1000+ documents containing “medicine”.
In ancient Mesopotamia -- according to the Indiana University (IU) -- there were two kinds of medical practitioners; the "ashipu" was also called a "sorcerer" and one of his jobs was to give a diagnosis of the medical problem. He was also accountable to determine "which god or demon was causing the illness" (IU), and to figure out if the illness resulted from "some error or sin on the part of the patient." The curing of the patient also fell into the hands of the ashipu; he used charms and spells designed to push the spirit out of the body that had caused the problem in the first place (IU). hen the situation called for it, the ashipu referred his patient to the other kind of medical practitioner, the asu, a specialist in herbal remedies who also knew how to treat wounds. The asu used three "fundamental techniques: washing,….
Indiana University. "Medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia." Retrieved March 11, 2011, from http://www.indiana.edu/~ancmed/meso.HTM .
Lascaratos, J., and Poulacou-Rebelacou, Effie. "The Roots of Geriatric Medicine: Care of the Aged in Byzantine Times (324-1453 AC). Gerontology, Vol. 46 (2000): 2-6.
Nutton, Vivian. Sciences of Antiquity. London: Psychology Press, 2004.
Pain, Stephanie. "The World's First Pharmacists." New Scientist. 196.2634, (2007): 40-43.
The doctors were ineffective on account of the absence of proper medicines, pain killers and even the simple instruments of the trade like the thermometer and stethoscope. (Medicine and Health)
The conditions of life in Colonial America - Health Issues
All was not well with the colonial settlers. People died very young from various ailments like influenza, pneumonia, tuberculosis, smallpox, malaria, rickets and a host of waterborne diseases. We can attribute this to the pressure on land, and the unhygienic conditions that were prevalent at that time. The average life expectance was only twenty five years and many did not survive their teen age. Unhygienic conditions were the prime cause, and the colonial cities and homes did not have a bathroom, running water or hygienic closets as of today. The people relieved themselves in pots and semi-open structures which caused the facial matter to somehow contaminate water. Added to this, the….
Axtell, James. The European and the Indian: Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North
America. Oxford University Press. 1982.
Kisacky, Jeanne. Restructuring Isolation: Hospital Architecture, Medicine, and Disease
Prevention. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 79, no. 1, 2005, pp: 1-49.
Medicine & Culture
Payer, Lynn. Medicine & Culture: Varieties of reatment in the United States, England, West Germany, and France. New York: Henry Holt, 1988. 204 pp.
Many people who travel in the course of their job, or those who go abroad on holiday, are often surprised to discover that medicine and healthcare can vary enormously from that which they are used to at home. In her book Medicine & Culture, Lynn Payer compares and contrasts the practice of medicine in four major western countries: U.S.A., Britain, Germany and France. Payer does not deal with the countries' health care systems, but focusses her analysis upon the different approaches taken to medical diagnosis and treatment within each country, and how these vary from one to the other. he basis of these variances, and the cause of the obvious differences, is, according to the author, linked to culture.
he structure of the book takes the….
The central focus, and major argument, of Medicine & Culture is that the medical professionals, within the four countries under study, understand and practice medicine in radically differently ways as a result of their particular national history and culture. This observation is extended by Payer to include medical training and the general population within each country. Therefore the book emphasizes the differences, not only between the medical staff, but also between the patients of each country.
Medicine & Culture's primary argument is directed at American doctors and patients, and their general tendency to regard their country's medicine as the most scientifically correct manner in which to diagnose and treat disease. Payer suggests that the American medical profession, and the public, should adopt a wider perspective and consider the way in which their country's medical practices are established and influenced by historical traditions and cultural biases. By devoting a seperate chapter to each of the four central countries, Payer's expands upon her theories and ideas, and examnines specific medical conditions and the manner in which the doctors of each country approach the areas of diagnosis and treatment.
Considering the rapid advances made in recent years, within the field of medicine, it is likely that many of the claims and conclusions made by Payer will now be out of date. However, the central message remains as valid and thought-provoking today as it did back in 1985. It is important for doctors, and patients, to avoid taking a narrow, cultural specific view of disease, diagnosis, and treatment. As everyone's lives become increasingly influenced by globalization and multiculturalism, Payer's message is that the medical profession of each country should continually look beyond the limitations and accepted truths of its own culture, and keep its mind open to the ideas and theories of others.
I believe that in many cases, the early stages of dementia do not necessarily make it impossible for continued life to be worthwhile. However, there is a point of mental decline beyond which I have trouble recommending aggressive treatment of certain medical ailments intended to prolong life...to prolong life that is no longer the type of life that the patient himself would necessarily wish to prolong.
Q: Do you share those sentiments with patients?
