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Multicultural Approach to Adult Mentoring
Disadvantaged adults take place in the community and need special attention to enhance their life. The disadvantaged adult population mostly comes from various cultural background; many of them also belong to the low-class society, work in blue collar occupation scheme, unable to finish high or middle school, and sometimes have problem with literacy.
The government works hard, collaborating with educational foundations, NGO, and volunteering professionals to provide continuing education for those people, to build them better future. Through series of integrated educational programs, the disadvantaged groups learn how to read, write, and express themselves, and go through learning process for basic lessons.
ith enough pressure from the job and family, learning process may not be the only task to fulfill. Developing motivation, building concentration, and enhancing self-esteem sometimes demand greater attention for people who work in this group, both teachers and learners. In order…
Ascher, Carol. The Mentoring of Disadvantaged Youth. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 47.
1988. ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education New York NY. ED306326
Kerka, Sandra. Strategies for Retaining Adult Students: The Educationally Disadvantaged. ERIC Digest No. 76. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH. 1988. ED299455. 30 Apr. 2004. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed299455.html
Ziegahn, Linda. Considering Culture in the Selection of Teaching Approaches for Adults.
In addition, the participants were chosen differently between the two groups. The first cohort consisted of students that were chosen by teachers and the second was chosen randomly.
The purpose of this discussion was to examine the role of the mentor in the academic achievement of low-achieving students. The research also focused on History of mentoring, Description of the mentoring process and the relationship between mentoring and student achievement. The research indicates that in most cases studies have found a there is a positive relationship between mentorship and academic achievement. This relationship exists because mentoring provides students with the relationships needed to diminish certain risk factors associates with underachievement.
Black L.L., Medina S., Elisabeth C. Suarez. (2004) Helping Students Help Themselves: Strategies for Successful Mentoring elationships. Counselor Education and Supervision. Volume: 44. Issue: 1.
Candidate Outcome Indicators: Youth Mentoring Program." The Urban Institute.
Freedman, M. (1993). The kindness…
Black L.L., Medina S., Elisabeth C. Suarez. (2004) Helping Students Help Themselves: Strategies for Successful Mentoring Relationships. Counselor Education and Supervision. Volume: 44. Issue: 1.
Candidate Outcome Indicators: Youth Mentoring Program." The Urban Institute.
Freedman, M. (1993). The kindness of strangers: Adult mentors, urban youth, and the new voluntarism. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Miller a. (2002) Mentoring Students & Young People: A Handbook of Effective Practice. Kogan Page: London.
The third level up the pyramid is the need for affection, belonging and love. This is the need state area were people are who want to alleviate feelings of loneliness, isolation or alienation (Hoffman, 1988). This level is also critically important for the development of trust in the workplace and within workplace teams and the sense of identity that comes from being part of a group (Harris, Kleiner, 1993). Fourth there is the need for esteem and while it often connotes the esteem from others as a layer of the model, it encompasses self-esteem as well. This is the level where the critical aspects of self-worth, self-confidence and self-discipline come into how a person approaches their life and their goals (Bazigos, Burke, 1997). The top layer of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model is self-actualization. This is the level of where people are who have found their innate strengths and…
Michael N. Bazigos, & W. Warner Burke. (1997). Theory orientations of organization development (OD) practitioners. Group & Organization Management, 22(3), 384-408.
Cangemi, J. (2009). Analysis of an Adversarial Labor/Management Situation in a Latin American Industrial Setting: A Case Study using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Organization Development Journal, 27(1), 37-47.
Harris, Chris, & Kleiner, Brian H. (1993). Motivational practices at America's best managed companies. Management Research News, 16(9,10), 1.
Hoffman, Edward. (1988, September). Abraham Maslow: Father of Enlightened Management. Training, 25(9), 79.
Social Work Practice Within Aboriginal
Building attached case study Lisa, describe discuss social work practice approach aboriginal innovative practice modalities a cultural context. This assignment refining approach practice integrating theories practices learned required readings.
ABOIGINAL AND INNOVATIVE SOCIAL WOK PACTICE APPOACH
Concepts in Social Work Practice within Aboriginal and Cultural Framework
In trying to attend to a client's challenges in psychology, it is imperative to provide an environment that is sufficiently safe where a client can talk and explore their problems (Brave Heart, 2004). This measure is adequate for many clients but not sufficient for all especially so when it comes to cases involving aboriginal persons. For the aboriginal clients, an understanding of adaptation difficulties and the inter-generation aspects is necessary to provide a wholesome resolution to the challenges at hand. This paper presents a discussion on the ideal approach in social work for the case of Lisa, who had…
Brave Heart, M.Y.H. (2004). The historical trauma response among Natives and its relationship to substance abuse: A Lakota illustration. In E. Nebelkopf, & M. Phillips (Eds.), Healing and mental health for Native Americans: Speaking in red. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Briere, J. (2002). Treating adult survivors of severe childhood abuse and neglect: Further development of an integrative model. In J.E.B. Myers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C.T. Hendrix, T. Reid, & C. Jenny (Eds.). The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment, 2nd Edition. . Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Burns, D. (1999). The feeling good handbook. United Kingdom: Penguin Group.
Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R.M. (2012). Psychology. Milton, Qld. Australia: John Wiley and Sons.
There is a feeling of psychological maturity that the older worker contributes to the workforce, allowing him or her to actually be a respected leader in the workplace.
Experience obviously plays a key role in the psychological success of the aging worker (Budrys, 2008). The individual that is older is typically more experienced in his or her field, and therefore generally able to perform better and faster than their younger counterparts. This may sound like a surprising statistic since we generally assume that youth means an individual may be able to perform better and faster, but this is usually a physical and not a psychological trend. Psychologically, the performance strength tends to lie with the individual that is more experiences. Therefore, businesses deciding to retain aging workers will be able to utilize them to increase performance and raise standards within the workplace. Furthermore, these individuals could be used to guide…
Andersen, M. (2009). Restructuring for whom? Race, class, gender, and the ideology of invisibility." Sociological Forum. Vol. 16, No. 2.. p. 181-201.
Baldridge, J.(2008). Sociology: A critical approach to power, conflict, and change. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Brooks, C. (2009) The aging female workforce. American Sociological Review. 67 (2), (2002). pp.191 -- 211.
Budrys, G. (2008). Unequal Health. New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield.
Peer tutoring was found to be an effective tool for teaching those with learning disabilities to read (Fuchs, Fuchs, and Saenz, 2005). This research supports the use of struggling readers in the first grade for the group that receives the tutoring. First graders that are enrolled in the program are already labeled as learning disabled. Whether their difficulty in reading is caused by an organic deficiency, or an emotional problem, intervention by way of peer tutoring will help to reduce its effects.
Strengthening mentor programs is an essential part of the equation when it comes to academic performance (King, et al., 2002). A strong mentoring program has many benefits for individual students, but it also has benefits for the school as well, including improved overall academic perforce and a decrease in school violence.
Peer mentoring programs were found to be better than intervention programs that used a teacher, especially if…
Chard, D.; Kameenui, E.. (2000) Struggling First-Grade Readers: The Frequency and Progress of Their Reading. Journal of Special Education, 34 (1), 128.
Dufrene, BA., Duhon, G.J., Gilbertson, D.N., & Noell, G.H. (2005). Monitoring implementation of reciprocal peer tutoring: Identifying and intervening with students who do not maintain accurate implementation. School Psychology Review, 34(1), 74.
