research has actually begun. Quantitative research uses a deductive approach that moves from the general case to the specific. In this manner, the deductive approach considers the potential cause of some phenomenon and explores whether its effect can…
Lodico, M., Spaulding, D., & Voegtle, K. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
In its purest definition, quantitative research focuses on a systematic and empirical approach to research based on statistical, mathematical and/or computational techniques. The overall objective of this type of research is to develop models, theories and hypotheses that consist of measurable and verifiable datum. The overall basis for quantitative research is within the process of measurement. This process establishes the necessary connection between empirical observation and the mathematical expression of the interrelationships of quantitative datum. Thus, the researcher must ask specific, rather narrow questions; collect samples of numerical data; analyze that data mathematically; and then develop an unbiased result that can be replicated as well as generalized to a larger population. This is in contrast to qualitative research, that tends to follow broader questions with verbiage-based datum; and focuses on themes to describe patterns within the research set; then extrapolates that information into a larger group (Given, 2008,…
Allingham, M. (2002). Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.
Creswell, J. (2013). Research Design (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Given, L. (2008). The Safe Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Goertz, G., & Mahoney, J. (2012). A Tale of Two Cultures: Qualitative and Quantitative Research in the Social Sciences. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
By taking this approach, not only will diabetes research be more ethical in its construction, but it will also help break down community barriers that create resistance and fear towards the health care systems, provide care to the economically disadvantaged, and thus act as a force for social change and good.
The example of diabetes treatment and research is an excellent example of research that is vital and important to a community, pertains to cultural acts and rituals like food are affected by social circumstances like the availability to exercise, and shows that a participatory approach is not merely theoretical but realistic in the field. Park's theoretical endorsement of research as a co-creative act with a potential to create social justice is not limited to health care education, but religious education as well. Elizabeth Conde-Frazier discusses how the participatory approach can bridge cultural differences even in the intractable field of…
Conde-Frazier, Elizabeth. (Summer 2006). "Participatory Action Research: Practical
Theology for Social Justice." Religious Education.. Retrieved 24 Feb 2007 a t http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3783/is_200607/ai_n17187967
Park, P. (1993). "What is participatory research? A theoretical and methodological perspective." In P. Park, M. Brydon-Miller, B. Hall and T. Jackson (Eds.). Voices of change (pp. 1-19). Westport. Conn: Bergin & Garvey.
The Role of Community-Based Participatory Research: Creating Partnerships, Improving
ole of Management esearch in Modern Organizations
Summarize the article with an eye on the author's main point.
Collaborative management research differs from traditional research based on the different outcomes that are required (Shani & Coghlan, 2012). In their study, "Action esearch and Collaborative Management esearch: More Than Meets the Eye?," Shani and Coghlan (2012) provide an overview and comparison of action research and collaborative management research to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of each for practitioners. Based on their analysis, Shani and Coghlan conclude that each approach has its place in modern organization depending on the type of information that is required. In this regard, Shani and Coghlan (2012) report that, "Management research approaches, embedded in [the] synergistic engagements of managers and researchers, enhances the relevance for management practice" (p. 46). In sum, properly performed, collaborative management research can provide practitioners with the information needed to develop the types…
Murray, J. A. (2005, January 1). Management research: Who to talk with, what to say. Irish Journal of Management, 26(1), 8-11.
Shani, A. B. & Coghlan, D. (2012, January 1). Action research and collaborative management research: More than meets the eye? International Journal of Action Research, 8(1), 45-49.
Organizational esearch and Theory
Change methods are actions that managers undertake to handle change. There are two types, systematic methods and management methods. Management methods are more involving and broader than systematic methods (Al-Haddad & Kotnour, 2015, p. 248). Many writers have come up with various methods of change management, including:
Steps of the Change Models of Kotter and Lewin
a) Kurt Lewin's model has three phases including the unfreezing stage, the actual change and the refreezing stage. Lewin opined that change involves the opinion that there is need for change, acting towards the intended change and making the change a custom. The stages involve the following:
Step 1-Unfreezing: According to Lewin, human beings behave under the influence of a semi-stationary equilibrium that is surrounded by compound forces. Before getting rid of old habits and adopting new ones, there is need to unfreeze/ destabilize the equilibrium. Lewin thought of the…
Al-Haddad, S. &Kotnour, T. (2015). Integrating the organizational change literature: a model for successful change. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 28(2), 234-262. Retrieved 12 September 2016 fromhttp://18.104.22.168:8088/2161333/JOCM-11-2013-0215.pdf
Auguste, J. (2013). Applying Kotter's 8-Step Process for Leading Change to the Digital Transformation of an Orthopedic Surgical Practice Group in Toronto, Canada. Journal of Health &Medical Informatics, 4(3). doi:10.4172/2157-7420.1000129. Retrieved 12 September 2016 from http://www.omicsonline.org/applying-kotter-step-process-for-leading-change-to-digital-transformation-of-an-orthopedic-surgical-practice-2157-7420.1000129.pdf
Kritsonis, A. (2005). Comparison of Change Theories. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 8(1),Retrieved 12 September 2016 fromhttp://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Kritsonis,%20Alicia%20Comparison%20of%20Change%20theories%20IJMBA%20V8%20N1%202005.pdf
Lunenburg, F. C. (2010). Forces for and Resistance to Organizational Change. National Forum of Educational Administration and Supervision Journal, 27(4),Retrieved 12 September 2016 fromhttp://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Lunenburg,%20Fred%20C.%20Forces%20For%20and%20Resistance%20to%20Change%20NFEASJ%20V27%20N4%202010.pdf
Introduction to Evaluation Research
Evaluation Research is a vital aspect of organizational and program establishment and development. Used extensively across multiple industries, Evaluation Research encompasses dozens of methods, some of which overlap and/or encompass other methods. Though the methods vary, they ideally share the common characteristics of good basic research, systematic processes, data collection to increase knowledge, enhancement of decision making, and practical use of evaluation findings. In addition, despite the variations of methods, there are basic steps that can be followed in order to conduct an effective evaluation of an organization or program.
