If the child responds well to one or more medications, then the medication with the lowest cost is prescribed. The cost is found taking into account the per-dose cost and the number of doses daily. A positive attitude is mandatory which is advised by the health care professionals and they help parents and care takers in developing a positive attitude in the management of medication. It may include positive reinforcements and praise for the children or adults ("Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children, Young People and Adults" 39). There are several treatment options as there is no cure for ADHD in the current times. The treatment can be done by psychological interventions and pharmacotherapy. Patients (in this case, children) can be taught to manage and cope up with the visible symptoms by the psychological interventions as they are designed to help patients learn and manage…… [Read More]
But Canada took steps to defer sales of the medicine which was provoked by 20 sudden losses of lives; out of 14 were children, among those consuming the prescribed doses of Adderall X. There were reported cases of about a dozen strokes, two among children. The deaths took place during 1999 in the United States. The Canadian retracting of the drug Adderall X will not drive similar steps in our nation. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration -FDA declares that the proof of deaths, strokes do not blame hyperactivity drug. FDA declares that it was content with the unharmed character of the drug that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-ADHD. The physicians in the circle explained the medicine as useful, nevertheless powerful. The medicine has been found to be very effectual and rather popularly recommended, according to Dr. Lenard Adler, director of the Adult ADHD Program…… [Read More]
It is easier to focus on ADHD statistics for children of school age (5-17 years old), because diagnosing ADHD in preschool aged children is difficult. Data from the NHIS indicate that:
In 2001-2004, 7.7% of children ages 5-17 were reported to have been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Nine percent of White non-Hispanic children, 8% of Black non-Hispanic children, 2% of Asian non-Hispanic children, and 4% of Hispanic children were reported to have ADHD.
Almost 13% of White non-Hispanic children living in families with incomes below poverty level were reported to have ADHD -- the highest of any group.
Two to three times more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD (Pastor, p. 206).
Well-known researcher, Dr. ussell Barkley, has detailed the differences that can occur in reporting, due to the type of criteria used in any given report. eported variations in the prevalence of ADHD may be…… [Read More]
Students with attention problems are more likely to succeed on academic tasks that are well-matched to their abilities and when instructed at their pace of learning.
To gather data on how effective peer tutoting is, DuPaul and Henningson implemented their case study on an ADHD child, Don, by observing his behavior when given with the traditional teacher lecturing and when provided with peer tutoring method. The case study's result shows that Don exhibited a higher rate of fidgety and out of task behavior in the classwide learning process. On the other hand, during peer tutoring, Don showed a significant improvement both in his academic performance and stability of focus to his tasks.
In another study conducted by Aro and his colleagues, where they implemented their analysis by providing more teaching guidance and supervision on non-ADHD and ADHD children, they found that provision of more attention to ADHD students during their…… [Read More]
Some children also report mild stomachaches or headaches. Most side effects are minor and disappear over time or if the dosage level is lowered."
Q4: Can their children become addicted to methylphenidate?
While there has been a great deal of publicity in the media about how the drugs prescribed for ADHD have been abused, it is important to make a clear distinction between the pharmacological use of such drugs to treat behavioral disorders and individuals using them for recreational purposes. Individuals without ADHD who are self-prescribing, and using such medications to stay awake and focused for long periods of time are not carefully monitoring their doses to facilitate a normal existence, but are striving to test their limits.
Q5: Would consuming an addictive drug now increase my child's chances of abusing drugs later in life?
According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA): "research thus far suggests that individuals…… [Read More]
ADHD, o attention deficit hypeactivity disode, is a common childhood poblem affecting as much as 3-5% of the school-age population. The coe symptoms of ADHD ae inattention, hypeactivity and impulsivity. Childen with ADHD exhibit functional impaiment acoss multiple settings and engage in disuptive behavios, thus inviting citicism fom adults and pee ejection. Psycho stimulant medication has been shown to be easonably successful, but may poduce significant side effects in a school-age child. A multi-component model of intevention consisting of phamacological teatment in consonance with contingency management and cognitive behavio modification techniques seems to be the answe fo this vey baffling poblem. Fo pactitiones to have confidence in the expected outcomes, specific pocedues to implement behavioal management in school classooms must be scientifically eplicated.
What is ADHD?
Impact of ADHD
Related Disodes and Comobidity
Review of liteatue
Chapte 3…… [Read More]
However, in spite of the fact that they knew when and why they failed in doing something, they were unable to come up with an effective plan to solve the condition. oys were mainly indifferent to the reaction others displayed at their behavior while girls were severely affected by anything that was a direct result of their behavior (Krueger, and Kendall).
Most ADHD adults are capable to understand their condition and to attempt to find answers to their problem. However, they too are expected to put on view antisocial behavior, even after undergoing treatment. Substance use is also a common occurrence in ADHD adults, as the influence of those who were formerly close to them is reduced and they cannot be controlled suitably (Wilens et al.).
All things considered, ADHD individuals can display a perfectly normal behavior and it is wrong to have a biased opinion regarding them.
