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If the child responds well to one or more medications, then the medication with the lowest cost is prescribed. The cost is found taking into account the per-dose cost and the number of doses daily. A positive attitude is mandatory which is advised by the health care professionals and they help parents and care takers in developing a positive attitude in the management of medication. It may include positive reinforcements and praise for the children or adults ("Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children, Young People and Adults" 39). There are several treatment options as there is no cure for ADHD in the current times. The treatment can be done by psychological interventions and pharmacotherapy. Patients (in this case, children) can be taught to manage and cope up with the visible symptoms by the psychological interventions as they are designed to help patients learn and manage…
"Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from the Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.." Questia. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 June 2013. .
"Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Diagnosis and Management of ADHD in Children, Young People and Adults."National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. N.p., March 2013. Web. 24 June 2013. .
BioMed Central. "ADHD linked to Interaction of Genetics and Psychology." Science Daily, 16 Apr. 2010. Web. 24 Jun. 2013. .
McCulloch, D.K. "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Adults Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline."Group Health Cooperative. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 June 2013. .
But Canada took steps to defer sales of the medicine which was provoked by 20 sudden losses of lives; out of 14 were children, among those consuming the prescribed doses of Adderall X. There were reported cases of about a dozen strokes, two among children. The deaths took place during 1999 in the United States. The Canadian retracting of the drug Adderall X will not drive similar steps in our nation. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration -FDA declares that the proof of deaths, strokes do not blame hyperactivity drug. FDA declares that it was content with the unharmed character of the drug that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-ADHD. The physicians in the circle explained the medicine as useful, nevertheless powerful. The medicine has been found to be very effectual and rather popularly recommended, according to Dr. Lenard Adler, director of the Adult ADHD Program…
Barkely R. (1977) "A Review of Stimulant Drug Research with Hyperactive Children" Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. Vol: 18; No: 1; pp: 137-165
Bower, B. (29 November, 2003) "Cerebral Clues Emerge for Attention Disorder - ADHD's Brain Trail" Science News. pp: 12-14
Castellanos, F. Xavier; Lee, Patti P; Sharp, Wendy; Jeffries, Neal O; Greenstein, Deanna K; Clasen, Liv S; Blumenthal, Jonathan D; James, Regina S; Ebens, Christen L; Walter, James M; Zijdenbos, Alex; Evans, Alan C; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L. (2002) "Developmental Trajectories of Brain Volume Abnormalities in Children and Adolescents With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" Journal of American Medical Association. Vol: 288; No: 1; pp: 1740-1748.
Chan, Eugenia. (1 February, 2002) "The Role of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics. Vol: 12; No: 1; pp: 45-48
It is easier to focus on ADHD statistics for children of school age (5-17 years old), because diagnosing ADHD in preschool aged children is difficult. Data from the NHIS indicate that:
In 2001-2004, 7.7% of children ages 5-17 were reported to have been diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Nine percent of White non-Hispanic children, 8% of Black non-Hispanic children, 2% of Asian non-Hispanic children, and 4% of Hispanic children were reported to have ADHD.
Almost 13% of White non-Hispanic children living in families with incomes below poverty level were reported to have ADHD -- the highest of any group.
Two to three times more boys than girls are diagnosed with ADHD (Pastor, p. 206).
Well-known researcher, Dr. ussell Barkley, has detailed the differences that can occur in reporting, due to the type of criteria used in any given report. eported variations in the prevalence of ADHD may be…
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (2006). America's Children and the environment (ACE). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved May 31, 2007 at http://www.epa.gov/envirohealth/children/emerging_issues/adhd.htm .
Barkley RA. (1998). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Scientific American.;279:66-71.
Barkley, Russell (2004) Attention-Deficit. Hyperactivity Disorder: Nature, Course, Outcomes, and Comorbidity. American Psychological Association
Barkley, Russell (2006) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment, Third Edition. New York, New York: Guilford Press
Students with attention problems are more likely to succeed on academic tasks that are well-matched to their abilities and when instructed at their pace of learning.
To gather data on how effective peer tutoting is, DuPaul and Henningson implemented their case study on an ADHD child, Don, by observing his behavior when given with the traditional teacher lecturing and when provided with peer tutoring method. The case study's result shows that Don exhibited a higher rate of fidgety and out of task behavior in the classwide learning process. On the other hand, during peer tutoring, Don showed a significant improvement both in his academic performance and stability of focus to his tasks.
In another study conducted by Aro and his colleagues, where they implemented their analysis by providing more teaching guidance and supervision on non-ADHD and ADHD children, they found that provision of more attention to ADHD students during their…
Aro, T., et. al. (1999). Contribution of ADHD Characteristics to the Academic Treatment Outcome of Children with Learning Difficulties. Developmental NeuroPsychology, Vol. 15, Issue 2, pp. 291-305.
DuPaul, G., Henningson, P. (1993). Peer Tutoring Effects on the Classroom Performance of Children with ADHD. School Psychology Review, Vol. 22, Issue 1, pp. 134-143.
Organizational and Study Skills for the ADHD School Child.
Retrieved on 05 Dec 2004, from Attention Deficit Disorder Help Center Online.
Some children also report mild stomachaches or headaches. Most side effects are minor and disappear over time or if the dosage level is lowered."
Q4: Can their children become addicted to methylphenidate?
While there has been a great deal of publicity in the media about how the drugs prescribed for ADHD have been abused, it is important to make a clear distinction between the pharmacological use of such drugs to treat behavioral disorders and individuals using them for recreational purposes. Individuals without ADHD who are self-prescribing, and using such medications to stay awake and focused for long periods of time are not carefully monitoring their doses to facilitate a normal existence, but are striving to test their limits.
Q5: Would consuming an addictive drug now increase my child's chances of abusing drugs later in life?
According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA): "research thus far suggests that individuals…
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (2009, June 15). NIMH (National Institute of Mental Health). Retrieved January 25, 2010 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/complete-index.shtml
NIDA InfoFacts: Stimulant ADHD Medications - methylphenidate and amphetamines.
(2009, October 2). National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Retrieved January 25, 2010
ADHD, o attention deficit hypeactivity disode, is a common childhood poblem affecting as much as 3-5% of the school-age population. The coe symptoms of ADHD ae inattention, hypeactivity and impulsivity. Childen with ADHD exhibit functional impaiment acoss multiple settings and engage in disuptive behavios, thus inviting citicism fom adults and pee ejection. Psycho stimulant medication has been shown to be easonably successful, but may poduce significant side effects in a school-age child. A multi-component model of intevention consisting of phamacological teatment in consonance with contingency management and cognitive behavio modification techniques seems to be the answe fo this vey baffling poblem. Fo pactitiones to have confidence in the expected outcomes, specific pocedues to implement behavioal management in school classooms must be scientifically eplicated.
What is ADHD?
Impact of ADHD
Related Disodes and Comobidity
Review of liteatue
references for ADHD information from schools. School Psychology Review, 31 (1), 94.
Leo, J. (2002). American preschoolers on Ritalin treatment. Society, 39 (2), 52.
Macnab, A.J., Duffy, D., Milligan, J., Miller, K., George, S., Grant, E., & S, M. (2002). Audiovisual hyperactivity disorder (AVHD): a peril of the desire to excel. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 167 (12), 1331.
Miranda, A., (2002). Effectiveness of a school-based multi-component program for the treatment of children with ADHD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35 (6), 546.
McGoey, K.E., Eckert, T.L., & Dupaul, G.J. (2002). Early intervention for preschool-age children with ADHD: A literature review. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 10 (1), 14.
However, in spite of the fact that they knew when and why they failed in doing something, they were unable to come up with an effective plan to solve the condition. oys were mainly indifferent to the reaction others displayed at their behavior while girls were severely affected by anything that was a direct result of their behavior (Krueger, and Kendall).
Most ADHD adults are capable to understand their condition and to attempt to find answers to their problem. However, they too are expected to put on view antisocial behavior, even after undergoing treatment. Substance use is also a common occurrence in ADHD adults, as the influence of those who were formerly close to them is reduced and they cannot be controlled suitably (Wilens et al.).
All things considered, ADHD individuals can display a perfectly normal behavior and it is wrong to have a biased opinion regarding them.
1. Claude, D. & Firestone, P. "The Development of Adhd Boys: a 12-year Follow-up," Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 27.2 (1995).