Evaluation Research "Snapshot"
Evaluation Research has been variously defined as a unique method of applied/action research, a social applied/action research method of evaluation, or a unique method of assessing programs (Powell, 2006). These definitions apparently depend on the focus of the definer. However, regardless of the definition, all Evaluation Research apparently has common elements:…
Center for Disease Control. (2011, November 10). Healthy youth: Program evaluation. Retrieved on October 21, 2012 from www.cdc.gov Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/evaluation/resources.htm
Powell, R.R. (2006, Summer). Evaluation research: An overview. Retrieved on October 21, 2012 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com/docview/220455507/139E976709F239B2F98/1?accountid=28844
Scriven, M. (1991). Evaluation Thesaurus, 4th Ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
opportunity that my research will address. Then, it will explain why it is important to explore this opportunity. It is important to note that just because the questions are about my research, this is not about my research. I will have to figure out how to include 5-10 different sources from the literature, perhaps explaining why it is important for me to do my research. Basically, Section A is going to be very difficult. The questions are simple and can be answered in a line or two, but I will need to use 3-5 paragraphs and a mountain of sources. I will need further clarification about this part of the assignment because there is something I am missing here.
Section B. is the literature review. The literature is divided into three types -- contextual, seminal and recent. It is not normal that these would be strictly divided, at least in…
Bittschi, B., Pennersdorfer, A. & Schneider, U. (2013). Paid and unpaid labor in nonprofit organizations: Does the substitution effect exist? Institut for Sozialpolitik Working Paper 01/2013.
Chen, C. (2014). Revisiting organizational age, inertia, and adaptability: Developing and testing a multi-stage model in the nonprofit sector. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 27 (2) 251-272.
Greenwood, R. & Hinings, C. (1996). Understanding radical organizational change: Bringing together the old and the new institutionalism. Academy of Management Review. Vol. 21 (4) 1022-1054.
Haag, S. (2014). Organizational inertia as barrier to firms' IT adoption: Multidimensional scale development and validation. Twentieth Americas Conference on Information Systems.
professional field reside in a place of power that elevates them above the clinicians and practitioners in the inevitable contests for voice and influence. Certainly this dynamic is influenced by the perception that it is research and researchers -- not, for instance, teachers and teaching -- who move the professional fields forward by contributing to theory and providing a basis for evidence-based practice. The growing interest in action research stems from the widespread acceptance by people other than teachers that "the practical knowledge of teachers is undervalued" (Stewart, 2006). Even when practicing teachers and university researchers collaborate in an action research project, the "powerful tensions" that Stewart (2006) emphasized can be observed through the struggle in which the action research participants engage as they determine how to represent the knowledge they are…
Burns, A. (n.d.). Doing action research. What's in it for teachers and institutions? International House of Education and Development.
McCottor, S.S. (2001). Collaborative groups as professional development. Teaching and Teacher Education, 17, 685-704.
Stewart, T. (2006). Teacher-researcher collaboration or teachers' research? TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 421 -- 430.
Batcheller, J.A. (2011). On-boarding and enculturation of new chief nursing officers.
Journal of Nursing Administration, 41(5), 235-239.
This article examines the on-boarding process for new chief nursing officers by examining the onboarding process for 6 new chief nursing officers. The examination is aimed at determining what type of support leaders new to an executive role requires and how to on-board leaders who are experienced, but who are new to a particular organization. The possible implications of this research is that if the on-boarding process is insufficient, then it may contribute to high turnover rates and the short length of chief nursing officer positions.
Carlson, C.L. & Plonczynski, D. (2008). Has the BARRIER cale changed nursing practice? An integrative review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63(4), 322-333.
This article examines whether the BARRIER cale, which identifies nurses' barriers to using evidence-based practice, contributed to an increase in the use of…
Storch, J., Rodney, P., Pauly, B., & Fulton, T.R., Stevenson, L., Newton, L., & Makaroff,
K. (2009). Enhancing ethical climates in nursing work environments. Retrieved September 27, 2014 from Canadian Nurse website: http://www.canadian-nurse.com/en/articles/issues/2009/march-2009/enhancing-ethical-climates-in-nursing-work-environments
The article examines the outcomes of the Leadership for Ethical Policy and Practice, which was a three-year participatory action research survey aimed at nurses, managers, and other team members. The respondents found that nurse leader support was a critical component when enacting ethical leadership initiatives. They also found that an ethical leadership model resulted in higher levels of job-related satisfaction at all levels of the healthcare management team.
