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In ancient Mesopotamia -- according to the Indiana University (IU) -- there were two kinds of medical practitioners; the "ashipu" was also called a "sorcerer" and one of his jobs was to give a diagnosis of the medical problem. He was also accountable to determine "which god or demon was causing the illness" (IU), and to figure out if the illness resulted from "some error or sin on the part of the patient." The curing of the patient also fell into the hands of the ashipu; he used charms and spells designed to push the spirit out of the body that had caused the problem in the first place (IU). hen the situation called for it, the ashipu referred his patient to the other kind of medical practitioner, the asu, a specialist in herbal remedies who also knew how to treat wounds. The asu used three "fundamental techniques: washing,…
Indiana University. "Medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia." Retrieved March 11, 2011, from http://www.indiana.edu/~ancmed/meso.HTM .
Lascaratos, J., and Poulacou-Rebelacou, Effie. "The Roots of Geriatric Medicine: Care of the Aged in Byzantine Times (324-1453 AC). Gerontology, Vol. 46 (2000): 2-6.
Nutton, Vivian. Sciences of Antiquity. London: Psychology Press, 2004.
Pain, Stephanie. "The World's First Pharmacists." New Scientist. 196.2634, (2007): 40-43.
The doctors were ineffective on account of the absence of proper medicines, pain killers and even the simple instruments of the trade like the thermometer and stethoscope. (Medicine and Health)
The conditions of life in Colonial America - Health Issues
All was not well with the colonial settlers. People died very young from various ailments like influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis, smallpox, malaria, rickets and a host of waterborne diseases. We can attribute this to the pressure on land, and the unhygienic conditions that were prevalent at that time. The average life expectance was only twenty five years and many did not survive their teen age. Unhygienic conditions were the prime cause, and the colonial cities and homes did not have a bathroom, running water or hygienic closets as of today. The people relieved themselves in pots and semi-open structures which caused the facial matter to somehow contaminate water. Added to this,…
Axtell, James. The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North
America. Oxford University Press. 1982.
Kisacky, Jeanne. Restructuring Isolation: Hospital Architecture, Medicine, and Disease
Prevention. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 79, no. 1, 2005, pp: 1-49.
Medicine & Culture
Payer, Lynn. Medicine & Culture: Varieties of reatment in the United States, England, West Germany, and France. New York: Henry Holt, 1988. 204 pp.
Many people who travel in the course of their job, or those who go abroad on holiday, are often surprised to discover that medicine and healthcare can vary enormously from that which they are used to at home. In her book Medicine & Culture, Lynn Payer compares and contrasts the practice of medicine in four major western countries: U.S.A., Britain, Germany and France. Payer does not deal with the countries' health care systems, but focusses her analysis upon the different approaches taken to medical diagnosis and treatment within each country, and how these vary from one to the other. he basis of these variances, and the cause of the obvious differences, is, according to the author, linked to culture.
he structure of the…
The central focus, and major argument, of Medicine & Culture is that the medical professionals, within the four countries under study, understand and practice medicine in radically differently ways as a result of their particular national history and culture. This observation is extended by Payer to include medical training and the general population within each country. Therefore the book emphasizes the differences, not only between the medical staff, but also between the patients of each country.
Medicine & Culture's primary argument is directed at American doctors and patients, and their general tendency to regard their country's medicine as the most scientifically correct manner in which to diagnose and treat disease. Payer suggests that the American medical profession, and the public, should adopt a wider perspective and consider the way in which their country's medical practices are established and influenced by historical traditions and cultural biases. By devoting a seperate chapter to each of the four central countries, Payer's expands upon her theories and ideas, and examnines specific medical conditions and the manner in which the doctors of each country approach the areas of diagnosis and treatment.
Considering the rapid advances made in recent years, within the field of medicine, it is likely that many of the claims and conclusions made by Payer will now be out of date. However, the central message remains as valid and thought-provoking today as it did back in 1985. It is important for doctors, and patients, to avoid taking a narrow, cultural specific view of disease, diagnosis, and treatment. As everyone's lives become increasingly influenced by globalization and multiculturalism, Payer's message is that the medical profession of each country should continually look beyond the limitations and accepted truths of its own culture, and keep its mind open to the ideas and theories of others.
I believe that in many cases, the early stages of dementia do not necessarily make it impossible for continued life to be worthwhile. However, there is a point of mental decline beyond which I have trouble recommending aggressive treatment of certain medical ailments intended to prolong life...to prolong life that is no longer the type of life that the patient himself would necessarily wish to prolong.
Q: Do you share those sentiments with patients?
A: No; and that is precisely the dilemma I'm thinking about. I realize that it is natural for patients' families to hold out hope of recovery regardless of negative medical prognoses. Likewise, I understand that it is difficult to acknowledge...acknowledge on a psychological level...that their loved ones are, essentially, already gone once they no longer recognize their own family members and cannot perform the simplest tasks for themselves. Not so much that they are physically unable…
Wear an elastic compression bandage or splint on the affected area.
aise the injured part so it's higher than ones' heart. This can be done by propping it up on pillows. This also helps to prevent or reduce swelling.
Approximately 24 hours after the injury one should use warm compresses or a heating pad in order to soothe any aching muscles. They should take any pain medications that have been ordered by the doctor. It takes a strain about one week in order to heal. A bad sprain may take up to three or four weeks to heal and sometimes even longer. While a strain or sprain heals, it is important for a person to take it easy and avoid doing things that could cause another injury. If one has visited the doctor for their injury, they may have a follow-up visit in order to make sure everything is healing…
Durani, Yamini. (2007). What Are Strains and Sprains? Retrieved May 8, 2010, from Kids
Health Web site: http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/aches/strains_sprains.html#
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2010). Definition. Retrieved May 8, 2010, from Mayo Clinic Web site:
2004; Dakovska & Kovacheva 2003; Zella, McCary, and DeLuca 2003).
In addition to skeletal functions, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, substantial volumes of research indicate that hypovitaminosis D. also contributes to systemic inflammation by virtue of more than 200 distinct gene control functions of 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D (Holick 2007). While the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis relates to skeletal issues, the available evidence of the role of hypovitaminosis D. In systemic inflammation strongly suggests that even aspects of skeletal health are directly attributable to inflammatory responses moderated by adequate absorption of vitamin D as well (Barger-Lux, Heaney, Dowell, et al. 1998).
This anti-inflammatory function of vitamin D has been implicated in diseases affecting numerous tissues including the brain, prostate, breasts, and colon tissues, among others, all of which have vitamin D receptors and are responsive to 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D (Holick 2007; Mathieu & Adorini 2008; Pittas, Harris, Stark, et al. 2007).…
Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP, Dowell S, Chen TC, Holick MF. "Vitamin D and its Major Metabolites: Serum Levels after Graded Oral Dosing in Healthy Men." Osteporos Int 1998; 8:222-30.
Chiu KC, Chu a, Go VL, Saad MF. "Hypovitaminosis D. Is Associated with Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Dysfunction." Am J. Clin Nutr 2004; 79:820-5.
Dakovska L, Kovacheva R. The Effect of Vitamin D3 on Insulin Secretion and Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Int J. Clin Pract 2003; 57: 258-26
Holick MF. "Vitamin D Deficiency." N. Engl J. Med 2007; 357:266-81. Mathieu C, Adorini L. "The Coming of Age of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (3) Analogs as Immunomodulatory Agents." Trends Mol Med 2002; 8: 174-9.
The aspect of medicine as a science is what students in the medical field are expected to grasp for their tests and it's the main reason why these students study. Medicine is considered as a science of uncertainty despite of its exposure of students to patient-oriented and bio-psychosocial models in the current medical education systems. The uncertainty in the medical field is inherent because of every aspect of complex behaviors with which results are non-linear. Consequently, acceptance of uncertainty is an essential skill for medical practitioners in order to promote effective care and self-preservation. While the extent of uncertainty in medicine is rarely discussed because of the increase in medical knowledge, expectations and abilities, it can improve experiential learning (Wellbery, 2010).