2. Edbom, T. Granlund, M. Lichtenstein, P. & Larsson, J. "Adhd Symptoms Related to Profiles of Self-esteem in a Longitudinal Study of Twins: a Person-oriented Approach," Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 21.4 (2008).
3. Hartnett, D.N. Nelson J.M., and Rinn, A.N. "Gifted or ADHD? The Possibilities of Misdiagnosis," Roeper Review 26.2 (2004).
4. Krueger, M. Kendall, J. "Descriptions of Self: an Exploratory Study of Adolescents with Adhd," Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing 14.2 (2001).
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become a relatively common diagnosis. Most young people know someone with the diagnosis, if they have not themselves been diagnosed. The article "More Diagnoses of A.D.H.D. Causing Concern," published in The New York Times, highlights the growing concerns with the increase in diagnoses of ADHD in children and teens. While there are certainly kids that legitimately have ADHD, some doctors are rushing through the evaluation and screening processes and making the diagnosis haphazardly.
I believe the reasons for jumping to the diagnosis of ADHD are varied but relatively straightforward. Many doctors are profit-motivated, and simply want to make their clients happy by bowing to what Schwartz & Cohen (2013) claim to be "pressure" from parents. Doctors have long been lackeys of big pharmaceutical companies that manufacture drugs like Ritalin, prescribed for ADHD. When big pharma wants to sell more drugs, the companies will…
It is not only addiction to abusing substances that may go hand in hand with ADHD, but also cigaette smoking. A study by Wilens and colleagues (2007) of the Depatment of Psychiaty, Havad Medical School and the Pediatic Psychophamacology Unit of Massachusetts Geneal Hospital question whethe o not ADHD individuals self-medicate with cigaettes as well as the substance abuses. In a longitudinal ADHD family study focusing on substance use disodes he finds that those who do and do not have ADHD diffe significantly in thei pesonal pefeences fo alcohol and cigaettes. The ADHD youth ae less likely to pefe alcohol but moe apt to pefe cigaettes. Both of these goups use substances to self-medicate and get high. Also ADHD self-medicating teens do not diffe fom those using substances to get high in thei type of ADHD symptoms o dug use poblems. It is suggested, then, that adolescent self-medication is not…
references for alcohol and cigarettes. The ADHD youth are less likely to prefer alcohol but more apt to prefer cigarettes. Both of these groups use substances to self-medicate and get high. Also ADHD self-medicating teens do not differ from those using substances to get high in their type of ADHD symptoms or drug use problems. It is suggested, then, that adolescent self-medication is not just for those with ADHD and that ADHD youth who self-medicate are similar in symptomatology to those who use substances for euphorigenic effects.
Levin and Mariani (2006) of Columbia University conclude that it is important to continue these types of studies regarding ADHD and substance abuse disorder because substance abuse only further aggravates the difficulties with ADHD, present more difficulty with remission and with treatment. The co-morbidity can also lead to other psychological problems. Studies have been few to date of ADHD and substance abuse, so it would be helpful to place more an effort here in the future to better understand how these different elements come together.
Faraone. S.V., Wilens, T.E., Petty, C., Antshel, K. Spenser, T., Biederman, J. Kolpe, M. & Carlson, G.A. (2007) Substance Use among ADHD Adults: Implications of Late
Onset and Subthreshold Diagnoses. The American Journal on Addictions, 16: 24-34,
Kolpe, M. & Carlson, G.A., (2007) Influence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms on methadone treatment outcome. American Journal of Addiction. 16(1): 46-48
[Stephen V Farrone]
Research has also focused on brain studies of ADHD subjects with the hope of a better understanding of the neurobehavioral disorders. Functional MRI images have revealed new information on the differences in the brain activation patterns among ADHD subjects and healthy people without the condition. The focus, which had thus far been restricted to the frontal lobe, has now been extended and researchers are actively studying other regions of the brain. One recent study showed that ADHD subjects not only exhibited underactivation in the prefrontal cortex but also in the parietal and the temporal cortex regions. Another study reported a distinct absence of activation of the anterior cingulate cortex region among ADHD subjects.
A recent Stanford university study has also concluded that ADHD patients showed lesser activation in the posterior parietal attention system when compared with control subjects. Using an odd ball task the researchers tested 12…
Aaron Levin (2006), 'ADHD Research Spreads Throughout the Brain," Psychiatric News, Volume 41, Number 12,-page 25, American Psychiatric Association.
Stephen V Farrone & Saijad a Khan, (2006) 'Candidate Gene Studies of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder', Clin Psychiatry. Suppl 8:13-20 16961425
Esther Sobanski MD, Michael Schredl, PhD, Nina Ketller, MD & Barbara Alm, MD, 'Sleep in Adults with ADHD before and during treatment with methylphenidate: A Controlled Polysomnographic Study'
Sleep, Vol 31, issue 3, pg 375-381
This ignorance on the part of public school instruction results in an unfair lack of respect towards ADHD students - a tragic mis-diagnosis of their health-related condition - and all too often this lack of understanding results in a loss of self-esteem on the part of the student. Any unwillingness to work with young people whose lives are being negatively affected by ADHD - whether the lack of teacher support is through indifference or a dearth of hands-on knowledge - is unacceptable morally, socially and academically.
Do scientists know how children develop ADHD?
ndeed, the ongoing medical mystery into the issue of why children first show symptoms of ADHD and are later confirmed through reliable diagnosis as having this disorder has been explored by healthcare professionals for many years. The research is vitally important because this disorder doesn't involve merely a few children. n fact, according to Environmental Health Perspectives…
Indeed, the ongoing medical mystery into the issue of why children first show symptoms of ADHD and are later confirmed through reliable diagnosis as having this disorder has been explored by healthcare professionals for many years. The research is vitally important because this disorder doesn't involve merely a few children. In fact, according to Environmental Health Perspectives journal (Tillett 2006), about 8% of the children in the United States suffer from the disorder. And further, the cost to the American society is estimated to exceed $9.2 billion each year, Tillett asserts, which is an enormous sum of money. Those nine billion dollars - in addition to the families of ADHD children who suffer and need help - should raise a red warning flag to the medical profession. Some serious research needs to be ongoing and money needs to be invested through private and public sources.
How does a child develop symptoms?
One of the suspected culprits that is lurking in many households and public places in the U.S. is secondhand tobacco smoke; another is exposure to lead. While in the womb, a child exposed to smoke - or lead - could possibly
ADHD and Learning Disabilities in School Aged Children
The article by Czamara, Tiesler, Kohlbock et al. (2013) focuses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dyslexia as the most common neuro-behavioral childhood disorders. 5% of school children are affected by these issues, while an estimated half of all children with ADHD present as LD students (learning disabled). The study examines the relationship between ADHD symptoms and learning disabilities in reading, spelling and math. The researchers found that students with ADHD were at a higher risk of presenting with math, reading and spelling learning disabilities compared to students without ADHD. The study showed that both ADHD and learning disorders are comorbid and likely the effect of the same underlying problem, though exactly what that problem or process is remains unclear.
Czamara et al. (2013) utilize numerous recent studies to support their research. These studies show that ADHD is often found among…
Czamara, D., Tiesler, C., Kohlbock, G. et al. (2013). Children with ADHD symptoms
have a higher risk for reading, spelling and math difficulties in the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies. PLOS One, 8(5): 1-7.
With the ADHD teen's short attention span and restlessness, this problem becomes crucial to solve. ut how? The answer may lie in a framework and structure that allows the ADHD child to accomplish the homework throughout his or her school years (Robin, n.d.).
First, the parent and child must work together to investigate the points at which they are having the problem with homework. Are they writing down the assignment properly? Do they understand the assignment? Do they bring home the appropriate schoolbooks, etc. with which to accomplish the assignment? Do they have a quiet, well-lit workspace at home? Are they adhering to the promised schedule for doing the homework? Do they have a problem focusing once they sit down to do it? Are his or her medications planned so that they can take advantage of it during those hours and have optimum concentration?