Actions Lawsuits in Employment Sex-Discrimination Lawsuits: When are they Appropriate?
The class action lawsuit is a somewhat controversial tool, particularly in the case of employment discrimination. In many ways, it is a hallmark of judicial efficiency. After all, if a number of plaintiffs have the same claim against a defendant, it is inefficient to try the same case a number of times. Moreover, later plaintiffs may be unable to recover if earlier plaintiffs exhaust a defendant's financial resources. Therefore, if a company has an employment policy that is facially discriminatory, or has a readily-provable and consistent disparate impact, class-action litigation can be appropriate. However, in many ways the class actions lawsuit is not well-suited for employment discrimination lawsuits. Employment discrimination, particularly gender-based employment discrimination, is frequently subtle and a finding of discrimination is not going to be based on company policies, but on the treatment of a particular individual. Moreover,…
Cummings, S.L. (2011). Privatizing public interest law. UCLA Public Law Series. Retrieved January 25, 2012 from eScholarship website:
Epstein, R. (2003). Class actions: Aggregation, amplification, and distortion. University of Chicago Law Review, 70, 475-518.
McKinney, C. (2011, June 20). Supreme Court blocks class action sex discrimination suit.
The principal along with other teachers should convey the significance of the parents’ part as being a provider in their children’s accomplishment. Members of staff ought to make endeavors to make sure parents really feel delightful in the school and give significant and frequent interaction to ease the sense of distrust usually common among parents as well as school personnel. A premium ought to be put on the nice things pupils do, as limitations are put on the unfavorable things they carryout. Research outcomes backed an optimistic recommendation program within the school works well; while schools send updates to parents in the event that their kids are exceptional. Occasionally parents are trying to learn certain parenting abilities. The principal or members of staff can help parents to learn those parenting abilities required to make the house a place of learning and expand school learning straight into…
The importance of creativity and innovation in the workplace is well documented, but the debate over nature vs. nurture continues with some authorities maintaining that people are born with attributes such as creativity and innovation while others argue that such attributes can be inculcated over time (Furnham & Heaven 1999). To determine the facts in these matters, this case study examines the relevant literature to gain some fresh insights concerning how creativity and innovation can be most effectively stimulated, support and sustained within a given organization. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the case study's conclusion.
Companies of all types and sizes are currently attempting to gain a competitive edge through creativity and innovation. Creativity in the workplace is defined by Garrison, Harvey and Napier (2008) as being "the production of ideas, products, or procedures that are (a) novel or original; (b) appropriate for…
'Coast Guard Innovation Program.' (2008) Commandant Instructions 5224.13, CG-09. Washington D.C., U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
Garrison, G. Harvey, M. & Napier, N. (2008) 'Global Decision-making: the Role of Managerial
Curiosity in Assessing Potentially Disruptive Information Technologies.' Multinational
Business Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 21-23.
action-packed sequel to the Expendables (2010), The Expendables 2 expands on Stallone's action-packed script and introduces even more action stars of the 80s and 90s. The Expendables 2 brings back Stallone, Jason Statham, Dolph Lundgren, Jet Li, Terry Crews, and andy Couture, with expanded roles played by Bruce Willis and Arnold Schwarzenegger. In addition to this impressive cast, The Expendables 2 also features performances by Chuck Norris and Jean-Claude Van Damme. Through The Expendables 2's mise-en-scene, the audience is exposed to a non-stop, action-packed, adrenaline fueled adventure.
While Stallone directed the first film, Stallone passed the directorial torch to Simon West for the sequel. As a director, West was charged with guiding "the actors in performance, [determining] the staging of the action, [supervising] all aspects of shooting, and [working] with the producer, writer, and designer before production and with the film and sound editors after production to ensure consistency and…
"You've Been Back Enough." (2012). The Expendables 2. Directed by Simon West. United States: Lionsgate. Accessed 17 September 2012, from http://movieclips.com/pPZwy-the-expendables-2-movie-youve-been-back-enough/
police officers should follow to stop people for questioning.
"High-crime zones" are recognized by constitutional law: people in such areas have Fourth Amendment safeguards, distinct from those within different areas of those towns, states or cities. This step is representative of a big shift from equality of constitutional protections of every citizen. In some cases, regarding the Fourth Amendment, ranging from Adams v. Williams to the Illinois v. Wardlow case, the U.S. Supreme Court has considered neighborhood's character as one of the aspects in finding "sensible suspicion" in order to stop an individual. The neighborhood's character is not a sole validation criterion for stopping someone, but it has given two factors as the required circumstances: "high-crime zone" and 'unwarranted' running away from the police (Ferguson and Bernache, 2008). Lower level courts have also allowed high-crime zones and other otherwise innocent deeds to be considered reasonable enough suspicion to stop…
Casebriefs - Law Cases & Case Briefs for Students. (n.d.). Hiibel v. Sixth Judicial District Court of Nevada - Casebriefs. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/criminal-procedure/criminal-procedure-keyed-to-weinreb/the-fourth-amendment-arrest-and-search-and-seizure/hiibel-v-sixth-judicial-district-court-of-nevada/
Ferguson, A., & Bernache, D. (2008). The "High-Crime Area" Question: Requiring Verifiable and Quantifiable Evidence for Fourth Amendment Reasonable Suspicion Analysis. AMERICAN UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW, 57(6). Retrieved, from http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1036&context=aulr
Language selection -Department of Justice / Selection de la langue - Ministere de la Justice. (n.d.). What You Need to Know About Making a Citizen's Arrest. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/other-autre/wyntk.html
Rice. (n.d.). Legalzoom: Start a Business, Protect Your Family: LLC, Incorporate, Wills, Trademark, Legal Advice. When Can the Police Stop and Frisk You on the Street? - legalzoom.com. Retrieved October 4, 2016, from http://www.legalzoom.com/articles/when-can-the-police-stop-and-frisk-you-on-the-street
By only being interested in themselves, people fail to accomplish one of their main missions as Christians-that of discovering the Kingdom of God. People should not understand personal satisfaction as being equivalent to the greatest achievement. Christians should constantly be engaged in stepping in when they know that the circumstances require them to do so.
