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If necessary, she will be offered help via rehabilitation centers to deal with the alcohol and drug issues. It is important to help her understand that the alcohol and drugs are merely symptomatic of the deeper-lying issues that are related to the abuse, and that they can only be addressed once the root problem is eradicated.
V. Case Process
Initially, the client was somewhat hostile and completely unwilling to talk. The counselor did not attempt to push her into saying anything. The counselor did not make any attempt to start an unrelated conversation, but asked the previously determined questions one at a time. At first, with no response from the client, long periods of time passed without any conversation. Gradually the client began to open up and share her thoughts. She revealed very deep-seated feelings of guilt and fear related to the abuse. In addition, her sense of shame that…
All too often, these adolescents end up taking their own lives when their depression gets too painful for them and they have not received the help that they need. Even the medications that are designed to help them get through the depression can sometimes make things worse, as various medications for depression and anxiety carry a risk of suicide when people are just starting or just getting off of the medication.
Reviewing the literature about how to deal with depression in adolescents is very important, as treatment is needed in many cases. The first important concern for treatment is the psychodynamic approaches that are used. Psychodynamic approaches, or psychosocial approaches, generally translate in lay terms to counseling or therapy of some kind. This can be in a group or individually, depending on which way the therapist feels will be more effective, and the recent evidence into this issue shows that…
Ansfield ME, Wegner DM, Bowser R. 1996. Ironic effects of sleep urgency. Behav. Res. Ther. 34:523-31
Ascher LM, Turner RM. 1979. Paradoxical intention and insomnia: an experimental investigation. Behav. Res. Ther. 17:408-11
Ascher LM, Turner RM. 1980. A comparison of two methods for the administration of paradoxical intention. Behav. Res. Ther. 18:121-26
Ascher LM. 1981. Employing paradoxical intention in the treatment of agoraphobia. Behav. Res. Ther. 19:533-42
Adolescent Suicide: An Overview of Nursing Interventions
Despite the idea that adolescents are in the prime of life, adolescence is one of the most fraught periods of development, at least within the context of contemporary Western culture. Adolescent suicide was an acknowledged mental health risk even before reliable statistics were kept on this issue, and the numbers continue to be sobering. According to Bloch (2016), suicide is the second most common cause of death for adolescents ages 10–19 and even more adolescents contemplate suicide, an estimated one in every 7; one in every 13 make a so-called unsuccessful attempt (p.1). Even more sobering is the fact that rates are apparently increasing; adolescent suicides have increased by 25% in the past 15 years (Bloch, 2016). The reasons for this are unclear and continue to be debated. Regardless, the act of an adolescent forcibly taking his or her own life through extraordinary…
Bloch, M. (2016). Reducing adolescent suicide. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 57(7), 773–774. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12585https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC49758 56/pdf/nihms792469.pdf
Driessen, E., & Hollon, S. D. (2010). Cognitive behavioral therapy for mood disorders: Efficacy, moderators and mediators. The Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33(3), 537–555. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2010.04.005
Mental health professionals’ duty to warn. (2018). National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). Retrieved from: http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/mental-health- professionals-duty-to- warn.aspx
Shain, B. (2016). Teen suicide: a closer look at three key factors. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Retrieved from: http://www.aappublications.org/news/2016/06/27/Suicide062716
Strandheim A, Bjerkeset O, Gunnell D, Bjornelv, S., Lingaas T., & Bentzen, N. (2014). Risk factors for suicidal thoughts in adolescence-a prospective cohort study: the Young- HUNT study. BMJ. Retrieved from: https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/4/8/e005867
Suicide Prevention Hotline. (2018). Retrieved from: https://suicidepreventionlifeline.org/
The Trevor Project. (2018). Retrieved from: https://www.thetrevorproject.org/resources/#sm.0000x4oppzfipe05tpv1sbs0nu2x2
Suicide in Adolescents
Adolescents comprise an especially vulnerable group as far as suicide is concerned. This paper discusses a number of aspects relating to suicide in adolescents. Following a definition of the concept of suicide, attention is paid to the risk factor, contributing factors, prevalence of the risk, the role of healthcare practitioners in addressing the issue, ways of identifying and addressing the problem, as well as help and support resources.
Suicide is essentially defined as the deliberate or intentional termination of one’s life (Capuzzi & Golden, 2013). An individual causes their own death using drugs, poisonous substances, and firearms. Suicide can also be committed through hanging, suffocation, and falling (Shain & AAP Committee on Adolescence, 2016). It should be noted that self-injury and assisted suicide are not forms of suicide (Capuzzi & Golden, 2013).
Overview of the Risk Factor
Suicide is a major risk factor for death among…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP). (2013). Teen suicide. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/AACAP/Families_and_youth/Facts_for_Families/FFF - Guide/Teen-Suicide-010.aspx
Capuzzi, D., & Golden, L. (2013). Preventing adolescent suicide. New York: Routledge.
Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2017). Quick stats: Suicide rates for teens aged 15-19 years, by sex – United States, 1975-2015. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/66/wr/mm6630a6.htm
Shain, B., & AAP Committee Adolescence. (2016). Suicide and suicide attempts in adolescents. Paediatrics, 138(1), e20161420.
The influence of social disconnectedness upon adolescent suicide is also manifested in one study which found that adolescents who moved frequently were significantly more at risk of attempted suicide (Qin, Mortensen, & Pedersen 2009). It should be noted that this risk factor was "attenuated, but still significant, after controlling for the child's own psychiatric morbidity and loss of a mother or father, as well as parental psychiatric history," indicating that some adolescents may be inherently more vulnerable to this type of environmental stressor (in other words, some adolescents may be more socially adept at coping with the inevitable social problems that occur with frequent moving) (Qin, Mortensen, & Pedersen 2009: 628). isk of suicide has genetic and epigenetic components, but social difficulties as a risk factor cannot and should not be ignored. The association of frequent with moving suggests that positive peer relationships can act as a counterbalance to risk…
Biddle, V.S., Sekula, L.K., Zoucha, R., & Puskar, K.R. (2010). Identification of suicide risk among rural youth: Implications for the use of HEADSS. Journal of Pediatric Health
Care, 24(3), 152-167. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2009.03.003
Qin, P., Bo Mortensen, P., & Pedersen, C.B. (2009). Frequent change of residence and risk of attempted and completed suicide among children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(6), 628-632. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.20
Schilling, E.A., Aseltine, R.H., Glanovsky, J.L., James, a., & Jacobs, D. (2009). Adolescent alcohol use, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(4), 335-341. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.08.006
Adolescents at isk of Suicide
Today, alarming numbers of young people are contemplating taking their own lives, and many follow through on their suicide ideations to actually kill themselves or to make an attempt. In sum, suicide represents the second-leading cause of death for people aged 15 to 34 years and is the third-leading cause of death among young people aged 10 to 14 years (Suicide facts at a glance, 2015). To gain some additional insights into these issues, this case study provides a description of hypothetical 14-year-old runaway Caucasian adolescent, "Jane," who as referred from a homeless shelter with suicide ideations to determine what screening and testing should be performed, a discussion concerning current recommended treatment protocol, drugs and non-pharmacological interventions, and a description of expected treatment outcomes including a corresponding time frame and follow-up plan. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning adolescents such as…
Horwitz, A. V. & Wakefield, J. C. (2007). The loss of sadness: How psychiatry transformed normal sorrow into depressive disorder. New York: Oxford University Press.
Interventions for suicide risk. (2017). Zero Suicide. Retrieved from http://zerosuicide.sprc.org/ toolkit/treat/interventions-suicide-risk.
King, K. A. & Price, J. H. (2009, April). Preventing adolescent suicide: Do high school counselors know the risk factors? Professional School Counseling, 3(4), 255-257.
Maris, R. W. & Berman, A. L (2000). Comprehensive textbook of suicidology. New York: Guilford Press.
Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment
School Organization and Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment
att's article explores the connection between school organization and adolescents' mental health. There is a commonly held belief that adolescents receive a superior educational and interpersonal experience in private schools and small schools. att cites studies by Coleman and others that have given support to the perceived superiority of private schools. Coleman's findings in support of private schools did not however address mental health, but were instead limited to academic achievement.
att's questions "Are private schools better not only for academic achievement but for mental health? Are small schools associated with broad indicators of emotional well-being?" (2003, p.345) form the basis for her study. att's study addresses these issues by examining three indicators of adolescents' emotional adjustment: depression, suicide attempts and violent dispositions.
att's study analyzed data collected by the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health, which surveyed health-related…
Watt, T.T. (2003). Are small schools better for adolescents' emotional adjustment? Sociology of Education, 76(4), 344-367.