1.…… [Read More]
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become a relatively common diagnosis. Most young people know someone with the diagnosis, if they have not themselves been diagnosed. The article "More Diagnoses of A.D.H.D. Causing Concern," published in The New York Times, highlights the growing concerns with the increase in diagnoses of ADHD in children and teens. While there are certainly kids that legitimately have ADHD, some doctors are rushing through the evaluation and screening processes and making the diagnosis haphazardly.
I believe the reasons for jumping to the diagnosis of ADHD are varied but relatively straightforward. Many doctors are profit-motivated, and simply want to make their clients happy by bowing to what Schwartz & Cohen (2013) claim to be "pressure" from parents. Doctors have long been lackeys of big pharmaceutical companies that manufacture drugs like Ritalin, prescribed for ADHD. When big pharma wants to sell more drugs, the companies will…… [Read More]
It is not only addiction to abusing substances that may go hand in hand with ADHD, but also cigaette smoking. A study by Wilens and colleagues (2007) of the Depatment of Psychiaty, Havad Medical School and the Pediatic Psychophamacology Unit of Massachusetts Geneal Hospital question whethe o not ADHD individuals self-medicate with cigaettes as well as the substance abuses. In a longitudinal ADHD family study focusing on substance use disodes he finds that those who do and do not have ADHD diffe significantly in thei pesonal pefeences fo alcohol and cigaettes. The ADHD youth ae less likely to pefe alcohol but moe apt to pefe cigaettes. Both of these goups use substances to self-medicate and get high. Also ADHD self-medicating teens do not diffe fom those using substances to get high in thei type of ADHD symptoms o dug use poblems. It is suggested, then, that adolescent self-medication is not…… [Read More]
[Stephen V Farrone]
Research has also focused on brain studies of ADHD subjects with the hope of a better understanding of the neurobehavioral disorders. Functional MRI images have revealed new information on the differences in the brain activation patterns among ADHD subjects and healthy people without the condition. The focus, which had thus far been restricted to the frontal lobe, has now been extended and researchers are actively studying other regions of the brain. One recent study showed that ADHD subjects not only exhibited underactivation in the prefrontal cortex but also in the parietal and the temporal cortex regions. Another study reported a distinct absence of activation of the anterior cingulate cortex region among ADHD subjects.
A recent Stanford university study has also concluded that ADHD patients showed lesser activation in the posterior parietal attention system when compared with control subjects. Using an odd ball task the researchers tested 12…… [Read More]
This ignorance on the part of public school instruction results in an unfair lack of respect towards ADHD students - a tragic mis-diagnosis of their health-related condition - and all too often this lack of understanding results in a loss of self-esteem on the part of the student. Any unwillingness to work with young people whose lives are being negatively affected by ADHD - whether the lack of teacher support is through indifference or a dearth of hands-on knowledge - is unacceptable morally, socially and academically.
Do scientists know how children develop ADHD?
ndeed, the ongoing medical mystery into the issue of why children first show symptoms of ADHD and are later confirmed through reliable diagnosis as having this disorder has been explored by healthcare professionals for many years. The research is vitally important because this disorder doesn't involve merely a few children. n fact, according to Environmental Health Perspectives…… [Read More]
ADHD and Learning Disabilities in School Aged Children
The article by Czamara, Tiesler, Kohlbock et al. (2013) focuses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia as the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders. 5% of school children are affected by these issues, while an estimated half of all children with ADHD present as LD students (learning disabled). The study examines the relationship between ADHD symptoms and learning disabilities in reading, spelling and math. The researchers found that students with ADHD were at a higher risk of presenting with math, reading and spelling learning disabilities compared to students without ADHD. The study showed that both ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and likely the effect of the same underlying problem, though exactly what that problem or process is remains unclear.
Czamara et al. (2013) utilize numerous recent studies to support their research. These studies show that ADHD is often found among…… [Read More]
With the ADHD teen's short attention span and restlessness, this problem becomes crucial to solve. ut how? The answer may lie in a framework and structure that allows the ADHD child to accomplish the homework throughout his or her school years (Robin, n.d.).
First, the parent and child must work together to investigate the points at which they are having the problem with homework. Are they writing down the assignment properly? Do they understand the assignment? Do they bring home the appropriate schoolbooks, etc. with which to accomplish the assignment? Do they have a quiet, well-lit workspace at home? Are they adhering to the promised schedule for doing the homework? Do they have a problem focusing once they sit down to do it? Are his or her medications planned so that they can take advantage of it during those hours and have optimum concentration?
Second, work out a written agreement…… [Read More]
The high energy level and subsequent behavior are often misperceived as purposeful noncompliance when, in fact, they may be a manifestation of the disorder and require specific interventions." (U.S. Department of Education, 2003)
Children with ADHD generally display behavior that is categorized as follows: (1) poor sustained attention; and (2) hyperactivity-impulsiveness. (Ibid) Because of this "three subtypes of the disorder have been proposed by the American Psychiatric Association in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV):
1) Predominantly inattentive;
2) Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive; and 3) Combined types. (Barkley, 1997; as cited by the U.S. Department of Education)
Common characteristics of the child with hyperactivity include the child being "fidgety, have difficulty staying seated or playing quietly, acting as if drive by a motor..." (U.S. Department of Education, 2003) Characteristics of children with impulsivity include "difficulty participating in tasks that require taking turns, blurting out answers…… [Read More]
Clinicians typically report that boys are referred for AD/HD assessment nine times more often than girls. Studies using a broader population base generally indicate that the ratio of boys to girls with the disorder is closer to 3:1."