Protecting the environment does not mean that one would have to perform dehumanizing acts, but that the respective person should attempt to do as much as possible in order for them to assist nature.
Practically everyone comes across the topic of environmental protection at a certain point in their lives and it is up to them if they want to be a part of the movement. People need to understand that it is not themselves who should be the center of their interest, as they should also look into assisting others and the planet in…
1. Butman, Richard E. And Kruse, Sandra Johnston, "On Creating a Healthy Supervisory Environment: a Christian Relational and Developmental Perspective," Journal of Psychology and Christianity 26.4 (2007)
2. Cox, Thomas R. "Shinrin Bunkaron" to Kirisuto-kyo, " Environmental History 3.3 (1998)
3. Goss, Benjamin, "Proposing a Biblical Ethic for Environmentalism," The Christian and the Environment, March 1, 2007.
4. Gnanadason, Aruna, "Yes, Creator God Transform the Earth! The Earth as God's Body in an Age of Environmental Violence," The Ecumenical Review 57.2 (2005)
This limits the ability for businesses to make use of telemarketing as an advertising technique. hile most people feel that telemarketers are an annoyance, above all else, telemarketers have also been accused of deceptive practices. This act will make it easier to regulate businesses that use telemarketers. Already, in November 2007, "the FTC announced six settlements and a federal court action against companies that violated the Do Not Call provisions of the Telemarketing Sales Rule, resulting in millions of dollars in civil penalties for rule violations" (FTC Chairman and Commissioners Testify Before Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation on proposed 'Federal Trade Commission Reauthorization Act of 2008'," FTC: Office of Public Affairs, 2008).
Overall, the most potentially significant aspect of the act is its provisions regarding subprime mortgages. The dream of American home ownership for a long time has been taken as a given. However, legislators are beginning to…
Blumenthal, Rob & Jenilee Keeft. "Inouye and Dorgan Introduce Bill to Reauthorize Federal Trade Commission." 8 Apr 2008. 10 Jun 2008. http://commerce.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressReleases.Detail&PressRelease_id=4585a51b-530e-4d5a-8c95-a627b52d1573&Month=4&Year=2008
FTC Chairman and Commissioners Testify Before Senate Committee on Commerce,
Science, and Transportation on proposed 'Federal Trade Commission Reauthorization Act of 2008'" FTC: Office of Public Affairs. 8 Apr 2008. 10 Jun 2008. http://www.ftc.gov/opa/2008/04/reauth.shtm
Worton, Amy E. & Tacie Yoon. "Here Comes the Supercharged FTC Act." Privacy in Focus.
.....standard indicators for which statistical time series data and targets are accessible, but also take into account social aspects, for instance, the fair apportionment of benefits and encumbrances of the energy transition amid social groups and even the participation of citizens in the transformation process. These social constructs are lacking in preceding approaches, which indicates a certain level of inefficiency. Taking this into account, the authors make the hypothesis that an all-inclusive indicator system is required as tool for analysis to examine the sustainability of the German energy system in addition to supporting the advancement of resilient political approaches for an efficacious energy transition (Rosch et al., 2017).
How would you describe the purpose of the study - What was the major purpose of the study -- descriptive, explanatory (investigating causal relationships)?
The purpose of this study is to make a contribution to the debate regarding indicators necessitated for making…
ole Of Leadership And Employees In Organizational Innovation
Organizational success in the current global environment characterized with significant challenges is highly dependent on innovation and creativity. Innovation and creativity contribute to the success of organizational interventions, thereby, contributing to its competitiveness. The current global environment is characterized by rapid adoption of new technologies, reduction in the life cycle of products, and globalization. As such, it implies the need for the organizations to become creative and innovative to compete, survive, lead, and grow in the wake of these challenges. Similarly, significant evidence shows that leadership and the employees play an important role in driving innovation and creativity within the organization. For instance, studies have shown that leadership styles such as transformational and transactional leadership styles, influences innovation, and creativity within the organization positively. However, limited knowledge on the contextual factors under which the effect occurs exists.
Similarly, empirical evidence…
Eisenbeiβ, S.A., & Boerner, S. (2010). Transformational Leadership and R&D Innovation: Taking a Curvilinear Approach. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(4), 364-372.