Second, work out a written agreement…
ADHD health center. (n.d.). ADHD health center. Retrieved June 8, 2009, from Healthcenter.com: http://www.healthcentral.com/adhd/education/?ap=800
Goldstein, S. (n.d.). Guidelines for successfully parenting ad/hd children. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from A.D.D. Warehouse: http://www.addwarehouse.com/shopsite_sc/store/html/article7.html
Jaffe-Gill, E., Dumke, L.F., Segal, R., de Benedictis, T., Smith, M., & Segal, J. (2007, September). Parenting a child with add/adhd. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from Helpguide.org: http://www.helpguide.org/mental/adhd_add_parenting_strategies.htm
Kane, A. (2009, January 6). What to do when your teen chooses bad friends. Retrieved June 9, 2009, from Healthyplace.com: http://www.healthyplace.com/adhd/children-behavioral-issues/what-to-do-when-teen-chooses-bad-friends/menu-id-53/
The high energy level and subsequent behavior are often misperceived as purposeful noncompliance when, in fact, they may be a manifestation of the disorder and require specific interventions." (U.S. Department of Education, 2003)
Children with ADHD generally display behavior that is categorized as follows: (1) poor sustained attention; and (2) hyperactivity-impulsiveness. (Ibid) Because of this "three subtypes of the disorder have been proposed by the American Psychiatric Association in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV):
1) Predominantly inattentive;
2) Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive; and 3) Combined types. (Barkley, 1997; as cited by the U.S. Department of Education)
Common characteristics of the child with hyperactivity include the child being "fidgety, have difficulty staying seated or playing quietly, acting as if drive by a motor..." (U.S. Department of Education, 2003) Characteristics of children with impulsivity include "difficulty participating in tasks that require taking turns, blurting out answers…
Clinicians typically report that boys are referred for AD/HD assessment nine times more often than girls. Studies using a broader population base generally indicate that the ratio of boys to girls with the disorder is closer to 3:1."
"In people with AD/HD, the brain areas that control attention have been observed to use less glucose, indicating that they are less active."
4. Strength related to the student with an exceptionality.
Individuals with ADHD tend to be highly creative, intuitive, open-minded, flexible, energetic, and optimistic. They are very quick learners when engaged and tend to develop a broad range of interests and hobbies as they get older. Students with ADHD are able to generate a tremendous amount of ideas in a very short period of time. They give a new meaning to the word brainstorm. Another great attribute of students with ADHD is their ability to work independently. Individuals with ADHD…
BC Ministry of Education (2003). Teaching Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Resource Guide for Teachers.
In the case of the 13-year-old boy, clearly there is something going on that is creating a situation where he is becoming a disturbance both at home and at school. His parents fear he may have ADHD, a fear which is backed up by a number of his teachers. In order to understand what is really going on, a clinical assessment must be fully conducted in a multifaceted way that would allow the clinical researcher to understand what's going on in the boy's head.
The multifaceted approach to assessment would include a psychometric test given to the boy's parents and teachers. This would be a way to help understand how third parties see the boy's behavior on an everyday basis. There are number of paths a clinician might take in order to find the most appropriate psychometric test. Most rating scales used today can be helpful in determining…
Haavik, Jan, Halmay, Anne, & Lundervold, Astri. (2010). Clinical assessment and diagnosis of adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Expert Review of Neurotherapuetics, 10(10), 1569-1580.
University of British Colombia. (2011). Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Sef Report. Caddra. Web. http://www.caddra.ca/cms4/pdfs/caddraGuidelines2011WFIRS_S.pdf
Ward MF Wender PH Reimherr FW. The Wender Utah Rating Scale: An aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Am J. Psychiatry. 1993(150),885-890.
ADHD and how it affects students and their education. The writer provides suggested accommodations for these students and discusses why the teachers should do so. The writer provides an overview of the disorder and discusses the ways that a teacher can accommodate the student. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
Students with Attention Deficit Disorder are often called lazy, disruptive, and disorganized. The students with ADHD face obstacles that other students do not have to face. Elementary aged students are especially vulnerable to such criticism because of their youthful desire to please, and to internalize when they fail at that venture. It is important for elementary school teachers to accommodate and work with students who have ADHD for several reasons, including the student's self-esteem, the student's academic progress and the impact the student will have on the classroom without accommodations.
WHAT IS IT
Before one can begin…
Author not available, Attention Disorder Tied to Genes., ScienceNOW, 05-23-1997.
Reid, Robert-Katsiyannis, Antonis, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Section 504.. Vol. 16, Remedial & Special Education, 01-01-1995, pp 44.
ADHD and achievement: Meta-Analysis of the child, adolescent, and adult literatures and a concomitant study with college students" by Frazier (et al. 2007) was to examine the role of the learning disability ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder) in determining the academic performance of students in college. Previous literature reviews had indicated that students with ADHD more likely than their non-LD counterparts to fail or repeat grades. However, there were a number of problems with these previous studies: first, not all ADHD students manifest academic problems. Secondly, other features of ADHD academic achievement like content domains (math vs. reading) and student demographics have not been rigorously studied. The study compared previous existing research studies of ADHD students to provide greater clarity upon the issue and then conducted a small, preliminary study of college students with ADHD at a single university.
Description of participants/sample
The article deployed two different kinds of research…
Gall, M., Gall, J., & Borg, W. (2010). Applying educational research (6th ed). Boston, MA:
Varjas, K., Meyers, J., Henrich, C., Graybill, E., Dew, B., Marshall, M., Williamson, Z.,
Skoczylas, R., & Avant, M. (2008). Using a participatory culture-specific intervention model to develop a peer victimization intervention. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 22(2),
Juvenile Delinquency: ADHD and Antisocial Behavior
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is, in basic terms, a mental health disorder typified by inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. According to the National Alliance on Mental Illnesses (NAMI), approximately 1 out of every 10 children in the U.S. is living with ADHD, yet only 56% of these receive treatment or even diagnosis for the same. This text attempts to establish a connection between ADHD and juvenile delinquency.
Scores of researchers have identified untreated ADHD as a risk factor for future delinquent/antisocial behavior. The NAMI expresses that 47% of youths in juvenile correctional facilities are living with ADHD. Foley, et al.'s (1996) findings mirror this perspective. In their view, adolescents living with ADHD have a higher likelihood of arrest (58% to 36%), compared to their age mates without the condition. These findings depict a strong, positive correlation between ADHD and juvenile/adult delinquency. This can…
Foley, H.A., Carlton, CO. & Howell, R.J. (1996). The Relationship of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder to Juvenile Delinquency: Legal Implications. Bull Am Academy Psychiatry Law, 24(3), 333-345.
Kidder, K.R. (2010). Learning Disabilities, ADHD and Delinquency: Is There a Link? An Introduction. LD Online. Retrieved 12 September 2014 from http://www.ldonline.org/article/5729/
National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI). (2014). ADHD and Juvenile Delinquency. National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI). Retrieved 12 September 2014 from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=ADHD&Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=106893
OReilly, D. (2005). Conduct Disorder and Behavioral Parent Training: Research and Practice. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurobehavioral childhood disorders with 5% of school children being affected by the disorder (Czamara, Tiesler, Kohbock et al., 2013). According to the DSM-V (2013), ADHD is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, all of which interfere with the child’s ability to engage in quality “social, academic, or occupational functioning” (p. 2) for an extended period of time—at least 6 months or more. This paper will discuss the symptoms that a child with ADHD may exhibit, age of onset and gender differences, etiology, course, prognosis and current treatment and a differential diagnosis for the disorder as well.
Prevalence rates in the world for ADHD stands at 5.29% (Smith, 2017). This is roughly consistent with rates in the U.S. where one out of every twenty children are affected by ADHD (Faraone, Sergeant, Gillbert & Biederman, 2003).
A child who…
Caye, A., Swanson, J., Thapar, A., Sibley, M., Arseneault, L., Hechtman, L., & Rohde, L. A. (2016). Life span studies of ADHD—conceptual challenges and predictors of persistence and outcome. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(12), 111.
CHADD. (2018). ADHD. Retrieved from http://www.chadd.org/understanding-adhd/about-adhd/data-and-statistics/general-prevalence.aspx
Chambers, A., Taylor, J., Potenza, M. (2014). Developmental neurocircuitry of motivation in adolescence: A critical period of addiction vulnerability. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(6), 1041-1052.
Czamara, D., Tiesler, C., Kohlbock, G. et al. (2013). Children with ADHD symptoms have a higher risk for reading, spelling and math difficulties in the GINIplus and LISAplus cohort studies. PLOS One, 8(5), 1-7.