"In people with AD/HD, the brain areas that control attention have been observed to use less glucose, indicating that they are less active."
4. Strength related to the student with an exceptionality.
Individuals with ADHD tend to be highly creative, intuitive, open-minded, flexible, energetic, and optimistic. They are very quick learners when engaged and tend to develop a broad range of interests and hobbies as they get older. Students with ADHD are able to generate a tremendous amount of ideas in a very short period of time. They give a new meaning to the word brainstorm. Another great attribute of students with ADHD is their ability to work independently. Individuals with ADHD…… [Read More]
In the case of the 13-year-old boy, clearly there is something going on that is creating a situation where he is becoming a disturbance both at home and at school. His parents fear he may have ADHD, a fear which is backed up by a number of his teachers. In order to understand what is really going on, a clinical assessment must be fully conducted in a multifaceted way that would allow the clinical researcher to understand what's going on in the boy's head.
The multifaceted approach to assessment would include a psychometric test given to the boy's parents and teachers. This would be a way to help understand how third parties see the boy's behavior on an everyday basis. There are number of paths a clinician might take in order to find the most appropriate psychometric test. Most rating scales used today can be helpful in determining…… [Read More]
ADHD and how it affects students and their education. The writer provides suggested accommodations for these students and discusses why the teachers should do so. The writer provides an overview of the disorder and discusses the ways that a teacher can accommodate the student. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
Students with Attention Deficit Disorder are often called lazy, disruptive, and disorganized. The students with ADHD face obstacles that other students do not have to face. Elementary aged students are especially vulnerable to such criticism because of their youthful desire to please, and to internalize when they fail at that venture. It is important for elementary school teachers to accommodate and work with students who have ADHD for several reasons, including the student's self-esteem, the student's academic progress and the impact the student will have on the classroom without accommodations.
WHAT IS IT
Before one can begin…… [Read More]
ADHD and achievement: Meta-Analysis of the child, adolescent, and adult literatures and a concomitant study with college students" by Frazier (et al. 2007) was to examine the role of the learning disability ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in determining the academic performance of students in college. Previous literature reviews had indicated that students with ADHD more likely than their non-LD counterparts to fail or repeat grades. However, there were a number of problems with these previous studies: first, not all ADHD students manifest academic problems. Secondly, other features of ADHD academic achievement like content domains (math vs. reading) and student demographics have not been rigorously studied. The study compared previous existing research studies of ADHD students to provide greater clarity upon the issue and then conducted a small, preliminary study of college students with ADHD at a single university.
Description of participants/sample
The article deployed two different kinds of research…… [Read More]
Juvenile Delinquency: ADHD and Antisocial Behavior
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is, in basic terms, a mental health disorder typified by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illnesses (NAMI), approximately 1 out of every 10 children in the U.S. is living with ADHD, yet only 56% of these receive treatment or even diagnosis for the same. This text attempts to establish a connection between ADHD and juvenile delinquency.
Scores of researchers have identified untreated ADHD as a risk factor for future delinquent/antisocial behavior. The NAMI expresses that 47% of youths in juvenile correctional facilities are living with ADHD. Foley, et al.'s (1996) findings mirror this perspective. In their view, adolescents living with ADHD have a higher likelihood of arrest (58% to 36%), compared to their age mates without the condition. These findings depict a strong, positive correlation between ADHD and juvenile/adult delinquency. This can…… [Read More]
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral childhood disorders with 5% of school children being affected by the disorder (Czamara, Tiesler, Kohbock et al., 2013). According to the DSM-V (2013), ADHD is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, all of which interfere with the child’s ability to engage in quality “social, academic, or occupational functioning” (p. 2) for an extended period of time—at least 6 months or more. This paper will discuss the symptoms that a child with ADHD may exhibit, age of onset and gender differences, etiology, course, prognosis and current treatment and a differential diagnosis for the disorder as well.
Prevalence rates in the world for ADHD stands at 5.29% (Smith, 2017). This is roughly consistent with rates in the U.S. where one out of every twenty children are affected by ADHD (Faraone, Sergeant, Gillbert & Biederman, 2003).
A child who…… [Read More]
ADHD and How Its Classified So How Is
ith ADHD being a very complex disorder, mental disorders experts devised a series of ways meant to enable doctors to provide diagnoses with more effectiveness and to generally make it possible for them to understand the condition better. The disorder is considered to be a persistent impairment of psychological development and to thus make it especially difficult for individuals suffering from it to integrate the social order properly. There are a series of ways in which ADHD can be classified and it is thus essential for the person in charge of the diagnosis to be familiar with the diverse ways that the disorder can affect an individual.