Gumusluoglu, L., & Ilsev, A. (2009). Transformational Leadership, Creativity, And Organizational Innovation. Journal of Business Research, 62(4), 461-473.
Hu, H., Gu, Q., & Chen, J. (2013). How and when does transformational leadership affect organizational creativity and innovation?: Critical review and future directions. Nankai Business Review International, 4(2), 147-166.
Liao, S., & Wu, C. (2010). System perspective of knowledge management, organizational learning, and organizational innovation. Expert Systems with Applications, 37(2), 1096-1103.
Library Search: Books
nut, W. (n.d.). The Regime of Anastasio Somoza, 1936-1956. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, p. xiii.
Zimmerman, M. (2000). Sandinista: Carlos Fonseca and the Nicaraguan Revolution. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, pp.205-227.
Vilas, C. (1985). The workers' movement in the Sandinista revolution. In Harris, R. And Vilas, C. (eds.), Nicaragua: A Revolution Under Siege. London: Zed Books.
Zwerling, P. And Martin, C. (1985). Nicaragua: A New ind of Revolution. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books. Also, reviewed in Foreign Affairs. n.p., 1 Sept. 1985. [Webpage]. Retrieved http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/40113/robert-d-crassweller/nicaragua-a-new-kind-of-revolution.
Library Search: Journal Articles
Harris, R.L. (1987). The revolutionary transformation of Nicaragua." Latin American Perspectives, 14(1 Winter), 3-18.
Leogrande, W.M. (1996). Making the economy scream: U.S. economic sanctions against Sandinista Nicaragua, Third World Quarterly, 17(2), 329-348.
Paris, R. (2002). Peacebuilding in Central America: Reproducing the sources of conflict? International Peacekeeping, 9(4 Winter), 39-68.
Schroeder, M.J. (2005).…
Kirksville, MO: Truman University. [Website]. Retreived http://revolutions.truman.edu/nicaragua/index.htm
Klerlein, E. (2006, December 14). Environmental effects of Nicaraguan armed conflicts. ICE Case Studies. [Website]. Retrieved http://www1.american.edu/TED/ice/nicaragua.htm
Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua. (2013). [Website]. Pennsylvania State University at Abbington. Retrieved http://www.abington.psu.edu/sandinista [Type text]
San Andreas is a disaster movie that details the events of a catastrophic earthquake and tsunami. The film shows acts of heroism and many fatalities. San Andreas first introduced the protagonist, aymond as a first-responder, saving the life of a woman whose car fell off a cliff. His access to helicopters, boats, and planes enables him to save not just strangers, but his family.
Although aymond has personal issues he must deal with throughout the movie, like the loss of one of his daughters, he does manage to help people on his way to save his other daughter. Some would say he should save the strangers that for example, were caught in the falling building with his wife. Others may point out his family comes first. egardless, aymond displayed heroism in saving his family and helping others avoid dying from falling debris.
The monumental earthquake that hit the…
Mayan calendar has fascinated not only scholars and archaeologists, but also others interested in its mystical and esoteric dimensions. Because the Mayan calendar and associated hieroglyphic texts refer to an "end date" corresponding to 2012 in the Gregorian system, many people believed that the Mayans had predicted the end of the world (Lorenzi, 2012, p. 1). Yet recent archaeological evidence shows that the Mayan concept of an "end date" did not necessarily imply a "doomsday" scenario (Lorenzi, 2012, p. 1). Although the apocalyptic vision never did come to pass and has been disproven, the Mayan calendar continues to captivate and fascinate because of the mystery surrounding its use and its level of sophistication.
One of the most intriguing aspects of the Mayan calendar is its level of sophistication and accuracy. According to the Canadian Museum of History (n.d.), the Mayan calendar originated in the first century BCE but is actually…
Aveni, A.F., Dowd, A.S. & Vining, B. (2003). Maya calendar reform? Latin American Antiquity 14(2): 159-178.
Canadian Museum of History (n.d.). Maya civilization. Retrieved online: http://www.historymuseum.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/maya/mmc06eng.shtml
Jenkins, J.M. (1998). Maya Cosmogenesis 2012. Inner Traditions.
Lorenzi, R. (2012). Mayan calendar discovery confirms a 2012 'end date.' Discovery News. Jun 29, 2012. Retrieved online: http://news.discovery.com/history/archaeology/maya-long-count-calendar-end-date-120629.htm
Products Liability esearch:
Mattel Inc. is a company that was founded in 1944 by Elliot and uth Handler that designs, manufactures, and markets a huge range of toy products. The firm is headquartered in California with its core product lines including Hot Wheels die-cast vehicles, Barbie fashion dolls, Disney toys, Fisher-Price preschool toys, and games like Scrabble. While Mattel also manufactures its toy products based on license agreements with movie makers, most of its toys are produced outside its huge market in the United States i.e. Southeast Asia. Actually, the firm's principal manufacturing facilities are located in several countries in Southeast Asia like Malaysia, China, Thailand, Indonesia, and even Mexico. Since its inception, the company has continued to experience significant growth that enables it to generate huge revenues. By 2007, its revenues had grown to $5.97 billion with its three largest customers accounting for 41% of sales across the globe.…
Andersen, M. (2009, October 16). Mattel Settles Lawsuit Over High Levels of Lead in Chinese
Toys. Retrieved June 10, 2012, from http://www.usatoday.com/money/industries/retail/2009-10-14-mattell-lead-in-toys-settlement_N.htm
"CPSC Overview." (n.d.). U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Retrieved from Consumer Product Safety Commission website: http://www.cpsc.gov/about/about.html
Lacorte, V.L. (n.d.). Mattel, Inc.: The Lead paint Recall. Retrieved from Tuck School of Business
Ethics in esearch
For organizations of all types, the last three decades have been crucial in changing the manner in which organizations interact with each other, stakeholders, the government, and themselves. Most of these changes occurred because of the evolution of globalization, which after the Cold War, increased cooperation between nations and regions while, at the same time, increased stakeholder expectations, opened hundreds of new markets, and now requires that organizations operate on a new level. Particularly after the Enron scandal, stakeholders expect more transparency and honesty from organizations. In fact, a recent survey found that 74% want to know more about the ethical stance and nature of a company prior to purchasing from them. At the same time, 92% of FTSE 100 companies provide no metrics, benchmarks, or quantitative measurements within their annual report (Suter, 2012).