His article does an excellent job of discussing in comprehensible terms the recent research which has addressed the current state of knowledge about the relationship between substance abuse amongst teens and mood disorders and provides a breakdown of possible treatment options.
Flaherty, L., & Flaherty, M. (2005). Adolescent psychiatry: he annals of the American society for adolescent psychiatry (Vol. 29). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Analytic Press.
his resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. he topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. o the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating:…
This resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. The topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. To the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating: one which discusses comorbidity amongst teenagers with depression and substance abuse issues and another which discusses issues related to dual diagnoses in adolescents with depression and substance abuse issues.
Schwartzberg, A.Z. (Ed.). (1998). The Adolescent in Turmoil. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26000946
Schwartzberg addresses several of the salient issues that have arisen in modern times with regard to adolescents and mental health conflicts. A significant amount of the book focuses upon diagnosing and treating adolescents struggling with depression. Within this text, he also addresses the normal and pathological adolescent as well as the overall development of the adolescent which can be helpful in addressing the differences amongst adolescents with depression and those without. There are additional sections that discuss specific issues that afflict troubled adolescents such as eating disorders, mood disorders, aggressive and violent behavior, and suicide. This text is written in comprehensible terms and the reader does not need to have extensive medical background to understand its contents.
Adolescence is an especially critical development stage for any individual. At this stage, individuals not only experience biological changes, but also become more aware of gender roles and expectations and experience cognitive development. Family and school become social incubators that trigger changes and psychosocial responses in adolescents. The film The Breakfast Club shows how a group of five adolescents go through critical changes in this stage of their life. This paper will highlight the developmental markers observed in one character depicted the film, Claire. Clare will be used as a case study to explore developmental issues related to gender, biology, and cognition. The paper also highlights various socialization agents (specifically school and family) and how they impact the individual’s self-concept, identity, and social role.
The Breakfast Club features five teenagers detained all day at Shermer High School. Several developmental markers are evident in the film. One of the markers is…
This was equivalent to those youth utilizing ongoing, long-term services (Pollio, Thompson, Tobias, eid and Spitznagel, 2006).
There are several significant limitations that must be considered when looking at the results of this study. First, there was lack of a control group which limits the conclusions that can be drawn concerning causal assertions about the effectiveness of services. It is thought that future research on service use for this population needs to include a comparison condition of other troubled youth, perhaps runaway/homeless youth not seeking crisis services. Features of the sampling strategy limited the generalization of the findings. Since the sample included only service-using youth, it is not generalizable to the entire runaway/homeless population. The authors believed that the youth in this sample were representative of the population of service-using runaway/homeless youth from Missouri, Illinois, Nebraska, and Kansas. However, other research has suggested that this population is not representative…
Pollio, David E., Thompson, Sanna J., Tobias, Lisa, Reid, Donna and Spitznagel, Edward.
(2006). Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter
Services. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 35(5), p. 852-859.
School esponse to Student Suicide: Postvention
The emotional impact on family and friends following an adolescent suicide - and the school's response to a suicide - has not been the subject of the same level of intense research as have: a) the causes of suicides; and b) programs to prevent suicides. However, there is now an emerging body of solid research on what protocol a school can put into place, to be more prepared in the unfortunate circumstance of a teen suicide. Indeed, on the subject of tragedy, in the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, many schools and communities re-tooled their crisis/response plans for dealing with such threats. And yet, in many ways, the sudden, inexplicable death of a student can cause serious psychological ramifications to fellow students on a part with the shockwaves following an attack by terrorists. And hence, this paper analyzes literature that…
American Association of Suicidology (2003). Remembering Our Children:
Parents of Suicides, A Memorial to Our Precious Sons & Daughters. http://www.angelfire.com/mi2/parentsofsuicide/page1.html
Bratter, Thomas Edward (2003). Surviving Suicide: Treatment Challenges for Gifted, Angry, Drug Dependent Adolescents. International Journal of Reality
Therapy, XXII, 32-36.
Depression in African-American Adolescents
Etiology of Depression
Mental illnesses like depression can be very difficult to diagnose or to recognize: There is no serum to test for when looking for depression. In some real if rather vague way, mental health is simply the absence of mental disorders. And in the reverse we define mental illness as the absence of mental health. The circularity of this definition is certainly confusing, but it reflects the real confusion over the range of what may be considered to be mentally "normal." This vagueness as to definition does not mean that the problem of mental illness and especially depression is not real: Indeed, the difficulty of identifying those with mental illness and so of providing prompt and appropriate treatment to them makes the need to do so more effectively all the more important (Grob, 1991, p. 13). The need to identify mental illness in -…
Achenbach, T. etal. (22 December 2002). "Ten-year comparisons of problems and competencies for national samples of youth: self, parent, and teacher reports. J of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Boyer, C. (2003). Interview.
Crawford, I. etal. "The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men." J. Of Sex Research 39 (3): 179-189.
Donnel, A. etal. (2001, Oct. 1). "Psychological reactance: Factor structure and internal consistency of the questionnaire for the measurement of psychological reactance." Journal of Social Psychology 141 (5): 679-687.
Lived Experiences of African-American Women who have lost a male child to suicide
he lived experiences of late-adolescent female suicide survivors: 'A part of me died' by Willem a. Hoffmann; Chris Myburgh; and Marie Poggenpoel.
Explain how the study tested the constructs of the new theory.
Over the years there have been two precise sampling strategies used by numerous researchers. hese two strategies are the probability and a non-probability sampling strategies. he main distinction between these two strategies is that the former is more casual and does not have a specific target or segment of the population in mind; whereas the non-probability sampling procedure is very official and very purposeful in its choice of who the researcher studies and why. he researcher used non-probability purposive sampling to hand pick students. More specifically, the research participants were five female late-adolescents (aged 17 -- 22 years) who were recruited by means of…
The researcher points out that there is a paucity of research on suicide survivors and even fewer studies exist on African-American suicide survivors. He conceptualizes suicide survivors as individuals who have lost a family member to suicide. Furthermore, he illustrates that although suicide is a relatively rare event, particularly among African-Americans, the recent dramatic increase in suicide among African-American youth makes it critical to understand this phenomena.
Subsequently he signifies the phenomenon of suicide survivors by highlighting various facts. For instance, he highlights that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), between 1980 and 1995, rates for African-American youth aged 15 to 19 increased 128% compared to 19% for Whites. Furthermore, he argues that although there has been a recent decline in the suicide rates among African-American youth, suicide continues to be the third-leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old African-Americans (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2004).
He conceptualizes that bereavement with regards to suicide and points out that it has many emotional complexities that may evoke such symptoms as anxiety, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbance, and depression. Lastly, he conceptualizes the awareness o suicide figures amongst African-Americans and points out that unfortunately, some African-Americans continue to deny that suicide is a problem within the Black community; this view is buttressed by the fact that suicide is a relatively rare behavior among all ethnic groups. Lastly, he linked grief and suicide strongly and argued that grief when associated with suicide differs from grief from other forms of death because of the emotional complexities that go along with losing someone this way.
(1999) formed the basis of the survey. (Vermeiren et al.)
The study found that that the older age groups and those who had previously experienced abuse were more prone to suicide as a result of the exposure to violence. In essence, the study also found in this sample of communities that exposure to violence in European inner cities is frequently experienced. Furthermore the findings.".. demonstrate that suicidal risk is increased in youths exposed to community violence, and that this risk gradually increases with the level of exposure" (Vermeiren et al.).
Another important finding is that, as was hypothesized from the literature, there is a marked and significant difference in relation to gender. Suicidal ideation was reported by 15.3% of girls and 9.5% of boys..." (Vermeiren et al.).