Evidence-based practice in the medical field provides various ways for weighing and communicating uncertainty though it does so from a probabilistic instead of human perspective. Medicine is a…
Frances, M (n.d.), 'The Uncertainty of Medicine,' Journal of Young Investigators, vol. 17,
viewed 13 October 2011,
Healy, B (2007), Medicine, The Art, U.S. News and World Report, viewed 13 October 2011,
medicine, science and empire, with particular reference to malaria, the plague, and tuberculosis, in Great ritain, Africa and India, in the nineteenth century. The impact these diseases had on the imperial effort, and the medical profession, will also be discussed. The paper uses the following main texts: Colonizing the ody by David Arnold; Contagious Divides by Nayah Shan; Curing Their Ills: Colonial Power and African Illness by Megan Vaughan; Tools of Empire by Daniel Hedrick; Warm Climates and Western Medicine by David Arnold; and Machines as the Measure of Men by Michael Adas.
In most reviews of the technologies of nineteenth century imperialism, three technologies are pinpointed as having given the imperialists their edge in the fight for dominance: the steamship, advanced military weaponry (such as rifles), and quinine. These technologies allowed the imperialists to gain ground over their new lands, to be able to conquer the people of these…
Adas, M. (1995). Machines as the Measure of Men.
Arnold, D. (1993). Colonizing the Body.
Arnold, D. (1996). Warm Climates and Western Medicine.
Headrick, D. (1981). Tools of Empire.
The paper gives the impression that there is "a woman stooping down and creeping about behind that pattern." She fancies that the paper is moving. The pattern moves, the wallpaper's influence creeps into the house, and she projects her obsession onto John and Jennie, who seem to stare at the paper like she does when they have an unguarded moment.
The once-acknowledged imaginary woman becomes 'real' by the end of the story, shaking the paper and creeping about by day -- finally, at the story's end, the narrator has become the trapped, wallpaper-encased woman in her mind, and completely mentally unraveled as a result of her rest cure. This shows how the wallpaper of the former nursery room of the home symbolizes that woman is trapped by her rest cure, and by maternity. The narrator, unable to express her anger and sadness, instead expresses these feelings by developing a fixation…
Gilman, Charlotte Perkins. "The Yellow Wallpaper." 1899. [1 Feb 2007] http://www.library.csi.cuny.edu/dept/history/lavender/wallpaper.html
Yogurt Consumption Lowers Colorectal Cancer isk
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, with over a million people developing the disease each year (reviewed by Touvier et al., 2011; Aune et al., 2011; Pala et al., 2011; van Duijnhoven et al., 2009). The worldwide distribution of this disease is uneven though, with developed economies like North American and Western Europe generally having the highest prevalence rates. This fact lends significant support to the theory that this disease is primarily caused by lifestyle choices. For example, Americans have one of the highest prevalence rates in the world with a lifetime disease risk of 1 in 20 (National Cancer Institute [NCI], 2011). For the general population, the chance of dying from colorectal cancer is only 0.02%, but once diagnosed the risk of death increases dramatically. The median age at first diagnosis is 70 and the chance of…
Aune, D., Lau, R., Chan, D.S.M., Vieira, R., Greenwood, D.C., Kampman, E., and Norat, T. (2011). Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Annals of Oncology, published online ahead of print May 26 and retrieved June 21, 2011 from http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/content/early/2011/05/26/annonc.mdr269.full.pdf+html
Baroja, M. Lorea, Kirjavainen, P.V., Hekmat, S., and Reid, G. (2007). Anti-inflammatory effects of probiotic yogurt in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 149, 470-479.
Berstein, Charles N. (2010). Epidemiologic clues to inflammatory bowel disease. Current Gastroenterology Reports, 12, 495-501.
Gianotti, Luca, Morelli, Lorenzo, Galbiati, Francesca, Rocchetti, Simona, Coppola, Sara, Beneduce, Aldo, . . . Braga, Marco. (2010). A randomized double-blind trial on perioperative administration of probiotics in colorectal cancer patients. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 16(2), 167-175.
Claude ernard and Experimental Medicine
Claude ernard is regarded as one of the first physicians, surgeons, to embrace scientific experimentation as a means of defining medicine. He believed that people who conducted statistical experimentation and stated statistically derived numbers without a definite purpose were in error. His belief was that there should always be a definite article that the experiment was looking for. He gave several examples of his belief in experimentation toward a goal in which he was able to relate his idea of the ridiculousness of just spouting numbers for their sakes. He relates the study of spinal root nerves that found that sometimes they were sensitive and other times they were not. He argued that this experimentation yielded nothing of value because it specified nothing.[footnoteRef:1] He next put forth the example of an individual who conducted a series of operations for the same condition and said that…
Bernard, Claude. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, translated by Henry Copley Green. New York: Dover Publications, 1957. 136-140.
Darian, Steven G., Understanding the language of science, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2003.
Dodhia, Rahul. "Misuse of Statistics," Raven Analytics (accessed Nov 13, 2012)
LaFollette, Hugh, and Niall Shanks. "Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard." International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8.3 (1994): 195-210.
As evidence, one need look no further than contemporary political battles over certain medical procedures and, more generally, over the relationships among and between government, society, and medicine.
The history of modern medicine is not one that traveled linearly; it is a history that represents overlapping stages of earlier influences and more modern approaches. Nor did medicine evolve uniformly in the entire human community. In most cases, even the best and most conceptually valid forms of pre-modern medicine provided a mixture of worthwhile concepts and methods along with those that either accomplished nothing or actually caused additional suffering.
Nevertheless, significant specific gaps in conceptual understanding greatly reduced the effectiveness of medicine before the 20th century. On its surface, modern medicine may appear to have no similarity to early medicine, but virtually every major aspect of modern medicine is directly traceable to specific periods of the history of medicine. Likewise,…
As if to instantly affirm the principle that progress cannot continue on a simple and direct path, the Romans came after the Greeks and took medicine on a new and far less rigorous path. Seeing the Greeks and their dependence on physicians as effeminate, Romans insisted that exercise and diet, with a few traditional herbal remedies utilized only due to past practice and not an empirical evidence, was all that was needed to maintain health. Despite other advances in hygiene and the amazing civil works projects the Romans were able to undertake and complete, historians have generally agreed that their knowledge and practice of medicine was inferior to that of the Greeks, possibly vastly so. Though health was indeed promoted by many of the Roman's activities and endeavors, medicine was actually one of the areas in which the least progress was made, and that had the least positive and direct…
This information enables individuals to learn about treatment methods that their doctors have not yet recommended. Third, allopathic medicine is not fail-proof. Many diseases or conditions do not respond well to conventional medicine, and many conventional medicines create as many problems as they are designed to solve.
Three factors hindering the acceptance of CAM include the following. First, the pharmaceutical and insurance industries are not likely to support the use of complementary medicine. Complementary procedures are used as adjuncts to allopathic methods that are more profitable. Similarly, doctors may not suggest conventional methods under the assumption the patient may not return to the office. Second, "researchers do not know how safe many CAM treatments are or how well they work," ("Complementary and Alternative Medicine"). Safety is usually less of a concern than efficacy. However, many scientists and doctors are concerned that patients are being misinformed. Complementary medicine may offer false…
"Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Medline Plus. Retrieved Nov 22, 2009 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/complementaryandalternativemedicine.html
National Institutes of Health. What is complementary and alternative medicine? National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved Nov 22, 2009 from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/
University of Maryland Medical Center. "Complementary and Alternative Medicine Index (CAM)." Retrieved Nov 22, 2009 from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/
Egyptian medicine. There are eight references used for this paper.
Civilizations throughout the years have dealt with disease and illness in numerous ways. It is interesting to look at the Ancient Egyptians and determine how they practiced medicine during their time and how it relates to modern medicine. It is also important to examine the materials or tools involved in their medical practices, major medical discoveries, and methods used by physicians to heal patients.