Because of advances in technology and communication, this has also bled over into…
Gutman and Thompson. (2004). Why Deliberative Democracy. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
Leedy, P., & Ormrod, J. (2009). Practical Research: PLanning and Design. New York: Prentice Hall.
Robson, C. (2011). Real World Research: A Resource for Users of Social Research Methods in Applied Settings. New York: Wiley.
SA Health Info. (2010, April). Ethics issues in qualitative research. Retrieved from sahealthinfo.org: http://www.sahealthinfo.org/ethics/ethicsqualitative.htm
I will also solicit from individual his or her basics demographics and personal information such as rough socio-economic status ('I make approximately ($-) per month); vocational occupation; characteristics of place that respondent lives in; details of children (amount, ages, etc.) and how respondent feels program impacted his children; age children were when divorce occurred: details of support system (if any) and of extended family (if any). I will also ascertain that I am targeting individuals who have been divorced once and not remarried and that they have not introduced any other significant partner in their lives at the moment. This is so as to control for possible confounding elements. Stakeholders and participants in this sense are participants of the online / forum / chatgroup / blog environment.
Two of the ethical precautions that I will take will include coding the respondent's genuine or pseudo online identity so that he…
Bowler, G.M., Jr. (2010). Netnography: A method specifically designed to study cultures and communities online. The Qualitative Report, 15(5), 1270-1275.
Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152
Bible Influence Political Thought and Action in Our Culture?
The Bible is a unique book that is different from others because it contains sacred text that has continued to influence societies from generation to generation. Generally, the impact of this sacred book is worldwide since it has affected every department of human activity. The influence of the Bible on society is derived from the fact that it contains various themes that are used to shape the moral progress of the world. In addition, the influence of this book is not restricted to Christians and Jews because it impacts more than 50% of the world population. One of the major ways that the Bible has influenced society is through its effects on politics, especially political thought and action. In most cases, the Bible is used as the basis for formation of laws and rules that govern society.
The Bible and Politics:…
Abramson, P.R. (2011). Politics in the Bible. Piscataway, NJ: Transaction Publishers, Rutgers.
"Biblical Principles of Politics." (n.d.). Developing a Worldview. Retrieved February 18, 2014,
Palmquist, S. (n.d.). The Bible's Political Vision. Retrieved February 18, 2014, from http://staffweb.hkbu.edu.hk/ppp/bth/bth3.html
action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
There is presently much controversy regarding environmentalism and religion is particularly important when considering people's involvement in preserving the environment, with Christian groups from around the world being actively engaged in preserving and restoring it. Although there are a series of techniques that people can use in trying to save the environment, some methods are actually ineffective. The environment is rapidly deteriorating and urgent action needs to be taken in order for the process to be slowed down and eventually even stopped. Christian values influence people in protecting the environment, as it is essential for humans to benefit as a result of having access to the resources offered by a healthy planet. Christians should take advantage of the fact that their religious preferences bring them together and attempt to fight against environmental deterioration on several fronts.…
Jenkins, Willis "Missiology in Environmental Context: Tasks for an Ecology of Mission," International Bulletin of Missionary Research Oct. 2008
Novotny, Patrick Where We Live, Work, and Play: The Environmental Justice Movement and the Struggle for a New Environmentalism (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2000)
Reilly, Patrick "Leftists Pushing Radical 'christian' Environmentalism," Human Events 22 June 2009
Sideris, Lisa H. Environmental Ethics, Ecological Theology, and Natural Selection (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003)
The behavior of both botnets and worms in peer-to-peer networks have been empirically examined and models or simulations of their behavior have been attempted, and the manner in which different nodes in peer-to-peer networks develop in and of themselves and in terms of their relationships with other nodes -- the very architecture of the network itself, in other words, which is necessarily dynamic in a peer-to-peer network -- makes it easier for these threats to spread and evolve undetected due to this architecture and to the patterns of information flow over such networks (Fan, 2011; Xu et al., 2011). When it comes to worms propagating in peer-to-eer networks, the activity of the worm itself has been demonstrated to be the most necessary knowledge in terms of tracking and preventing the continued spread and damage of such a threat, while botnets generally show more "robustness" an are better impacted by shifts…
Ahmad, N. & Habib, M. (2010). Analysis of Network Security Threats and Vulnerabilities by Development & Implementation of a Security Network Monitoring Solution. Blekinge Institute of Technology (thesis).