The authors underline the importance of this area of research in that suicide is one of the major health risks among adolescent youth.…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000845647
Vermeiren, Robert, et al. "Exposure to Violence and Suicide Risk in Adolescents: A Community Study." Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 30.5 (2002): 529+.
suicide has been of interest from the beginning of Western civilization. For philosophers, clergy and social scientists, the subject raises myriad of conceptual, theological, moral, and psychological questions, such as What makes a person's behavior suicidal? What motivates such an action? Is suicide morally permissible, or even morally required in some extraordinary circumstances? Is suicidal behavior rational? How does suicide affect those that remain? The fictional books Virgin Suicides and Norwegian Wood address some of these topics, only to find, as in real life, that each situation differs and the ones who are left must find a way to personally resolve their confusion and move on.
The definition of suicide is confusing. People have long looked at suicide in a negative fashion, although someone who dies to save others is more likely to be seen in a better light than someone who has done so to relieve mental or physical…
Amundsen, D."Suicide and Early Christian Values." Suicide and Euthanasia: Historical and Contemporary Themes, Ed. B. Brody. Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1989.
Curtin, J. Sean. Suicides in Japan: Part 10-Youth and Rural on Rise. Glocom Platform
14, November 2005. http://www.glocom.org/special_topics/social_trends/20040813_trends_s78/
Fairbairn, G. Contemplating Suicide: The Language and Ethics of Self-Harm, London: Routledge, 1995.
Substance Abuse and Suicide isk Among Adolescents
Adolescents are at high risk for suicidal ideations, behaviors, attempts, and suicide.
Adolescent needs for independence, identity formation, and peer acceptance increase risk-taking behavior.
Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among people aged 15-24.
Suicide is the main reason for referrals for child and adolescent emergency psychiatric services.
There has been a steady increase in adolescent drug abuse in the United States since 1960.
Substance abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for suicidal behavior.
The study examined whether there was an association between drug abuse and suicidal behavior and whether drug abuse was specifically a risk factor for suicide.
The data collection process was a literature review conducted by two people independtly examining peer reviewed articles for relevancy and other factors, such as language, leaving 17 articles for examination. The results were then extracted and presented in a table along…
Pompili, M., Serafini, G., Innamorati, M., Biondi, M., Siracusano, A., Di Giannantonio, M.,
Giupponi, G., Amore, M., Lester, D., Girardi, P., Moller-Leimkuhler, A.M. (2012). Substance abuse and suicide risk among adolescents. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 262, 469-485. doi: 10.1007/s00406-012-0292-0.
Suicidal behaviors among teenagers remain a national menace. It has been found from large scale national survey data that about 20.5% teens harbored suicide thoughts within 12 months while about 7.7% attempted suicide at least once within this period (Centers for Disease Control, 1998a), suggesting that a large number of youths stand the risks of being prone to suicide. his is most applicable for young boys. A good example is the 1995 data which showed that the number of boys that committed suicide whose ages fell between 15 and 19 were about five times more the number of girls who committed suicide (Kramer Gould, 2001)
Researches carried out on American high school students showed that the total number of teens having suicide thoughts and considering suicide as a solution to their depressions reduced significantly between 1991 and 1997, but a notable increase was recorded on students who attempted…
This study was guided by the primary hypotheses. (1) Feeling socially isolated as an adolescent exposes youths to psychological imbalances such as symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and behaviors that suggest suicide thoughts. (2) Protective factors like family ties, school ties, and academic accomplishments have the tendency of increasing the relationship between social isolation and risks of psychological ill health.
School-Oriented Support and Intervention programs for Youths
According to (Cooper $Clements, 2001), their studies and reviews on extant literature have shown that social scientists and educators have adopted the high school-based preventive measures for a very long time and still use it today to fight this problem. However, studies that prove observed effectiveness of this method are rare. High school-based preventive
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…
Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .
Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.
Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
Social Media and Suicide
Internet has become a gadget of everyday use for people of 21st century. As it is offering many benefits to the users in terms of information communcaition, interaction, entertainment, socialization and earning livelihhod, there are certain dark factors related to it. The dark factors are as severe as forcing people to commit suicide. It is no exaggeration to mention that Intenet is used as a medium to harass people and get undue benefits from them.
Social media today is playing major role in enabling people and organizations to communicate and share ideas, views and knowledge with other people. The traditional methods of communication have been modified through social media platforms like chat rooms, social networking sites (Facebook, My-Space, Twitter, Google+ etc.), video sites (YouTube), discussion forums, video chat, text messages, blogs etc. (Lexton et al., 2012). The most well-known social networking website Facebook had…
Biddle, L., Donovan, J., Hawton, K., Kapur, N., Gunnell, D., 2008. Suicide and the Internet. British Medical Journal, 336, 800-802.
"Cyberbullying Does Not 'Cause' Teen Suicide," 2012. Retrieved from http://www.science20.com/news_articles/cyberbullying_does_not_cause_teen_suicide-95444
"Facebook Statistics," 2011. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
"Facebook statistics by country," n.d. Retrieved from http://www.socialbakers.com/facebook-statistics
Nowadays, adolescent problem behavior is conceptualized as 2 empirically derived syndromes: externalizing problems (including delinquency and aggression) and internalizing problems (including depression, anxiety, and withdrawal) (Achenbach, 1991a, 1991b). Little is known about the structure of internalizing problem behavior. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during adolescence. (eitz, Dekovic, & Meijer, 2005, ¶ 2).
At the end of their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer (2005) recount that prior research primarily focused on externalizing problems, the structure of a limited range of problem behavior, and basically found support for a 1-factor structure. Their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer assert, extended previoius research as it explored externalizing, as well as internalizing problems, examining whether both types of behaviors belonged to one single factor of general problem behavior (1-factor model), or whether the two types behavior ought to be deemed two separate…
Bartlett, R., Holditch-Davis, D. & Belyea, M. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents.
Pediatric Nursing. Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from HighBeam
Biglan, Anthony., Foster, Sharon L., Brennan, Patricia A., & Holder, Harold D. (2005). Helping
1989-1990 antidepressant medications were not approved for use on nine and ten-year-olds and this poor kid is put on antidepressants immediately after his father dies. Then of course the kid experiences mood swings which get worse and he is eventually diagnosed with bipolar disorder (of course no one considers that a fairly common side effect of antidepressant medications is mania). Secondly, we have a troubled young man that comes from an unstable home who is immediately tossed into grief therapy right after the death of his father. I cannot think of a more obvious way to tell a nine-year-old he is sick- that there is something wrong with the way he feels. So I guess no nine-year-old ever went through such an incident without professional help-I mean what did kids who experience tragedies do before we had professional counselors? I guess they all went crazy and then grew up as…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Golden, L.B. (2002). Case studies in child and adolescent counseling. Columbus, OH: Prentice Hall.
Sadock, B.J. & Sadock, V.A., (2007). Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry:
Behavioral sciences/clinical Psychiatry (10th edition). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Young people with poor eating habits can develop eating disorders or these disorders may be in response to various psycho-sociological issues that arise during adolescence. Irrespective of the cause, adolescents with eating disorders run the risk of a wide range of adverse healthcare outcomes, including obesity, high blood pressure, bone loss and even death. The problem is more common than many people believe, and the prevalence of eating disorders has been increasing in recent years due in part to improved recognition of the condition by clinicians. To determine the current state of affairs with adolescent eating disorders, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to develop a background and overview of eating disorders, their effects and how these conditions are treated. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about adolescent eating disorders are provided in the conclusion.
Background and Overview
Professional and public…
Cariun, C., Taut, D., & Baban, A. (2012, March). Self-regulatory strategies for eating behavior in children and adolescents: A concept mapping approach. Cognitie, Creier,
Comportament, 16(1), 49-54.
Enos, G.A. (2013, March/April). Addressing eating disorders earlier. Addiction Professional,
The adolescent perspective as depicted in the short stories of Joyce, Faulkner, and Cather
The search for higher social status as a form of personal fulfillment and self-definition all mark the coming-of-age stories of James Joyce, illiam, Faulkner, and illa Cather, despite the distinct differences between the three male protagonists created by the authors in their seminal short stories "Araby," "Barn Burning," and "Paul's Case." All three short stories feature a young protagonist whose illusions of finery and higher class status are shattered. Because these aspirations are also often connected to sexual desires, this fall from grace is particularly difficult for the young men to tolerate.