Davis, J. M., Cheung, S. F., Takahashi, T., Shinoda, H., & Lindstrom, W. A. (2011). Cross-national invariance of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder factors in Japanese and US university students. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 32(6), 2972-2980.
DSM-V. (2013). ADHD. Retrieved from https://images.pearsonclinical.com/images/assets/basc3/basc3resources/DSM5_DiagnosticCriteria_ADHD.pdf
Faraone, S. V., Sergeant, J., Gillberg, C., & Biederman, J. (2003). The worldwide prevalence of ADHD: is it an American condition?. World Psychiatry, 2(2), 104.
Kumperscak, H. (2013). ADHD through developmental stages. Retrieved from https://www.intechopen.com/books/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents/adhd-through-different-developmental-stages
ADHD and How Its Classified So How Is
ith ADHD being a very complex disorder, mental disorders experts devised a series of ways meant to enable doctors to provide diagnoses with more effectiveness and to generally make it possible for them to understand the condition better. The disorder is considered to be a persistent impairment of psychological development and to thus make it especially difficult for individuals suffering from it to integrate the social order properly. There are a series of ways in which ADHD can be classified and it is thus essential for the person in charge of the diagnosis to be familiar with the diverse ways that the disorder can affect an individual.
Depending on the symptoms that a person displays, he or she can be diagnosed with a particular type of ADHD. This makes it easier for doctors to provide treatment that is likely to…
Diamond, A. "Attention deficit disorder (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder without hyperactivity) A neurobiologically and behaviorally distinct disorder from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (with hyperactivity), Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.sadd.nl/Deskundigen/Diamond.pdf
Kuo, F.E., & Faber Taylor, A. "A Potential Natural Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence From a National Study." Retrieved March 15, 2015, from http://www.niu.edu/~carter/courses/526/articles/Kuo_and_Taylor.pdf
"Complementary and Alternative Treatments for ADHD," Retrieved March 15, 2015, from Complementary and Alternative Treatments for ADHD
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder presents itself in many different ways for many different people. It is further complicated by the fact that there are three types of ADHD recognized by the DSM-IV and even further evidence that females and males manifest the disorder in different ways. ADHD has been a challenge to school administrators for many years. The symptoms of the disorder not only interfere with the educational process of the affected child but they also can be disruptive and interfere with the education of students who learn with and interact with the affected child. ADHD impacts many aspects of the school day including the learning process, socialization and maturity. Its impact cannot be underscored enough as it has the potential to create self-esteem issues which can lead to inappropriate behavior, serving to further interfere with the learning process. Schools are often the first entities to notice the symptoms of…
Does maternal ADHD reduce the effectiveness of parent training for preschool children's ADHD?(Statistical Data Included)
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; June 1, 2002; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.S. Daley, David Thompson, Margaret
Weiss M, Hechtman L, Weiss G (2000), ADHD in parents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:1059-1061
Sonuga-Barke EJS, Daley D, Thompson M, Laver-Bradbury C, Weeks A (2001), Parent-based therapies for preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, controlled trial with a community sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:402-408
The challenge of dealing with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is increased exponentially by the individual having accompanying challenges. These challenges may be psychological as well as social. A primary concern for parents, patients, and researchers is that there are a large number of individuals with the original condition who remain undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. This means that the accompanying condition also remains undiagnosed. It therefore becomes critical that there is an increase in screening for ADHD and the accompanying comorbidities.
It is believed that ADHD affects between 3-6% of American children who are around school age (MIrsky 2001). Historically boys have been the primary targets for ADHD, but it should be noted that a significant number of girls are also afflicted with the condition. In samples of individuals taken from clinics the ratio of males to females is 10:1(Goldman, Genel, Bezman and Slanetz 1998). This ratio however…
ADD & ADHD Health Center. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Family Service Tool
Kit. Retrieved October 17, 2013.
Amiri, S., Shafiee-Kandjani, A., Fakhari, A., Abdi, S., Golmirzaei, J., Rafi, Z., & Safikhanlo, S.
(2013). Psychiatric Comorbidities in ADHD Children: An Iranian Study among Primary
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects between two and ten percent of children, which is why it is important for all educators to understand (Barkley, 1998). The disorder is technically incurable, but it is manageable. Barkley (1998) frames ADHD in terms of its genetic, biological, and cognitive dimensions, helping educators understand how to best approach children with ADHD and help them reach their highest potential. Educators need to know that ADHD leads to a cluster of observable behaviors but that the child may not be able to master impulse control in the same way as his or her peers. Likewise, educators do need to be aware that ADHD is more common in boys than in girls. Educators need to be less concerned with potential causes of ADHD, less judgmental or biased about their students who have ADHD, and more proactive about changing their classroom environments and classroom management methodologies,…
Barkley, R. (1998). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Scientific American.
Barkley, R. (n.d.). ADHD and executive function. Retrieved online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GR1IZJXc6d8
Mental Health and Society
Mental health is one of the most important aspects of the overall health and wellbeing of children, adolescents, and adults. For children and adolescents, mental health is crucial towards their cognitive and psychological development. However, a significant portion of children and adolescents suffer from mental health disorders that affect their overall health and wellbeing as well as development. According to O’Keeffe, it is estimated that 10% children between 5 and 15 years suffer from a mental health disorder while nearly 50% of all lifetime psychiatric disorders or illnesses start by mid adolescence (p.1). Since most of these mental health disorders can persist into adulthood and in turn cause long-term morbidity, early diagnosis and treatment is considered vital towards enhancing the overall health of children and adolescents. This paper examines the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), its significance to public health, and a data source…
Works Cited Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health. \\"Frequently Asked Questions about the NSCH.\\" Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health - A Project of the Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative. The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2017. . Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health. \\"The National Survey of Children\\'s Health.\\" Data Resource Center for Child and Adolescent Health. The Child and Adolescent Health Measurement Initiative, n.d. Web. 23 Sept. 2017. . Hinshaw, Stephen, Pamela Peele, and Louis Danielson. \\"Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).\\" Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 30 Sept. 2014. Web. 23 Sept. 2017. . Krull, Kevin R., Marilyn Augustyn, and Mary M. Torchia. \\"Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Epidemiology and Pathogenesis.\\" UpToDate. UpToDate, Inc., 12 Sept. 2017. Web. 23 Sept. 2017. . O’Keeffe, Nikki, Blanaid Gavin, Walter Cullen, and Fiona McNicholas. \\"Child and Adolescent Mental Health: Diagnosis & Management.\\" Quality in Practice Committee. ICGP, June 2013. Web. 23 Sept. 2017. .
Mini-Script with Tonya’s Parents
Counselor: What are some of your concerns about Tonya’s diagnosis of ADHD?
Parent: We are mainly concerned about putting her on drugs. I heard the medications they are giving children are basically speed.
Counselor: You are right to be concerned about the use of ADHD medications, and I advocate a cautionary approach to pharmaceutical interventions. This is especially true in Tonya’s case, since she is ten years old and her brain is still developing. Tonya seems to be well-adjusted, motivated, and has a good attitude so there is no reason why we cannot first explore a wide range of treatment options to help her address the difficulties she is having in terms of remaining focused. Are you aware of some of the counseling options available, which we can try first?
Parent: I’m aware of a few but would prefer some insight into which of those options…
Part One: At-Risk Preschoolers and ADHD
At-Risk Preschoolers and Early Developmental Delays
Because early intervention can be critical for optimizing student outcomes, identifying at-risk students in preschool has become built into the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). In fact, IDEA also offers guidelines for identifying possible developmental delays in infants and toddlers who are under age three and who would be “likely to experience a substantial developmental delay if early intervention services are not provided,” (Taylor, Smiley & Richards, 2009, p. 413). For preschoolers, the terminology used in IDEA changes from “at risk,” to more straightforward terminology based on exhibited developmental delays in terms of cognitive, social, emotional, physical, or other constructs of development. However, this is not to say that special education teachers and administrators do not use the term “at risk” when it comes to identifying those preschoolers who are exhibiting developmental delays and also have environmental…
Blotnicky-Gallant, P., Martin, C. & McGonnel, M. (2014). Nova Scotia teachers’ ADHD knowledge, belief, and classroom management practices. Canadian Journal of School Psychology 30(1): 3-21.
Freedman, J.E. (2014). An analysis of the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in US special education textbooks, with implications for inclusive education. International Journal of Inclusive Education 20(1): 32-51.
