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Africa's Political Crisis
Most African colonies became independent in the 1950s and 1960s amid hopes that this would be the prelude to an era of democracy and development (Cooper, 2002). y the end of the 1980s, Africa was plagued by instability, authoritarianism, poverty, war and famine. In some countries, the state itself had begun to disintegrate.
There are many reasons for Africa's current state of political instability. For one, continuous rivalry between tribal units is a constant source of disunity (Cooper, 2002). For most of the 19th and early 20th century Africa had lived under colonial rule of the Europeans. ecause the European leaders left Africa immediately after it gained independence, many African leaders are relatively inexperienced. Also, many leaders are greedy, corrupt and act entirely based on self-interest. asically, because multi-party rule encouraged ethnic conflict, one party controlled most African states. This has largely contributed to Africa's political instability.…
Ahmed-Rufai, R. (2001). The Road to an African Union. FCN Publishing.
Ayittey, George. (1999). Africa in Chaos. St. Martin's Press.
Chazan, Naomi. (1999). Politics and Society in Contemporary Africa. Rienner Publishing.
Cooper, Frederick. (2002). Africa since 1940: The Past of the Present. Cambridge University Press.
However, how are these hardships related to the civil strife and militia? It is this point that is unclear. Edgerton provides more of a subjective review of what he feels is going on and provides a few factual details to support this, but provides little in the way of detail and real conjecture, which would help the average person discern what steps the people of Africa should take to liberate themselves from the grasps of the army or militia today.
Edgerton does successfully suggest the wars in Africa today are nothing more than the results of a "maladaptive" culture (p. 230). This suggests that something is inherently wrong with the people of Africa today. Those engaged in war or civic strife are according to Edgerton, people that are part of any society with its blips, ups and downs. The "warrior Tribes" described in the book are inflated to seem like…
Shaw, Bryant. "Africa's Armies: From Honor to Infamy," Air and Space Power Journal,
Summer 2005. USAF, Troy University, 17, December 2007: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0NXL/is_2_19/ai_n15345180
Edgerton, Robert B. AFRICA'S ARMIES: From Honor to Infamy - a History From 1791 to the Present; Boulder, (Colorado): Westview Press / Perseus Books Group, 2002; ISBN: 0-8133-3947-2
Africa Since 1940
The introduction to Frederick Cooper's "Africa since 1940: The past of the present," asserts that unless one has thoroughly researched African history, or has lived in Africa, it is nearly impossible for an outsider to chronologically organize all of the events that has happened within its borders in order to come up with some kind of clear statement about nationalism. Cooper enters his book with the ideas of colonialism (pre-colonialism, colonialism, and post-colonialism) and how that shaped Africa as it is today, and how that influences Africa as a nation together, a nation divided, and a nation trying to find some sort of statement about their own country.
Cooper's book about nationalism within Africa, and how Africa came to rest at this current (the present is 1994) climate of dualism between tribal bloodshed in Rwanda, and the victorious election of President Nelson Mandela in South Africa (1).…
Cooper, Frederick. Africa since 1940: the past of the present.. 1st. Cambridge, UK: University Press, 2002. 1-90. Print.
Wikipedia contributors. "Nationalism." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Wikipedia, The Free
Encyclopedia, 11 Feb. 2012. Web. 14 Feb. 2012.
Africa and the Slave Trade
Give a brief description of Africans' way of life prior to the Atlantic Slave Trade, meaning their Political, economic, cultural and societal organizations. Please take into consideration the Documentary films: " Caravans of Gold" and " King and City."
As is demonstrated in the documentaries 'Caravans of Gold' an 'King and City,' the embattled and economically delayed Africa with which we are familiar today is a far cry from the progressive and innovative African society that existed prior to slave trade. As we learn form these documentaries and from our research, the continent contained an enormous spectrum of cultural stripes represented in the thousands of languages, dialects, religious belief systems and expressive rites then in practice. Political authority varied depending upon the local economy of any given region. In larger economic contexts such as Egypt and Ethiopia, kingdoms ruled everyday life however the vast rural…
Alkalimat, A. (2008). Africa Before and After the Slave Trade: -The Afro-American Heritage. EBlackStudies.org.
Appiah, K.A. & Gates, Jr., H.L. (1999). Goree Island, Home of 'The Door of No Return.' African-American Registry.
Heywood, L.M. & Thornton, J.K. (2007). Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Foundation of the Americas, 1585-1660. Cambridge University Press.
Morris, C. (2012). David Northrup's "Atlantic Slave Trade" Review. African History @ Suite 101.