The Ancient Egyptians made "several major medical discoveries and began treating diseases in a physical manner alongside older spiritual cures. Though much of the advancement in medical knowledge and practice was a side effect of religious ceremonies, the effect on public health and knowledge of the human body was tremendous. Fuelled by a desire to enter the afterlife, Egyptian knowledge of the workings of the body encompassed new areas of medicine ranging from a basic…
(3,500-year-old holistic remedy said to extract ear wax. (accessed 18 November, 2004).
(Ancient Egypt: Ancient Egyptian Medicine. (accessed 18 November, 2004).
Personalized medicine uses advanced and evolving understanding of genetics to make medical interventions safer and more effective. With genetic science, doctors are able to target medications and procedures for patients directly, creating an unprecedented "personalized" approach to medicine. Traditional allopathic medicine relies on empirical research that generalizes results for an entire population. This has led to problems related to patient side effects, some of which are serious. As the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of General Medical Sciences) points out, the "one-size-fits-all" approach to prescribing medicines that continues to characterize modern health care is flawed because doctors "usually started with standard doses, and then observed how patients responded," ("Personalized Medicines Fact Sheet," 2012). Unfortunately, this meant also that doctors "changed the doses or drugs by a trial and error process" that could be uncomfortable, costly, and time consuming ("Personalized Medicines Fact Sheet," 2012).
Until the completion of the Human…
"Personalized Medicine," (2011). U.S. News. Retrieved online: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine
"Personalized Medicines Fact Sheet," (2012). National Institutes of Health. Retrieved online: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Research/FeaturedPrograms/PGRN/Background/FactSheet.htm
Medicine as a discipline is predominantly rooted in science, particularly biology and chemistry. My strong performance in and enjoyment of sciences makes me an ideal candidate for medical school. Nevertheless, my greatest motivation to pursue the field comes from my passion for serving people. Right from elementary school through to college, I have always been passionate about serving people in a direct way. I have participated in numerous volunteer and community initiatives, which have further strengthened my desire to serve people. Serving people gives me satisfaction more than anything else. Medicine is one field that offers the opportunity to serve humanity. It is not only a job, but also a career. It enables one to practically apply the knowledge acquired in class in helping people.
Dissimilar to most courses, medicine is a vocational course in the sense that one gets practical training in a specific job. Students do not just…
Translational medicine is a new discipline, which covers studies on basic science, on human investigations, non-human investigations, and translational research (Mankoff et al. 2004). asic science studies address the biological effects of medicines on human beings. Studies on humans discover the biology of disease and serve as foundation for developing therapies. Non-human or non-clinical studies advance therapies for clinical use or use in human disease. And translational research refers to appropriate product development for clinical use. Translational research looks into the identity, purity and potency of a drug product during early clinical trial (Mankoff et al.). Translating the knowledge derived from basic sciences into clinical research and treatments is the task of translational medicine (Nagappa 2006). There is a groaning need for this type of research on account of voluminous information in the information age. Using this information is the challenge encountered by scientists and healthcare providers everywhere in the…
Hersh, William. A Stimulus to Define Informatics and Health Information Technology.
Vol 9 BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making: BioMed Central Ltd., 2009.
Retrieved on November 24, 2010 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6947/24
Mankoff, Stacey P. et al. Lost in Translation: Obstacles to Translational Medicine Vol 2
The article summarizes the herbal medicine also known as botanical medicine to refer to the usage of plant seeds, roots, leaves and berries for the medicinal purposes. The article also indicates that use of herbal is today becoming more mainstream as improvements in the quality control with the advances in a clinical research shows the significance of the herbal medicine in treating and prevention of diseases (Herbal medicine, 2011).
How Herbs work and used
The herb contains ingredients that work together in producing a beneficial effect. For instance, the type of the environments in which the herbs plants grow may affect the herb. The use of the herbs has drastically increased over the past 40 years. Presently, the medicines are categorized as the dietary supplements by the people of United States of America (USA). This therefore means that, herbal supplements can be sold before being tested to prove that they…
Herbal medicine. (2011). University of Maryland Medical Center. Retrieved March 26, 2013, from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/ articles/herbal-medicine-000351.htm
Lyon, J. (2011). Veterinary Botanical Medicine Association: Home. Retrieved March 26, 2013, from http://www.vbma.org/
Sifferlin, A. (2013). Herbal Medicines Pose Health Risk to Millions in Asia. TIME Health & Family Retrieved march 26, 2013 from http://healthland.time.com/2013/03/20/herbal-medicines-pose-health-risk-to-millions-in-asia/
Symons, J. (2013). How safe is your herbal medicine? Express. Retrieved March 26, 2013 from http://www.express.co.uk/life-style/health/385349/How-safe-is-your-herbal-medicine
Moral Medicine, and a Doctor's Duty to the World
The 18th chapter of On Moral Medicine talks about the way medical professionals build their identity as practitioners and how the form relationships with other professionals and with patients. The author uses four unique terms to define his ideas on the four things these relationships can be based on: covenant, contract, code, and philanthropy. Using these concepts, he explores the current and the ideal relationships which define the medical field and experience. In the end, the author finishes by suggesting a change in the way doctor-patient relationships are conceived, but from the evidence of his own work one can see that he may not push this revolution far enough.
The idea of a covenant in this context is the idea of a deep commitment that transforms those who make it. Covenants are usually made through the exchange of gifts and responsibilities,…
How long this process takes and whether it will prevent the loss of seeded cells probably depends to a significant extent on the surrounding tissue and therefore represents another unknown.
HIF-1? And VEGF are also involved in osteogenesis, so the influence of these growth factors on the differentiation choices being made by the seeded stem cells is unknown (Polzer 7). The impact of prolonged hypoxic conditions on the seeded cells is another. Although Polzer and colleagues examined the timing of cell seeding relative to prevascularization, they discovered that the artificial scaffold rapidly filled with connective tissue. This process effectively clogged the matrix and prevented efficient seeding.
By comparison, researchers conducting spinal cord injury research into the efficacy of regenerative medicine techniques have been producing promising results (Sykova et al. 1113-1114). Hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells or bone marrow stem cells have produced positive results in both animal models and…
Park, Alice. "Cancer Patient Received a Man-Made Windpipe." Time.com, 12 Jan. 2012, Online. Internet. 1 Jul. 2013. Available http://healthland.time.com/2012/01/13/cancer-patient-receives-a-man-made-windpipe/ .
Polzer, Hans et al. "Comparison of Different Strategies for in Vivo Seeding of Prevascularized Scaffolds." Tissue Engineering: Part C, published online May 21 ahead of print. Online.
Sifferlin, Alexandra. "Toddler gets New Windpipe from Her Own Stem Cells." Time.com, 1 May 2013, Online. CNN.com. Internet. 1 Jul. 2013. Available http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/01/health/toddler-stem-cells-windpipe .
Sykova, Eva et al. "Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Polymer Hydrogels -- Two Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury Repair." Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 26.7-8 (2006): 1113-1129.
However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.
The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) growth factors." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
Sustainable Distibution fo Essential Medicines in Emeging Makets
Business Case Backgound
The Sustainable challenge
Cuent distibution climate of Cue Phamaceutical
The gowing impotance of the emeging makets
Baies to gowth
Pocuement and Distibution
Challenge to oveall sustainability in phamaceutical companies
Patneships utilized in emeging makets and essential medicine distibution
Suggestions of patneships effective in essential medicine distibution
Data gatheing in essential medicine distibution
Sustainable distibution fo essential medicines in emeging makets
Business Case Backgound
This epot addesses the ole phamaceuticals play in emeging makets. Many people have associated these makets as havens fo explosive futue gowth, but thee ae also seious challenges to be faced. The epot will discuss what views investos, stakeholdes, and company executives hold on emeging makets. Thee ae thee pobable significant factos that may sway thei stance. Fist, the efoms ecently made by the govenment egading phamaceuticals and the obligations of multinationals esulting fom the efoms.…
(Multi-Stakeholder Toolkit, n.d), A Toolkit for Improved Understanding and Transparency of Drug Shortage Response in Canada 2013
Banks, M.A., & Persily, G.L. (2010). Campus perspective on the National Institutes of Health public access policy: University of California, San Francisco, library experience. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 98(3), 256 -- 259. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.98.3.015
Bors, C., Christie, A., Gervais, D., & Wright Clayton, E. (2015). Improving Access to Medicines in Low-Income Countries: A Review of Mechanisms. The Journal of World Intellectual Property. 18, 1-28.