Depending on the symptoms that a person displays, he or she can be diagnosed with a particular type of ADHD. This makes it easier for doctors to provide treatment that is likely to…… [Read More]
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder presents itself in many different ways for many different people. It is further complicated by the fact that there are three types of ADHD recognized by the DSM-IV and even further evidence that females and males manifest the disorder in different ways. ADHD has been a challenge to school administrators for many years. The symptoms of the disorder not only interfere with the educational process of the affected child but they also can be disruptive and interfere with the education of students who learn with and interact with the affected child. ADHD impacts many aspects of the school day including the learning process, socialization and maturity. Its impact cannot be underscored enough as it has the potential to create self-esteem issues which can lead to inappropriate behavior, serving to further interfere with the learning process. Schools are often the first entities to notice the symptoms of…… [Read More]
The challenge of dealing with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is increased exponentially by the individual having accompanying challenges. These challenges may be psychological as well as social. A primary concern for parents, patients, and researchers is that there are a large number of individuals with the original condition who remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. This means that the accompanying condition also remains undiagnosed. It therefore becomes critical that there is an increase in screening for ADHD and the accompanying comorbidities.
It is believed that ADHD affects between 3-6% of American children who are around school age (MIrsky 2001). Historically boys have been the primary targets for ADHD, but it should be noted that a significant number of girls are also afflicted with the condition. In samples of individuals taken from clinics the ratio of males to females is 10:1(Goldman, Genel, Bezman and Slanetz 1998). This ratio however…… [Read More]
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects between two and ten percent of children, which is why it is important for all educators to understand (Barkley, 1998). The disorder is technically incurable, but it is manageable. Barkley (1998) frames ADHD in terms of its genetic, biological, and cognitive dimensions, helping educators understand how to best approach children with ADHD and help them reach their highest potential. Educators need to know that ADHD leads to a cluster of observable behaviors but that the child may not be able to master impulse control in the same way as his or her peers. Likewise, educators do need to be aware that ADHD is more common in boys than in girls. Educators need to be less concerned with potential causes of ADHD, less judgmental or biased about their students who have ADHD, and more proactive about changing their classroom environments and classroom management methodologies,…… [Read More]
Mental Health and Society
Mental health is one of the most important aspects of the overall health and wellbeing of children, adolescents, and adults. For children and adolescents, mental health is crucial towards their cognitive and psychological development. However, a significant portion of children and adolescents suffer from mental health disorders that affect their overall health and wellbeing as well as development. According to O’Keeffe, it is estimated that 10% children between 5 and 15 years suffer from a mental health disorder while nearly 50% of all lifetime psychiatric disorders or illnesses start by mid adolescence (p.1). Since most of these mental health disorders can persist into adulthood and in turn cause long-term morbidity, early diagnosis and treatment is considered vital towards enhancing the overall health of children and adolescents. This paper examines the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), its significance to public health, and a data source…… [Read More]
Mini-Script with Tonya’s Parents
Counselor: What are some of your concerns about Tonya’s diagnosis of ADHD?
Parent: We are mainly concerned about putting her on drugs. I heard the medications they are giving children are basically speed.
Counselor: You are right to be concerned about the use of ADHD medications, and I advocate a cautionary approach to pharmaceutical interventions. This is especially true in Tonya’s case, since she is ten years old and her brain is still developing. Tonya seems to be well-adjusted, motivated, and has a good attitude so there is no reason why we cannot first explore a wide range of treatment options to help her address the difficulties she is having in terms of remaining focused. Are you aware of some of the counseling options available, which we can try first?
Parent: I’m aware of a few but would prefer some insight into which of those options…… [Read More]
Part One: At-Risk Preschoolers and ADHD
At-Risk Preschoolers and Early Developmental Delays
Because early intervention can be critical for optimizing student outcomes, identifying at-risk students in preschool has become built into the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In fact, IDEA also offers guidelines for identifying possible developmental delays in infants and toddlers who are under age three and who would be “likely to experience a substantial developmental delay if early intervention services are not provided,” (Taylor, Smiley & Richards, 2009, p. 413). For preschoolers, the terminology used in IDEA changes from “at risk,” to more straightforward terminology based on exhibited developmental delays in terms of cognitive, social, emotional, physical, or other constructs of development. However, this is not to say that special education teachers and administrators do not use the term “at risk” when it comes to identifying those preschoolers who are exhibiting developmental delays and also have environmental…… [Read More]
Is ADHD real? The fact that there is not a diagnostic test that one can use to show that ADHD exists as a neurological disorder is not a good indicator that it is real (Armstrong, 2003). What is more likely to be going is a combination of external and internal factors—or nature and nurture combining to influence the child’s behavior. Thus, there could be some sort of stress, tension or anxiety in the child’s environment mixing with the child’s internal needs. So though ADHD might not be a real neurological disorder, what is called ADHD could be a symptom of some sort of relational issue that the child is having. In other words, it could indicate that something in the child’s environment is not sitting well with child—whether it is parental at root, peer-related, food-related, media-related or something else.
The fact that three million kids are on drugs because…… [Read More]
Are children overmedicated in regards to ADD and ADHD?