Emler, Nicholas (2002) the costs and causes of low self-esteem. Youth Studies
Australia, 21(3) 45. Retrieved June 21, 2006, from the ULV Academic Search
Curriculum Development Application
Integration of more interaction between students
As an instructor in an equipment maintenance course there are several challenges that I face. One of the challenges is the interaction between the students in my class. There is a tendency in the class for minority students keeping to themselves during class. Female students are almost invisible in class and they rarely speak or interact with others in the class. This lack of interaction between students could hurt their job placement in the future when they are through with their course. There are several things I can do as an instructor to integrate more interaction between my students. Among the things I can integrate in my course work is group projects and assignments. I will ensure that groups of up to four students are set up on all the course projects. There will also be some class assignments which must…
Troubled Youth and Aged Individuals: Contemporary Community Case Study
There are two age groups in the present population with specific needs required to fulfill and direct them at a pivotal moment in their life's development when paired together represent reciprocal provision of care during a critical stage in the lives of each of these two representative groups of contemporary society. The two age groups at focus in this study are today's youth and the present aged population in the community. Youth are disproportionately characterized as having behavioral problems and the community elders are a reservoir of guidance for these youth who in return have much to offer the aged as well.
The research proposed in this specific study involves collaboration with teacher, the school board, and counselors to prepare a method of providing school credits in return for volunteer work on the part of students who are also categorized as…
A Year's Worth of Mentoring Activities: 52 Ideas -- One for Each Week of the Year, Legacy Project. Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/valentinekit/part1/yearsworthmentoring.pdf
Bosak, SV (nd) Effective Mentoring. Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/guides/mentors.html
Elements of Effective Mentoring Practices (nd) Legacy Project. . Retrieved from: http://www.legacyproject.org/valentinekit/part1/effectivementoring.pdf
MENTORING INITIATIVES: An Overview of Youth Mentoring. A Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Conference and Meeting Document. April, 2000. Retrieved: http://www.nationalfamilies.org/parents/mentor.pdf
Management and Organizational Development
CHAPTE V - SUMMAY ESULTS
Fresno County Department of Children and Family Services emancipates twenty and thirty eighteen-year-old foster children each month. These children face many challenges as they work through a transition into the adult, working world. Children in a foster care setting have not had the stability needed for them to develop the life skills necessary to adjust to life on their own. Many of the emancipated youth have either not graduated from high school, nor hold a G.E.D. certificate. In addition, they do not have adequate basic living skills.. The youths typically do not have employment, nor have they built a history during their teen years of successful part time entry level jobs.
The housing experiences of these children, as they have moves from home to home, have not taught them the basic skills needed to keep a home, or apartment. These young…
director for this program, recommended by his or her peers from within the foster care system. This person should be someone who has demonstrated a high level of commitment to the foster care system, and has a track record of frequently going "above and beyond" the normal course of daily activities in order to benefit the well being of children in the system.
Funds for an additional training program to teach foster care workers about the benefits of mentoring relationships.
Standards, goals and objectives must be written for the Mentor, and for his or her case worker to follow and use as guidelines for the ongoing relationship
Connection event planning. Location, supplies, budget for event foods, decorations, and other ambiance.
Compared to only a few decades ago, American society has become more open and accepting of teenage pregnancy. Pregnant teens are no longer hidden away with relatives. More importantly, many school and community groups have adopted honest and aggressive strategies to address the growing incidences of teenage pregnancy.
This paper evaluates the effectiveness of four different styles of programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage girls. These programs include sex education in schools, one-on-one conversations between patient and health care worker in a clinical setting, service learning programs and finally, youth development programs. Emphasis is given on the effectiveness of these programs in preventing pregnancy in teenage African-American girls.
The first part of this paper is an overview of teen pregnancy statistics, both throughout the United States and with African-American teenagers in particular. The next part of the paper then identifies the factors behind the rising rates of pregnancy…
Boekeloo, B.O., Schamus, L.A., Simmens, S.J., Cheng, T.L., O'Connor, K., & D'Angelo, L.J. 1999. "A STD/HIV prevention trial among adolescents in managed care." Pediatrics, 103, 107-115.
Harding, David. 2003. "Counterfactual Models of Neighborhood Effects: The Effect of Neighborhood Poverty on Dropping Out and Teenage Pregnancy." American Journal of Sociology. November.
Moore, Mignon R. And Lundsay P. Chase-Lansdale. 2001. "Sexual Intercourse and Pregnancy Among African-American Girls in High-Poverty Neighborhoods: The Role of Family and Perceived Community Environment." Journal of Marriage & the Family. November.
Napier, Kristine. 1999. "Abstinence-Only Programs Reduce Teen Pregnancy." Education. Tamara L. Roleff, Ed. At Issue Series. Greenhaven Press
Since we observe the responses of our peers and friends, we are very much attuned to how we interact with others, and how their succeed or fail. The theory of self-efficacy is fundamental to understanding social cognitive learning, because it implies that the process of using this theory creates greater confidence. Since individuals learn from their cultural environment, it is imperative to construct a positive enforcing messages through the educational process to ensure that individuals feel that they can accomplish any and all given tasks.
A contextual example of the social cognitive learning model can be seen in the case of student as in the provided example. As is a student who feels no self-efficacy when it comes to mathematics, despite numerous opportunities to learn from math, he has taken no opportunities to improve himself. When questioned he clearly asserts that he cannot learn math, something that appears counterintuitive from…
Gang Prevention Programs in Los Angeles
The issue of gangs and the gang related deaths and violence has been a thing of concern across the nation and in Los Angeles in particular due to the alarming high levels of gang activities within the city. Los Angeles City has been described severally as the "gang capital" of the nation, due to the numerous gangs that are in existence as well as the long history of these gangs, going back to 50 years ago. Los Angeles Police Department (2016) there are approximately 450 active gangs in Los Angeles with a membership exceeding 45,000 members. The membership of these gangs has continued to increase over the last five years due to the lucrative narcotics trade. Over the last three years, it is documented that 16,398 violent crimes were associated to gang activities, 491 of these being homicides and 7,0478 being felony assaults, 98…
A Better LA, (2016). Funded Programs: R.A.C.E. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.abetterla.org/programs/
Basheer A., (2016). B.U.I.L.D. Brotherhood for Independent Leadership through Discipline. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.streetgangs.com/homicides/build.html
H.E.L.P.E.R Foundation, (2016). HELPER: Our Mission. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.helperfoundation.org/
Los Angeles Police Department (2016). Gangs. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.lapdonline.org/get_informed/content_basic_view/1396
Leadership Training for Youth
Allen, S.J. (2007, Spring). Adult learning theory & leadership development," Kravis Leadership Institute, Leadership Review, 7, 26-37.
The authors explore the relationship between leadership development and adult learning theory, specifically behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, and social learning theory. Leadership is studied within learning theories framework.
Charbonneau, D., Barling, J, and Kelloway, E.K. (2001). Transformational leadership and sports performance: The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31(7), 1521-1534.
The authors sought to test a model of transformational leadership with regard to its indirect effect on sports performance through the mediating effects of the athlete's intrinsic motivation. University athletes rated the transformational leadership of their coaches and their own intrinsic motivation, while the coaches assesses the athletes' performance. Kelloway's mediator tests (1996, 1998) were used to model the relationships. Intrinsic motivation was found to be a mediator of transformational leadership and sports performance,…
Mentoring Process in a Business Setting
In most professions, the first years in a new position are fraught with uncertainties and problems. The need for supporting teachers and people in other professions was cited as far back as the Conant eport (1963). During the next twenty years, many attempts were make to put effective mentoring programming in place throughout the business world. This study will address the level of mentoring which exists in different professions, specifically, education, medicine, and law.
As early as 1962, induction programs that provided assistance to beginning teachers were being described (Shaplin, 1962). Mentoring in a business setting is described as being very desirable and conducive to interaction among the protege' and the established workers (Young & Adams, 2000). Medicine has long had a system of mentoring in place which is called residency. Whether nor not the condition of this process is optimal depends upon to…
Anderson & Shannon. (1988). "Toward a conceptualization of mentoring." Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 38-42.