Cure Pharmaceutical http://www.curepharmaceutical.com/about.html
Clinical vs. Academic Study in Medicine
One of the most fascinating subjects of today is undoubtedly medicine, and all the science, pactice, o theoy that comes with it. It is vital fo new doctos to become accustomed quickly with suoundings in a hospital, fo example, and to know how to teat patients o diagnose them in a matte of minutes; but it is also vital fo them to have a base of academic knowledge on which to ely at all times. These two factos, then, can help shape an individual as a physician and ende him o he capable o incapable of being successful in the field. This pape will thus speak about why both clinical and academic studies ae necessay fo a successful medical caee, as well as what balance can be stuck between the two to ensue optimal leaning.
The best illustation of the long-going debate on pactice…
references taken from: No Author. (2011). Study Medicine At Oxford: Course Structure. [Online]. Available: http://www.medsci.ox.ac.uk/study/medicine/pre-clinical/structure . Accessed: 18 October 2011. Updated October 2011. ]
Balance, as seen above, is quite important, and, as seen above, each type of study structure has its advantages. One is therefore left to conclude that medicine should always consider a balanced approach between clinical and academic study, for without one, the other will not work well and a doctor will neither work at his or her full potential, nor be successful in his or her profession.
Annals of Emergency Medicine, in 2014, and is titled Apneic oxygenation was associated with decreased desaturation rates during rapid sequence intubation by an Australian helicopter emergency medicine service." The article studies a new technique that was introduced in 2011, to see if that technique has proven effective at meeting its objectives.
The Wimalasena (2014) article does not have a literature review. It moves straight from the introduction to the materials and methods. The background section of the introduction serves the purpose of a literature review to some extent. There is no problem statement written into this section. The problem statement can be found in two other places, however. First, it is in the abstract under "study objective": "We evaluate the association between the introduction of apneic oxygenation and incidence of desaturation during rapid sequence intubation in both out-of-hospital and interhospital retrievals." This is rephrased for the box "editor's capsule summary,"…
Wimalasena, Y., Burns, B., Reid, C., Ware, S., Habig, K. (2014). Apneic oxygenation was associated with decreased desaturation rates during rapid sequence intubation by an Australian helicopter emergency medicine service. Annals of Emergency Medicine.
Ethical Issues in Medicine
Ethical Dimensions of esearch Studies
Ethical issues in medicine: Clinical trials and cancer patients.
Clinical trials, in which a treatment or a drug is tested upon human beings, are a vital part of bringing a drug to market. It is essential that the treatment be shown to be safe, effective, and better than existing treatments of similar cost and safety levels. However, when developing a drug for patients who are facing a potentially terminal diagnosis such as cancer patients, the ethics of using clinical trials becomes extremely murky. "To advance the science of medicine and improve the care of patients, we need the objective data that can only be gained from clinical trials, in which outcomes are dispassionately analyzed. But the patients in cancer trials are not data points; they are vulnerable people who often view a clinical trial as perhaps their last hope" (Markman 2003:…
Markman, Maurie. (2003). The needs of science vs. The needs of patients. Cleveland Clinic
Journal Of Medicine, 70. 12. Retrieved: http://ccjm.org/content/70/12/1008.full.pdf
VIII. Preliminary Literature Review
The work of Martin, Scahill, Klin and Volkmar (1999) entitled: "Higher-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Rates and Patterns of Psychotropic Drugs Use" reports a study in which the frequency, characteristics and associated target symptoms of psychotropic drug use among individuals with developmental disorders and specifically those with "higher functioning pervasive developmental disorders. (HFPDDs) in a total of 109 children, adolescents and adults results show that 55% of these were taking psychotropic drugs and 29.3% were taking two or more of these medications simultaneously. Conclusions of the study report as follows: "Psychotropic medication use appears to be common among subjects with HFPDDs, yet not generally based on the results of empirical research. Clinical heterogeneity among treated subjects suggests that psychiatric comorbidity may be overlooked in this population." (Martin, Scahill, Klin and Volkmar, 1999) the work of Reynolds and Dombeck (2006) relates that individuals with autism spectrum disorders are…
Martin, Andres; Scahill, Lawrence, Klin, Ami, and Volkmar (1999) Higher-Functioning Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Rates and Patterns of Psychotropic Drug Use. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 38 Issue 7. Online available at: http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/jaac/article/PIIS0890856709665436/abstract
Reynolds, Tammi; Dombeck, Mark (2006) Autism: Medication. MentalHelp.net. Online available at: http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=8792&cn=20
De Bildt, Annelies, et al. (2006) Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Behavior Problems, and Psychotropic Drug Use in Children and Adolescents With Mental Retardation. Pediatrics Journal Vol. 118 No. 6 December 2006. Online available at: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/abstract/118/6/e1860
Mikkelsen, Edwin J. (nd) the Rational Use of Psychotropic Medication for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities. NADD. Online available at: http://www.thenadd.org/pages/products/bookdetails/dt07-038b.shtml
Some sources also offer a different insight for the emergent increase in need of this technology. Bernike Pasveer follows the idea that it was because there was a need for efficient diagnosis methods (Pasveer, 1993, p89). It was only after the introduction of X-rays that there was a determination of the nature of tuberculosis. The need for an efficient method that disputed the myths was necessary, and that was achieved on the introduction of X-ray technology. This is supported by Andrew Warwick who claims that the reason why this technology is still significant was due to its diagnostic properties. However, Andrew differs from Bernike by instead using fractures as his example. Andrew explains the role of X-ray technology especially in Germany where the surgeons undertook this process to determine fractures and diagnose bone discrepancies (Warwick, 2005, p4). Incidentally, this is a role of the technology that is still in practice.…
Andrew Warwick (2005), X rays as evidence in German orthopedic surgery.
Anja Hiddinga (1992), X-ray technology in obstetrics: Measuring pelvis at the Yale School of Medicine, in J.V Pickstone ed.
Bernike Pasveer (1993), Depiction in medicine as a two way affair: X -- ray Pictures and Pulmonary Tuberculosis in the early Twentieth century, in Ilana Lowy ed. (Pasveer,
The rapidly increasing demand of healthcare needs and preventions methods along with newer forms of diseases being discovered each day, extensive investments have been made in researching the field of medicine to revolutionize the future of medicine. Medical practitioners are looking up to a promising future proposed by the studies being carried out in the fields of genetics. This has open doors for a new and one of its kind form of medicine, namely 'Personalized Medicine.' As the name suggests, this type of medicine is patient specific and involves carrying out diagnosis and treatment plans that is customised to suit individual needs.
With the increase in demands of health care needs and with the discoveries of newer and more mysterious diseases, researches are being carried out at rapid rate to discover newer methods of health care needs. These health care services includes a wide variety of medication practices…
Gilbert, S. (2011). Medicine That's a Little Too Personalized. The Hastings Center Report, 41(4), 49. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5051546477
Meadows, M. (2005, November/December). Genomics and Personalized Medicine. FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017147700
Woodcock, J. (2005, November/December). Pharmacogenomics: On the Road to "Personalized Medicine." FDA Consumer, 39,. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017127506
Yurkiewicz, S. (2010). The Prospects for Personalized Medicine. The Hastings Center Report, 40(5), 14+. Retrieved February 3, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045643374
Personalized medicine as a field started developing in response to the recognition that every person is different in terms not only of genetic and genomic information, but also in terms of his or her clinical and environmental information. The fact that all these areas are different for each person means that each person would respond to illness in a different way, including the onset and duration of the condition. For this reason, many professionals have begun to promote this type of medicinal practice as preferable to more traditional, general methods.