In "Araby," the young male protagonist becomes enamored with a young woman who seems innocent, above his own class, and charming. hen she professes to wish to go to the Araby bazaar but cannot because she must go on a retreat with her…
Cather, Willa. "Paul's Case." Full text available at:
Faulkner, William. "Barn Burning." Full text available at:
Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development & adolescent depression
This is a paper concerning the development stages of an adolescent and depression. Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development will be used to explain what may lead to a child feeling depressed or suicidal.
DEPRESSION IN TEENS
Approximately five percent of children and adolescents experience depression at some point in their lives (AACAP 1998). Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson studied the development of the adolescents. Their theories will give clearer understanding to why teenagers become depressed and what can be done about the problem. Depression comes from a variety of problems in the adolescent's life. Recognizing depression is important. "Out of 100,000 adolescents, two to three thousand will have mood disorders out of which 8-10 will commit suicide" (Brown 1996). The causes of depression in a teenager can stem from family problems, peer pressure and bullying, and changes in…
Bond, Lyndal; Carlin, John B.; Thomas, Lyndal; Rubin, Kerryn; & Patton, director, George. "Does Bullying Cause Emotional Problems? A Prospective Study of Young Teenagers." BMJ: British Medical Journal. 9/1/2001, Vol. 323. Issue7311. p. 480
Chandler, Jim M.D. FRCPC. "Depression In Children and Adolescents -- what it is and what to do about it" http://www.klis.com/chandler/pamphlet/dep/depressionpamphlet.htm
Depression in Children and Adolescents" A Fact Sheet for Physicians. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov /publicat/depchildresfact.cfm
The Depressed Child" AACAP Facts for Families American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Fact sheets No. 4. 1997.
diverse populations in a study, the implications of crisis/trauma-causing events on adolescent depression, implications of resiliency, the implications of neurobiology, and looks into a relevant development theory. It also covers different categories of adolescent depression. Causes of this problem, available diagnosis techniques, and the best treatment methods are also considered. Its relationship with other health issues, such as obesity and cancer, are also considered. There is a provision of some quantitative information about this problem. This paper also pays attention to important studies other experts have conducted. To some experts, this problem is in no way a medical ailment. There is also emphasis on the role adequate exercises and balanced diets play in curbing depression in adolescents. In conclusion, it is emphasized that a depressed adolescent can turn out to become a very normal and happy individual. The Cognitive Theory of Depression as postulated by Beck gives a description of…
Allen, J.P. (2009). An Overview of Beck's Cognitive Theory of Depression in Contemporary Literature. Rochester Institute of Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/allen.html
Brian, K. (2012). Adolescent Depression. http://www.healthline.com/health/adolescentdepression#Overview1
Bujoreanu, S., PhD., Benhayon, David, M.D., PhD., & Szigethy, Eva, M.D., PhD. (2011). Treatment of depression in children and adolescents. Pediatric Annals, 40(11), 548-55. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/00904481-20111007-05
Corry, M., & Tubridy, A. (2005). Depression: An emotion not a disease . Dublin: Mercier Press.
Depression in Adolescence
Depression in Adolescents
The link between symptoms, etiology, core biochemical processes, treatment outcome, and treatment response of affective (mood) disorders is yet to be adequately understood for allowing their categorization, such that it meets universal approval. Still, one has to make an attempt in this regard, and researchers propose a potentially-acceptable one, derived from extensive consultation.
In case of affective disorders, the basic disturbance is an affect (mood) change, typically extreme elation or depression (without or with related anxiety). An overall activity level change generally accompanies this change of mood, and a majority of other related symptoms either will be conveniently recognized in the context of these changes, or will be secondary to them. Most disorders have a tendency of repetition, and the commencement of individual bouts is usually linked to stressful circumstances or occurrences.
The key criteria of classification of affective disorders have been selected for…
Algon, S., Yi, J., Calkins, M.E., Kohler, C. And Borgmann-Winter, K.E. (2013). Evaluation and Treatment of Children and Adolescents with Psychotic Symptoms. Current psychiatry reports. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3500659/
Christie, A. (2007). Childhood anxiety: Occupational disruption. New Zealand Journal of Occupational Therapy, 54(2),31-39. Available at http://www.cin.ufpe.br/~fbcpf/PAMPIE/childhood%20anxiety%20Occupational%20disruption.pdf
Halverson, J. L. (1994-2016). Depression Differential Diagnoses. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-differential
Lewis, A. J., Bertino, M. D., Skewes, J., Shand, L., Borojevic, N., Knight, T., Lubman, D.I., Toumbourou, J.W. (2013, Nov 13). Adolescent depressive disorders and family based interventions in the family options multicenter evaluation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Available at: http://trialsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1745-6215-14-384
Depression in Adolescents
Roughly nine percent of the population - an estimated 18.8 million Americans -- suffers from depressive disorders, illnesses that affect the body as well as the mind.
The effects of depression are magnified in children, who are experiencing depression in greater numbers. An estimated 8.3% of teenagers in the United States are suffering from depression, a significant leap from two decades ago. To compound the problem, researchers like Farmer (2002) found that about 70% of adolescents suffering from depression are unfortunately not receiving adequate treatment.
This paper examines the growing problem of depression among adolescents. The first part of this paper is an overview of teen depression, looking at its causes and contrasting teen depression with depression in adults. The next part then looks at the depressive symptoms among teenagers, contrasting these with the symptoms of depression in adults. In the last part, the paper examines the…
Beardslee, William R., Tracy Gladstone, Ellen Wright and Andrew Cooper. 2003. "A family-based approach to the prevention of depressive symptoms in children at risk: evidence of parental and child change." Pediatrics. 112(2): 401-412.
Egger, Helen. 2003. "Recognizing and treating depression in young children." The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter. 19(3): 1-3.
Farmer, Terri J. 2002. "The experience of major depression: Adolescents' perspectives." Issues in Mental Health Nursing. 23(6): 567-586.
Koplewitz, Harold. 2002. More Than Moody: Recognizing and Treating Adolescent Depression. New York: Putnam.
This entire process aids a client to seek and see the humor in life experience. Communication is also extremely significant since it helps by preventing any feelings of inferiority by the client since the counselor is viewed as an equal instead of a superior (Knoff, 2002).
A therapist ought to make the client to view him or herself as the perfect authority in his or her own way experience; therefore, he or she is capable of satisfying his or her own potential for development. It is also vital to note that in difficult situations individual may not grow and develop into being a responsible character. This is experienced in situation where a child or an adolescent is refused and denied acceptance and positive regard by others and in the event that the positive regard is made conditional upon the child or adolescent, behavioral characteristics change for the worse. This can…
Golden, L.B. (2002). Case Studies in Child and Adolescent Counseling. Chicago: Merrill / Prentice Hall.
Knoff, H.M. (2002). The Assessment of Child and Adolescent Personality. New York: Guilford Press.
University Suicide Prevention
A local university in a mid-size city in the upper Midwest is concerned about the dramatic increase in the rates of attempted suicides and suicides. The university's health center and local health department enlisted the help of the university's student advocacy group and St. Joseph Medical Center to help identify the cause of this problem and probable solutions to it. Following a comprehensive and organized healthcare needs assessment, the LGBT community in the university is identified as the most affected group. Based on reports from the institution's health department and mental health division, increased rates of suicide attempts and suicides occur among the LGBT student community. Additionally, most of the requests in the student advocacy center for information regarding STDs, suicide, and depression have come from this community. These reports are indicators of the university's apparent failure to meet the needs of this community and require suitable…
Haas et al. (2011, January 4). Suicide and Suicide Risk in Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Populations: Review and Recommendations. Journal of Homosexuality, 58(1), 10-51.
Sweet, M. (n.d.). Depression and Anxiety in LGBT People: What You need to Know. Retrieved May 14, 2017, from http://www.mattsweet.com/lgbt-anxiety-depression-guide.pdf
Zeno, T., Warren, K. & Snyder, J. (2015, June 19). Outreach and Enrollment for LGBT Individuals: Promising Practices from the Field. Retrieved from U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: https://aspe.hhs.gov/basic-report/outreach-and-enrollment-lgbt-individuals-promising-practices-field
Clearly, the problem of adolescent suicide demands serious attention. Suicides among all age groups are cause for concern but among those who are young and full of life it is of particular concern and when the factor of bullying is added it is time for society in general, school personnel, and mental health professionals to join together in an effort to examine and resolve the problem. Everyone having contact with adolescents should be aware of complaints being offered by such adolescents such as headaches, stomach aches, and eating and sleeping difficulties. Such difficulties are unusual for healthy adolescents and may be signs of the adolescent being victimized by a bully. Once the bullying has been identified, however, it is essential that a multi-disciplinary approach be adopted to not only treat the effects of the bullying but also to eradicate, as much as possible, the source of the bullying. Physicians, social…
Bridge, Jeffrey a. "Adolescent suicide and suicidal behavior." Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (2006): 372-394.