According to a report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 10,000 children could be receiving psych stimulant medication, e.g., Methylphenidate referred to as Ritalin. This report lead was reported by among others, the media indicates that children are being overmedicated, because of mainly the notably high numbers (Insel). Also, a study by the University of Florida College of Pharmacy showed that there is about a 40% chance of having three-year-olds who have been diagnosed with ADHD taking up to three kinds of mental health drugs by the time they are aged eight years old (Lea Reynolds). These drugs include anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and other multi-mental health drugs. The findings of these two reports bring to the forefront the claim that children with ADD or ADHD are being overmedicated (Lea Reynolds). This essay, therefore, seeks to argue this…… [Read More]
Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a rare psychiatric complication, which is diagnosed among children. To children who grow into adolescence without proper diagnoses, there is a huge difference in presentation compared to patients who are diagnosed early in their childhood. They depict major challenges to the guardians and teachers attempting to cope with their condition. In most cases, the challenge is often reported late to medical practitioners (Muhammad et al, 2011).
This is a case of an adolescent with school truancy presented to a primary care clinic. At first, he was treated for depression and subsequently defiant disorder, as well as sibling rivalry. It is only after a keen and procedural follow up of the medical history that ADHD was correctly diagnosed. Further investigation was necessary because there was positive improvement after the use of methylphenidate for his condition. Escitalopram was prescribed alongside the medication to cater for…… [Read More]
There is however no cure. There is currently a lot of research dedicated to the development of more effective interventions as well as treatments for ADHD. These include the use of revolutionary tools such as brain scanners. The management and treatment of ADHD should be given a multidirectional approach.
Child Development Institute (2010). Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With
ADD & Learning Disabilities
Collins, K (2008).Strategis/techniques for ADHD
DSM-IV-T workgroup (1994 ). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
Fourth Edition, Text evision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Gross-Tsur, V (1997) Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: is methylphenidate safe and effective? - J Pediatr - Apr; 130(4): 670-4.
Hunt, D (2006). Functional oles of Norepinephrine and Dopamine in ADHD . Medscape
Psychiatry & Mental Health.
Lahey, B.B., & Carlson, C.L. (1991). "Validity of the diagnostic category attention deficit
disorder without hyperactivity: a review
Moore,…… [Read More]
For a student with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a teacher’s plan for best practices should include behavioral and cognitive approaches that target the learner’s IEP goals and help to ensure a positive experience in the classroom. Students with ADHD are identified as learning disabled because of “deficits in the acquisition of specific academic skills” in their overall ability to learn in traditional ways (Clarfield & Stoner, 2005, p. 246). To help these students overcome the challenges associated with their learning disorder, Pfiffner, Barkley and DuPaul (2006) point out that teachers should consider alternative approaches to instruction—namely: “school-based interventions should include both proactive and reactive strategies to maximize behavior change” (p. 547). Thus, the plan for best practices should be focused on employing proactive and reactive strategies to facilitate the student’s acquisition of knowledge and maintain discipline and effective management of the classroom (Pfiffner et al., 2006). This paper will…… [Read More]
Katie & ADHD
What will be covered and described in this report is a series of actions and reactions to the plight and challenges faced by Katie. Katie is a child that is ostensibly developed and otherwise put together for her age. However, her academics are problematic and the primary (if not only) problem seems to be that she has little ability to pay attention or do things that so not directly and completely interest her. What will follow in this report is a listing of three decision points and why those precise decisions were made. The history involved will not be dwelled on given that this has already been covered to a great extent. However, the proper internal and scholarly justifications will be offered along the way to support the decisions made.
The first decision made was to put Katie on a medication. Despite the doubt…… [Read More]
ADHD (what it is this disease) and what are the symptoms and result of this disease. The paper also discusses the affects of ADHD on patients. In this paper the treatment of ADHD is also discussed and explained.
All the details relating to this condition and its symptoms and treatments are explained and supported by the use of literature review.
ADHD in Children
ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome) is a chronic condition that affects the children and continues till their adulthood in many cases. This disease results in the combination of a number of problems such as difficulty in focusing on something and paying attention, 'hyperactivity and impulsive behavior'. (Mayo Clinic, 2013)
In the children, the children suffering from ADHD also experience lack of confidence and self-esteem, trouble in relationships and bad performance in school. The disease is usually preceded by behavioral and learning problems and lack of attention in…… [Read More]
He must have a reasonable amount of stick-to-itiveness and patience to tolerate difficult tasks; if he gives up immediately, learning will obviously be impaired. And... The ADHD child is both inattentive and readily frustrated. The learning problems are further complicated because they tend to move in vicious circles; they often snowball. (Wender, 2000, p. 22)
Another related aspect is that unless the problems that the student is experiencing are related to his or her ADHD condition, the student may become demotivated as a result of poor performance and criticism. This can lead to other learning issues and even to serious related problems such as the loss of self -worth and self-esteem. This will in turn impact again on the learning ability of the student.