According to the U.S. News (2012), personalized medicine functions on the premise that each disease is treated on an individualized level. Because the disease manifests itself in an individualized way, it is believed that the treatment should receive sufficient attention to also be individualized. Logic suggests that such a method of treatment would be more effective. To do this, the…
Saha, S. And Labs, R. (2010). Is healthcare industry moving towards personalized medicine? Retrieved from: http://toostep.com/debate/is-healthcare-industry-moving-towards-personalized-medicine
U.S. News (2012). Personalized Medicine. Retrieved from: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine
disparities original "medicine chest" clause Aboriginal Treaties Canada, failure Canadian government meet health care Aboriginal people today
Policy Change for Improvement
The aboriginals of Canada comprise of the indigenous people who are within North America, but dwell in the boundaries of Canada. Nevertheless, people have continuously view them discriminatively. This is what has led to the formulation of numerous policies, which will favor the aboriginals and make them feel part of the Canadian society. Although this is the case, the policies, some of which are applicable, have not yielded much success. Owing to this, there is a need for policy improvement in an effort to attain some of the essential needs such as healthcare (Walkerman and Humphreys, 2002).
In so doing, the aboriginals will access healthcare, and subsequently feel as part of the society. Notably, aboriginals are present in many other parts of the Western world, and the treatment is…
Government of Ontario (1994). Aboriginal health policy -- Executive summary. Toronto, ON:
Aboriginal Healing & Wellness Strategy. Retrieved 17 December, 2013 from http://www.ahwsontario.ca/about/healthpolicy.html
Kinsley, C. (2002). Rural health in rural hands: Strategic decisions, remote, northern and aboriginal communities. Retrieved from http://www.srpc.ca/PDF/rural_hands.pdf
Lavoie, J.G., Forget, E., Prakash, T., Dahl, M., Martens, P., & O'Neil, J.D. (2010). Have
statistics have on shaping healthcare policy and guiding evidence-based practice, it is critical that researchers understand how to present the results of their studies. It is also critical that healthcare workers develop strong skills in statistical literacy, so that the results of studies are not misconstrued. Not all research results are generalizable to a population outside of the sample. Even the most carefully constructed research designs need to be critically analyzed. Similarly, care must be taken when communicating statistical results to a general audience.
The American Statistical Association (1999) outlines eight main areas of ethical concern. Those areas of concern include the following:
• esponsibilities to employers or funders
• esponsibilities in testimony or publications
• esponsibilities to research subjects
• esponsibilities to research team colleagues
• esponsibilities to other statisticians
• esponsibilities regarding allegations of misconduct
• esponsibilities of employers or clients to the integrity of research…
American Statistical Association (1999). Ethical guidelines for statistical practice.
Aynsley-Green, A, et al. (2012). Medical, statistical, ethical and human rights considerations in the assessment of age in children and young people subject to immigration control. British Medical Bulletin 102(1): 17-42.
Gelman, A. (2014). Ethics and statistics. Retrieved online: http://www.stat.columbia.edu/~gelman/presentations/ethicstalk_2014_handout.pdf
"Medical Ethics and Statistics," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.wiley.com/legacy/products/subject/reference/cam001-.pdf
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
It is of extreme importance in medicine to know accurately the anatomical changes that take place in a certain disease for diagnosis and treatment. The man who created this science was Morgagni who taught us to think anatomically in our approach of a disease. Morgagni studied at Bologna under Valsalva and Albertini, who are notable persons themselves in the history of medicine. Morgagni did this in the form of letters to an unknown friend who inquired about Morgagni's thoughts and observations in the diseases he had seen. These included affections of the pericardium, diseases of the valves, ulceration, rupture, dilation and hypertrophy of the aorta which were detailedly described clinically and anatomically. Of all his entires, the section on aneurysm of the aorta is one of the best he had written. A good example of his letter was about angina pectoris.
The aorta was considerably dilated at its curvature; and,…
1. Evolution of Medicine.Online. Available from Internet, http:://www.worldwideschool.org/library/books/tech/medicine/theEvolutionofmodernmedicin/legalese.html, Accessed May 12, 2007.
History of Anatomy. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.wikipedia.com Accessed May 12, 3007
Mayeaux, E.J. Jr. 1989. A History of Western Medicine and Surgery. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.lsumc.edu.com, Accessed May 12, 2007
Medieval Medicine. Online. Available from Internet,
Western Traditional Medicine
Jacme's Pestilence and the Western Traditional Medicine Framework
Jacme's (1949)[footnoteRef:1] description of pestilence is based on the idea that it is caused by a change in the quality or substance of the air that he defines as alteration and putrefaction respectively. The pestilence is caused when the air in a place has changed its quality or substance due to external conditions. The pestilence is caused by a contra-natural change that Jacme illustrates as the wind being less warm than usual in the summers and less cold than usual during winters. As opposed to water, the pestilence of the air is more disastrous for human beings because they breathe the surrounding air all the time. The pestilence affects living things that Jacme classifies into three orders on the basis of the presence of life and growth, feelings and reason. Human beings lie in the third degree and are…
Duran-Reynals, M.L., Translator, Jacme d'Agramont: "Regiment de Preservacio a Epidimia o Pestilencia e Mortaldats," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 23 (1949) p. 57.
Hergenhahn, B.R. An Introduction to the History of Psychology. Cengage Learning, 2009.
Jones, W.H.S. Breaths 6. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: Heinemann, 1923.
Kohn, George Childs. Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence 3. New York NY: Infobase Publishing, 2008.
Where, the traditional foods of the Middle East (such as: honey, dates and the black seed) have became a part of Islamic culture and traditional practices. As a result, the positive effects of taking these different foods and supplements; have been shown to be effective at natural dealing with a variety of conditions. Evidence of this, can be seen by looking at how each of the different remedies can cure a number of ailments, with limited side effects. (Fealy, G. 2008)
When looking at the different traditional Islamic foods of: honey, dates and black seeds; it is clear that each food can address specific ailments / conditions that affect the underlying levels of health. Honey contains: amino acid, B complex vitamins, as well as vitamins C, D and E. Where, it is used to promote energy and healing. The only side effects of using honey, is that it can cause…
Since the 9th century A.D. Islamic traditions have provided a natural way for people to be able to have a safe and effective procedure, in controlling / maintaining general levels of health. This is because; traditional Islamic medicine is often based on the using herbal remedies, to deal with a variety of ailments. Over the centuries these different practices, became a common part of the culture of tradition (Sunnah). Where, the traditional foods of the Middle East (such as: honey, dates and the black seed) have became a part of Islamic culture and traditional practices. As a result, the positive effects of taking these different foods and supplements; have been shown to be effective at natural dealing with a variety of conditions. Evidence of this, can be seen by looking at how each of the different remedies can cure a number of ailments, with limited side effects. (Fealy, G. 2008)
When looking at the different traditional Islamic foods of: honey, dates and black seeds; it is clear that each food can address specific ailments / conditions that affect the underlying levels of health. Honey contains: amino acid, B complex vitamins, as well as vitamins C, D and E. Where, it is used to promote energy and healing. The only side effects of using honey, is that it can cause the blood sugar level in diabetics to increase. This is because the large amounts of natural sugars can cause blood sugar levels to spike, if the honey is not taken in balance. Beyond, this side effect, the use of honey on a daily basis can help to promote a healthy lifestyle. (Zamzam, W. n.d.)
Dates are often used to: increase sexual desire, promote testosterone production and help to battle the effects of the cold. The reason why; is because dates have been known to turn into a liquid once they are in the stomach, which causes the temperature of the blood to increase. When this occurs, it will help to cleanse the body of different toxins. The negative side effect is: that those who are not use to eating dates; can feel dizzy
Medicine is designed to treat the sick and the injured. Its function is to either treat a condition or to better severe symptoms from a medical or physical condition. Some medicines, when first introduced, are controversial because of the ingredients that are used. In the modern era, Marinol has become the subject of heated debate over whether or not it should be provided to patients. Despite the fact that it has been proven to help people when other medications have failed, there are still some places where the medication cannot be gotten simply because it contains a synthetic form of a substance which is illegal in most states. Marinol is not made from an illegal material, but a synthetic version which replicates the effects of that illegal substance. The drug Marinol is a brand name of a medication which is a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC which is…
Armentano, P. (2005). Marinol vs. natural plant. NORML.