Barnett & Kirkpatrick. (1986). California's Mentor Teachers: Two Years of Learning.
San Francisco, CA: Far West Laboratory for Research and Development.
Bolton, E. (1980). "A conceptual analysis of the mentor relationship in the career development of women." Adult Education, 30 (4), 195-196.
Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.
Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…
Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.
Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
substitute for experience and the only significant lessons that one learns are from the mistakes made in one's own life. This may have some truth in it but it is certainly not the whole truth. If we look at the history of mankind we will see countless examples of persons who have made significant achievements only through guidance from, at least initially, their mentors. In this essay we shall examine the significance of mentoring and how it can make a difference in our lives. We will also look at some of the types of mentoring (natural and planned mentoring) and the qualities required in a good mentor.
Let us try to define what mentoring is. Mentoring has been derived from the Greek word meaning enduring. It has been defined by some as a sustained relationship between an adult and a youth. To my mind, it is the process of coaching,…
I did not assume that the students were internally motivated, even though they proved to be so, which is why I made sure each student had a clear view of the board and PowerPoint presentation I had created and I kept a 'third eye' on their attention to the material, noting that they were following along with the manual and asking them questions. The fact that I had used the software myself and was quite familiar with it gave me an ease in presenting the material. Not only did I know the material well enough to deviate from a pre-planned script, I could also interweave humorous anecdotes into the presentation, and make the dryer sections of my talk more human and interesting. Combined with the visual reinforcement of the PowerPoint, this created a personal rapport between the students and me.
The class was also frustrated by the requirement placed upon…
). Concomitantly, many higher educational institutions may lack the resources needed because of the aforementioned dwindling state budgets and overall shaky national economy, as well as skyrocketing costs of administration.
Not surprisingly, these trends have combined to make the accountability of educational leaders a timely issue, but one that remains under-studied. In this regard, these authors cite internal and external political pressures that are calling for such accountability concerning educational leadership's effectiveness as well as organizational-institutional efficacy (Armstrong et al.). Based on their review, Armstrong and his colleague conclude that the most critical issue facing departmental chairs is the disintegration of trust in leadership in higher education. ebuilding and fostering trust is an essential component of effective leadership, and it appears that the 360-degree feedback model can provide educators at all levels with a framework in which to overcome such obstacles in this important area (Armstrong et al.).
Aguirre, a., Jr. & Martinez, R. (2002). Leadership practices and diversity in higher education: Transitional and transformational frameworks. Journal of Leadership Studies, 8(3), 53- 54.
Amey, M.J. (2005). The entrepreneurial college president. Journal of Higher Education, 76(5), 604-605.
Armstrong, T., Blake, S.Y. & Piotrowski, C. (2000). The application of a 360-degree feedback managerial development program in higher education: The Florida model. Education, 120(4), 691.
Kezar, a. (2007). The research university presidency in the late 20th century: A life cycle/case history approach. Journal of Higher Education, 78(1), 119.
By improving their self knowledge, leaders can change and develop as leaders of people. Clinical supervision for leaders is sometimes called administrative clinical supervision. This is managerial clinical supervision with a focus on problems related to leadership and organization of work, particularly human relations issues. Administrative clinical supervision makes use of experiential learning focused on oneself and one's work (Sirola-Karvinen and Hyrkas, 2008).
Administrative clinical supervision means clinical supervision for leaders that address leadership issues in order to achieve set goals. Supervision promotes cohesion within the organization and is directed at change. Administrative clinical supervision is the examination of leadership in which leaders have the chance to reflect upon the quality of their decisions and share their feelings. In terms of action, administrative clinical supervision involves process-like support and mentoring, which boost the leader's confidence in coping with leadership duties and changes associated with it. Administrative clinical supervision addresses issues…
Clinical supervision 'can inoculate staff against stress'. (2010). Mental Health Practice. 13(7),
Clinical Supervision. (2009). Retrieved June 27, 2010, Australian College of Mental Health
Nurses Web site: http://www.acmhn.org/career-resources/clinical-supervision.html
As a top manager, the person possesses three distinct categories of self-efficacy beliefs (Yun, 2007). These are his individual participant's abilities, his team's capabilities, and the organization's capabilities. Team capabilities are not simply the sum of the abilities of the individual members. And organizational capabilities are different from team capabilities. These being distinct from one another, the top manager can build his efficacy beliefs on himself, the team and the organization. Organizational efficacy can then proceed from the top manager's belief in the organization's capabilities to create competitive advantage as well as attain high performance (Yun).
Self-Efficacy in the Work Environment
According to Newstrom and Davis, self-efficacy is the conviction that one can successfully perform a given task and make meaningful contributions (Edralin, 2004). Causes of powerlessness and low self-efficacy in the workplace are job-related, boss-related, and reward system-related. Unclear roles and expectations, lack of opportunity to…
Bandura, a. (1994). Self-efficacy. Vol 4: 71-81 Encyclopedia of Human Behavior:
Academic Press. Retrieved on March 24, 2010 from http://www.des.edu/mfp/BanEncy.html
Beckman, R.H., et al. (2007). Effect of workplace laughter groups on personal efficacy beliefs. 28: 167-182 The Journal of Primary Prevention: Springer Science- Business
Media. Retrieved on March 23, 2010 from http://www.laughterlinks.com/research/AuthorsFullText.pdf
Retrieved May 2, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database.
This article promotes the National Year of Reading in England which was created to promote increased reading and improve literacy. Specific ideas of supporting adults in reading and using the National Year as an opportunity to do this are presented. The incidental rewards of pleasure reading are also noted.
Stanistreet, P. (2008, March). A girl like you. Adults Learning, 19(7), 11-13. Retrieved May 2, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database.
Stanistreet met with Gilda O'Neill, who, at age 15, was told by a teacher that "girls like her" never become writers. (p. 11) She grew up during World War I and began writing about her experiences. Her life had consisted of material poverty and, after repeated discouragement, she dropped out of school. She continued to eagerly absorb information from any source and became the writer she had always wanted to be.…
Duke questions the role of lifelong learning as part of attaining the goals of "Education for all." The "Education of all" initiative was developed in the northern parts of the globe, and is now being considered for the poor countries in the southern hemisphere. This is a report of a discussion of national and international attempts to use the "Education of all" program to increase lifelong learning in developing countries. Implementation is not simple because the program is confusing and there is resistance to acceptance.
Long hours don't deliver results. (2008, March). Adults Learning, Retrieved May 2, 2008, from Academic Search Premier database.
Education managers continue to work long hours, but with few returns. This article reports that this affects productivity and morale. Specifically, exercise and developing new skills are prevented due to the overload. This affects both health and performance. The article concludes with the questions: Why are employers not working to lessen the overtime, and why are employees not taking the responsibility to manage themselves?
Acquiring Leadership Skills
The multicratic, or participative, leadership style takes into consideration the opinions and thoughts of others (Five Styles of Leadership: Participative Leadership, 2013). This helps in utilizing team talent in collective decisions where the team as a whole takes accountability for the decisions. Followers become more motivated and more creative with less contributions that give a higher quality of input. The participative leadership style enables knowledge of where training is needed, develops teamwork that brings new ideas, evaluates performance for improvement, gives encouragement for both on the job and work/life balance, and enables new knowledge from member experiences.
orking as a healthcare aide in a continuing care center for the past 17 years, I was awarded the responsibility of orientating new healthcare aide workers. here each institution has formed their own policies and procedures, the participative leadership style enabled me to gain input for training measures. It allowed…
Code of Ethics and Standards of Practice. (2008, June 18). Retrieved from CLPNA: http://www.clpna.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/docs_CLPNAEthics-Standards.pdf
Five Styles of Leadership: Participative Leadership. (2013). Retrieved from Leadership With You: http://www.Leadership-with-you.com/participative-leadership.html
Larson, S. (n.d.). What Makes for An Effective Leader? Retrieved from Free Management Library: http://managementhelp.org/leadership/traints/leader.htm
Smith, M. (2011). Are you a transformational leader? Nursing Management, 42(9), 44-50 retrieved from http://journals.lww.com.nursingmanagement/Fulltext...2011/09000/Are_you-a_transformational_leader_8.aspx.