Eckholm, Erik. "6 Teenagers are Charged After Classmate's Suicide." New York Times 29 March 2010: A14.
Kim, Young Shin. "Bullying and suicide, a review." International Journal of Adolescent Medical Health (2008): 133-154.
Salmon, G. "Bullying in schools: self-reported anxiety, depression, and self-esteem in secondary school children." British Medical Journal (1998): 924-925.
However, conventional beliefs that there is low rate for African-American involvement in suicidal activities, there exists minimal focus on learning the possible suicide patterns among African-Americans. Social workers are not aware of the risks and protectiveness among African-Americans. This gives room for misinterpretation of facts concerning self-destructive activities of African-Americans. The research further stresses the importance of social workers to the study of suicide among African-Americans. They also have the capacity for influencing national policies and strategies for the mitigation of suicidal cases. Through the research, it was evident that there exists extremely little information about the empirical knowledge of social workers practicing in this sector with regard to the works featured by the social work researchers.
With the evidently increasing need for social workers, it is necessary to study the capacities of knowledge of social workers regarding issued of suicide. This is relevant to the increase of social workers…
Anderson, J.A. (2010). Clinical research in context: Reexamining the distinction between research and practice. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 35(1): 46-63.
Andrews, P.W. (2006). Parent-Offspring Conflict and Cost-Benefit Analysis in Adolescent
Suicidal Behavior: Effects of Birth Order and Dissatisfaction with Mother on Attempt
Incidence and Severity. Human Nature, 17(2), 190-211. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Comparison of the Effect of isk and Protective Factors on Suicide Attempts in a Group of Triethnic Adolescents Divided According to ace, Gender and Age.
This is an critique on a research paper about self-reported suicide attempts in a triethnic group of adolescents. 2 references are given.
The purpose of the following paper is to evaluate and critique a study performed on a group of students pertaining to adolescent suicide. This study attempts to examine the multiple factors affecting recent suicide attempts in adolescents from three different ethnic backgrounds. The resilience model is used to describe and analyze the relationships between these variables categorized according to sex, age and race. A group of 10,059 school children from the 7th, 9th, and 11th grade in Connecticut were surveyed in 1996 and data from the African-American, Hispanic Latino and American Caucasian respondents was analyzed using bi -- and multivariate methods.…
1. Rew et al., 2001, Correlates of Recent Suicide Attempts in a Triethnic Group of Adolescents, Journal of Nursing Scholarship.
2.Oquendo MA, Ellis SP, Greenwald S, Malone KM, Weissman MM, Mann JJ, 2001.: Ethnic and sex differences in suicide rates relative to major depression in the United States, Am J. Psychiatry 158(10): 1652-1658
ecent research shows that mental health problems can manifest in early childhood. As many as one in ten Australian children under five exhibit symptoms of social, emotional, and mental disorders including temper tantrums, difficulty adapting to new surroundings, problems relating to peers, and hyperactivity (Edwards & Martin, 2012). Although psychological diagnoses like clinical anxiety or depression are not typically made on populations under five, researchers do identify early childhood behaviors as risk factors for developing mental health disorders later in life. Thus, being withdrawn or inhibited has been identified as "one of the best identified risk factors for later anxiety disorders," (apee, Kennedy, Ingram, Edwards & Sweeney, 2005, p. 488). Early childhood behaviors can reveal to parents and counselors the warning signs of childhood and adolescent psychiatric problems such as Depressive Disorder, Conduct Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Sawyer, Arney, Baghurst, et al., 2008). It is important to…
Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; van IJzendoorn, M.H. & Juffer, F. (2003). Less is more: Meta-analyses of sensitivity and attachment interventions in early childhood. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 129(2), Mar 2003, 195-215.
Duncan, G.J., Brooks-Gunn, J. & Kato Klebanov, P. (2008). Economic deprivation and early childhood development. Child Development 65(2): 296-318.
Edwards, V. & Martin, S. (2012). Preschool mental health toll at 10pc. The Australian. 24 Dec, 2012.
Felner, R.D.; Stolberg, A. & Cowen, E.L. (1975). Crisis events and school mental health referral patterns of young children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 43(3), Jun 1975, 305-310.
Alcohol and substance abuse is a prevalent problem among youth. Effects of alcohol and substance abuse range from mental health problems like depression and suicide ideation to dating violence, to poor academic performance (adliff, Wheaton, obinson, & Morris, 2012). Early exposure to substance and alcohol abuse in the home may lead to an earlier instance of drug and alcohol abuse. This is because of the higher degree of availability and potential lack of parental involvement. This research paper aims to highlight the various ways in which drug and alcohol abuse affect youth from within and outside the home.
Effects of alcohol and substance abuse on high school youth
Academic failure can be one effect of substance and alcohol abuse. One study notes the lack of school commitment from youth experimenting with drugs and alcohol (Kelly et al., 2015, p. 627). The study examined gender, and substance/alcohol abuse in a 30-day…
Benjet, C., Borges, G., Medina-Mora, M., & Mendez, E. (2013). Chronic childhood adversity and stages of substance use involvement in adolescents. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 131(1-2), 85-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.12.002
Epstein-Ngo, Q., Cunningham, R., Whiteside, L., Chermack, S., Booth, B., Zimmerman, M., & Walton, M. (2013). A daily calendar analysis of substance use and dating violence among high risk urban youth. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 130(1-3), 194-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.11.006
Gauffin, K., Vinnerljung, B., Fridell, M., Hesse, M., & Hjern, A. (2013). Childhood socio-economic status, school failure and drug abuse: a Swedish national cohort study. Addiction, 108(8), 1441-1449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12169
Ivanov, I., Liu, X., Shulz, K., Fan, J., London, E., & Friston, K. et al. (2012). Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naive youth. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 201(2), 128-135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.08.004
Life Experience and Mental Health Challenges
The third largest cause of deaths in young Americans (age group- 15-24 years) is suicide. Over 30,000 Americans commit suicide annually. For each suicide case, six individuals, on an average, are estimated to be deeply affected; their grief for the suicide victim might continue for several subsequent years. Loved ones left behind by those who commit suicide tend to be much more intensely bereaved, as compared with those who mourn other sudden deaths; their agony is aggravated by complex feelings of shame and guilt. Though some victims leave behind 'suicide notes', attempting to explain what made them take such an extreme step, generally a range of factors lead to such drastic choices. Most of those who kill themselves aren't opting for death itself; rather, they often simply attempt to lessen their pain, be it psychological or physical. They might have, earlier, tried out other…
Duke University PAS. (n.d.). Normal Reactions to Suicide. Retrieved from Duke University PAS: http://www.hr.duke.edu/pas/suicide_reactions.html
Lezine, D.A., & Brent, D. (2008). Eight Stories Up. Oxford University Press.
Moncher, F.J., Allison, R.L., & Bennett, A.A. (2008). Coping with a Suicide: Catholic Teaching and Pastoral Response. Arlington: Knights of Columbus Supreme Council.
Uzych, L. (2009). Eight Stories Up: A review. Wallingford.
These suppositions allow the researcher to view the world from a certain perspective while ignoring other perspectives. The researcher in this study assumes that his subjects are logical human beings who have a rationale point-of-view. Their thinking is valid and reasonable and their approach is more or less along the lines of scientific thinking. In addition, we assume that commonsense thinking and scientific thinking are more or less identical in nature. With these assumptions in mind, we take a post-positivism philosophical foundation; as in line with Trochim (2000) post-positivism is the outright denial of positivism (which argues that the laws of the nature are perfunctory and therefore deductive reasoning can be the only suitable approach to comprehend nature) and presupposes that day-to-day human and scientific reasoning are more or less the same and in order to understand reality, researchers have to use not only deductive but also inductive reasoning (Trochim,…
Bailer UF, Frank GK, Henry SE et al. (2005). Altered brain serotonin 5-HT1A receptor binding after recovery from anorexia nervosa measured by positron emission tomography. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1032-1041.