Barth, W. (2008). Nagios: System and Network Monitoring. San Francisco: Open Source Press.
Bejtlich, R. (2004). The Tao of Network Security Monitoring: Beyond Intrusion Detection. New York: Pearson.
Cao, J. & Liu, Z. (2012). A Distributed Trust Model in Unstructured P2P Networks. Recent Advances in Computer Science and Information Engineering 126: 635-41.
In the speech that Canon, Colman & Mayer reprint; "You warmly commended the Birmingham police force for keeping "order" and "preventing violence." I doubt that you would have so warmly commended the police force if you had seen its angry dogs sinking their teeth into six unarmed, non-violent Negroes, I doubt that you would so quickly commend the policemen if you were to observe their ugly and inhuman treatment of Negroes her in the City Jail; if you were to watch them push and curse old Negro women and young Negro girls; if you were to see them slap and kick old Negro men and young boys; if you were to observe as they did on two occasions, refuse to give us food because we wanted to sing our grace together. I cannot join you in your praise of the Birmingham Police Department." (140) the message her is clear and…
Canon, David, Coleman, John & Mayer, Kenneth. The Enduring Debate: Classic and Contemporary Readings in American Politics, Fifth Edition. New York: Norton, 2008.
Katrznelson, Ira. When Affirmative Action Was White, New York: Norton, 2005.
Lowi, Theodore J., Ginsberg, Benjamin, Shepsle, Kenneth a. American Government: Power and Purpose, Tenth Edition. New York: Norton, 2008.
One of the key changes of the late 20th century, certainly enhanced in the early 21st, is that of the economic, political, and cultural movements that broadly speaking, move the various countries of the world closer together. This idea, called globalism, refers to a number of theories that see the complexities of modern life such that events and actions are tied together, regardless of the geographic location of a specific country (political unit). The idea of globalism has become popular in economic and cultural terms with the advent of a number of macro-trade agreements combined with the ease of communication brought about with the Internet and cellular communication, but also the concept of the global environment as a single organism (Schneider (ed.) 2004, 9). However, the changes in the global, post-World War II and even Cold War environments have also changed the perceptions of most individuals about the…
Aldrich, Tawnsley and Yeh 2005, The Clandestine Cold War in Asia, 1956-65, Frank
Cass, New York.
Boyd, A 2007, Operation Broken Reed: Truman's secret North Korean spy Mission that averted
World War III, Carroll and Graf, New York.
Elements of entrepreneurial actions
Different elements of entrepreneurial actions:
Evaluating risks, dealing with uncertain environments, and taking advantage of competitor's weaknesses
When contemplating 'going out on their own,' prospective entrepreneurs know they face a number of potential risks as well as rewards. The attractions of entrepreneurship for the businessperson are the independence it offers; greater freedom and control over the final product, and also the unlimited earning potential that can be derived from owning one's own business. An entrepreneur is not limited to earning a fixed salary. But unlike someone working for a salary, the entrepreneur must also bear the risks of the venture. Some of the most common obstacles faced by budding entrepreneurs include the difficulties of marketing; researching the customer base and potential financial rewards for a new business; dealing with government regulations; writing a business plan, obtaining capital and a good location, and creating partnerships with…
Cohan, Peter & U. Srinivasa Rangan. (2006). Follow the legend, Business Strategy Review:
McMullan, Jeffrey & Dean Shepherd. (2006). Entrepreneurial action and the role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review, 31 (1): 132 -- 152.
Read, Stuart, Nicholas Dew, Saras D. Sarasvathy, Michael Song, & Robert Wiltbank. (2009).
" This madness likely leads to Ophelia's suicide but, consistent with the entire theme of this play, the exact nature of Ophelia's demise is left to speculation.
The fascination with Hamlet is uncanny. hat provides this fascination is the fact that there is always more to what is going on in the play than what actually appears to be. Observers of the play are left with an overwhelming feeling that they do not really understand what has gone on inside the confines of the play or why. As a result, one leaves the play questioning nearly everything. Halmet, the main character, is the personification of this confusion. Throughout the entire play he is plagued by a never ending incapacity to make a decision.
This confusion continues through nearly every character in the play. Claudius is an immoral murderer but, at the same time, he is a fair and competent ruler.…
Collier & Sons. Harvard Classics. Cambridge, MA: Collier & Sons, 1909.
Davies, Michael. Hamlet: Character Studies. Continuum, 2008.
Indick, William. Psychology for Screenwriters. Michael Wiese Production, 2004.
Lidz, Theodore. Hamlet's Enemy. 1990: International Universities Press, n.d.