Other positive leaders in this regard are the "priestly" ones, who bring continuity and hierarchy to the goal, delegating to the most powerful and differentiating individuals; the "elected" leaders, who gain authority by being chosen; and the "missionaries," who have a certain kind of mission to achieve -- economic, religious, political or social service (Stewart).
The way that leaders work with individuals in both sports and at work will also reinforce their ability to stay on task; cooperate; use time, talents and resources wisely; embrace diversity; learn from each other and share accomplishments. Dennis Kinlaw, who recommends ways to coach or lead individuals for successful performance, offers what he calls a "coaching skills inventory" that breaks coaching into "shades of coaching" or different methods for driving results. For example, in one inventory, he breaks coaching into five specific categories: Contact and Core Skills, Counseling, Mentoring, Tutoring, and Confronting and Challenging…
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
The respondents who step out to be part of the research process should be protected from any unwanted intrusion or any other form of personal or group harassment (Smith & Liehr, 2008).
It is formal to have and conduct nursing research according to the set ethical frameworks where the entire review of the proposal will be undertaken. Whether to be undertaken by the staff or students, this research should be subjected to ethical approvals, which will make sure that the research, proposal is directed at serving the nursing school dream and intentions. Using the Middle range theory, the nursing problems and challenges will be solved in various ways as follows (Smith & Liehr, 2003).
All the nursing researchers and educators, being the staff members, must have respect upon the dignity, interests, and rights of the nursing students and other staff members related and participating in practical and theoretical learning.
Basford, L., & Slevin, O. (2003). Theory and practice of nursing: An integrated approach to patient care. Cheltenham, U.K: Nelson Thornes.
Fitzpatrick, J.J., & Kazer, M.W. (2012). Encyclopedia of nursing research. New York:
Meleis, a.I. (2011). Theoretical nursing: Development and progress. Philadelphia: Wolters
Disintegrating elationships Between Organizational Leaders and Employees
Organizational leadership behavior towards employees can significantly affect their perception of the workplace, and contribute to the organization high performance and most essentially create and maintain a proper organizational culture that lead to the success of the organization . The good health of the organization depends greatly on the relationship between leaders and employees. However, the relationship that exists between organizational leaders and employees are failing at a high rate in today's workplaces and the reasons for this are not clear. Leaders in organizations have a tendency to use employees in the time of the organizational needs and them to simply ignore the employee's commitment and their potential. Committed employees should be rewarded with committed organizational leadership. Critical in organizational leadership interaction with employees is communication. Communication keeps employees informed and results in a feeling of connectedness and inclusiveness in the organizational operations,…
Abrrow, H.A., Ardakani, M.S., Harooni, A. & Pour, H.M. (2013, July). The Relationship Between Organizational Trust and Organizational Justice Components and Their Role in Job Involvement in Education. International Journal of Management Academy, 1(1), 25-41.
Albrecht, S.L. (2010). Handbook of employee engagement: perspectives, issues, research and practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Broner, S. (2009). Employees' perceptions of leaders' attitudes and employee retention: a quantitative study on perceived attitudes. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.
Creswell, J.W.(2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches .(2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Mentoring foster children: Psychoeducation in action
One of the developmental challenges for foster children is finding positive role models, particularly if they experience frequent upsets in their daily routine as they shift from one home to another. Other adults can act as mentors to provide a stabilizing force in children's lives such as adults involved in Big Brothers/Big Sisters-type programs. Positive authority figures, both formal and informal are necessary to support normative development. Outside activities; spending time with children; and offering academic and personal support such as tutoring and counseling must be conducted in an appropriate way but can provide a vital source of positive reinforcement. Ideally, mentoring should be an enriching and entertaining experience but should also contain elements of psychoeducational interventions which encompass problem-solving strategies for the child's problems. Psychoeducation encompasses the principles of "behavioral therapy, self-assertiveness training, problem-solving training, communication training, and further family…
101 activities. (2015). Big Brothers / Big Sisters of Island County. Retrieved from:
Baum, J., Frobose, T., Kraemer, S, Rentrop, & Pitschel-Waz. (2006). Psychoeducation: A basic psychotherapeutic intervention for patients with schizophrenia and their families.
Schizophrenic Bull, 32(Suppl 1): S1 -- S9. Retrieved from:
Methods for evaluating and monitoring the effectiveness of peer-assisted learning programs are discussed as well, followed by a summary of the literature review.
Background and Overview.
The growing body of scholarly evidence concerning peer tutoring has been consistent in emphasizing the powerful effects that children can exert on the academic and interpersonal development of their classmates and/or other students (Ehly & Topping, 1998). For example, Bloom (1984) reported early on that one-on-one tutoring by a fully skilled peer was more effective than both conventional (i.e., teachers' lecturing) and mastery learning (i.e., student- regulated) methods of teaching. Across several replications of academic content and student age levels, Bloom (1984) reported that peer tutoring programs produced effect sizes on the order of 2 standard deviations above the mean of the control group (i.e., students receiving conventional lecture-based instruction), compared with 1.3 standard deviations for mastery learning (effect sizes larger than.25 of 1…
Adelgais, a., King, a., & Staffieri, a. (1998). Mutual peer tutoring: Effects of structuring tutorial interaction to scaffold peer learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(1), 134.
Afflerbach, P., Baumann, J.F., Duffy-Hester, a.M., Hoffman, J.V., McCarthey, S.J. & Ro, J.M. (2000). Balancing principles for teaching elementary reading. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Arreaga-Mayer, C., Gavin, K.M., Greenwood, C.R., Terry, B.T., & Utley, C.A. (2001). Classwide peer tutoring learning management system. Remedial and Special Education, 22(1), 34.
Bloom, B.S. (1984). The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Researcher, 13, 4-16.
youth transition out of foster care as they "age-out" of the system. This can prove to be a very challenging and difficult phase for young people as they are expected to take on adult responsibilities and make their own way in the world. Whether youth successfully transition from foster care to independent living is multifaceted, and requires detailed investigation in order to illuminate how the foster care system can facilitate change throughout the "aging-out" process.
Keller et al. (2007) utilized person-oriented research methods in order to investigate how well adolescents transition from life as part of the child welfare system to independent living as adults. This research method was chosen for the study in order to appropriate capture and understand the various and diverse ways these youth may be prepared for the transition among a sample that is large and representative of the population of youth aging-out from foster care.…
Ahrens, K.R., Dubois, D.L., Richardson, L.P., Fan, M.Y., Lozano, P. (2008). Youth in foster care with adult mentors during adolescence have improved adult outcomes. Pediatrics, 121(2), e246-52.
Keller, T.E., Cusick, G, R., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Approaching the transition to adulthood: distinctive profiles of adolescents aging out of the child welfare system. Social Services Review, 81(3), 453-84.
Kushel, M.B., Yen, I.H., Gee, L., Courtney, M.E. (2007). Homelessness and healthcare access after emancipation: results from the Midwest evaluation of adult functioning of former foster youth. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 161(10), 986-93.