Bloks H, Hoek HW, Callewaert I et al. (2004). Stability of personality traits in patients who received intensive treatment for a severe eating disorder. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 192, 129-138.
Bulik CM, Klump KL, Thornton L. et al. (2004). Alcohol use disorder comorbidity in eating disorders: a multicenter study. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 1000-1006.
Byrne, B. (2000) Relationships between Anxiety, Fear Self-Esteem, and Coping Strategies in Adolescence. Adolescence. 35. 137.
Social Media on the Business World
Social media continues to be one of the most disruptive technology platforms there are today, driven by the rapid scalability of web applications coupled with the social dynamics of immediate sharing of data and experiences. The concepts of social media began with the introduction and widespread adoption of Web 2.0 technologies (O'eilly, 2006). The foundational elements of these technologies led to the creation of more advanced social media platforms diverse as Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Instagram and a myriad of other social media platforms. Their impact on personal communication is unprecedented, as is their potential to streamline and revitalize how enterprises communicate and collaborate (Kristien, Heene, 2003). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the history of social media, its advantages and disadvantages, explore the myths of social media, dominant websites, the impact of social media on daily life, and also the potential future…
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the power of the oh-so-social web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Erickson, L.B. (2011). Web 2.0 and social networking for the enterprise. Research Technology Management, 54(1), 67-68.
Gaytan, J. (2013). Integrating social media into the learning environment of the classroom: Following social constructivism principles. Journal of Applied Research for Business Instruction, 11(1), 1-6.
Kirac, E., & Milburn, A.B., PhD. (2013). How social media information is changing disaster relief routing plans. IIE Annual Conference.Proceedings, 3984-3993.
Overall each of the articles contribute significantly to the study of PTSD. The impact of memory and learning issues for those that have the disorder should not be downplayed as such issues can negatively impact the quality of life for those with the disorder.
Each of the articles provide answers to disqualify certain hypotheses and qualified others as worth further study Overall Assessment.
With each of the articles the medical and mental health community came one step closer to targeting and discovering exactly where the problem is in learning and memory issues for people with PTSD. Even when the answer is, "no" that is not where the problem is, it helps narrow down where in fact the problem does originate from.
ACHEL YEHUDA,1 JULIA a. GOLIE,1 LISA TISCHLE,1
KAINA STAVITSKY,1 and PHILIP D. HAVEY1
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 274 Taylor & Francis Taylor and Francis…
RACHEL YEHUDA,1 JULIA a. GOLIER,1 LISA TISCHLER,1
KARINA STAVITSKY,1 and PHILIP D. HARVEY1
Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 274 Taylor & Francis Taylor and Francis 325 Chestnut StreetPhiladelphiaPA191 NCEN Taylor & Francis Ltd. 36370 10.1080/138033990520223 2005 126 R. Yehuda et al. Learning and Memory in Veterans with PTSD Learning and Memory in Aging Combat
Veterans with PTSD
paradox that teaching is not possible without learning. It uses sources in MLA format.
Paulo Freire's quote could be "It is essential therefore, from the very beginning of the process, that the following principle be clear: namely, that although the teachers or the students are not the same, the person in charge of education is being formed or re-formed as he/she teaches, and the person who is being taught forms him/herself in this process. In this sense teaching is not about transferring knowledge or contents. Nor is it an act whereby a creator-subject gives shape, style, or soul to an indecisive and complacent body. There is, in fact, no teaching without learning. One requires the other....Whoever teaches learns in the act of teaching, and whoever learns teaches in the act of learning."
Education reforms in the modern age has become a means to struggle against time. For the Latin American…
Zeng, Langmin and Le Tendre, Gerald (November 1998). Adolescent suicide and academic competition in East Asia. Comparative Education Review.
Ogawa, M. Nickell, P. And Field, S.L. (March April 2001). Life environment studies and social studies in Japan. Social Studies and the Young Learner.
I, Rigoberta Menchu. http://188.8.131.52/int/Vorbilder/vorbilder/rigoberta/zitate.htm
Suicide and Society
Suicide: An Individual Phenomenon or a Societal Construct?
Statistics show that suicide rates in the U.S. are highly predictable. It is annually expected each year that over 30,000 suicides will occur, as compared to about 17,000 homicides. This stable and predictable estimate of suicide rate stems from a precise analysis of social factors describing four separate categories of suicidal influences: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. According to the functionalist theory described by Emile Durkheim, rates are social facts based on other established social facts, and thus have a sociological basis. As suicide rates are social facts, Durkheim set out to provide an empirical basis of social explanation regarding suicide, providing a far different account of trends than the previously perceived notion that suicide is based purely on individual or psychological reasons. Thus, the phenomenon of what actually motivates the occurrence of suicide can be examined from a…
Dunman LJ. "Suicide." The Emile Durkheim Archive. 2003. The Bettmann Archive. 18 Mar. 2004. http://durkheim.itgo.com/suicide.html
Henslin JM. Down to Earth Sociology, 12th Edition. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2003.
Knapp P. "The Functionalist Analysis of Deviance." Peter Knapp Homepage. 1994. Villanova
University. 18 Mar. 2004. www94.homepage.villanova.edu/peter.knapp/Intro1-24.ppt
Adolescence is an especially critical development stage for any individual. At this stage, individuals not only experience biological changes, but also become more aware of gender roles and expectations and experience cognitive development. Also, individuals at the adolescent stage are influenced by various socialization agents, such as family and school. As depicted in the film The Breakfast Club,[footnoteRef:1] adolescents go through critical changes in this stage of their life. This paper highlights the developmental markers observed in the film, especially with respect to gender, biology, and cognition. The paper also highlights various socialization agents (specifically school and family) and how they impact the individual. [1: The Breakfast Club (1985)]
The Breakfast Club features five teenagers detained all day at Shermer High School. A number of developmental markers are evident in the film. One of the markers is gender. Gender essentially refers to the social classification of male and female. As…
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
Licensed professional counselors are individuals who are certified to provide a high level of quality health as well as substance abuse care to hundreds and possibly millions of Americans (American Counseling Association, 2012; 2006). These individuals possess either a masters or doctorate degree in the field of counseling or any other related field which includes a coursework or internship in human behavior and development. They also have effective counseling strategies and ethical practice I various other knowledge areas. More than 80,000 professional counselors who are licensed in close a total of 48 states together with the District of Columbia State licensure are usually required to have either a master's or doctorate degree, 2-3 years of supervised clinical experience as well as the passage of a counseling examination. In the states where licensure or any other certifications are not required, the professional counselors are required to be certified by the National…
National Guidance Research Forum (2004).Multicultural Counseling.
Patterson, CH (1996).Multicultural Counseling: From Diversity to Universality. Journal of Counseling and Development, 72,227-231
Pedersen, P.B. (1991) Multiculturalism as a generic framework, Journal of Counseling and Development, 1991, 70, 1: 6-12
Depression, according to the researchers, is one of the most often felt affects of raising grandchildren. Fuller-Thompson and Minkler (2000) suggest that this psychological problem may stem from a variety of stressors involved in parenting their grandchildren, such as financial strains and a renewed requirement of helping others when they thought they would have "more time to themselves" (pg. 110). Faced with non-caregiving peers, custodial grandparents may regret the freedom, leisure, and financial stability that they may never have as a result of their parenting situations. Further, Fuller-Thompson and Minkler (2000) also note that adverse physical affects have been closely linked with custodial grandparenting, such as the "exacerbation of pre-existing chronic conditions, comorbidy, declines in self-assessed health, and limitations in one or more activities of daily living" (pg. 111). African-Americans are especially at risk because African-American women, on the whole, tend to suffer from more adverse health effects than their…
Armbruster, P. & Lichtman, J. (1999). Are School-Based Mental Health Services
Effective? Evidence from 36 Inner City Schools. Community Mental Health Journal, 35(6), 493-504.
Darling, N. et al. (2008). Within-family conflict behaviors as predictors of conflict in adolescent romantic relations. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 671-690.