Institute of Medicine (2002). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. National Academy Press: Washington, D.C.
Loughlin, K. & Generali, J. (2006). The Guide to Off-Label Prescription Drugs. The Philip Lief
Group: Princeton, NJ.
Anti-Aging Medicine? Include Abstract eferences scholarly
This is a review of the article titled "Is There an Antiaging Medicine?" which was written by obert N. Butler, Michael Fossel, S. Mitchell Harman, Christopher B. Heward, S. Jay Olshansky, Thomas T. Perls, David J. othman, Sheila M. othman, Huber . Warner, Michael D. West, and Woodring E. Wright. The article was published in the volume 57A, issue no. 9 of the Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences in the year 2002 from pages B333-B338. The journal is published by the Gerontological Society of America.
Anti-aging medicine refers to any form of intervention that is given to delay the development of pathology that depends on the person's age and any other changes that are related to age that are not necessarily diseases. All what are there is false claims and bogus remedies which are not known to work. Slowing down the process of aging…
Butler, R.N., Fossel, M., Harman, S.M., Heward, C.B., Olshansky, S.J., Perls, T.T., . . . Wright, W.E. (2002). Is There an Antiaging Medicine? Journal of Gerontology: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 57A (9), B333 -- B338.
Weindruch, R., & Walford, R.L. (1988). The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
The patient was able to discontinue taking pain killing medications after only a few treatments.
I have also come to realize the importance of the psychological and social aspects of treatment in addition to the traditional physical aspects. In traditional medicine, these issues are handled by distinct specialists, while I believe they should also be considered in tandem during medical treatment. I believe that a patient's mental state can affect how well the patient responds to medical treatment and their ability to follow their physician's recommendations.
While professionals in medical care are responsible for their patient's health, the patients themselves are ultimately in the best position to take responsibility for their own well being. This is why I appreciated the role of the D.O. In educating patients about the external factors that affect their health such as the environment, stress, exercise and diet. In this way, patients can take a…
Apart from this, further developments will be made in the fields of physics, medicine and engineering. Sensors will be seen everywhere and people will be able to go towards the space with the elevator and this will be made possible by just clicking on a single button. All these developments are in process are will come into view in the future (Kaku, pg. 45).
As it is mentioned above that the all the drawbacks of technology are not negligible and many people are now fully aware that how techn ology is harming the society as well as the environement in which we all survive. but, in spite of being aware about this fact, a number of organizations, nations and individuals are using technology in every moment of their life. The reason behind is that people are only thinking of their personal motives and well-being . They completely ignore the benefit…
Chiang, Jong-Tsong. "High-technology targeting: its modes' strategies and paradigms." Technology in Society (1998): 1-23.
Kaku, Michio. Physics of the Future: How Science Will Shape Human Destiny and Our Daily Lives by 2100. NY: Knopf Doubleday., 2011.
McKibben, Bill. Staying Human in our Engineered Age. Henry Holt & Co., Inc., 2004.
Teich, Albert H. Technology and the Future. NY: St. Martins Press, 2008.
School of Podiatric Medicine & Surgery
Admission Essay: Gelareh Noenifard
Thank you for the opportunity to submit a learning portfolio for you to consider my application to enroll for the Podiatry B.Sc. degree. I trust that the information provided will convince you of my passion for the medical profession. I believe that knowledge is power and it is my desire to explore every learning opportunity to broaden my education toward attaining this qualification. It is my goal to offer my services free of charge - while I am studying - to podiatry practices to gain work experience. I have attended a podiatry taster day and found it to be a rewarding and challenging career. My interest was sparked when I received medical attention for an injured ankle. I regularly visit the podiatric office to gather information about the profession, learn by observing the treatment procedures, and ask questions about podiatric…
One of the studies Halm reviewed, for instance, found an immediate reduction in respiratory rate during and immediately after aromatherapy treatment, but two hours after the treatment occurred there was no discernable effect (Halm 2008). This suggests that the commercial applications of aromatherapy, which tend to be long-term environmental applications rather than time- and person-specific treatments. Because the evidence shows that the calming effects of aromatherapy are really only present during the treatment and immediately after, long-term environmental applications of aromatherapy might be best.
There are problems with such an application in a medical setting, however. Chief among these is the entirely subjective nature of the sense of smell. Certain aromas which might be very pleasant -- and therefore presumably stress reducing -- for some might be particularly unpleasant for others. For these latter people, who do not enjoy a particular given aroma, stress might actually be increased by the…
Reduction of stress in nurses and medical staff will have a direct and casually and consciously observable effect on the treatment of patients. Speech and action both tend to be abbreviated during periods of stress, which can and most likely will have a direct effect on the way that patients perceive the quality of care they are receiving. This in turn will have an effect on the patient's stress level; if they feel that they are receiving a less-than-adequate level of care, their stress level is likely to rise, negatively impacting their recovery. On the other hand, if the nurses and medical staff are less stressed, this will also be communicated to the patient, and might have the opposite effect of improving patient attitude and enhancing their recovery.
Stress can be communicated subconsciously, too, perhaps to an even greater degree in subtle situations than the overt and conscious communications presented by alterations in observable attitude and action. This fact can only enhance the positive effects of the above suggestions of an available environmentally pervasive aromatherapy break room. Calmer people tend to help calm other people; if the nurses and medical staff are calm and less stressed, this will be unconsciously communicated to the patients as well, reducing their stress levels. Thus, it can be seen that pervasive aromatherapy might be even more efficacious in the treatment of patient stress and anxiety when provided to nurses instead of or in addition to the patients themselves.
All of this talk of environmentally pervasive aromatherapy is not to suggest that direct and patient-specific applications of aromatherapy not be utilized. The evidence clearly shows that such applications can be remarkable efficacious in the short-term as a stress reduction technique for patients and medical staff alike, even going so far as to reduce respiratory rates (Halm 2008). The evidence that aromatherapy can actually reduce levels of pain in critically ill patients has yet to be verified, but this is another avenue of aromatherapy application the merits further research (Halm 2008). In fact, aromatherapy in general is underutilized in this country, and the reports studied herein suggest that these practices should be changes if for no other reason than it will at least partially and temporarily reduce stress levels among patients and medical staff. The increase of the use of aromatherapy will also provide more evidence for further applications.
Defined as “the process of seeking a problem's solution from a wide community, often online,” crowdsourcing is common in almost every sector (Sanghavi 1). However, many patients may be unaware that they can also crowdsource their healthcare decisions. Referred to as “a second opinion writ large,” crowdsourcing medical diagnoses is now possible through many different online platforms including CrowdMed and the more artificial intelligence (AI)-driven HumanDx (Arnold 1). The way medical crowdsourcing works is a little more complicated than asking for fine dining tips in Tokyo or even asking the general public for clues to solving a crime. With crowdsourced medicine using the CrowdMed model, doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers essentially compete for whoever offers the most accurate diagnosis, and receive financial compensation for accurate hits. Compensation is higher for difficult to diagnose problems. The HumanDx platform is different, available only to physicians at the moment and uses AI…
The ranks of male nurses may be growing, but social perceptions have not. Thus, while much has changed in terms of expanding the ranks of the healthcare profession to nontraditional gender roles in all fields of medicine, perceptions that females are less committed to being physicians remain, and males continue to face social barriers in nursing.
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" usinessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Accessed from FindArticles.com, December 1, 2010.
Nainggolan, Lisa. "Female doctors provide best HF care." The Heart. January 23, 2009.