Munson, M.R., Smalling, S.E., Spencer, R., Scott, L.D., Tracy, E. (2009). A steady presence in the midst of change: nonkin natural mentors in the lives of older youth exiting foster care. Child and Youth Services Review, 32(4), 527-35.
Telemakhos development into manhood with the maturing of a young male character portrayed in a film
The Odyssey is recognized as the epitome of epics in literature and mythology by which all other epics are judged. Odysseus' journey home to Ithaca after the Trojan war takes many twists and turns and has all of the elements of an action-packed and epic adventure. However, there is another story developing parallel to that of Odysseus and his crew. ack home in Ithaca, Odysseus has left behind a wife, son, and kingdom that suffer in his absence. Telemakhos has a journey of his own while his father travels the world. "The first four books of the Odyssey are often referred to as the 'Telemachiad, or the song of Telemechus as they focus on the difficulties of a young hero coming of age in a hostile environment." (Lucas) In much the same way that…
Everitt, Nick, et al. "Telemachy." Wikipedia. 19 Mary 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telemachy
Fainelli, Michael. "I, Telemakos." Doublethink: AFF's Print Quarterly. 15 February 2005. http://www.affdoublethink.com/archives/018885.php
Fourie, Dirk. "The art of writing and making films adaptation willard." The Writing Studio. 1993. http://www.writingstudio.co.za/page351.html
Ganapati. "Ganesh, God of India, Symbol and Presence." Ganesha. 17 December 2004.
More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methods are those of:
(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.
(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.
(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…
Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.
Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.
Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.
Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
Leadership Training and Its elationship to Communication Skills, Self-Esteem, and Problem Solving Skills among Youth
Transformational leadership remains a critical phenomenon as described through behavioral components such as inspirational motivation, idealized influence, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation. Idealized influence is the first element and is reflected based on the conceptualization by transformational leaders who behave in a manner that allows them appear as role models among their followers. Such individuals are respected, trusted, and admired (Olive, Gottfried, Guerin, Gottfried & eichard, 2011). Followers relate with the leaders with the aim of emulating them.
Children's attachment style is normally attributed to parental factors or parenting style. Attachment styles are well formed at early ages even though they are predictive of outcomes for future leadership. Early life shows that bonds developed by infants with caregivers vary between from an insecure to secure attachment styles. The relationship identifies diverse infant attachment styles which…
Day, D.V. (2011) Integrative perspectives on longitudinal investigations of leader development: From childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly 22-561 -- 571.
Gottfried, A.E., Gottfried, A.W., Reichard, R.J., Guerin, D.W., Oliver, P.H., & Riggio, R.E. (2011). Motivational roots of leadership: A longitudinal study from childhood through adulthood. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(3), 510 -- 519.
Mortensen, J., Lichty, L., Foster-Fishman, P., & Warsinske, K. (2014). Leadership through a Youth Lens: Understanding Youth Conceptualizations of Leadership. Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 42, No. 4, 447 -- 462
Murphy, S.E., & Johnson, S.K. (2011) The benefits of a long-lens approach to leader development: Understanding the seeds of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly 22. 459 -- 470.
Both of these ideas may have caused some type of argument and disagreement had the teacher been permitted to engage in that manner at the time of that review. However, because the process was established whereby she could not debate them, the teacher seemed to really consider what the others had to say about her ideas. Unfortunately, the video did not show the classroom outcomes of the discussions (See generally, A community of learners, 1998).
While students and teachers at Souhegan High School all seemed enthusiastic about its approach to professional development, the video failed to provide any statistics that would empirically support that the program is beneficial. Therefore, any thoughts on why the program is beneficial must be based on conjecture and what the other research reveals about the mentoring process. The program appeared to have several benefits. First, the peer review of a teacher allowed the teacher to…
Annenberg Media. (1998). A community of learners. Retrieved August 5, 2010, from Learner.org website: http://www.learner.org/vod/vod_window.html?pid=1284
Holloway, J. (2001, May). The benefits of mentoring. Educational Leadership, 58(8).
Retrieved from the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Supervision in the Criminal Justice Field
Problems and challenges facing a criminal justice organization
Supervision in the criminal justice system is an integral aspect of the inmate rehabilitation process. In this paper, we conduct an intensive investigation and examination of the supervisory problems as well as challenges that are unique to the criminal justice organizations. In our analysis, we provide the details of general supervision, management, leadership, personnel evaluation, motivation, mentoring and training.
Keller (2002) pointed out that inmate violence, vandalism, escape, unsanitary conditions, inmate suicide, and high level of stress as well as low staff morale are the main issues that inspire supervision in the correctional facilities. It is therefore necessary that effective inmate supervision as well as behavioral management be made integral elements in all correctional facilities. Keller (2002) went on to indicate that in a historical perspective most correctional facilities have been designed and run…
Atlas, R (1989).Reducing the opportunity for inmate suicide: A design guide.Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol 60(2), Sum 1989, 161-171. doi: 10.1007/BF01064942
Berry, P.E., & Anderson, R. (2001). An evaluation of a private alternative probation and counseling program:Predicting program outcomes from client characteristics. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 26, 121-130.
Brimhall, J (2011).A SQL Experiment-Mentoring
Establishing an NP Led Wellness and Recovery Center for Deinstitutionalized Individuals
Historically, nursing, and medicine professions have been loath to utilize tools commonly linked with mercenary aspects of business, such as market research and decision analysis. In the contemporary health care setting, however, consumers hold numerous options for care providers. The division of the market or market segmentation into different subgroups allows the determination of target markets and the buildup of marketing policies specific to the needs and interests of the selected subgroups. Market analysis allows the identification of policies for nurse practitioners to enhance their practice in a way that centers on the interests and needs of the selected market. While scores of the nurse practitioner's dream of operating their own businesses, those that have set up their own practice understand that it requires a compelling passion for owning a business, and for the profession.
A nurse practitioner is…
It threw off the momentum of the class, and I felt I had not stressed timing enough. Several also straggled in after the lunch break, and the people that were on time seemed to resent it. I think if I did the training again, I would simply begin the training on time, and not worry about those who were late, if they missed anything, they would have to cover it on their own.
A also felt that the manual might not have been necessary, that students followed along on their computers and with the Power Point, and the manual may have been overkill. However, at least one student said they were glad they had the instructions in writing so they could refer back to it after they got back to their locations, so perhaps it wasn't such a bad idea, after all. This was the first training I developed, and…
During the semester, the student informed the faculty field coordinator of a history of sexual and emotional abuse causing difficulty in school and ability to work with certain client populations.. The student was in therapy with a social worker and psychiatrist. The field coordinator contacted the field instructor to discuss the student's performance in the field. There did not seem to be apparent problems. The field coordinator did not disclose any specific details about the student and focused only on obtaining information about the student's performance. The student deteriorated after the mid-semester break. The field coordinator found that the student had been admitted to a psychiatric hospital and suspended the student from the field placement and contacted the field instructor. The confusion both educators about confidentiality had worsened this situation. Due to additional problems, the student's field placement was terminated. The student was told that returning to school would require…
Berliner, a.K. (1989). Misconduct in social work practice. Social Work, 34, 69-72.
Blakely, E. (1994). Screening mechanisms in BSW programs. Journal of Social Work Education, 30, 63-74.
Cleak, H., and Mccormack, J. And Ryan, M. (2006). Student Performance in Field Education Placements: The Findings of a 6-Year Australian Study of Admissions Data. Journal of Social Work Education. (42)1.67+.
Colley, H. (2003) Mentoring for Social Inclusion: A Critical Approach to Nurturing Successful Mentoring Relations. New York:.Routledge
Amy attended the county's administrator forum, it became clear that the rumor mill about the "Good Ole' Boys" network was not exaggerated. Sitting across the table from fifteen district superintendents, not one in the bunch was a woman. There was only one other woman in assembled group, who like Amy held a lower position on her district's administrative team. Just as Amy had done her entire career, she made the decision not to let the statistics change her course and she was more determined than ever to proceed and succeed.