Fuller, Thompson, E. & Minkler, M. (2000). African-American Grandparents Raising
gathered using a number of key word searches and combinations of terms, such as "adolescent," "substance abuse," "treatment," "drug," "outcome," "drug abuse, "juvenile drug abusers," juvenile drug use," "juvenile drug treatment," "adolescent drug treatment," and "adolescent drug use." These key word searches were conducted in online databases such as PsychInfo, PubMed, NCBI, JSTO, National Institute of Mental Health, National Criminal Justice eference Service, and Google Scholar. These searches resulted in a number of studies that appeared useful for this analysis. The five chosen were chosen because of common key words and their relevance to this study's focus on if adolescent males with substance disorder are given inpatient treatment instead of outpatient treatment whether they will have a greater chance of maintaining their sobriety.
Description and Technique
Branson, Clemmey, and Mukherjee (2013). This study is a sample size 48 adolescents with roughly half Latino and half African-American, male and female.…
Branson, C., Clemmey, P., Mukherjee, P. (2013). Text message reminders to improve outpatient therapy attendance among adolescents: a pilot study. Psychol Serv, 10(3): 298-303.
Esposito-Smythers, C., Spirito, A., Kahler, C., Hunt, J., Monti, P. (2011). Treatment of Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Suicidality among Adolescents: A Randomized Trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(6): 728-739.
Friedman, A, Terras, A., Ali, A. (1998). Differences in characteristics of adolescent drug abuse clients that predict to improvement: for inpatient treatment versus outpatient treatment. Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse, 7(3): 97-119.
Waldron, H., Slesnick, N., Brody, J. (2001). Treatment outcomes for adolescent substance abuse at 4 and 7-month assessments. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(5): 802-813.
Please list sections according to instructions
Exercise 1.1: eview of esearch Study and Consideration of Ethical Guidelines
Option 1: Stanford Prison Experiment
Go to: http://www.prisonexp.org, the official site for the Stanford Prison Experiment.
What do you think the research questions were in this study? List 2 or 3 possible research questions (in question format) that may have been the focus of this experiment.
What happens when you put good people in an evil place? Does humanity win over evil, or does evil triumph? Does natural or innate evil exist, or is evil situational? Are certain people simply born "bad apples" or are they made evil by "bad barrels"?
What is "reality" in a prison setting? This study is one in which an illusion of imprisonment was created, but when do illusions become real? How quickly and easily will 'ordinary men' adjust to the roles as prisoners, guards and…
Asby, M.D. And S.A. Miles (2002). Leaders Talk Leadership: Top Executives Speak their Minds. Oxford.
"Frederick W. Smith: The Entrepreneur Who Created an Industry." (2003). IBS Center for Management Research. http://www.icmrindia.org/casestudies/catalogue/Leadership%20and%20Entrepreneurship/Frederick%20W%20Smith-The%20Entrepreneur-Leadership%20and%20Entrepreneurship.htm
Holstein, W.J. (2007). "Fred Smith's Golden Rule for CEO's." BNet, November 19, 2007. http://www.bnet.com/blog/ceo/fred-smiths-golden-rule-for-ceos-be-selfless/1061
Lussier, R.N. And C.F. Archua (2010). Leadership: Theory, Application and Skill Development. South-Western Cengage Learning.
The problem is still being ignored by a vast number of people, and ignoring it will not make it go away. The church must be involved in the education of its youth, too, because studies have shown that strong religious background reduces the risk of suicide in some youths, particularly African-Americans and Latinos (Wardlaw, 2004, pg. 37). Schools must develop programs that are more comprehensive for students and for counselors and psychologists, and they must create more funding for these programs to protect their students from harm. Journalist Portner continues, "In fact, a quarter of the deaths on school grounds are suicides" (Portner, 2001, pg. 48). Clearly, the school is heavily involved in the welfare of the child, and to ignore this is to put children at risk. The government must recognize this too, and do more to create funding for schools and local government to create more programs. This…
Antidepressants, teen suicide link questioned. (2004, February 8). The Washington Times, p. A03.
Astroth, K.A. (1994). Beyond ephebiphobia: problem adults or problem youths?. Phi Delta Kappan, 75(5), 411+.
Davis, N.J. (1999). Youth crisis: Growing up in the high-risk society. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Deaton, R.L., & Berkan, W.A. (1995). Planning and managing death issues in the schools. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
Psychological Movie Interpretation: Ordinary People
On the surface, the movie Ordinary People is a movie about loss. It focuses on a family that is recovering from the death of its oldest son. The older son, Buck, and the younger son, Conrad, are portrayed as stereotypical golden boys, with lifetimes full of promise ahead of them. Both boys are strong swimmers on the swim team, however, while out together, without any parents, on a boat, they get into a boating accident. Buck is unable to save himself. Perhaps more significantly, Conrad is unable to save Buck. Conrad spirals into a significant depression and attempts to commit suicide. He is hospitalized in a mental institution because of his suicide attempt. The movie opens after Conrad returns home from the mental hospital and focuses on Conrad's attempts to reintegrate into his family and his suburban environment. Conrad's father, Calvin, is distraught about Buck's…
Cherry, K. (2013). Erikson's psychosocial stages summary chart. Retrieved October 15, 2013
from About.com website: http://psychology.about.com /library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm
Erikson, E. (1994). Identity and the life cycle. New York, W.W. Norton & Company.
Harder, A. (2012). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Retrieved October 15, 2013
As with Lawrence's young protagonist, the burden of excellence becomes too great, and the girl feels she cannot provide for her family -- intellectually, rather than financially. The metaphor of the boy's rocking horse, endlessly rocking back and forth to churn out the names of winners in maddening repetition becomes transformed, in "Suicide Note," into another kind of repetitive metaphor, that of failed flight. The boy, who should have rode on a real horse into his future becomes locked in childhood, madness, and misery, trapped by the adult-sized needs of his family, and the girl, who should have sailed confidently into adulthood dies a failed attempt at flying. The girl is endlessly flapping her invisible wings to take flight but sinks to her death as she jumps to her demise, trying and failing to fly for real. The anonymous speaker of the poem is an adolescent, unlike Lawrence's child, and…
depressive disorder (MDD) is a condition distinguished by the presence of at least one major depressive episode (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). MDD occurs in adolescents with an estimated annual prevalence of four to eight percent and with a lifetime prevalence of 20% by age 18 (APA, 2000). In addition, the data indicates that the prevalence of depression rates among adolescents is increasing with the greatest surge in rates of depression occurring in adolescents between the ages of 15-18 years-old (Costello, Erkanli, & Angold, 2006).
Previous research has suggested that when MDD occurs in adolescents and children an untreated episode can last from seven to nine months (Sadock & Sadock, 2007). Adolescent depression shares many clinical features similar to depression in adults. Depressed adolescents are sad, they can lose interest in activities that used to be of importance to them, and they are very critical of themselves and believe that…
American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
Disorders, IV- Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Costello, E.J., Erkanli, A., & Angold, A. (2006). Is there an epidemic of child or adolescent depression? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1263-1271.
Giedd, J.N., Clasen, L.S., Lenroot, R., Greenstein, D.,Wallace, G.L., Ordaz, S., Molloy, E.A.,
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…
Choi, H.M. (2006). ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS' MENTAL DISTRESS, SOCIAL STRESS, AND RESOURCES. Adolescence, 41(126), 263-83.
Donini-Lenhoff, F. (2006). HEALTH: Cultural competence in the health professions; insuring a juniform standard of care. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 65(45), 45.
Furler, J. & . (2012). Mental health: Cultural competence. Australian Family Physician, 39(5), 206-8.
Sawrikar, P. & . (2013). The relationship between mental health, cultural identity and cultural values in non-english speaking background (NESB) australian adolescents. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 97-113.
Life and Death: The Life Support Dilemma by Kenneth E. Schemmer M.D
Kenneth Schemmer in his thorough, thought provoking book brings to life the controversial subject of the life support issue. For years, many all over the country have pondered, "What if a person were in some kind of an accident and the physicians told them that they were not going to make it?" And all that he or she could do is just lie there in extreme pain waiting for their life to the end. Or even worse case scenario what if they happened to end up completely brain dead? These debated questions are taken on by Dr. Schemmer in making his point that life support decisions may not necessarily be the decision of the family, the doctor or the patient but by a higher being that gives life and takes life. Schemmer uses these controversial questions in his…
Court backs right to die | terminally ill have right to refuse medical life support. (1984, Dec 28). The San Diego Union, pp. A.1-1.
