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Adderall presence on the U.S. market
ith between 3% and 5% of individuals in the U.S. having been diagnosed with ADHD, there is high demand for drugs that can make it possible for these respective individuals to cope with their condition. hile there is much controversy regarding such drugs, some are considered especially effective and there is a strong consumer base for these products. During the last two decades Adderall experienced significant progress in the health care industry as people acknowledged the benefits that the drug had on ADHD patients.
During the late 1990s and early 2000s the masses started to express more support with regard to stimulants, with individuals from a wide range of backgrounds being able to improve their lives as a result of using them. To a certain degree, it would be safe to say that ADHD becoming more popular played an important role in helping a…… [Read More]
Add Forums. Adderall Facts from the Manufacturer. Support and Information Resources
Community: Jelsoft Enterprises, Ltd., 2004. Retrieved on May 1, 2011 from http://www.addforums.com/forum/showthread.php?t=13863
Collier, Mallory. Adderall: History, Uses, Side Effects, and Withdrawal. Associated Content: Yahoo, Inc., 2008. Retrieved on May 1, 2011 from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/1268435/adderall_history_uses_side_effects.html
Geist, Jared. Focusing in on Adderall. Institute for Food Laws and Regulations: Michigan
State University, 2007. Retrieved on May 1, 2011 from http://www.iflr.msu.edu/ookStudentPapers_files/Geist>Focusing-on-Adderall.pdf
Harrison, Karl. Adderall 3 dChem, 2007. Retrieved on May 1, 2011 from http://www.3dchem.com/moremolecules.asp?ID=400&othername=Adderall
Logan, Darc. History of ADHD Treatment. eHow: Demand Media, Inc., 2011. Retrieved
on May 1, 2011 from http://www.ehow.com/facts_5180011_history_adhd
Macmillan, Leigh. Illuminating Aphetamine's Molecular Action. Exploration Journal:
Vanderbilt University, 2004. Retrieved on May 6, 2011 from http://www.vanderbilt.edu/exploratin/news/news_galli.htm
NCI. Dextroamphetamine Compound Summary (CID 5825). PubChem: National
Center for iotechnology Information, 2005. Retrieved on May 1, 2011 from http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=5825
NeuroChi. Adderall. SIN Foundation, 2011. Retrieved on May 6, 2011 from http://www.drugs-forum.com/forum/showwiki.php?title=Adderall#Chemistry_of_Adderall…… [Read More]
"The increased dopamine flow in the frontal cortex then allows the brain to carry on its executive functions as a normal brain would, thus counteracting the effects of ADHD" (3).
Treatment of ADHD: Even for individuals with the illness for whom Adderall is most commonly prescribed,
"The effectiveness of ADDEALL® for long-term use has not been systematically evaluated in controlled trials," in a longitudinal fashion and is usually a part of a holistic treatment for the child or adult, combining behavior management and counseling as well as drug therapy (6). Adderall is not prescribed to individuals who merely wish to use it to get an 'edge' on studying. "The use of Adderall by those who are not prescribed is illegal across the United States. The Encyclopedia of Drugs and Addictive Substances said that it is regulated under federal laws and the possession of non-prescribed Adderall can result in imprisonment and…… [Read More]
How to Solve the Illegal Exchange and Non-Medical use of Adderall among College Students: A Research Proposal
As numerous researchers have pointed out in recent years, the spread of “smart” drugs is on the rise across college campuses (Arria & DuPont, 2010; Frood, 2018; Vrecko, 2015). So-called “study drugs” like Adderall, which is an amphetamine, are used by students to help them study, cram, focus, and get ready for finals or get through a particularly intense stretch of work during particularly trying times of the school year. As Frood (2018) notes, “in a survey of tens of thousands of people, 14% reported using stimulants at least once in the preceding 12 months in 2017, up from 5% in 2015.” It goes without saying that the illegal exchange of such drugs is a problem that needs to be addressed. How to address it is the aim this research proposes to…… [Read More]
Substance use and mental health problems often go hand-in-hand. People who feel depressed or anxious may depend on marijuana, alcohol, or other substances to feel at better or at ease. Although not everyone who experience mental health problems abuse substances, it is more common than imagined with people abusing prescription medication as well from Adderall to Vicodin (Montvilo, 2013). Although my immediate family has not experienced substance abuse problems, some within my family have gone through depression and anxiety issues. Other more distant relatives have experienced problems with marijuana and prescription medication. While their reasons differ, it amazing how family dynamics play a role in the creation of substance abuse and mental health problems.
The first person to look at is my father. He experienced a bout of depression when he had to deal with a potential loss of work a few years ago. He is the main provider…… [Read More]
Each of the children received one of four possible treatments over a fourteen-month period - behavioral treatment, medication management, combination of the two, or usual community care. The results of this study showed that children who were treated with medication alone, which was carefully managed and individually tailored, and children who received both medication management and behavioral treatment had the best outcomes with respect to improvement of ADHD symptoms. The best results in terms of the proportion of children showing excellent response regarding were provided by ADHD combination treatment and oppositional symptoms, and in other areas of functioning. Overall, those who received closely monitored medical management had greater improvement in their ADHD symptoms than children who received either intensive behavioral treatment without medication or community care with less carefully monitored medication.