During the next few months Amy began researching her situation, and after reading several articles about women in upper-management, she became keenly aware that a doctoral degree will help level the playing field for women like her who want to reach the higher levels of administration in the K-12 education arena. She enjoyed her job as a district curriculum developer,…
Kimberly A. Brehm, Colleges adjust to accommodate non-traditional students., University Wire, 02-15-2000.
Sudeep Reddy, Forget going to class -- just get your diploma on the web., University Wire, 11-30-1998.
PATRICIA ALEX, Staff Writer, GOING TO COLLEGE WITHOUT LEAVING YOUR LAPTOP., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 11-24-1995, pp a01.
Catherine E. Shoichet, Harvard ponders distance learning., University Wire, 03-04-2002.
Therefore, today's society in the United States is diverse, which is something a social worker needs to understand and know how to deal with each diverse group. Furthermore, through research, it has been discovered most ethnic groups that live in the United States consist of young people, which means by staying in this country, they grow accustom to their surroundings. Once they have grown accustom to living here, they feel like this is their home to start a life with their own families. This continues the growing number of ethnic groups in this country.
Due to the educational accommodations that schools and college campuses make for students that have ethnic backgrounds, there is not enough prejudice of one group to let a Holocaust to occur in the United Stated. Furthermore, this country believes in freedom of speech to allow one ethnic to be isolated from the rest and condone any…
Dennen, Johan. THE 'EVIL' MIND: PT. 3. CRUELTY AND 'BEAST-IN-MAN' IMAGERY. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://rechten.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/departments/Algemeen/overigepublicaties/2005enouder/EVIL_CRU/EVIL_CRU.pdf
Citrome, Lesilie,. (2007). Aggression. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic3005.htm
Hall, Kathy Jo. (1997). Carl Rogers. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from http://aolsearch.aol.com/aol/search?query=Throughout+this+Jim+knocks+the+clay+figurines+head+of+and+crushes+the+body+while+shouting&invocationType=spelling
Seal, B., A. Bradford, and C. Meston. 2009. The Association Between Body Esteem and Sexual Desire Among College Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 38, no. 5, (October 1): 866-72. http://www.proquest.com.library.capella.edu / (accessed April 1, 2010).
He has been expelled from three school since he began his education and is currently attending junior high school after last attending a small charter school in his community. The shoplifting incident also caused his mother to ask his father to take him back into his home, he has lived with mostly his mother with infrequent visitation from his father, except for a year period where he lived with his father and stepmother and their other children, which ended at age 12 when he tried to vocalize feelings of concern about puberty to his stepmother and she perceived the conversation as deviant and asked that he be returned to his mother.
Justin's anti-social behavior began at birth but has had periods of extremes, beginning with near constant conflict with his mother over mundane requests as well as other general rejections of authority, including an incident of extreme foul language focused…
Greene, R.R. (1999). 5 Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach. In Human Behavior Theory and Social Work Practice (2nd ed., pp. 145-161). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Loeber, R., Farrington, D.P., Stouthamer-Loeber, M., & Van Kammen, W.B. (1998). Antisocial Behavior and Mental Health Problems: Explanatory Factors in Childhood and Adolescence. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Van Lier, P.A., Vuijk, P., & Crijnen, a.A. (2005). Understanding Mechanisms of Change in the Development of Antisocial Behavior: The Impact of a Universal Intervention. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33(5), 521.
Giftedness is an intellectual ability that is significantly higher than average, not a skill, but an innate talent and aptitude that may be general or specific. Just as there are special needs for children who appear on the left side of the bell curve, so should there be for children on the far right. However, these students are often neglected in terms of special programing due to beliefs that they can just do "extra work" within a mainstreamed environment. From the 1920s to the 1970s, the trend in Western countries was to set up special schools to educate those who fell outside the norms of the bell curve, but by the 1980s most educators favored merging special and regular education in a comprehensive program that included students from all backgrounds -- in other words, mainstreaming them into a regular classroom environment. This idea, though, must also fit within the cultural…
And Vela-Gude's article offers several of the main points of this paper's research; the services must be ready, and the counselors must be thoroughly informed and knowledgeable about the cultural implications as well as the academic realities facing those Latino students (2009).
Racism Against Latinos
This paper alludes to the high number of Latinos in California and Texas, but according to the Southern Poverty Law Center's research, the South is home to one of the "fastest growing populations of Latinos in the country" (Bauer, et al., 2009, p. 4). But though the typical Latino immigrant comes to the South to escape "crushing poverty in their home countries" they often encounter "…widespread hostility, discrimination and exploitation" (Bauer, 2009, p. 4).
hat kinds of discrimination do Latinos come up against in the South? Mary Bauer and her chief researcher, Sarah Reynolds, claim that Latinos are "…routinely cheated out of their earnings…
Barneclo, Nick Anthony. (2008). El Laberinto del exito: A Mixed methods investigation of resilience within the context of Mexican-American late adolescents lives. Dissertation at New Mexico State University in Counseling Psychology. ProQuest Publication Number:
Cannon, Edward, and Levy, Marielle. (2008). Substance-Using Hispanic Youth and Their
Families: Review of Engagement and Treatment Strategies. The Family Journal: Counseling
As a result, economic development was redefined in terms of reduction or elimination of poverty, inequality, and unemployment within the perspective of a growing economy (Mamede & Davidsson, 2003).
Research indicates that entreprenuership can be both the cause and effect of economic development in the sense of wealth distribution. Countries in which wealth is concentrated in the hands of a small fraction of the population face greater difficulties in coordinating the major components of progress (Mamede & Davidsson, 2003). hese three components are labor, capital, resources and innovation. According to Mamede and Davidsson (2003), considering that the three driving forces of entrepreneurial success - founders, opportunity recognition, and resource requirements - are more likely to occur in a combined way, there are better chances to prosper in regions in which wealth is more equitably distributed. hese researchers have also observed that members of such societies are in a more favorable…
The 2002 GEM report also indicates the changes in the percentile of the growth of gross domestic products over a three-year period. Sweden's percentile of growth in gross domestic products for 1999 was 4.51%, in 2000, 3.61%, and in 2001, 1.21%. The change from the previous year for Sweden was -.90% from 1999 to 2000, and -2.40% from 2000 to 2001. Sweden's total entrepreneurial activity for 2001 was 6.68%, and for 2002, 4.00%. China's statistics were not located on the 2002 GEM report.
The GEM report also indicated a constantly negative relationship between the quality of the infrastructure and the level of necessity entreprenuership, as well as the lack of relationship between framework conditions (Reynolds et.al, 2002). Necessity entreprenuership was most prevalent in developing nations such as Thailand, India and China, where financial support, education, training, and infrastructure are clearly absent (Reynolds et.al, 2002). Entreprenuership-enhancing programs and policies implemented in a number of developed countries, principally in the European Union, have only resulted in modest levels of necessity entreprenuership (Reynolds et.al, 2002). This research indicates that there is substantial uniformity across the GEM countries with regard to the concepts, language, and judgments utilized. Additionally, it supports the notion that this uniformity is especially prominent among the more developed nations and may have evolved very similar infrastructures in support of entrepreneurial activity.