Models of leadership and management
Comparison and contrast of leadership models
Application of leadership model: Case of Mark Zuckerberg
Table 1- Leadership Table
Leadership in public and private sector businesses is important for the growth of these businesses. Of late, many researchers have thoroughly investigated the role leadership in promoting businesses. Researchers have also tried to explore the common characteristics of global business leaders that have led their businesses to successful heights. Different models of effective leadership in corporations have also been drafted. One major aspect of leaders being explored in their ability to inspire people surrounding them and use this inspiration to achieve results that could be achieved without having complete trust of followers. While followers might be hard to make for a leader, and yet harder to retain, few researchers have put forth consolidated models of inspirational leaders that effectively make and retain followers.…
Brio, M.M. (2013). Think like Zuck: How Leadership diversity Sparks Innovation. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from: [ http://www.forbes.com/sites/meghanbiro/2013/01/27/think-like-zuck-how-leadership-diversity-sparks-innovation/ ]
Forbes. (2013). The World's Billionaires: Mark Zuckerberg. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from: [ http://www.forbes.com/profile/mark-zuckerberg/ ]
Drucker, P.F. (2004). What makes an effective executive? Harvard Business Review, 58-63.
Goffee, R., & Jones, G. (2001). Why Should Anyone Be Led by You? IEEE Engineering Management Review, 29(1), 94-100.
Management Action and Productivity
usinesses in developed countries tend to think of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) as a characteristic that is centered in their own businesses or, failing that, situated in the industries of wealthier nations. The CSR movement is substantively skewed in the direction of the developed world where the motivation for adopting a CSR initiative is driven more by altruism -- or "enlightened self-interest" (Vogel 2006: 18) -- than profit margins. It is unusual to find a perspective that considers CSR from the perspective of a sourcing company. In the centrically-oriented corporate arena of the developed world, CSR is seen as originating with the company that establishes a supply chain with a multinational company -- not the other way around. In order to manage and control ethical issues arising from doing business with overseas markets, many corporations rely on a social compliance model (PricewaterhouseCoopers 2007).
The social compliance…
Buying your way into trouble? The challenge of responsible supply chain management. 2004. Insight Investment, HBOS. London, UK: Acona Investment Consulting. Retrieved http://www.acona.co.uk/reports/Buying+your+way+into+trouble.pdf
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. 2008. Business Research Methods, 10th Ed. Edition, McGraw-Hill.
Environics International 3rd Annual CSR Monitor. 2002. (In November of 2003, Environics became GlobeScan Incorporated. [Press release] Retrieved http://www.globescan.com/news_archives/csr02_press_release.html
Eslenshade, J. 2004. Monitoring Sweatshops: Workers, Consumers, & the Global Apparel Industry. Temple University Press.
Entrepreneurial Action and Uncertainty
Business ideas and actions: Desktop publishing
Home-based desktop publishing software is increasingly popular as a way for individuals and small businesses to market themselves, create banners and advertisements, or send professional-looking greetings. My proposed desktop publishing software business is designed to satisfy this need. "Desktop publishing software can help you create a multitude of beautiful print projects, ranging from colorful and dazzling to serious and formal…if you are a small business owner, you can prepare and customize your own professional-looking business cards, company brochures, posters, letterhead stationery and much more" (Why desktop publishing software, 2012, Top Ten eviews). By creating my own independent business, I could empower other independent organizations not to rely on expensive print shops and would offer a lower-cost, downloadable alternative to the costly software already on the market. For owners who wished to outsource their printing, I would offer customized…
Changon, Bevi. (2002). The publishing business: Desktop Publishing Software.
Journal of Electronic Publishing, 8 (1). Retrieved:
Desktop publishing. (2012). Art Jobs. Retrieved:
The results of this study found that some negative bias towards a patient's socioeconomic standing -- particularly from less-experienced dental students -- can result in "differential treatment" (e.g., less attentive care) (Carson, 675). But by "heightening awareness" of potential biases (that are based on accent or perceived lower socioeconomic status, or on racism) among dental students, through educational initiatives, stereotyping and bias can be reduced if not eliminated (Carson, 678). Another suggestion (Carson, 678-79) in terms of ensuring the quality of treatment is to "inhibit social categorical thinking." This would require not treating the patient as "unique" but rather as a "collections of symptoms."
Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical
Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),
Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
A Constraint in Children's Action Planning? The Journal…
Carson, Lloyd, Drummond, John, and Newton, James. (2004). Social Perception in the Clinical
Dental Encounter: The Matched-Guise Technique Re-Visited. Psychology and Health, 19(5),
Gabbard, Carl, Cacola, Priscila, and Cordova, Alberto. (2009). Is Perceived Motor Competence
Usually, it is more likely that the ruse is discovered by a forensic psychologist, and/or that there is simply too much evidence pointing to the fact that the criminal knew what he or she was doing when the crime was being committed (Adler, 2004).
The Likelihood of eoffending
Whether a criminal is likely to reoffend is something else that has to be considered by forensic psychologists. They are often asked to give their opinion on this issue when inmates are coming up for early release or when they are eligible for parole. There are other factors and opinions that are taken into account, of course, but having a professional, psychological opinion about whether a criminal has been "cured" of his or her behavior or will be likely to repeat it is very significant (Adler, 2004; Dalby, 1997). It can be difficult to determine what goes on in the mind of…
Adler, J.R. (Ed.). (2004). Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice. Cullompton: Willan.
Dalby, J.T. (1997) Applications of Psychology in the Law Practice: A guide to relevant issues, practices and theories. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Duntley, J.D., & Shackelford, T.K. (2006). Toward an evolutionary forensic psychology. Social Biology, 51, 161-165.