There are numerous studies which attest to the relationship between ADHD and learning problems. In a study by Maynard et al. (1999) it was found that…… [Read More]
Often is forgetful in daily activities
10. Often has difficulty maintaining alertness, orienting to requests, or executing directions
11. Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat
12. Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected
13. Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate
14. Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly
15. Often is "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor"
16. Often talks excessively
17. Often blurts out answers before questions have been completed
18. Often has difficulty awaiting turn
19. Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations/games)
20. Often has difficulty sitting still, being quiet,... inhibiting impulses in...classroom or at home
21. Often loses temper
22. Often argues with adults
23. Often actively defies or refuses adult requests or rules
24.…… [Read More]
Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are commonly linked mental health disorders that children exhibit. This paper examines some of the challenges that both children and parents face as a result of living with these disorders. It suggests some positive approaches to parenting that parents may find useful and offers recommendations in terms of how parents can most positively help a child with ADHD or ODD. The most important conclusion that this paper provides is the notion that parents must be able to demonstrate patience over the long term while facilitating their love and support for the child with guidance, reinforcement, and education. Eliminating stress from the child’s environment can be especially helpful in allowing the child to deal in a healthy manner with the impulses he or she feels, and parents, for their part, may benefit from parental training so that they can learn what…… [Read More]
Thus, it is easy to see why the use of medication to treat ADHD is controversial, especially in students who have the disorder in only mild amounts (Boyd and Bee, 2009). However, an option other than medication is available in the form of parent training programs. Boyd and Bee (2009) note that parent training programs intend to help parents who are having trouble controlling their ADHD affected child. According to the authors, "By the time their children are diagnosed with ADHD, usually upon entering school, many parents have lost confidence in their ability to control them" (Boyd and Bee, 2009, pg. 269). Because of this, it is easy for parents to take their parenting in two extreme directions -- either allowing their children to be undisciplined or by disciplining them to the point of abuse. Through parent training, teachers and parents can communicate regarding the child's success in school, and…… [Read More]
, 2005). In conclusion, Kim et al. (2005) suggested that combining the use of the CBCL with the AS-IV could be used by clinicians as a fast and effective method of predicting, identifying, and diagnosing children with ADHD.
Although the studies discussed thus far involve the use of psychometric instruments in the diagnosis of ADHD in children, there are proponents of an alternate method of diagnosis. Gordon, Antshel, Faraone, Barkley, Lewandowski, Hudziak, Biederman, and Cunningham (2006) investigated the idea that diagnosis of ADHD by symptom lists, such as those provided by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) may be more beneficial than diagnosis by psychometric assessments. This proposition is grounded in the observation that the number and frequency of symptoms experienced by an individual is closely associated to the impairment of functioning experienced by the individual. However, results of the study indicated that the average correlation…… [Read More]
Students with ADHD
Education 518, Section B13
Dr. Carolyn McCreight
Qualitative article review: Students with ADHD
Homeschooling is one of the controversial approaches to educate children with 'special needs'. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are preferred to be taught at home by their parents. Instructors for homeschooling are also arranged for this purpose. However, there has been widespread criticism on this method of teaching attention-deficit students. The main purpose of this paper is to review a qualitative study conducted on the topic of providing homeschooling to attention-deficit students. Duvall, Delquadri and Ward (2004) conducted a study to investigate the appropriateness of homeschooling environment for instructing basic skills to children with special needs. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to ascertain whether or not parents of children having attention-deficit as well as hyperactivity disorder could provide their children with instructional environmental that was conducive for facilitating acquisition of…… [Read More]
medicate kids with ADHD? Answer is Yes
Children with ADHD have basic behavioural problems and are uncontrollable. In such cases the care givers face a big problem and often are victims. Having an ADHD child at home is being tied up to the child, and to prevent the parent getting mental problems some methods have to be resorted to keep the balance. In 1991 the amount of children treated with medication was negligible because medication itself was not available and was in the test stage. But now the scenario is different. More and more children have been diagnosed with the symptoms of ADHD and they are also in schools. That today 6-9% of pre-school children have severe psychiatric disorders is a fact. (Barkley, 41)
The alarming situation therefore has called for research in the area and has produced some of the best solutions in the form of medication. It is…… [Read More]
Dennison, Schwiebert & Sealander (2002) suggest school counselor's work with students and parents in the home to identify ways the student can learn more efficiently, and identify areas where the student can work proactively with their teacher and peers (p.3).
Study Skills to Organize Time and Maximize Learning
ADD/ADHD students often find it difficult to organize time efficiently to complete tasks. One way to assist them so learning is maximized is by creating a calendar, and on each day of the calendar outlining what skills and information the student should study or learn on those dates (Dennison, Schwiebert & Sealander, 2002). The authors note it is important that teachers work with students in multiple classes to help them learn a teacher's unique learning style so the student can better track materials, "course content and assignments" and even work with students to "modify tasks and instructions to help a student stay…… [Read More]
There are differences between children with ADHD and typical children, but there are also differences are between ADHD subgroups. Most of the observed differences in the subgroups are oftentimes related to response inhibitions. It is important therefore to learn and understand the differences between typical children and children with ADHD as well as the differences in the ADHD children according to what subgroup they can be categorized. Perhaps a more comprehensive understanding of the different subgroups would provide better treatment, more focused treatment, which would likely lead to better results from those treatments on an individual basis. With so many children experiencing ADHD, and the fact that ADHD can last through adulthood, a better understanding of the subgroups could be quite beneficial to a lot of ADHD sufferers.