Most new firms receive their initial financial support from informal investments made by family, friends, and associates. An extremely small proportion of the most promising firms receive funding from venture capital firms, which are a specialized form of formal investment. Informal flows were estimated in the 2002 GEM report by means of asking all those in the adult population surveys if they had made an investment in a new firm, not their own, the past three years. The 2002 GEM report indicates the amount of venture capital invested as a percent of gross domestic product for each of the countries on the report. Nations that enjoyed year-to-year increases included Sweden, with a 101% increase. A large portion of all businesses are owned and managed by families or groups of relatives. Sweden was one of the 10 countries in which family owned businesses were started with family sponsored entreprenuership. In Sweden, the low estimate of family sponsored entrepreneurships was 26%, with the high estimate being 52%. Again, China was not included in these statistics.
Alice in Wonderland as Victorian Literature -- Being a child in Victorian England was difficult. They had to behave like the adults did, follow all rules, they had to be seen but not heard. Children, however, are naturally curious; unable to sit for long periods of time, and as part of normal cognitive development, consistently asking questions about the world. In fact, childhood is the period when a child acquires the knowledge needed to perform as an adult. It is the experiences of childhood that the personality of the adult is constructed. Alice's adventures, then, are really more of a set of curiosities that Carroll believed children share. Why is this, who is this, how does this work? and, her journey through Wonderland, somewhat symbolic of a type of "Garden of Eden," combines stark realities that would be necessary for her transition to adulthood.
For Victorians, control was part of…
Sander, David. The Fantasic Sublime: Romanticism and Transcendence in Nineteenth-Century Fantasy Literature. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996.
Thacker, Debora and Jean Webb. Introducing Children's Literature. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Walker, Stan. "Novels for Students: Alice in Wonderland." 1999. Enotes.com. .
Having a base school changed my career somehow, but the stigma over foreign languages and French is still present. The status of the subject you are teaching matters a lot in the U.S., determining if you can be a leader regardless of the particular leadership style or qualities that you might possess. Because of this, my positive leadership skills are sometimes affected in my interaction with others. However, I try to always remain positive, finding solutions to problems and overcoming the difficulties that others have vis-a-vis a non-native speaker of English.
Students and staff sometimes need some time to adjust to my accent and point-of-view and to really accept my cultural differences even after I have spent ten years in the U.S. Even so, I feel I can be a good leader because I always look to constructively resolve problems; I am enthusiastic, eager, organized and open to different points-of-view…
Here we see that the staff and the students had their own responsibilities and those responsibilities are quite different from the traditional ones we find in traditional schools. Horton thought that a significant aspect of the teacher's role was to empower students to "think and act for themselves" (Thayer-Bacon). We can see that Horton placed responsibility on both the students and the staff. They were to learn from one another but the staff was to be aware of the student's plight as well as help them be the best that they could be.
Is what Highlander does "really" adult education? Why or why not?
Highlander does educate but it is not typical in comparison to traditional learning. When we think of adult education, we think of textbooks, professors giving lectures, students taking notes, and a most definite dividing line between the two. Students and professors do not generally have to…
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
"The scheduling of courses in higher education institutions is already a challenge and considerable thought must be given to the development of a scheduling format for blended courses, which allows for meaningful and flexible reduction of classroom time" (Vaughan, Conclusion section,¶ 1) to best realize the benefits and overcome the challenges accompanying blended learning, leadership needs to be exhibited by those in administrative positions in higher education institution. "This leadership consists of three interrelated core elements:
Vision, interpersonal skills, and courage. (Vaughan, Conclusion section,¶ 4)
Leaders must also possess the necessary interpersonal skills to work collaboratively with others in and outside of changes and transitions in higher learning. "This involves the ability to share ideas but also the willingness to listen to contrary views"(Vaughan, Conclusion section,¶ 4). Leaders, as students, also need to demonstrate the courage to "stay the course" when they have to make hard choices.
They Effective in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York. Retrieved January 31, 2009 from www.bartleby.com/66/.
Haig, Brian D. (1996-2004). Grounded theory as scientific method. University of Canterbury. Retrieved January 31, 2009 at http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/grounded.html
Becirovic, Selma.(2004, March 4). The ideal education for me (Editorial). The Post-Standard (Syracuse, NY). The Herald Co. Retrieved January 31, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-113912156.html
Information processing. (N.d.). State of New South Wales through the Department of Education and Training and Charles Sturt University. Retrieved January 31, 2009 at http://hsc.csu.edu.au/pro_dev/teaching_online/how_we_learn/information.html
The works of Borko and Putnam (1998) expressed the contemporary perspectives to the concept of contextual learning. Situated recognition (uses both social and physical contexts),social cognition (uses an individual's construction of a given knowledge) as well as distributed cognition which employs or relates to both the social and situated nature of cognition (Clifford and Wilson,2000). While employing this ideas, I emphasize on problem solving, recognition of the fact that teaching as well as learning must occur within multiple contexts, assist my students in the process of learning, anchor my lesson and teachings on various diverse real life context of my students, encourage my students to learn from one another while also employing an authentic assessment technique.
Audience Analysis and Considerations
The audience basically comprises of adult learners who are either interested in advancing their careers or leaning of better ways of running their own firms. Their learning style is based…
ATHERTON JS (2002) Learning and Teaching: Learning from experience [Online]: UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/experience.htm
Borko, H., and Putnam, R.T. "The Role of Context in Teacher Learning and Teacher Education." In Contextual Teaching and Learning: Preparing Teachers to Enhance Student Success in and Beyond School. Information Series No. 376. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, Center on Education for Training and Employment, College of Education, The Ohio State University, and Washington, DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Teaching and Teacher Education, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 1998. (ED 429-263)
Brown, B.L. Applying Constructivism in Vocational and Career Education. Information Series No. 378. Columbus: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education, on Education and Training for Employment, College of Education, The Ohio State University, 1998. (ED 428-298) http://cete.org / acve/majorpubs.asp
Clifford, M., and Wilson, M. "Contextual Teaching, Professional Learning, and Student Experiences: Lessons Learned from Implementation." Educational Brief no. 2. Madison: Center on Education and Work, University of Wisconsin-Madison, December 2000.
In basic terms, handling juvenile offenders remains the key purpose of juvenile courts. Hence these courts are designed not to punish but to treat and guide. However, though juvenile courts have been in operation for over a hundred years, some juvenile offenders still find themselves being tried in adult courts. The question that arises in this case is; should juvenile offenders go through the same criminal justice system as their adult counterparts? More specifically, should juveniles be considered too young to be charged with the same offenses adults are charged with i.e. murder?
Too Young to Murder?
Some times in October 1997, a young boy borrowed a rifle and later on in the evening shot at a stranger killing him instantly. The location of the incident was Detroit. The shooter in this case was an 11-year-old boy by the name Nathaniel Abraham. For this, Nathaniel was found guilty of…
Bradsher, K. (1999, November 17). Michigan Boy Who Killed at 11 Is Convicted of Murder as Adult. Retrieved April 13, 2012, from The New York Times website: http://www.nytimes.com/1999/11/17/us/michigan-boy-who-killed-at-11-is-convicted-of-murder-as-adult.html?ref=nathanielabraham
Cole, G.F. & Smith, C.E. (2007). Criminal Justice in America (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)
rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.
The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…
Furthermore Locke's writings are lauded for their cultural and historical importance rather than their literary style. Being very prominent in educational and artistic circles I find this hard to believe. Certainly a man who has been educated in the highest of quality schools should be able to produce something of purely literary merit.
Despite these issues which are admittedly a matter of opinion, it is very significant that Locke's influence extends to modern literary circles in this way. Locke's influence in the areas of education, culture and empowerment also remain to this day in terms of recognized Black culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism. The ALLS has been officially recognized by the American Philosophical Association in a letter from Secretary-Treasurer, William Mann, on November 26, 1997.
Locke's influence thus reaches far beyond his lifespan in order to not only empower and inspire, but also to enlighten and to entertain. Locke was the epitome of the New Negro.