Hancock, T.B., Ledbetter-Cho, K. Howell, A. & Lang, R. (2016). Enhanced milieu teaching. In Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Springer.
Kvande, M.N., Belsky, J & Wichstrom, L. (2017). Selection for special education services. European Journal of Special Needs Education 33(4): 510-524.
Morrill, M.S. (2018). Special education financing and ADHD medications. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 37(2): 384-402.
Rimestead, M.L., Lambek, R. & Christiansen, H.Z. (2016). Short- and Long-Term Effects of Parent Training for Preschool Children With or at Risk of ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, https://doi.org/10.1177/1087054716648775
Tannock, R., Frijters, J.C. & Martinussen, R. (2016). Combined modality intervention for ADHD with comorbid reading disorders. Journal of Learnign Disabilities 51(1): 55-72.
Taylor, R.L., Smiley, L.R. & Richards, S. (2009). Exceptional Students. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Is ADHD real? The fact that there is not a diagnostic test that one can use to show that ADHD exists as a neurological disorder is not a good indicator that it is real (Armstrong, 2003). What is more likely to be going is a combination of external and internal factors—or nature and nurture combining to influence the child’s behavior. Thus, there could be some sort of stress, tension or anxiety in the child’s environment mixing with the child’s internal needs. So though ADHD might not be a real neurological disorder, what is called ADHD could be a symptom of some sort of relational issue that the child is having. In other words, it could indicate that something in the child’s environment is not sitting well with child—whether it is parental at root, peer-related, food-related, media-related or something else.
The fact that three million kids are on drugs because…
Armstrong, T. (2003). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: One consequence of the rise of technologies and demise of play. All work and no play: How educational reforms are harming our preschoolers, 161-176.
Sroufe, L. A. (2012). Ritalin gone wrong. New York Times, 29.
Are children overmedicated in regards to ADD and ADHD?
According to a report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 10,000 children could be receiving psych stimulant medication, e.g., Methylphenidate referred to as Ritalin. This report lead was reported by among others, the media indicates that children are being overmedicated, because of mainly the notably high numbers (Insel). Also, a study by the University of Florida College of Pharmacy showed that there is about a 40% chance of having three-year-olds who have been diagnosed with ADHD taking up to three kinds of mental health drugs by the time they are aged eight years old (Lea Reynolds). These drugs include anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and other multi-mental health drugs. The findings of these two reports bring to the forefront the claim that children with ADD or ADHD are being overmedicated (Lea Reynolds). This essay, therefore, seeks to argue this…
Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a rare psychiatric complication, which is diagnosed among children. To children who grow into adolescence without proper diagnoses, there is a huge difference in presentation compared to patients who are diagnosed early in their childhood. They depict major challenges to the guardians and teachers attempting to cope with their condition. In most cases, the challenge is often reported late to medical practitioners (Muhammad et al, 2011).
This is a case of an adolescent with school truancy presented to a primary care clinic. At first, he was treated for depression and subsequently defiant disorder, as well as sibling rivalry. It is only after a keen and procedural follow up of the medical history that ADHD was correctly diagnosed. Further investigation was necessary because there was positive improvement after the use of methylphenidate for his condition. Escitalopram was prescribed alongside the medication to cater for…
Henderson, K. (2003). Identifying and treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a resource for school and home. US Department of Education Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, Washington, DC.
Khemakhem, K., Ayadi, H., Moalla, Y., Yaich, S., Hadjkacem, I., Walha, A. & Ghribi, F. (2015). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder at schools in Sfax-Tunisia. La Tunisie Médicale, 93(5), 302-307.
Muhammad, N. A., Wan Ismail, W. S., Tan, C. E., Jaffar, A., Sharip, S., & Omar, K. (2011). Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder presenting with school truancy in an adolescent: a case report. Mental health in family medicine, 8(4), 249-54.
National Institute of Mental Health. (2016, March). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Retrieved February 21, 2019, from https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/index.shtml
Vasconcelos, M. M., Werner Jr, J., Malheiros, A. F. D. A., Lima, D. F. N., Santos, Í. S. O., & Barbosa, J. B. (2003). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder prevalence in an inner city elementary school. Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria, 61(1), 67-73.
Verma, R., Balhara, Y. P., & Mathur, S. (2011). Management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of pediatric neurosciences, 6(1), 13-8.
Virtual Medical Centre. (2017, June 13). The Family Impact of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Retrieved February 21, 2019, from https://www.myvmc.com/lifestyles/the-family-impact-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd/
Tresco, K. E., Lefler, E. K., & Power, T. J. (2010). Psychosocial Interventions to Improve the School Performance of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Mind & brain: the journal of psychiatry, 1(2), 69-74.
Assessing and Treating Children and Adolescents with Disruptive Behaviors: The Case of the Hyperactive Child
The client is an African-American child aged between 8 and 12. Her identifying symptom is the inability to remain calm when the situation requires her to, such as during counseling, where she keeps nagging the counselor to play (APA, 2013). She also talks excessively during the session, displays intrusive behavior such as using the counselor’s things without permission, and seeks to play in situations when play is inappropriate (APA, 2013). She displays a tendency to blurt out answers without giving the same much thought, such as when she refers to the counselor as ‘stupid’ for leaving his things out. Further, she seems to be ‘on-the-go’ as if anxiously waiting for the session to end so that she can play. She plays with a toy throughout the session, signifying lack of concentration. The client…
Abikoff, K. H. (1997). Behavior Therapy and Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 2(2), 89-114.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Kolar, D., Keller, A., Golfinopoulos, M., Cumyn, L., Syer, C., & Hechtman, L. (2008). Treatment of Adults with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(2), 389-403.
Loe, I. M., & Feldman, H. (2007). Academic and Educational Outcomes of Children with ADHD. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32(6), 643-54.
Wheeler, K. (Ed.) (2014). Psychotherapy for the Advanced Practice Psychiatric Nurse: A How-to Guide for Evidence-Based Practice. New York, NY: Springer Publication Company.
There is however no cure. There is currently a lot of research dedicated to the development of more effective interventions as well as treatments for ADHD. These include the use of revolutionary tools such as brain scanners. The management and treatment of ADHD should be given a multidirectional approach.
Child Development Institute (2010). Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With
ADD & Learning Disabilities
Collins, K (2008).Strategis/techniques for ADHD
DSM-IV-T workgroup (1994 ). The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders,
Fourth Edition, Text evision. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.
Gross-Tsur, V (1997) Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: is methylphenidate safe and effective? - J Pediatr - Apr; 130(4): 670-4.
Hunt, D (2006). Functional oles of Norepinephrine and Dopamine in ADHD . Medscape
Psychiatry & Mental Health.
Lahey, B.B., & Carlson, C.L. (1991). "Validity of the diagnostic category attention deficit
disorder without hyperactivity: a review
Child Development Institute (2010). Suggested Classroom Interventions For Children With
ADD & Learning Disabilities
Collins, K (2008).Strategis/techniques for ADHD
Volume 2 Case Number 21
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects clients across the lifespan, although it is more common in children. Data from the Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC) indicates that approximately 6.1 million children in the US had ADHD in 2016 (CDC, 2019). In some cases, however, ADHD is not detected early and progresses into adulthood, where it affects an individual’s ability to run a household, maintain employment, and care for children. The presenting client is a 30-year old female diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), poly-substance abuse, and long-standing schizoaffective bipolar-type disorder. The client reports involvement in criminal activity, impulsiveness, hallucinations, difficulty managing anger, persecutory ideation, poor academic performance, and self-mutilatory behavior. This text seeks to develop an individualized treatment plan for the client with co-occurring ADHD and PTSD.
Questions to Ask the Client
Clinical interviews are crucial for effective treatment. A fundamental question to…
APA (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatry Association.
ADDA (2015). Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Symptom Checklist Instructions. Attention Deficit Disorder Association. Retrieved from https://add.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/adhd-questionnaire-ASRS111.pdf
CDC (2019). Data and Statistics about ADHD. Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html
CMS (2016). Stimulant and Related Medications: US Food and Drug Administration – Approved Indications and Dosages for Use in Adults. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/Medicare-Medicaid-Coordination/Fraud-Prevention/Medicaid-Integrity-Education/Pharmacy-Education-Materials/Downloads/stim-adult-dosingchart11-14.pdf
Dalgaard, S., Kvist, A., Leckman, F. J., Nielsen, H., & Simonsen, M. (2014). Cardiovascular Safety of Stimulants in Children with Attention –Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a Nationwide Perspective Cohort Study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 24(6), 302-10.