Ackerman, T. (2005, Mar 27). Life support battle shifts / A decade ago, patients families had to press for 'right to die. Houston Chronicle, pp. 1-B.1.
Allen, P. (2000, Oct 07). Right to die upheld despite new euro law, doctors can end life support rules judge. Daily Mail, pp. 33-33.
Dolan, M. (2001, Aug 10). Justices deal setback to right-to-die movement; health: State court bans removal of life support from conscious patients whose wishes are not clear. Los Angeles Times, pp. A.1-A.1.
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
The research into how young women perceive their own bodies -- in response to constant exposure to media images of un-naturally thin and extraordinarily beautiful females -- has been a popular topic for many years. But when it comes to male models that are nearly perfect, handsome and muscular in exactly the right places, there has not been as much attention or research. This paper reviews the potential of -- and reality of -- dissatisfaction in males based on the media's model images of males.
Body Image for Males -- Background
Annette La Greca is Professor of Psychology at the University of Miami and Gerald Koocher is the Dean of the School for Health Studies at Simmons College. As co-authors of The Parents' Guide to Psychological First Aid: Helping Children and Adolescents Cope with Predictable Life Crises they assert that the research for body dissatisfaction among…
Cassell, Dana K, and Gleaves, David H. (2009). The Encyclopedia of Obesity and Eating
Disorders, Third Edition. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Grogan, Sarah. (2007). Body Image: Understanding Body Dissatisfaction in Men, Women, and Children. Florence, KY: Taylor & Francis.
Koocher, Gerald P., and La Greca, Annette. (2010). The Parents' Guide to Psychological First
Teenage Girls Involved in Abusive Dating elationships
Aggression in teenage dating leading to physical, emotional and psychological damage is a social problem not only because of its effects on the teenagers but also because of its prevalence.
Howard and Qi Wang (2003) report figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention showing that overall the prevalence of non-sexual courtship violence ranges from 9% to 65%, depending on the definitions and research methods used. Howard and Qi Wang's study reported "almost one in ten of the 9th- through 12th-grade females who participated in the 1999 Youth isk Behavior Survey reported being a victim of physical dating violence (i.e., had been hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose) within the past year." Further studies and figures report that about one in five of adolescent girls has experienced dating violence. Some of the physically abusive behaviors perpetrated in dating include being scratched,…
Bush, Vanessa. (2002). A thin line between love and hate: dating violence strikes one in every five teenage girls. Essence November 2002. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m1264/7_33/96384286/print.jhtml.
Gillies-Bradley & Wagner Tammy L. (2003). When love hurts. Briarpatch, 32(2), 18-19.
Howard, Donna E. & Qi Wang, Min. (2003). Risk profiles of adolescent girls who were victims of dating violence. Adolescence Spring 2003. Retrieved November 7th,2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/149_38/103381757/print.jhtml.
James, William H., West, Carolyn, Deters, Karla Ezrre, Amigo, Eduardo. (2000). Youth dating violence. Adolescence Fall 2000. Retrieved November 7th, 2003, from www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m2248/139_35/68535843/print.jhtml
Night Mother play that portrays suicide as a solution for life's pain, Marsha Norman's "Night Mother" does not seem like school drama material. However, the poignant play permits teens to perceive the impact that their decisions have on their loved ones, and through the intense dialogue enables them to understand family dynamics. The entire play consists of a conversation between a mother and her daughter, who is in her late thirties. Jesse's age shows students that adults have similar feelings of depression and despair, of hopelessness and exasperation, as they do. "Night Mother" does not glamorize suicide or convey the message that suicide is a valid way out of troubling times. Rather, the play displays a harsh truth: many people seriously consider and often carry out suicidal plans. In fact, students who have suicidal tendencies may find some solace in the play's message and may reconsider their decisions. Other students…
Norman, Marsha. "Night, Mother."
The scene is full of hope and joy, and the use of light helps to illuminate this mood.
Once Laura crosses the road, the scene is described quite differently. At first it is "smoky and dark," however Laura does manage to see in some of the cottages flickers of light in the shadows. These flickers of light represent flickers of hope, but they are far less luminous than those which were presented during the garden party.
"The Indian Camp" also makes use of light and dark imagery as a means of signifying elements of the initiation process. Nick and his father start off their journey in the dark of night, which signifies the lack of knowledge that surrounds Nick, and his blindness to the events that are about to take place in the shanty in the Indian camp. Like Laura's experience in the village, Nick too is able to see…
Hemingway, Ernest. "Indian Camp." Stories of Initiation. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, 2009. 7-12..
Mansfield, Katherine. "The Garden Party." Stories of Initiation. Stuttgart: Ernst Klett Sprachen GmbH, 2009. 46-64.
Mordecai, Marcus. "What is an Initiation Story?" Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Winter, 1960), pp. 221-228
203). Others who lose a loved one they had cherished for many years may have a disposition "towards compulsive caregiving" (Bowlby, p. 206). The welfare of others is of prime concern for these individuals; instead of experiencing "sadness and welcoming support for themselves" after the death of a loved one or family member that has been loved for many years, these individuals "proclaim that it is someone else who is in distress and in need of the care which then insist on bestowing."
This compulsive caregiving often manifests itself with the selection of a handicapped person to become that person's caregiver. Imagine the daughter who since adolescence has idolized her father, and never left the home but rather attended college nearby to her parents' home. She never made a lot of close friends and preferred to be home with her dad especially. So when he died, according to Bowlby's compulsive…
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume I / Attachment. New York: Basic
Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume II / Separation / Anxiety and Anger. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
Bowlby, John. (1980). Attachment and Loss / Volume III / Loss / Sadness and Depression. New York: Basic Books, Inc., Publishers.
, 2013). Different families vary in their emotional and physical resources and they react differently under stressful circumstances. Some resort to violence to a child in cases of a family crisis. The seesaw model brings these elements together to a point at which intervention is required to lead to a restoration in balance within the family. This model tries to alleviate the immediate stress by removing the child temporarily from the home and offering counseling to them.
Student substance abuse
The problem of substance abuse among student is rampant in many societies today. There are high levels of binge drinking among students which has adverse consequences such as increased risk of alcoholism as well as liver diseases. There are various methods of interventions which can be used to prevent and treat substance abuse among students. Drug Abuse esistance Education (DAE) is an educational program that seeks to prevent the use…
Avvo, Inc. (2013). Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act .Retrieved June 30, 2013 from http://www.avvo.com/legal-guides/Child-Abuse-Prevention-Treatment-Act
Child welfare information gateway. (2007). Recognizing Child Abuse and Neglect: Signs and Symptoms. Retrieved June 30, 2013 from https://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/factsheets/signs.cfm
Sociology/Social Work Questions
Explain why children in the early-school-aged period may be especially vulnerable to fluctuations in self-esteem and feelings of "worthlessness."
Young children, in the early school aged years are in a developmental stage that is focused on feelings of identity and self-esteem (Nutbrown & Clough, 2009, p 191). It is during the early years of school that children begin to form concepts of identity through a sense of belonging as well as through the demonstration that they are needed by others in their community, and especially those they hold in high regard, peers and teachers. They seek to demonstrate for themselves that they play an important role in their own lives and communities to help them establish a sense of self. In other words they seek almost above all else to establish that they are valuable and have purpose in their community and especially in school as this…
Barker, E.D., Tremblay, R.E., Nagin, D.S., Vitaro, F., & Lacourse, E. (2006). Development of male proactive and reactive physical aggression during adolescence. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, 47(8), 783-790. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01585.x
Craig, W.M., Vitaro, F., Gagnon, C., & Tremblay, R.E. (2002). The road to gang membership: Characteristics of male gang and nongang members from ages 10 to 14. Social Development, 11(1), 53-68. doi:10.1111/1467-9507.00186
Emanuel, E.J., & Emanuel, L.L. (1998). The promise of a good death. Lancet, 351(9114), SII21.
Hamachek, D. (1990). Evaluating self-concept and ego status in Erikson's last three psychosocial stages. Journal Of Counseling & Development, 68(6), 677-683.