Accessed December 1, 2010. http://www.theheart.org/article/936839.do
Nye, Robert a. "Medicine and Science as Masculine "Fields of Honor" Women, Gender, and Science: New Directions, 2nd ser., 12 (1997): 60
Westbrook, Mary T., and Lena a. Nordholm. "Characteristics of Women Health Professionals
with Vertical, Lateral, and…
Arnst, Catherine. "Are There Too Many Women Doctors?" Businessweek. April 17, 2008.
Accessed December 1, 2010.
Gorgos, Diana. "Why are there so few male nurses?" Dermatology Nursing. October 2002,
Smart Card Health Role in Rational Use of Medicines
The objective of this study is to examine the role of smart cared in health and their role in the rational use of medicines. Smart cards are very small and very secure and serve to protect patient privacy. Smart cards contain digital logs with location, date, time, and the individual's stamp to record every transaction. Smart cards also may contain digital prescriptions therefore mistakes made with prescriptions that are handwritten are eliminated and specifically as to the "quantity or quality of medications." (HealthOne, 2011)
How the Smart Card Works
The smart card uses technology that stores a patient's personal health information on a microprocessor chip embedded in the card that is the size of a credit card but that has a "small metal contact plate on the front which is how the reader accesses the medical information stored on the chip"…
Benjamin, DM (2003) Reducing Medication Errors and Increasing Patient Safety: Case Studies in Clinical Pharmacology. J Clin Pharmacol 2003 Jul;43(7):768-83.
Hsu, MH (2011) Online detection of potential duplicate medications and changes of physician behavior for outpatients visiting multiple hospitals using national health insurance smart cards in Taiwan. Int J. Med Inform. 2011 Mar;80(3):181-9. Epub 2010 Dec 22.
Hsu, MH, Li, YC, and Liu, CT (2006) ADRs and Smart Health Cards. CMAJ Aug 15, 2006 Vol. 175 No. 4. Retrieved from: http://www.cmaj.ca/content/175/4/385.1.full
Runciman, WB et al. (2003) Adverse Drug Events and Medication Errors in Australia. Int J. Qual Health Care 2003, Dec;15 Suppl 1:i49-59.
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…
Balabanova, D., Haerpfer, C., McKee, M., Pomerleau, J., Rose, R. (2004). Health service utilization in the former Soviet Union: evidence from eight countries. Health Services Research
Barr, D.A. And Mark G. (1996). The Current State of Health Care in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Health Care Policy and Reform. American Journal of Public Health. 86, 3.
Lewis, M. (2002). Informal Health Payments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Issues, Trends and Policy Implications. In Funding Health Care, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, edited by E. Mossialos, a. Dixon, J. Figueras, and J. Kutzin, pp. 184-205. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mikesell, J.L. And Mullins, D.R. (2001), Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union. Public Administration Review. 61. 5.
Allopathic approaches in medicine dominate how healthcare is administered in the United States in today's society. Osteopathy has made some gains in popularity over the decades but it is well established that the majority of today's doctors practice and employ an allopathic approach towards healing their patients. The purpose of this essay is to explore the possible differences in society if allopathic medicine did not develop as the dominant profession but was bifurcated into equal proportions of MDs and DOs.
Salzberg (2010) suggested that medical doctors and DO's are not the same thing and a certain deficiency of training is present in doctors of osteopathy. He wrote " are they equal? Well, not quite. Osteopathy started out as little more than pseudoscience, based on the mistaken idea that manipulations of the skeleton and muscles -- massage, basically -- would cure disease. It was invented by Andrew Still in…
Decker, F. (nd). Osteopathic Doctor Vs. MD. Chron. Viewed 23 July 2013. Retrieved from http://work.chron.com/osteopathic-doctor-vs.-md-1839.html
Peters, A. et al. (1999). Comparison of Osteopathic And Allopathic Medical Schools. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 1999 December. 14 (12); 730-739. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1496864/
Prep, V. (2012). How to Decide Between an MD and a DO. Us News and World Report, 23 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/medical-school- admissions-doctor/2012/04/23/how-to-decide-between-an-md-and-a-do
Salzberg, S. (2010). Osteopaths Vs. Doctors. Forbes, 27 Oct 2010. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/sciencebiz/2010/10/27/osteopaths-versus-doctors/
Piscidia piscipula formerly known as Piscidia erythrina and commonly known as Jamaican dogwood or Florida fishpoison tree, is a tropical, deciduous, medium-sized tree endemic to the Caribbean, Texas, southern Florida and the Keys, and Latin America. Historic use of the herb details West Indies Natives using the extracts from the tree to sedate fish (Fetrow & Avila, 2000). The sedated fish became easy to catch by hand leading to the common name of fishpoison. In modern times, scientists have discovered use for the herb as a sedative and analgesic.
The historic use of Jamaican Dogwood has been to catch fish by hand by sedating them and other traditional uses. Because the herb has sedative and analgesic properties, people of the Caribbean used it for pain relief, aid for labor, menstruation pains, toothaches, migraines, insomnia, and asthma. They would consume it either as a tincture, as a dried product, or as…
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Elizabeth Weeks Leonard (2011) raises some of the legal issues attendant upon the new Affordable Care Act in regards to state vs. federal rights. The tenets of federalism, according to Weeks (2011), promote the rights of individual states above the rights of the federal government, which should be limited and narrowed inasmuch as is practically possible. The federal oversight and mandates that are built into this piece of legislation have been objected to by many states and individuals as overly intrusive, and Weeks (2011) provides an analysis of why the Affordable Care Act is objected to as a matter of law and as a matter of principle. Understanding this issue requires an understanding of the nature, sources, and functions of law as they are perceived in the United States in regards to healthcare.
The nature of laws in the United States are perceived by…
De Rugy, V. & Miller, T. (2001). An Asymmetric Bias toward Government Regulation. CATO Institute. Accessed 18 April 2011. http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=6479
Gonzales, V. (2010). The "Greatest Good": The U.S. Political System and the Uphill Battle for Progressive Health Care Reform. Journal of Poverty 14(1): 116-22.
Weeks, E. (2011). Rhetorical Federalism: The Role of State Resistance in Health Care Decision-Making. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 39: 73.
Health and Medicine
Twenty-Five Years of HealthCare
There have been numerous changes in the field of healthcare over the past twenty-five years. Many of these have occurred behind the scenes in areas such as regulation and documentation requirements. Others are obvious, such as advancement in medicines and technology. All have some degree of impact on the delivery of healthcare to the patient. Most have an impact on the cost of healthcare delivery. hat area of change has made the greatest difference in the eyes of a long-term healthcare professional and what does the future have in store?
One healthcare professional, a nurse who is currently working as the Director of Nursing in a skilled nursing facility, thinks that the greatest area of change has been in patient education. Her opinion is that "we used to know it all and patients were simply the recipients of our care." She continued to…
Henslin, James. Essentials of Sociology A Down to Earth Approach. Allyn & Bacon; 5 edition (February 24, 2003).
Interview with D.O.N.K.Alms. She may be reached through email. -- .