Kolar, D., Keller, A., Golfinopoulos, M., Cumyn, L., Syer, C., & Hechtman, L. (2008). Treatment of Adults with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(2), 389-403.
Smucker, W., & Hedayat, M. (2001). Evaluation and Treatment of ADHD. American Family Physician, 64(5), 817-30.
For a student with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD), a teacher’s plan for best practices should include behavioral and cognitive approaches that target the learner’s IEP goals and help to ensure a positive experience in the classroom. Students with ADHD are identified as learning disabled because of “deficits in the acquisition of specific academic skills” in their overall ability to learn in traditional ways (Clarfield & Stoner, 2005, p. 246). To help these students overcome the challenges associated with their learning disorder, Pfiffner, Barkley and DuPaul (2006) point out that teachers should consider alternative approaches to instruction—namely: “school-based interventions should include both proactive and reactive strategies to maximize behavior change” (p. 547). Thus, the plan for best practices should be focused on employing proactive and reactive strategies to facilitate the student’s acquisition of knowledge and maintain discipline and effective management of the classroom (Pfiffner et al., 2006). This paper will…
Katie & ADHD
What will be covered and described in this report is a series of actions and reactions to the plight and challenges faced by Katie. Katie is a child that is ostensibly developed and otherwise put together for her age. However, her academics are problematic and the primary (if not only) problem seems to be that she has little ability to pay attention or do things that so not directly and completely interest her. What will follow in this report is a listing of three decision points and why those precise decisions were made. The history involved will not be dwelled on given that this has already been covered to a great extent. However, the proper internal and scholarly justifications will be offered along the way to support the decisions made.
The first decision made was to put Katie on a medication. Despite the doubt…
Hamedi, M., Mohammadi, M., Ghaleiha, A., Keshavarzi, Z., Jafarinia, M., Keramatfar, R., &. ..
Akhondzadeh, S. (2014). Bupropion in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity
Disorder: a Randomized, Double-blind Study. Acta Medica Iranica, 52(9), 675-680.
Paton, K., Hammond, P., Barry, E., Fitzgerald, M., McNicholas, F., Kirley, A., &. .. Johnson, K.
ADHD (what it is this disease) and what are the symptoms and result of this disease. The paper also discusses the affects of ADHD on patients. In this paper the treatment of ADHD is also discussed and explained.
All the details relating to this condition and its symptoms and treatments are explained and supported by the use of literature review.
ADHD in Children
ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity syndrome) is a chronic condition that affects the children and continues till their adulthood in many cases. This disease results in the combination of a number of problems such as difficulty in focusing on something and paying attention, 'hyperactivity and impulsive behavior'. (Mayo Clinic, 2013)
In the children, the children suffering from ADHD also experience lack of confidence and self-esteem, trouble in relationships and bad performance in school. The disease is usually preceded by behavioral and learning problems and lack of attention in…
Australian Psychological Society (APS). (2013). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. APS Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.org.au/community/adhd/
DuPaul, G.J., Jitendra, A.K., Volpe, R.J., Tresco, K.E., Lutz, J.G., Junod, R.E., Cleary, K.S., Flammer, L.M., & Mannella, M.C. (2006). Consultation-based Academic Interventions for Children with ADHD: Effects on Reading and Mathematics Achievement. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 34 (2006), 635-648.
Duvall, S.F., Delquadri, J.C., & Ward, D.L. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Homeschool Instructional Environments for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review. 33(1). 140-158
Frazier, T.W., Youngstrom, E.A., Glutting, J.J., & Watkins, M.W. (2007). ADHD and Achievement: Meta-Analysis of the Child, Adolescent, and Adult Literature and a Concomitant Study with College Students. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 40(1), 49-65.
He must have a reasonable amount of stick-to-itiveness and patience to tolerate difficult tasks; if he gives up immediately, learning will obviously be impaired. And... The ADHD child is both inattentive and readily frustrated. The learning problems are further complicated because they tend to move in vicious circles; they often snowball. (Wender, 2000, p. 22)
Another related aspect is that unless the problems that the student is experiencing are related to his or her ADHD condition, the student may become demotivated as a result of poor performance and criticism. This can lead to other learning issues and even to serious related problems such as the loss of self -worth and self-esteem. This will in turn impact again on the learning ability of the student.
There are numerous studies which attest to the relationship between ADHD and learning problems. In a study by Maynard et al. (1999) it was found that…
ADHD. Retrieved May 29, 2006, at http://www.psychiatry24x7.com/bgdisplay.jhtml?itemname=adhd_guest_consumers&s=2 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101227181
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved May 30, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101230476
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder 1. Retrieved May 29, 2006, at http://www.parentingteens.com/adhd.html
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Retrieved may 31, 2006, at http://www.childrenshospital.org/az/Site610/mainpageS610P0.html
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are commonly linked mental health disorders that children exhibit. This paper examines some of the challenges that both children and parents face as a result of living with these disorders. It suggests some positive approaches to parenting that parents may find useful and offers recommendations in terms of how parents can most positively help a child with ADHD or ODD. The most important conclusion that this paper provides is the notion that parents must be able to demonstrate patience over the long term while facilitating their love and support for the child with guidance, reinforcement, and education. Eliminating stress from the child’s environment can be especially helpful in allowing the child to deal in a healthy manner with the impulses he or she feels, and parents, for their part, may benefit from parental training so that they can learn what…
Thus, it is easy to see why the use of medication to treat ADHD is controversial, especially in students who have the disorder in only mild amounts (Boyd and Bee, 2009). However, an option other than medication is available in the form of parent training programs. Boyd and Bee (2009) note that parent training programs intend to help parents who are having trouble controlling their ADHD affected child. According to the authors, "By the time their children are diagnosed with ADHD, usually upon entering school, many parents have lost confidence in their ability to control them" (Boyd and Bee, 2009, pg. 269). Because of this, it is easy for parents to take their parenting in two extreme directions -- either allowing their children to be undisciplined or by disciplining them to the point of abuse. Through parent training, teachers and parents can communicate regarding the child's success in school, and…
Boyd, D. And Bee, H. (2009). Lifespan Development, Fifth Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
LeFever, G.B., Dawson, K.V., and Morrow, A.L. (1999). The Extent of Drug Therapy
for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children in Public Schools. American Journal of Public Health. 89(9): 1359-1364.
Kewley, G. (1998). Personal Paper: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder us underdiagnosed and undertreated in Britain. British Medical Journal. 316 (7144): 1594-1596. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articlerender.cgi?artid=421427
, 2005). In conclusion, Kim et al. (2005) suggested that combining the use of the CBCL with the AS-IV could be used by clinicians as a fast and effective method of predicting, identifying, and diagnosing children with ADHD.
Although the studies discussed thus far involve the use of psychometric instruments in the diagnosis of ADHD in children, there are proponents of an alternate method of diagnosis. Gordon, Antshel, Faraone, Barkley, Lewandowski, Hudziak, Biederman, and Cunningham (2006) investigated the idea that diagnosis of ADHD by symptom lists, such as those provided by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) may be more beneficial than diagnosis by psychometric assessments. This proposition is grounded in the observation that the number and frequency of symptoms experienced by an individual is closely associated to the impairment of functioning experienced by the individual. However, results of the study indicated that the average correlation…
Gordon, M., Antshel, K., Faraone, S., Barkley, R., Lewandowski, L., Hudziak, J.J., Biederman, J., Cunningham, C. (2006). Symptoms vs. impairment: the case for respecting DSM-IV's Criterion D. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(3), 465-75.
Kim, J.W., Park, K.H., Cheon, K.A., Kim, B.N., Cho, S.C., Hong, K.E. (2005). The child behavior checklist together with the ADHD rating scale can diagnose ADHD in Korean community-based samples. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50(12), 802-5.
Maves, S.D. & Calhoun, S.L. (2006). WISC-IV and WISC-III profiles in children with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 9(3), 486-93.
Spencer, T.J., Biederman, J., Mick, E. (2007). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 7, 73-81.