A: No; and that is precisely the dilemma I'm thinking about. I realize that it is natural for patients' families to hold out hope of recovery regardless of negative medical prognoses. Likewise, I understand that it is difficult to acknowledge...acknowledge on a psychological level...that their loved ones are, essentially, already gone once they no longer recognize their own family members and cannot perform the simplest tasks for themselves. Not so much that they are physically unable to….
Wear an elastic compression bandage or splint on the affected area.
aise the injured part so it's higher than ones' heart. This can be done by propping it up on pillows. This also helps to prevent or reduce swelling.
Approximately 24 hours after the injury one should use warm compresses or a heating pad in order to soothe any aching muscles. They should take any pain medications that have been ordered by the doctor. It takes a strain about one week in order to heal. A bad sprain may take up to three or four weeks to heal and sometimes even longer. While a strain or sprain heals, it is important for a person to take it easy and avoid doing things that could cause another injury. If one has visited the doctor for their injury, they may have a follow-up visit in order to make sure everything is healing the right….
Durani, Yamini. (2007). What Are Strains and Sprains? Retrieved May 8, 2010, from Kids
Health Web site: http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/aches/strains_sprains.html#
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2010). Definition. Retrieved May 8, 2010, from Mayo Clinic Web site:
2004; Dakovska & Kovacheva 2003; Zella, McCary, and DeLuca 2003).
In addition to skeletal functions, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, substantial volumes of research indicate that hypovitaminosis D. also contributes to systemic inflammation by virtue of more than 200 distinct gene control functions of 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D (Holick 2007). While the etiology of rheumatoid arthritis relates to skeletal issues, the available evidence of the role of hypovitaminosis D. In systemic inflammation strongly suggests that even aspects of skeletal health are directly attributable to inflammatory responses moderated by adequate absorption of vitamin D as well (Barger-Lux, Heaney, Dowell, et al. 1998).
This anti-inflammatory function of vitamin D has been implicated in diseases affecting numerous tissues including the brain, prostate, breasts, and colon tissues, among others, all of which have vitamin D receptors and are responsive to 1,25- dihydroxyvitamin D (Holick 2007; Mathieu & Adorini 2008; Pittas, Harris, Stark, et al. 2007). The….
Barger-Lux MJ, Heaney RP, Dowell S, Chen TC, Holick MF. "Vitamin D and its Major Metabolites: Serum Levels after Graded Oral Dosing in Healthy Men." Osteporos Int 1998; 8:222-30.
Chiu KC, Chu a, Go VL, Saad MF. "Hypovitaminosis D. Is Associated with Insulin Resistance and Beta Cell Dysfunction." Am J. Clin Nutr 2004; 79:820-5.
Dakovska L, Kovacheva R. The Effect of Vitamin D3 on Insulin Secretion and Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Int J. Clin Pract 2003; 57: 258-26
Holick MF. "Vitamin D Deficiency." N. Engl J. Med 2007; 357:266-81. Mathieu C, Adorini L. "The Coming of Age of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D (3) Analogs as Immunomodulatory Agents." Trends Mol Med 2002; 8: 174-9.
The aspect of medicine as a science is what students in the medical field are expected to grasp for their tests and it's the main reason why these students study. Medicine is considered as a science of uncertainty despite of its exposure of students to patient-oriented and bio-psychosocial models in the current medical education systems. The uncertainty in the medical field is inherent because of every aspect of complex behaviors with which results are non-linear. Consequently, acceptance of uncertainty is an essential skill for medical practitioners in order to promote effective care and self-preservation. While the extent of uncertainty in medicine is rarely discussed because of the increase in medical knowledge, expectations and abilities, it can improve experiential learning (Wellbery, 2010).
Evidence-based practice in the medical field provides various ways for weighing and communicating uncertainty though it does so from a probabilistic instead of human perspective. Medicine is a science….
medicine, science and empire, with particular reference to malaria, the plague, and tuberculosis, in Great ritain, Africa and India, in the nineteenth century. The impact these diseases had on the imperial effort, and the medical profession, will also be discussed. The paper uses the following main texts: Colonizing the ody by David Arnold; Contagious Divides by Nayah Shan; Curing Their Ills: Colonial Power and African Illness by Megan Vaughan; Tools of Empire by Daniel Hedrick; Warm Climates and Western Medicine by David Arnold; and Machines as the Measure of Men by Michael Adas.
In most reviews of the technologies of nineteenth century imperialism, three technologies are pinpointed as having given the imperialists their edge in the fight for dominance: the steamship, advanced military weaponry (such as rifles), and quinine. These technologies allowed the imperialists to gain ground over their new lands, to be able to conquer the people of these….
The paper gives the impression that there is "a woman stooping down and creeping about behind that pattern." She fancies that the paper is moving. The pattern moves, the wallpaper's influence creeps into the house, and she projects her obsession onto John and Jennie, who seem to stare at the paper like she does when they have an unguarded moment.