Most importantly, I want to return to my father at least a fraction of what he has given to me in education and encouragement. If it were not for his decision to home school me, I would not have been where I am today, and most likely I would have set less ambitious longer-term goals.
A graduated my home schooling career with honors, earned extra credits, and achieved all the goals I set for myself. I did this entirely by self-directed scholarship, and on the basis of what I received from my parents. This in turn enabled me to enter college at the unusually early age of sixteen years old. At seventeen, I have no completed almost two years of college. This, in my view, gives me an advantage over many other people at my age. Through home schooling I have matured to a level where can pursue my studies…
When I look back on my early career as a nurse, I want to be sure that I challenged myself to step outside my comfort zone and stretch my boundaries of what I deemed possible to achieve. I am applying to the Georgetown University program because I know this is the program that, when I reflect upon it, would have challenged me personally and professionally in ways that improve my attitude, outlook, skills, and practice. The Georgetown program offers an unprecedented level of flexibility with regards to online courses, offered from a reputable university. It is not just because of convenience that I apply; it is also because my colleagues at ANP coaxed me into pursuing a higher degree at Georgetown.
In five or ten years, I hope to be working in a rural health facility because I see great need to improve public health in non-urban communities…
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Communications -- Personal Statement
Say the word 'communications,' and immediately people think of the written or the spoken word. They think of a page of newspaper, a conversation with a friend. But corporate communications encompasses so much more than merely the verbal exchange of ideas.
Corporate communications is kinesthetic. Through my work at my current place of business, Alcoa I communicate by email to all Alcoans worldwide, regarding the Earthwatch program, including its guidelines and the application process. Earthwatch expeditions are hands-on efforts designed to add to the knowledge of Alocan personnel to give them personal knowledge of the different needs that must be met to build a sustainable future. My communication efforts for this program are personal as well as technical, and facilitate the communications process between employees on a personal level, and for the fifteen individuals ultimately chosen to become a part of the program, on a physical…
Psychology -- Letter of Application
Thank you in advance for your consideration of my application to be accepted into the Psy D. program at Marshall University. I am competent, committed, and caring undergraduate student at Marshall with a powerful work ethic which propels me to the goal of achieving my doctorate. I am a psychology major with a 3.34 GPA and I will graduate in May, 2013.
I am focusing like a laser on my goal so I may (upon completion of my doctorate) provide sorely-needed professional services to rural est Virginia, where I grew up and have lived my entire life.
Indeed, my parents have lived in southern est Virginia for 36 years; my mother was raised in McDowell County, est Virginia, where, according to the U.S. Census, 35% of the population is presently living below the poverty line -- and 43.4% of those under the age of 18…
Zhang, Zhiwei, Infante, Alycia, Meit, Michael, and English, Ned. (2008). An Analysis of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Disparities & Access to Treatment Services in the Appalachian Region. National Opinion Research Center / University of Chicago. Retrieved December 27, 2012, from http://www.norc.org .
Extrinsic rewards should only be used when other efforts to actively engage students in learning has failed; (3) In the event extrinsic rewards must be utilized, they should be "just powerful enough to control behavior" and should be eliminated in phases before all intrinsic motivation is lost.
Jones, Vermette, and Jones posit in their article, "An Integration of "Backwards Planning' Unit Design with the "Two Step" Lesson Planning Framework," planning and engaging students in effective lessons is a fundamental component of successful teaching and therefore, motivating students (Skowron, 2001). The authors created the concept of backwards planning which requires educators to start with a nominal list of essential questions all students must answer by the end of the lesson plan. With the end goal in mind, teachers then design assessments based on those understandings and strategically crafted lessons to achieve the desired objectives. Once the goals and assessments have been…
Alvermann, L. (1999). Classroom goal orientation, school belonging, and social goals as predictors of students' positive and negative affect following the transition to middle school. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 32(2), 89-103.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., Kanat-Maymon, Y., & Roth, G. (2005). Directly controlling teacher behaviors as predictors of poor motivation and engagement in girls and boys: The role of anger and anxiety. Learning and Instruction, 15, 397-413.
Assor, A., Kaplan, H., & Roth, g. (2002). Choice is good, but relevance is excellent: Autonomy enhancing and suppressing teaching behaviors predicting students' engagement in schoolwork. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 27, 261-278.
Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. (2004). The emotional costs of parents' conditional regard: A self-determination theory analysis. Journal of Personality, 72, 47-88.
49). That goes for leaders in the learning community as well. Thessin asserts that while it is important to teach students to solve problems, there is a lack of focus on another important, related goal: "the need for teachers to learn to do the same" (49). Teachers are leaders and they must be given the training to develop problem solving skills along with the other important skills mentioned in this paper.
Alansari, Eissa M., and Albustan, Suad A. (2009). Center for Continuing Education and Community Service at Kuwait University: A Model in Leadership for Adult and Continuing
Education. College Student Journal, 43(2), 1-8.
Fulton-Calkins, Patsy, and Milling, Charlie. (2005). Community-College Leadership: An Art to be Practiced: 2010 and Beyond. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Vol.
Jameson, Jill, Ferrell, Gill, Kelly, Jacquie, alker, Simon, and Ryan, Malcolm. (2006). Building
trust and shared knowledge in communities…
Alansari, Eissa M., and Albustan, Suad A. (2009). Center for Continuing Education and Community Service at Kuwait University: A Model in Leadership for Adult and Continuing
Education. College Student Journal, 43(2), 1-8.
Fulton-Calkins, Patsy, and Milling, Charlie. (2005). Community-College Leadership: An Art to be Practiced: 2010 and Beyond. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, Vol.
The Juvenile Criminal System
This paper will seek to address two questions:
How is the juvenile justice system different from the adult system? Explain your response.
adek (2011) states that the two systems share both commonalities and differences. He presents the juvenile justice system as a rehabilitation center instead of a punishment center for juveniles. However, he also states that punishment is still a central feature of this system, though it is a last resort. Some similarities include "the police, judiciary, and corrections have discretion relative to decision making in both systems."
adek also states that "those adults and juveniles that admit guilt there is a system of procedural safeguards to protect their rights."
Furthermore, he argues that the other commonalities include age group separation, plea bargaining, as well as processes of hearings an appeals.
When adults are tried for crimes, it is clear that there is…
Gadek, Radek. (2011). The Juvenile Justice System and the Adult Justice System. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from http://criminaljusticeonlineblog.com/11/the-juvenile-justice-system-and-the-adult-justice-system/
Gadek, Radek. (2011). The Juvenile Justice System and the Adult Justice System. Retrieved August 14, 2011, from
In addition, this article also emphasizes the use of the faculty scholars model. This model is dependent upon a distributive leadership framework which places the focus on leadership instead of individual leaders. identifies four key factors to be addressed: "building trust; redesigning jobs; changing organizational structures; and creating a learning culture" The authors further explain that in congruence with the distributive leadership framework there are certain principles of learning including "authentic contexts and tasks, multiple roles and perspectives, the collaborative construction of knowledge, coaching and scaffolding [by a mentor], and evaluation (Lefoe et al., 2007)."
According to a book entitled Turnaround for Higher Education Leadership, turning academic people into effective leaders is a serious task and challenge. However, when such leaders exist they can be a valuable to an institute of higher learning because they understood the learning environment that students need to succeed. In addition, they have the capacity…
Caldwell, C. Shapiro P.J., Gross S.J. (2007) Ethical Leadership in Higher Education Admission: Equality vs. Equity. Journal of College Admission. 195 p14-19
Davies J.; Hides M.T.; Casey S (2001).Leadership in Higher Education.
Total Quality Management, 12( 7-8), pp. 1025-1030
Fullan, M., Scott G.(2009) Turnaround Leadership for Higher Education. Wiley Publishing.