With the misuse of stimulants becoming a major problem and the cost of medications exacerbating the problem, other effective treatments…… [Read More]
Managing ADHD with a Diet
Diet has attracted considerable attention in the healthcare sector with regards to its significance and role in addressing childhood and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As shown by recent research, this increased focus on diet is influenced by the fact that ADHD's development is strongly linked to nutrition since it's characterized by deficiencies in minerals, omega-3 fatty acids. There are reports that improved nutrition through intake of mineral and vitamin supplements. While this evidence is yet to be fully determined scientifically, there are proofs that omega-3 fatty acids could have impacts on a child's behavior. The other dietary factors that allegedly have significant effects on behavior include refined sugars as well as food additives and allergies (Collingwood, n.d.).
The role of omega-3 fatty acids in enhancing the behaviors of ADHD patients, especially children, has been strongly supported by evidence that show the link between…… [Read More]
Academic Outcomes of Children With ADHD
ADHD Literature eview
Improving the Academic Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Improving the Academic Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2014) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition recognizable by attention deficits, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that manifest across multiple settings. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) describes ADHD as consisting of inattention, and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity, severe enough to interfere with day-to-day functioning and development. Common symptoms of inattention include poor listening skills, frequent mistakes, disorganized, avoidance of mentally challenging tasks, distracted, and forgetful. Hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms include fidgeting, inappropriate physical activity, excessive talking, interrupting others, and an inability to play quietly. Children suffering from ADHD would therefore have a difficult time succeeding academically.
If ADHD were rare this would not be a significant…… [Read More]
technology plays a very important role in the learning process of students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). The previous problems encountered by lecturers and ADD/ADHD learners, such as learning adversities caused by complexities in the behavioral patterns, were reduced when technology started to play a role in the educational environment of ADD/ADHD students. Problems even in simple learning intervention are now rarely experienced by both the lecturers and ADD/ADHD learners ever since technology became part of the educational curriculum for special students.
There are different kinds of technologies that are applied these days to facilitate the learning process of ADD/ADHD learners. This includes multimedia computers and televisions among many other learning devices that have been developed. Their use in special classroom environments presents advantages and disadvantages, as how they also do to normal learners who have no disabilities. However, in an advocate to maximize…… [Read More]
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…… [Read More]
treating ADHD?." The writer then uses information from peer reviewed journals to discuss and conclude the answer to the question. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
As the medical community continues to make advances, disorders that were at one time questionable, are now accepted fact. One of the most controversial disorders in the past five decades has been ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been the center of focus in the media, and in other arenas when it comes to the topic of abnormal psychology. After decades of debating its merit and validity the public has come to accept the fact that it is a real disorder, most likely biologically based, and something that can last a lifetime. The disorder can wreak havoc in an individual's life socially, economically, and academically unless effective treatment is implemented. ADHD not only affects the person who has it, but also…… [Read More]
Program-Evaluation -- Evidence-Based Practice: Case Study eview
There is growing recognition that the used of evidence-based practices promotes improved clinical outcomes and can help guide clinicians in their respective disciplines. This paper draws on the Clinician's Guide to Evidence-Based Practices: Mental Health and the Addictions to provide a description of a salient case study and the identification of the critical elements that require the review of published research to guide professional practice. In addition, a summary of a research study by Spengler, P. M., White, M. J., Egisdottir (2009) that informs evidence-based counseling practice related to the selected case study as it would occur in a specialization area is followed by a discussion concerning relevant ethical, legal, and socio-cultural considerations that apply to the case and research article selected. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the need for evidence-based practices to guide professional practice today are…… [Read More]
Motivational Strategies to Support Learners in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Classrooms
Motivational strategies in the classroom in general represent a challenging enterprise, but the need for such effective strategies in classrooms with young learners suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is particularly pronounced. The condition affects the ability of students to learn in a number of ways that can detract from the most thoughtful motivational strategies, though, and teachers in crowded classrooms may find themselves as a distinct disadvantage trying to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as a result. To determine what motivational strategies have proven effective in classrooms with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder learners, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
The prevalence of attention deficit…… [Read More]
Children With ADHD
Visuospatial development and non-verbal memory skills have usually been evaluated using the ey-Osterreith Complex Figure, which is one of the widely used neuropsychologic tests. This test is commonly used because it entails copying a multifaceted geometric figure and recreating it from memory, instantly and after a short delay. The ey-Osterreith Complex Figure is regarded as a very beneficial tool for examining the functioning of the frontal lobe, which is needed for strategic planning and organizing in relation to executive skills. Children apply different approaches to performance of the ey-Osterreith Complex Figure task, which indicates various aspects including visual perception, quality of attention, motor planning and control, metacognitive skill, and organizing. This neuropsychologic test has been widely used in neuropsychologic evaluation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). When using this test, the assessment primarily focuses on potentially compromised skills in neuropsychologic domains.