Students with ADHD
Education 518, Section B13
Dr. Carolyn McCreight
Qualitative article review: Students with ADHD
Homeschooling is one of the controversial approaches to educate children with 'special needs'. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder are preferred to be taught at home by their parents. Instructors for homeschooling are also arranged for this purpose. However, there has been widespread criticism on this method of teaching attention-deficit students. The main purpose of this paper is to review a qualitative study conducted on the topic of providing homeschooling to attention-deficit students. Duvall, Delquadri and Ward (2004) conducted a study to investigate the appropriateness of homeschooling environment for instructing basic skills to children with special needs. The main purpose of this qualitative study was to ascertain whether or not parents of children having attention-deficit as well as hyperactivity disorder could provide their children with instructional environmental that was conducive for facilitating acquisition of…
Duvall, S.F., Delquadri, J.C., & Ward, D.L. (2004). A Preliminary Investigation of the Effectiveness of Home-school Instructional Environments for Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. School Psychology Review, 33(1), 140-158.
medicate kids with ADHD? Answer is Yes
Children with ADHD have basic behavioural problems and are uncontrollable. In such cases the care givers face a big problem and often are victims. Having an ADHD child at home is being tied up to the child, and to prevent the parent getting mental problems some methods have to be resorted to keep the balance. In 1991 the amount of children treated with medication was negligible because medication itself was not available and was in the test stage. But now the scenario is different. More and more children have been diagnosed with the symptoms of ADHD and they are also in schools. That today 6-9% of pre-school children have severe psychiatric disorders is a fact. (Barkley, 41)
The alarming situation therefore has called for research in the area and has produced some of the best solutions in the form of medication. It is…
Dennison, Schwiebert & Sealander (2002) suggest school counselor's work with students and parents in the home to identify ways the student can learn more efficiently, and identify areas where the student can work proactively with their teacher and peers (p.3).
Study Skills to Organize Time and Maximize Learning
ADD/ADHD students often find it difficult to organize time efficiently to complete tasks. One way to assist them so learning is maximized is by creating a calendar, and on each day of the calendar outlining what skills and information the student should study or learn on those dates (Dennison, Schwiebert & Sealander, 2002). The authors note it is important that teachers work with students in multiple classes to help them learn a teacher's unique learning style so the student can better track materials, "course content and assignments" and even work with students to "modify tasks and instructions to help a student stay…
Dennison, J.L., Schwiebert, V.L. & Sealander, K.A. (2002). Strategies for counselors working with high school students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1): 3.
Edelen-Smith, P., Jenkins, a, Prater, M.A., & Shimabukuro, S.M. (1999). The effects of self-monitoring of academic performance on students with learning disabilities and ADD/ADHD. Education & Treatment of Children, 22(4): 397.
Mercer, C.D. & Mercer, a.R. (2001). Teaching students with learning problems. Upper Saddle River: Merrill/Prentice Hall
There are differences between children with ADHD and typical children, but there are also differences are between ADHD subgroups. Most of the observed differences in the subgroups are oftentimes related to response inhibitions. It is important therefore to learn and understand the differences between typical children and children with ADHD as well as the differences in the ADHD children according to what subgroup they can be categorized. Perhaps a more comprehensive understanding of the different subgroups would provide better treatment, more focused treatment, which would likely lead to better results from those treatments on an individual basis. With so many children experiencing ADHD, and the fact that ADHD can last through adulthood, a better understanding of the subgroups could be quite beneficial to a lot of ADHD sufferers.
With the misuse of stimulants becoming a major problem and the cost of medications exacerbating the problem, other effective treatments…
Kuo, F.E., & Taylor, F.A.(2004). A Potential Natural Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence from a National Study. American Journal of Public Heath.94(9):1580-1586.
Pellow, J.Tech, M. Solomon, E.M. (2011). Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapies for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Alternative Medicine Review. 16(4): 323-337.
I could not find your other studies in any of the search engines such as EBSCO etc. They must outdated.
Managing ADHD with a Diet
Diet has attracted considerable attention in the healthcare sector with regards to its significance and role in addressing childhood and adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). As shown by recent research, this increased focus on diet is influenced by the fact that ADHD's development is strongly linked to nutrition since it's characterized by deficiencies in minerals, omega-3 fatty acids. There are reports that improved nutrition through intake of mineral and vitamin supplements. While this evidence is yet to be fully determined scientifically, there are proofs that omega-3 fatty acids could have impacts on a child's behavior. The other dietary factors that allegedly have significant effects on behavior include refined sugars as well as food additives and allergies (Collingwood, n.d.).
The role of omega-3 fatty acids in enhancing the behaviors of ADHD patients, especially children, has been strongly supported by evidence that show the link between…
Collingwood, J. (n.d.). Managing ADHD with Diet. Retrieved February 18, 2017, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/managing-adhd-with-diet/
Academic Outcomes of Children With ADHD
ADHD Literature eview
Improving the Academic Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Improving the Academic Outcomes of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2014) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental condition recognizable by attention deficits, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that manifest across multiple settings. The most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-V) describes ADHD as consisting of inattention, and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity, severe enough to interfere with day-to-day functioning and development. Common symptoms of inattention include poor listening skills, frequent mistakes, disorganized, avoidance of mentally challenging tasks, distracted, and forgetful. Hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms include fidgeting, inappropriate physical activity, excessive talking, interrupting others, and an inability to play quietly. Children suffering from ADHD would therefore have a difficult time succeeding academically.
If ADHD were rare this would not be a significant…
CDC. (2013). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Data & statistics. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html .
CDC. (2014). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and diagnosis. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/diagnosis.html .
Dang, M.T., Warrington, D., Tung, T., Baker, D., & Pan, R.J. (2007). A school-based approach to early identification and management of students with ADHD. Journal of School Nursing, 23(1), 2-12.
DuPaul, G., & Power, T.J. (2008). Improving school outcomes for students with ADHD: Using the right strategies in the context of the right relationships. Journal of Attention Disorders, 11(5), 519-21.
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Disgnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC APA.
Clark, Duncan. Vanyukov, Michael. Cornelius, Jack. (November, 2002). Childhood Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: 66, 136-138.
Crawford, Nicole. (February, 2003). ADHD: a women's issue. Monitor on Psychology, APA: Volume 34, No. 2, p. 28.
Hinshaw, S.P. (2003). Preadolescent girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
technology plays a very important role in the learning process of students with ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) and ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). The previous problems encountered by lecturers and ADD/ADHD learners, such as learning adversities caused by complexities in the behavioral patterns, were reduced when technology started to play a role in the educational environment of ADD/ADHD students. Problems even in simple learning intervention are now rarely experienced by both the lecturers and ADD/ADHD learners ever since technology became part of the educational curriculum for special students.
There are different kinds of technologies that are applied these days to facilitate the learning process of ADD/ADHD learners. This includes multimedia computers and televisions among many other learning devices that have been developed. Their use in special classroom environments presents advantages and disadvantages, as how they also do to normal learners who have no disabilities. However, in an advocate to maximize…
Sanders, M. Video Game Therapy Scoring Points.
Retrieved on November 12, 2005 from Online.
Web site: http://www.freep.com/money/tech/games10e_20051010.htm
Rizzo, A.A., et. al. (2000). The Virtual Classroom: A Virtual Reality Environment for the Assessment and Rehabilitation of Attention Deficits
treating ADHD?." The writer then uses information from peer reviewed journals to discuss and conclude the answer to the question. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
As the medical community continues to make advances, disorders that were at one time questionable, are now accepted fact. One of the most controversial disorders in the past five decades has been ADHD. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder has been the center of focus in the media, and in other arenas when it comes to the topic of abnormal psychology. After decades of debating its merit and validity the public has come to accept the fact that it is a real disorder, most likely biologically based, and something that can last a lifetime. The disorder can wreak havoc in an individual's life socially, economically, and academically unless effective treatment is implemented. ADHD not only affects the person who has it, but also…
Clinical and treatment characteristics of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in psychiatric practice.
Five burning questions.(protocols for diagnosing and managing behavior and emotional disorders in children)(Statistical Data Included)
Beyond Words: How Do Children With ADHD and/or Conduct Problems Process Nonverbal Information About Affect?