Treatment for ADHD is not without controversy. For most children with the disorder, medication is an integral part of…… [Read More]
A Review of hat the Internet Is Hiding From You
This paper reviews the book, The Filter Bubble: hat the Internet is Hiding from You, by Eli Pariser. The purpose of this paper is to analyze this book in an attempt to determine where the future of the internet is headed. The Filter Bubble begins with an overview of how Google began customizing its search results for intent users in 2009 and the results of that customization. The author hypothesizes that the future of the net is personalization. This is the undertone of the entire work. Follow up pieces by the Economist, including several supporting articles, suggest that personalization is indeed the future of the internet. These articles, while not cited by page number as they are online, do show that personalization is occurring. This however, is leading to decreased privacy over the web. This is a primary…… [Read More]
Prescription Drug Abuse
The overall point of conversation when speaking of prescription drugs in the public and political sphere has usually focused on cost and/or ease of access among all Americans. The overall points of conversation relating to drug has often centered on drugs like heroin, cocaine, crack and marijuana. However, as time and trends have shifted, the primary focus of both overall topics has centered on the use and abuse of prescription drugs, usually certain classes of drugs such as sedatives, opiates and anti-anxiety drugs. Common drugs focused on include Xanax, any narcotic-based painkiller such as Oxycontin and sedatives or muscle relaxers such as Valium and Soma. While prescription drugs are very important to have at the ready, the likelihood and propensity towards abuse of the drugs and other legal behavior is significant and this is even true among people who obtain the drugs legally at the onset.
Analysis…… [Read More]
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…… [Read More]
Standardized tests are only able to measure correct multiple choice answers. They cannot measure a child's creativity, their ability to problem solve, or their ability to critically evaluate information.
The culture of achievement that has accompanied the push for higher test scores has had severe physical and psychological effects on students. Taylor (2010) claims that academic stress is the greatest source of stress faced by school-aged children. He notes that many high school and college students have turned to performance-enhancing drugs such as Adderall and italin to help them concentrate. Finally, he claims that teen suicide rates have risen drastically in recent years, particularly among girls. In summary, the ever-increasing push for higher test scores has created an academic culture where stressed out students and frustrated teachers are the norm, and where very little authentic learning actually takes place. ace to the Top's push for even higher test scores may…… [Read More]
ithin the profession itself, there are many ethical debates, pertaining to medications, such as prescribing psychotropic drugs like antidepressants to adolescents, the correct times to use palliative care at the end of a patient's life, the ethics of emergency contraception and giving 'the morning after pill' and contraception to adolescents without parental consent. For pharmacists engaged in research, the appropriate use of animals in research and whom to include or exclude in clinical trials may be another issue of personal concern (Applelbe 2008). In all cases, to dispense medication means one must dispense good judgment, not simply pills and potions.
Pharmacy Ethics and Decision Making. (2008). Foreword by Gordon E. Appelbe. First edition.…… [Read More]
Clear boundaries must be set for the child as to what is acceptable or unacceptable behavior. Older and more verbal children may be able to 'talk out' some of their anger issues with a counselor, and the counselor can probe as to why the child feels angry (Non-drug therapies for ADHD, 2005, Mental Health Matters).
Creating a new way of relating to the world for the child
For hyperactive children, behavior modification can be useful. In this therapy, good behaviors, agreed upon by the child, parent, teachers, and therapist, are rewarded and others are punished (Non-drug therapies for ADHD, 2005, Mental Health Matters). These might include sitting still for defined periods of time, not running or fidgeting at inappropriate times, and meeting other physically definite goals. Behavior modification is often deployed for younger children or children who do not yet have the capacity to engage in cognitive behavioral therapy. Including…… [Read More]
In addition, a number of anti-depressants may be prescribed, such as Norpramin, Elavil and Wellbutrin.
The side effects of these medications also vary, but for the most part, they cause a slower heart rate, possible seizures, dry mouth, and constipation. Yet overall, the side effects are usually minor and when the child responds favorably to the medication, it obviously outweighs the side effects. The effectiveness of these medications produce positive results in regard to sustained attention and persistence of effort. They also reduce restlessness and overall improve behavior.