Kantian Ethics in Medicine
There is little doubt that the nurse did not do the right thing in reassuring the mother about her baby that slept through feeding time. What the nurse did was withhold valuable information about the health and livelihood of that newborn. The mother has a right to such information, and she has a right to it immediately. She should not have to take legal action or go through some form of documentation to ascertain these facts. Instead, she should be able to simply get that information by asking the nurse who is aware of the baby's lapse in breathing. From this perspective, the nurse is not fulfilling her job because she is not imparting this valued information to the person who needs to know this information more than anyone in the world: the mother of the child. Ergo, the nurse did not do the correct thing…
CSUS. (2016). Kantian ethics. http://www.csus.edu / Retrieved from
Modality and Public Health
Naturopathic medicine is a system for primary healthcare described as a science, an art, philosophy and the practice of diagnosing, treating and preventing illnesses. This is usually practiced by registered or licensed naturopathic physicians (Meadows, 2013). Naturopathic medicine is a tradition which is science-based which promotes the wellness of patients through the identification of unique aspects of every patient and then employs natural therapies that are non-toxic in order to restore their psychological, physiological as well as structural balance. Naturopathic medicine is not usually defined by the type of substances that are used rather it is defined by principles which underlie and therefore determine its practice (The Healing Arts Center, 2010). These principles include; the healing power that exists in nature, finding the cause of illnesses, causing no harm to patients, treating the whole person, prevention of illnesses and doctors acting as teachers to patients. Naturopathic…
Meadows, C. (2013). Naturopathy. Retrieved August 21, 2013 from http://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/explore-healing-practices/naturopathy
Wardle, J, & Oberg, E.(2011).The Intersecting paradigms of naturopathic medicine and public health: opportunities for naturopathic medicine. Retrieved August 21, 2013 from http://pcori.org/assets/gravity_forms/2-11659cf47a59e2684bfbe9aba8241776/2012/03/Oberg-Wardle-ND-Public-Health.pdf
Oppel, L.(2009). Naturopaths' expanded scope: In the best interests of the public? Retrieved August 21, 2013 from http://www.bcmj.org/council-health-promotion/naturopaths%E2%80%99-expanded-scope-best-interests-public
Piscopo, G.(2011).Natural medicine articles. What is Naturopathic Medicine? Retrieved August 21, 2013 from http://www.healingmountainpublishing.com/articles/NPmedicine.html
The dilemma associated with this case study suggests that little is known or can be done with serious illness with any great confidence. At the heart of the issue is who is responsible for the sick child as it appears, but may not be true, that he cannot take care of himself and that his immune system needs to be guided by someone else.
The lack of a formal family and the unnatural formation of this family also contributes to the confusion of this ethical problem. The Christian Scientist mother of the child holds no biological claim to the child and is demanding a unique spiritual procedure to be used to the heal the child. Although this method is controversial and not based in traditional science, the laws allowing for this type of treatment are allowed in reasonable circumstance in many areas of the world.
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Flamm, B.L. (2004). Faith healing confronts modern medicine. Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, 8, 9-14.
Starfield, B. (2000, July 26). Is U.S. health really the best in the world? Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(4), 483-485
Motivations for Pursuing a Career in Medicine
It is in my opinion that people strive and compensate for what they perceive they do not have: one tries to gain strength to overcome his or her weakness. My motivations for pursuing a career in medicine take root from my experience as a young adult in Yemen, my native country. Being an underdeveloped country, we were literally impoverished and not given the proper and basic social services that people should have, especially the women sector. In a country where female genital mutilation is practiced, I became witness to the harsh realities that women have to go through in their attempt to follow the society's norms and traditions, whether it adversely affects their lives and health or not.
Exposure to the needs of the people, especially those who cannot afford medical services provided for by hospitals in my country, made me realize that…
obert Wood Johnson Foundation Committee Initiative on the Future of Nursing and the Institute of Medicine
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) has published a guide for the future of nursing in the U.S., the purpose of which is to facilitate nurses, health care providers and community leaders with the tools they need to implement effective changes towards improving the health of their communities. This paper will discuss the key messages of the IOM report, the importance of the report for nursing, and what the state is doing in terms of its Action Coalition to achieve the goals outlined by the report.
The key messages of the IOM report, Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health are that nurses should 1) maximize their education and training in their practice by working to implement everything they have learned, 2) pursue further education/training through a program of continuing education that supports progress, and…
Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing,
at the Institute of Medicine. (2011). The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
Davis, L., Taylor, H., Reyes, H. (2014). Lifelong learning in nursing: A Deplhi study.
Nurse Education Today, 34(3): 441-445.
Moreover, the specific cause of transmission are the low compliance rates of hospital personnel with basic antiseptic protocols such as simple hand washing. Surprisingly, the worst offenders were those with the highest degree of formal training: namely physicians and registered nurses. In some studies, compliance rates among hospital personnel were only between fifteen and thirty percent. Finally, empirical studies have also concluded that compliance rates are lowest in high-volume institutions and among understaffed medical units.
The solution is rather obviously quite simple. Among the most important aspects of reducing hospital-acquired nosocomial hospital infections is increasing the rates of hand washing among hospital personnel. Naturally, the more direct patient contact individual personnel have, the more important adherence to strict hand-washing policy is. Since physicians and nurses routinely care for many patients during a typical shift, it is crucial for them to become the most compliant rather than the least compliant…
Sheridan-Leos, Norma. "Oncology care setting design and planning Part II: Designing healthcare settings to prevent fungal infections and improve handwashing."
Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing (June 1, 2008).
Full Text of Article Below
This is the second in a two-part series on designing healthcare settings to improve patient safety. Part I addressed concepts of error theory and evidence-based practice as they relate to planning safe care environments (Sheridan-Leos, 2008). Part II describes the design and planning of oncology care settings to prevent fungal infections and improve provider handwashing.
In medicine, for one example, pharmaceutical companies have established something of a tradition compensating physicians for their time in connection with contributing to educational seminars on topics within their professional expertise (Kolata 2008). This alone does not necessarily raise ethical issues, except that most of these initiatives include the presentations that lend themselves very naturally to creating impressions favorable to certain specific treatment choices over others. Where physician speakers are rewarded financially for their talks, ethical issues arise over the line between education and advertising.
The issue is particularly relevant in conjunction with medical research presentations without full disclosure of the degree to which the speaker is affiliated with or compensated directly by the sponsor. In some cases, physicians have begun declining the opportunities to participate in such capacity, after discovering that doing so could potentially undermine the response of fellow researchers by virtue of some of the natural assumptions…
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Licensing of anything is applying the legality of its use to a collective group of people. Understanding this concept is critical in developing an attitude towards the history of licensing of health care professionals. The purpose of this essay is to describe how it came to be that physicians are licensed and essentially under governmental control and direction. The essay will give a brief history of this process to help contextualize these efforts. Before concluding this essay will also address the importance of why the federal government is the sole licensing authority for physicians to dispense or prescribe control substances.
The ole of Government
Before realizing the impact of the licensing of health care professionals by the government, it is necessary to understand the role of the government. While it is historically and culturally acceptable to interpret the role of government as extremely important in guiding the citizens…
America Medical Association (nd). Medical Licensure. Viewed 20 July 2014. Retrieved from http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/education-careers/becoming-physician/medical-licensure.page
Hamowy, R. (1979). The Early Development of Medical Licensing Laws in the United States. The Journal of libertarian studies, 3, 73.
US Department of Justice (nd). Drug Schedules. Viewed 20 July 2014. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/dea/druginfo/ds.shtml
Folk Beliefs: Health and Healing
There are many different kinds of “folk”—and they are typically defined by regional or geographical background, which determines to some extent their heritage, culture, traditions, norms, customs and beliefs. For example, the Appalachian folk have different customs and beliefs when it comes to health and healing than “folk” from Deep South or “folk” from the rural Eastern European countryside.
Some similarities in cross-cultural folk / traditional healing practices are the tendencies to self-medicate and to use homeopathic drugs—i.e., home-made ointments or treatments for illnesses that more modern patients would go to a doctor for. These include using an onion for an ear ache or using food to treat an illness of the body. Food is actually a treatment method that spans many cultures and can be found in traditional Asian culture as well as in folk culture in the U.S. Variations exist but they are…
Briefings on Administrative Law
In 1994, the initial state law that gave physicians the authority to prescribe lethal amounts of controlled substances to terminally ill patients was established by Oregon. However, in 2001 the Attorney General Ashcroft affirmed that the physician-steered suicide dishonored the Controlled Substances Act enacted in 1970. The Attorney General threatened to revoke all the medical physician licenses of those who took part in the practice. As a result, Oregon took a step and filed a claim against Ashcroft in the federal district court. The Federal court and Ninth Circuit declared that Ashcroft's directive as illegal. Both courts asserted that the Controlled Substances Act did not authorize to the attorney general to control the physician-assisted suicide. The case touched on medical issue that was historically entrusted to the states (Lindsay 2006).
The actual issue from the case is whether the Control Substance Act grants…
Lindsay, R.A. (2006). Gonzales V. Oregon and the Politics of Medicine. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 16(1), 99-104