The once-acknowledged imaginary woman becomes 'real' by the end of the story, shaking the paper and creeping about by day -- finally, at the story's end, the narrator has become the trapped, wallpaper-encased woman in her mind, and completely mentally unraveled as a result of her rest cure. This shows how the wallpaper of the former nursery room of the home symbolizes that woman is trapped by her rest cure, and by maternity. The narrator, unable to express her anger and sadness, instead expresses these feelings by developing a fixation….
Yogurt Consumption Lowers Colorectal Cancer isk
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, with over a million people developing the disease each year (reviewed by Touvier et al., 2011; Aune et al., 2011; Pala et al., 2011; van Duijnhoven et al., 2009). The worldwide distribution of this disease is uneven though, with developed economies like North American and Western Europe generally having the highest prevalence rates. This fact lends significant support to the theory that this disease is primarily caused by lifestyle choices. For example, Americans have one of the highest prevalence rates in the world with a lifetime disease risk of 1 in 20 (National Cancer Institute [NCI], 2011). For the general population, the chance of dying from colorectal cancer is only 0.02%, but once diagnosed the risk of death increases dramatically. The median age at first diagnosis is 70 and the chance of survival….
Aune, D., Lau, R., Chan, D.S.M., Vieira, R., Greenwood, D.C., Kampman, E., and Norat, T. (2011). Dairy products and colorectal cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Annals of Oncology, published online ahead of print May 26 and retrieved June 21, 2011 from http://annonc.oxfordjournals.org.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/content/early/2011/05/26/annonc.mdr269.full.pdf+html
Baroja, M. Lorea, Kirjavainen, P.V., Hekmat, S., and Reid, G. (2007). Anti-inflammatory effects of probiotic yogurt in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Clinical and Experimental Immunology, 149, 470-479.
Berstein, Charles N. (2010). Epidemiologic clues to inflammatory bowel disease. Current Gastroenterology Reports, 12, 495-501.
Gianotti, Luca, Morelli, Lorenzo, Galbiati, Francesca, Rocchetti, Simona, Coppola, Sara, Beneduce, Aldo, . . . Braga, Marco. (2010). A randomized double-blind trial on perioperative administration of probiotics in colorectal cancer patients. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 16(2), 167-175.
Claude ernard and Experimental Medicine
Claude ernard is regarded as one of the first physicians, surgeons, to embrace scientific experimentation as a means of defining medicine. He believed that people who conducted statistical experimentation and stated statistically derived numbers without a definite purpose were in error. His belief was that there should always be a definite article that the experiment was looking for. He gave several examples of his belief in experimentation toward a goal in which he was able to relate his idea of the ridiculousness of just spouting numbers for their sakes. He relates the study of spinal root nerves that found that sometimes they were sensitive and other times they were not. He argued that this experimentation yielded nothing of value because it specified nothing.[footnoteRef:1] He next put forth the example of an individual who conducted a series of operations for the same condition and said that they….
Bernard, Claude. An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine, translated by Henry Copley Green. New York: Dover Publications, 1957. 136-140.
Darian, Steven G., Understanding the language of science, Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 2003.
Dodhia, Rahul. "Misuse of Statistics," Raven Analytics (accessed Nov 13, 2012)
LaFollette, Hugh, and Niall Shanks. "Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard." International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8.3 (1994): 195-210.
As evidence, one need look no further than contemporary political battles over certain medical procedures and, more generally, over the relationships among and between government, society, and medicine.
The history of modern medicine is not one that traveled linearly; it is a history that represents overlapping stages of earlier influences and more modern approaches. Nor did medicine evolve uniformly in the entire human community. In most cases, even the best and most conceptually valid forms of pre-modern medicine provided a mixture of worthwhile concepts and methods along with those that either accomplished nothing or actually caused additional suffering.
Nevertheless, significant specific gaps in conceptual understanding greatly reduced the effectiveness of medicine before the 20th century. On its surface, modern medicine may appear to have no similarity to early medicine, but virtually every major aspect of modern medicine is directly traceable to specific periods of the history of medicine. Likewise, one can….
This information enables individuals to learn about treatment methods that their doctors have not yet recommended. Third, allopathic medicine is not fail-proof. Many diseases or conditions do not respond well to conventional medicine, and many conventional medicines create as many problems as they are designed to solve.
Three factors hindering the acceptance of CAM include the following. First, the pharmaceutical and insurance industries are not likely to support the use of complementary medicine. Complementary procedures are used as adjuncts to allopathic methods that are more profitable. Similarly, doctors may not suggest conventional methods under the assumption the patient may not return to the office. Second, "researchers do not know how safe many CAM treatments are or how well they work," ("Complementary and Alternative Medicine"). Safety is usually less of a concern than efficacy. However, many scientists and doctors are concerned that patients are being misinformed. Complementary medicine may offer false….