Wolraich ML: The difference between efficacy and effectiveness research in studying attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 153:1220-1221, 1999
Program-Evaluation -- Evidence-Based Practice: Case Study eview
There is growing recognition that the used of evidence-based practices promotes improved clinical outcomes and can help guide clinicians in their respective disciplines. This paper draws on the Clinician's Guide to Evidence-Based Practices: Mental Health and the Addictions to provide a description of a salient case study and the identification of the critical elements that require the review of published research to guide professional practice. In addition, a summary of a research study by Spengler, P. M., White, M. J., Egisdottir (2009) that informs evidence-based counseling practice related to the selected case study as it would occur in a specialization area is followed by a discussion concerning relevant ethical, legal, and socio-cultural considerations that apply to the case and research article selected. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the need for evidence-based practices to guide professional practice today are…
Dodson, W. W. (2007, April). Make ADHD treatment as effective as possible. Current Psychiatry, 6(4), 82-85.
Elik, N. & Corkum, P. (2015, January 1). Overcoming the barriers to teachers' utilization of evidence-based interventions for children with ADHD. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 41(1), 40-45.
Holland, K. & Higuera, V. (2015, February 26). The history of ADHD: A timeline. Healthline. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/adhd/history#Overview1 .
Norcross, J., Hogan, T., & Koocher, G. (2008). Clinician's guide to evidence-based practices: Mental health and the addictions. New York, NY: Oxford Press.
Motivational Strategies to Support Learners in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Classrooms
Motivational strategies in the classroom in general represent a challenging enterprise, but the need for such effective strategies in classrooms with young learners suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is particularly pronounced. The condition affects the ability of students to learn in a number of ways that can detract from the most thoughtful motivational strategies, though, and teachers in crowded classrooms may find themselves as a distinct disadvantage trying to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as a result. To determine what motivational strategies have proven effective in classrooms with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder learners, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
The prevalence of attention deficit…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Burcham, B. & L. Carlson. 1999 'Promising Practices for Serving Students with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.' School Administrator, vol. 51, no. 10, p. 32.
Children With ADHD
Visuospatial development and non-verbal memory skills have usually been evaluated using the ey-Osterreith Complex Figure, which is one of the widely used neuropsychologic tests. This test is commonly used because it entails copying a multifaceted geometric figure and recreating it from memory, instantly and after a short delay. The ey-Osterreith Complex Figure is regarded as a very beneficial tool for examining the functioning of the frontal lobe, which is needed for strategic planning and organizing in relation to executive skills. Children apply different approaches to performance of the ey-Osterreith Complex Figure task, which indicates various aspects including visual perception, quality of attention, motor planning and control, metacognitive skill, and organizing. This neuropsychologic test has been widely used in neuropsychologic evaluation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). When using this test, the assessment primarily focuses on potentially compromised skills in neuropsychologic domains.
The purpose of the…
Shin et al. (2003, December). Neuropsychologic Characteristics of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Learning Disorder, and Tic Disorder on the Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure. Journal of Child Neurology, 18(12), 835-844.
Diagnosing Children and Adolescents
Diagnosis: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Inattentive Type
In essence, ADHD symptoms could be grouped into either hyperactivity and impulsiveness or inattentiveness. In the present case, the symptoms Jamel presents are consistent with the latter.
It is important to note that Jamel meets the criteria for the diagnosis above on the basis of DSM-5 criteria for ADHD. To begin with, the boy’s mother points out that to get him to do anything, she has to yell and repeat instructions. In addition to appearing as if not to listen when directly spoken to, children with ADHD – inattention type routinely fail to follow instructions (Centers for Disease and Prevention – CDC, 2017). Secondly, Jamel’s teachers report that he has difficulties focusing on a single activity for a period exceeding two or three minutes. Children with ADHD – inattention type often have “trouble holding attention on tasks…” (CDC,…
The author of this report has been asked to address two general question as they pertain to a child named Leonard. The scenario and proposed intervention involves the plight of a child named Leonard. The child is exhibiting some of the telltale characteristics of having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. However, the parents are resisting him being diagnosed or shifted to a special education environment. Even so, some sort of intervention is required as Leonard is not doing well in school and his behaviors are also disruptive to other children. While Leonard is not going to get the help he needs until his parents are cooperative and participatory, there are indeed assessments and measurements that can be done in the meantime.
Many of the behaviors of ADHD involve one of two (if not both) of two interventions that would require the active participation of Leonard's parents. Indeed, those…
CDI. (2016). ADHD Students Learn Differently. Try These ADD Classroom Strategies. Child Development Institute. Retrieved 29 June 2016, from https://childdevelopmentinfo.com/learning/learning_disabilities/teacher/
DOE. (2016). Teaching Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Instructional Strategies and Practices-- Pg 4. Www2.ed.gov. Retrieved 29 June 2016, from http://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/adhd/adhd-teaching_pg4.html
Miller, C. (2016). Behavioral Treatments for Kids with ADHD -- Child Mind Institute. Child Mind Institute. Retrieved 29 June 2016, from http://childmind.org/article/behavioral-treatments-kids-adhd/
nology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)
November 6, 2005
Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)
The student with AD/HD is one that requires more specialized and individualized instruction. Technological possibilities present great potential in providing these instructional needs for the AD/HD learner. Technology implemented in the school and in the classroom is critically dependent upon collaboration in development and implementation which is inclusive of the participation of students, teachers, parents and the community at large. Some of these technological methods that are included in the curriculum are use of video, networking, PDAs, email, Internet access and other various technologies. The objective of this work is the research and review of technologies that have been effective as well as ineffective and finally the technologies that offer new promise to the teaching and learning initiative for students with disabilities in learning such as…
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ADHD: Interventions for Elementary School Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (2005) ADDinSchool.com Online available at: http://www.addinschool.com/elementary.htm
SNR Network Resources Copyright 2005
video illustrates a common perception that ADHD is being over-diagnosed in our society today. It reflects the notion that there seems to be 'more' ADHD because students are being allowed to get away with bad behavior and are not being reprimanded as they would be in previous eras for not doing their work and not paying attention in class. According to the textbook, however, ADHD is a genuine learning disability reflecting the brain's inability to filter out irrelevant stimuli, and more 'discipline' will not cure it any more than more 'discipline' will enable a child with dyslexia to read without assistance like his or her peers.
Of course, it is possible that ADHD is being over-diagnosed in some anecdotal instances, and being used by parents as an excuse for children's conduct problems. But this does not mean that all cases are the result of over-diagnosis and this cannot be used…
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…
Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php
Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/
Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
Scientists have not yet figured out what causes ADHD, even though many studies propose that genes play a large part. Like a lot of other sicknesses, ADHD almost certainly can be contributed to a mixture of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at probable environmental factors, and are examining how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might add to ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (2010). Most research supports the hypothesis that ADHD is a physiological situation and is consequently present at birth. Nevertheless, the obvious beginning of ADHD indications characteristically takes place early in childhood. Prior to the age of five, ADHD indications may be hard to diagnose, for the reason that most young kids are extremely energetic, easily distractible, and impulsive. Consequently, the average age of diagnosis is eight years for ADHD and ten years for ADD. The dissimilarity in diagnosis age likely takes place…
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). (2010). Retrieved May 30, 2011 from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder/complete-index.shtml
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. (2011). Retrieved May 30, 2011,
from http://www.bing.com/health/article/mayo-125656/Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-ADHD-in-children?q=attention+deficit+hyperactivity
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Treatment Overview. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/guide/adhd-treatment-overview
My final recommendation was that the parents and Adam's teachers should work as a team to help Adam manage his condition. In other words, the parents should communicate with the teachers to determine if the interventions have been effective. I would then talk to the parents themselves every two months to make further recommendations as necessary.
While drug interventions for ADHD, especially in children, have been increasingly controversial because of their possible side-effects, their main advantage is the speed and efficacy with which they work. Those who have benefited reported that the effects were almost immediately visible, on the same day the drug was used.
On the other hand, drug therapies for any mental disorder have been imperfect and frequently plagued by side-effects and non-compliance. Continuous research is therefore necessary to improve not only drug therapies and identify potential harmful effects in the long-term, but also to find possible…
ADHD Information Library (2008). ADHD Treatment Options: many Good Choices. Newideas.Net. Retrieved from: http://newideas.net/adhd/treatment
Martin, B. (2011). Treatment for Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD). PsychCentral. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/treatment-for-attention-deficit-disorder-adhd/
Personal Health Lifestyles, Inc. (2001). Attention Deficit Disorder: Facts, Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Retrieved from: http://www.healingwithnutrition.com/adisease/add-adhd/add-adhd.html#A1