In conclusion, ADHD can be a very debilitating disorder for any child, especially in regard to activities performed at home and in school. However, the future looks bright, for breakthroughs in the treatment of ADHD are on the horizon, and over the next decade, genetic testing may be available for the disorder and could lead to safer and more effective medications for…… [Read More]
Methylphenidate is part of a therapy regimen for the control of the symptoms of Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD in adults and children (Ogbru 2013, Medline Plus 2012). It stimulates the central nervous system similarly as amphetamines but more mildly. The effects of methylphenidate are also more noticeable on mental activities than in physical movements. It also is used in treating narcolepsy and Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD. Stimulants control these symptoms by changing the amount of natural substances in the brain responsible for the conditions. ut both classes of stimulants are carefully used because of their potential abuse. They calm the patient, reduce their hyperactivity and increase attention span. FDA approved methylphenidate in 1955 (Ogbru, MedlinePlus).
Generic and Trade Names
Generic names -- methylphenidate, Methylphenidylacetate hydrochloride
Trade names -- Concerta, Metadate, Methylin, Ritalin, Adderall
Toxicity and Side Effects
It is to be used with cause on patients with…… [Read More]
K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Paradigms in the 21st Century
This is not your grandfathers' economy or his educational paradigm however; today's curriculum still appears as such and therein lays a very significant and challenging problem that presents to today's educators and leaders. According to Sir Ken Robinson, "We have a system of education that is modeled on the interest of industrialism and in the image of it. Schools are still pretty much organized on factory lines -- ringing bells, separate facilities, specialized into separate subjects. We still educate children by batches." (rain Pickings, 2012) Make no mistake in the opinion of Robinson who believes that divergent thinking most emphatically is not "…the same thing as creativity" because according to Robinson in his work proposing a new educational paradigm. Indeed this is also spoken of in the work of Zeng-tian and Yu-Le in their work "Some Thoughts on Emergent Curriculum"…… [Read More]
treating ADHD?." The writer then uses information from peer reviewed journals to discuss and conclude the answer to the question. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
As the medical community continues to make advances, disorders that were at one time questionable, are now accepted fact. One of the most controversial disorders in the past five decades has been ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been the center of focus in the media, and in other arenas when it comes to the topic of abnormal psychology. After decades of debating its merit and validity the public has come to accept the fact that it is a real disorder, most likely biologically based, and something that can last a lifetime. The disorder can wreak havoc in an individual's life socially, economically, and academically unless effective treatment is implemented. ADHD not only affects the person who has it, but also…… [Read More]
Cartesian dualism emerges from Descartes's approach of radical skepticism. Wanting to know what can be determined to be absolutely true, Descartes begins by doubting all sensory perception as fundamentally external and liable to interference. Just as we understand that hallucination exists as a real phenomenon -- whereby we might "see" an object that is not really there -- we may come to understand that all the evidence obtained from eyesight may not necessarily be a valid representation of the external world. Indeed, we do not even have to refer to the pathological category of hallucination to understand what it would mean to find sensory evidence to be deceptive. In his recent book on hallucinations, the noted neuroscientist Dr. Oliver Sacks (2012) makes reference to "dreams, which one can argue are hallucinations of a sort" (xiii). Anyone who has had a vivid dream knows that they contain visual, auditory, and…… [Read More]
Cohesive Narrative Using a Fictional or eal Character to Build Story
Nineteen-year-old obert was a perfectly 'normal' child for the majority of his life; he anticipated zoo outings with his mother and he was a part of his school's swim team. With three older siblings, obert was the youngest in the family, and was good friends with his high school classmates. He enjoyed French and art classes. He never faced any problems with alcohol or drugs; he neither drank nor smoked pot, or anything of that sort. But his girlfriend was a different case entirely. Addicted to heroin, obert's girlfriend tempted him to have a go at it; unfortunately however, obert didn't resist. She injected him with heroin in 2009. obert later began to find himself craving the drug, and before long, he became a quasi-addict as well, consuming the drug once every two weeks.
It is said that 'peer…… [Read More]
represented by different methodologies, describing the purpose of every methodology and providing an example of a research problem for every methodology. The ideas that will be discussed in this paper include exemplifying what encompasses a research problem and also making comparisons and contrasts between qualitative research and quantitative research with respect to their strengths and weaknesses.
To enable the researcher manipulate one variable while measuring other variables and therefore making it possible to examine cause and effect of research problems
To measure the relationship or correlation that exists between two variables
To question and interrogate a massive group of people regarding their philosophies and standpoints on a certain phenomenon
To develop a theory or theoretical model where none exists in the literature in relation to the sample
To describe and interpret…… [Read More]
Define the Problem
The defined and existing problem is going to vary in scope and definition depending on who is doing the defining. However, there are some clear and obvious problems with the “three strikes” law. The policy itself was meant to address a problem. However, that policy has created a new set of problems. Indeed, there are situations where three-time violent felons are justifiably put away for twenty-five years to life. However, the major problem with the policy are the human and budgetary costs that are created by people being thrown in jail for life for minor offenses (“Ewing v. California”, 2017). There is also the concern that some people are being thrown in jail even though they will soon “age out” of criminal behavior. Indeed, men in their 60’s are not able to crawl through windows, run and jump fences like someone in their 20’s or 30’s (Besemer,…… [Read More]