The purpose of the…… [Read More]
Diagnosing Children and Adolescents
Diagnosis: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Inattentive Type
In essence, ADHD symptoms could be grouped into either hyperactivity and impulsiveness or inattentiveness. In the present case, the symptoms Jamel presents are consistent with the latter.
It is important to note that Jamel meets the criteria for the diagnosis above on the basis of DSM-5 criteria for ADHD. To begin with, the boy’s mother points out that to get him to do anything, she has to yell and repeat instructions. In addition to appearing as if not to listen when directly spoken to, children with ADHD – inattention type routinely fail to follow instructions (Centers for Disease and Prevention – CDC, 2017). Secondly, Jamel’s teachers report that he has difficulties focusing on a single activity for a period exceeding two or three minutes. Children with ADHD – inattention type often have “trouble holding attention on tasks…” (CDC,…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to address two general question as they pertain to a child named Leonard. The scenario and proposed intervention involves the plight of a child named Leonard. The child is exhibiting some of the telltale characteristics of having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. However, the parents are resisting him being diagnosed or shifted to a special education environment. Even so, some sort of intervention is required as Leonard is not doing well in school and his behaviors are also disruptive to other children. While Leonard is not going to get the help he needs until his parents are cooperative and participatory, there are indeed assessments and measurements that can be done in the meantime.
Many of the behaviors of ADHD involve one of two (if not both) of two interventions that would require the active participation of Leonard's parents. Indeed, those…… [Read More]
nology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)
November 6, 2005
Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)
The student with AD/HD is one that requires more specialized and individualized instruction. Technological possibilities present great potential in providing these instructional needs for the AD/HD learner. Technology implemented in the school and in the classroom is critically dependent upon collaboration in development and implementation which is inclusive of the participation of students, teachers, parents and the community at large. Some of these technological methods that are included in the curriculum are use of video, networking, PDAs, email, Internet access and other various technologies. The objective of this work is the research and review of technologies that have been effective as well as ineffective and finally the technologies that offer new promise to the teaching and learning initiative for students with disabilities in learning such as…… [Read More]
video illustrates a common perception that ADHD is being over-diagnosed in our society today. It reflects the notion that there seems to be 'more' ADHD because students are being allowed to get away with bad behavior and are not being reprimanded as they would be in previous eras for not doing their work and not paying attention in class. According to the textbook, however, ADHD is a genuine learning disability reflecting the brain's inability to filter out irrelevant stimuli, and more 'discipline' will not cure it any more than more 'discipline' will enable a child with dyslexia to read without assistance like his or her peers.
Of course, it is possible that ADHD is being over-diagnosed in some anecdotal instances, and being used by parents as an excuse for children's conduct problems. But this does not mean that all cases are the result of over-diagnosis and this cannot be used…… [Read More]
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…… [Read More]
Scientists have not yet figured out what causes ADHD, even though many studies propose that genes play a large part. Like a lot of other sicknesses, ADHD almost certainly can be contributed to a mixture of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at probable environmental factors, and are examining how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might add to ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (2010). Most research supports the hypothesis that ADHD is a physiological situation and is consequently present at birth. Nevertheless, the obvious beginning of ADHD indications characteristically takes place early in childhood. Prior to the age of five, ADHD indications may be hard to diagnose, for the reason that most young kids are extremely energetic, easily distractible, and impulsive. Consequently, the average age of diagnosis is eight years for ADHD and ten years for ADD. The dissimilarity in diagnosis age likely takes place…… [Read More]
My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.
While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.
On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…… [Read More]
Child & Adolescent Psychology
Assessment & Evaluation
Both ADHD and BMD display genetic relationships, although BMD does not seem to run in families to the degree seen in ADHD. With the ADHD established early in Clara's life, the focus of this assessment is on the possibility of co-morbid bi-polar mood disorder (BMD) and depression. While most individuals experience their first episode of BMD around the age of 18 or after -- the mean for diagnosis is 26 years of age -- children do rarely develop BMD. Clara would experience her ADHD as a chronic, consistent impairment, while the BMD is episodic, alternating with periods of normal levels of moods. That said, it is important to recognize that ADHD is typically associated with emotional reactions to certain trigger events, and that the people with ADHD are often quite passionate. The occasion of happy events bring ebullient reactions; unhappy experiences evoke intense…… [Read More]
Do you think this student might have a learning disability? Why or why not?
learning disability is referred to as affecting acquisition, organization, retention, and understanding of information, both verbal and nonverbal, as gauged from perceiving, thinking, remembering, or learning. The student understands information, memorizes information, understands science concepts, and has fairly good math skills.
Do you think this student might have ADHD? Why or why not?
ADHD is defined through three main groups of symptoms; inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Inattention; the student has messy writing, lacks focus -- struggles to read class materials, and forgets to complete homework. Hyperactivity; the student has difficulty staying at his desk, and is very talkative in class. Impulsivity; has difficulty following rules, and talks out inappropriately without raising his hand.
What assessment tools would be used to determine whether or not this student has ADHD?
There is not an established criterion…… [Read More]