"Complementary and Alternative Medicine." Medline Plus. Retrieved Nov 22, 2009 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/complementaryandalternativemedicine.html
National Institutes of Health. What is complementary and alternative medicine? National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved Nov 22, 2009 from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/
University of Maryland Medical Center. "Complementary and Alternative Medicine Index (CAM)." Retrieved Nov 22, 2009 from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/
Egyptian medicine. There are eight references used for this paper.
Civilizations throughout the years have dealt with disease and illness in numerous ways. It is interesting to look at the Ancient Egyptians and determine how they practiced medicine during their time and how it relates to modern medicine. It is also important to examine the materials or tools involved in their medical practices, major medical discoveries, and methods used by physicians to heal patients.
The Ancient Egyptians made "several major medical discoveries and began treating diseases in a physical manner alongside older spiritual cures. Though much of the advancement in medical knowledge and practice was a side effect of religious ceremonies, the effect on public health and knowledge of the human body was tremendous. Fuelled by a desire to enter the afterlife, Egyptian knowledge of the workings of the body encompassed new areas of medicine ranging from a basic understanding of….
Personalized medicine uses advanced and evolving understanding of genetics to make medical interventions safer and more effective. With genetic science, doctors are able to target medications and procedures for patients directly, creating an unprecedented "personalized" approach to medicine. Traditional allopathic medicine relies on empirical research that generalizes results for an entire population. This has led to problems related to patient side effects, some of which are serious. As the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of General Medical Sciences) points out, the "one-size-fits-all" approach to prescribing medicines that continues to characterize modern health care is flawed because doctors "usually started with standard doses, and then observed how patients responded," ("Personalized Medicines Fact Sheet," 2012). Unfortunately, this meant also that doctors "changed the doses or drugs by a trial and error process" that could be uncomfortable, costly, and time consuming ("Personalized Medicines Fact Sheet," 2012).
Until the completion of the Human Genome….
"Personalized Medicine," (2011). U.S. News. Retrieved online: http://health.usnews.com/health-conditions/cancer/personalized-medicine
"Personalized Medicines Fact Sheet," (2012). National Institutes of Health. Retrieved online: http://www.nigms.nih.gov/Research/FeaturedPrograms/PGRN/Background/FactSheet.htm
6). In ancient Mesopotamia -- according to the Indiana University (IU) -- there were two kinds of medical practitioners; the "ashipu" was also called a "sorcerer" and one of…Read Full Paper ❯
The doctors were ineffective on account of the absence of proper medicines, pain killers and even the simple instruments of the trade like the thermometer and stethoscope. (Medicine…Read Full Paper ❯
Medicine & Culture Payer, Lynn. Medicine & Culture: Varieties of reatment in the United States, England, West Germany, and France. New York: Henry Holt, 1988. 204 pp. Many people who travel…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Ethics
I believe that in many cases, the early stages of dementia do not necessarily make it impossible for continued life to be worthwhile. However, there is a point…Read Full Paper ❯
Wear an elastic compression bandage or splint on the affected area. aise the injured part so it's higher than ones' heart. This can be done by propping it up on…Read Full Paper ❯
2004; Dakovska & Kovacheva 2003; Zella, McCary, and DeLuca 2003). In addition to skeletal functions, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, substantial volumes of research indicate that hypovitaminosis D. also…Read Full Paper ❯
Medicine: The aspect of medicine as a science is what students in the medical field are expected to grasp for their tests and it's the main reason why these…Read Full Paper ❯
medicine, science and empire, with particular reference to malaria, the plague, and tuberculosis, in Great ritain, Africa and India, in the nineteenth century. The impact these diseases had…Read Full Paper ❯
Sports - Women
The paper gives the impression that there is "a woman stooping down and creeping about behind that pattern." She fancies that the paper is moving. The pattern moves,…Read Full Paper ❯
Medicine Yogurt Consumption Lowers Colorectal Cancer isk Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world, with over a million people developing the disease each year (reviewed by…Read Full Paper ❯
Claude ernard and Experimental Medicine Claude ernard is regarded as one of the first physicians, surgeons, to embrace scientific experimentation as a means of defining medicine. He believed that people…Read Full Paper ❯
As evidence, one need look no further than contemporary political battles over certain medical procedures and, more generally, over the relationships among and between government, society, and medicine. Conclusion The…Read Full Paper ❯
This information enables individuals to learn about treatment methods that their doctors have not yet recommended. Third, allopathic medicine is not fail-proof. Many diseases or conditions do not…Read Full Paper ❯
Egyptian medicine. There are eight references used for this paper. Civilizations throughout the years have dealt with disease and illness in numerous ways. It is interesting to look at…Read Full Paper ❯
Personalized medicine uses advanced and evolving understanding of genetics to make medical interventions safer and more effective. With genetic science, doctors are able to target medications and procedures for…Read Full Paper ❯