The continent is one of the most geographically diverse and astounding areas of the earth. It is made up of close to 30,244,050 square km (Europe is 9,700,000 square km). The most northerly point of the continent is Morocco, and the most southerly in South Africa, the extreme west in Somalia, with the most easterly point 7,400 km away. Africa's coastline is 26,000 km in length. The mean elevation is 600 m, while area under 180m is relatively rare, and land over 3,000 m is also uncommon. As such, the continent is marked largely by elevated tablelands. Overall, Africa can be divided into four main divisions. The first is the coast plains, which do not range fare inward, and are often fringed by mangrove swamps. Second is the Atlas range, which is separated from the rest of Africa by the Sahara. The third main divisions are the high southern…
Wikipedia. Geography of Africa. 04 June 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Africa
Bediako Lamouse-Smith, W. And School, Joseph. 1998. Africa Interactive Maps. Physical Features Section. 04 June 2004. http://www.courses.psu.edu/aaa_s/aaa_s110_tah/AFIM/Main_HTML/M_PF.html
Technological advancements are rare in the bulk of sub-Saharan nations, which remain among the poorest in the world due to their weak levels of exports. However, some Sub-Saharan nations possess a range of natural resources from ore to agriculture. Some sub-Saharan African countries such as Sierra Leone rely on a corrupt and dangerous gem mining industry, the profits of which do not reach the general population. Many African nations possess ore and mining resources and other raw materials such as vegetable gums.
On the other hand, North African nations enjoy far more prosperity and technological advancement than sub-Saharan Africa. Egypt's economy is strongly tied to the Middle Eastern nations and also boasts a significant tourism industry. Egypt's sophisticated system of damming also permits the otherwise desert country to produce agriculture for export. Egypt also has some petroleum reserves. Algeria's economy also depends to an extent on oil but that nation…
It would depend on one's view of the legitimacy of psychoanalysis and its patchwork utility in describing a mental complex.
asil Davidson recognizes the alienated consciousness of Africans, albeit from a politico-historical rather than a psychological perspective. He phrases it in terms of forced African rejection of its own history under hopes of prospering in the new modernization the colonial system pushed for: "The future was not to grow out of the past, organically and developmentally, but from an entirely alien dispensation."
Like Fanon's, his book the lack Man's urden is critical of any notion that liberation could only come from outside Africa through a denial of African roots and acceptance of European models.
His sketch of African history is poignant. Unlike Fanon's book, Davidson's aim is not to liberate the mentality of black men from a colonial alienation. However, he does ultimately suggest a possible way forward that has…
Davidson, Basil. The Black Man's Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State. New York: Times Books, 1992.
Fanon, Franz. Black Skin, White Masks. Translated by Richard Philcox. New York: Grove Press, 2008. (Originally published in 1952)
Prashad, Vijay. The Darker Nations: A People's History of the Third World. New York: New Press, 2007.
Franz Fanon, Black Skin, White Masks, trans. Richard Philcox (New York: Grove Press, 2008), 14.
" (UNDP, 2007) Therefore, the official voice of the UN draws the attention on the necessity of the societies facing difficulties that the best means possible for the re-launch of their economic segment and automatically the eradication of poverty is the share value of the work they undergo.
Despite the realistic tone of most official commentaries, the reality on the ground rarely coincides. In this respect, there are other factors as well that play a significant role in shaping the relations and evolution trends of the countries around the African continent. One of these factors is represented by the financial institutions that make up the World ank Group. Thus, the IMF and the World ank "are two of the most powerful international financial institutions in the world. They are the major sources of lending to African countries, and use the loans they provide as advantage to prescribe policies and dictate…
Addison, T. "Africa's recovery from conflict: making peace work for the poor." UNU World Institute for Development Economics Research. New York: UNU Press, 2003.
Africa action. The World Bank and IMF in Africa. 2006. 29 April 2007. http://www.africaaction.org/resources/issues/wbimf.php
Bennett, L.A. International organizations: principles and issues. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1988.
Berstein, S., and Milza, P. Histoire de l'Europe. Paris: Hatier, 1994.
There are many ambiguities in the concept of being estern. Many individual use this description without fully understanding what it means or how the term developed. Generally when people are using the term 'the est" or estern, they are simply referring to a lifestyle that includes a certain standard of living that includes a certain material well-being. Yet this broad and all-encompassing term is used without any clear meaning or substance in normal discourse. The term is not innocent, and it is used to further ideological perspectives that are biased towards a certain culture and set of values.
The colonial period in South Africa is interesting to study because it exemplifies some of the social contexts in which culture crashes can framed and the discourse that is used in the literature. The local natives in South Africa were viewed in a very negative manner and the discourse makes many…
Coetzee, J. Idleness in South Africa. Binghamton: Yale University Press, 1988. Digital.
Hall, S. "The West and the Rest: Discourse and Power." n.d.
Social tensions, like wars and strikes, should be solved amicably. The parties have to understand that only in times of peace and tranquility the African society can prosper. Education must also be encouraged, in order to improve the literacy indicator, to enable the social and cultural development of the average citizens.
The reintegration of women in the society - offering equal changes with men, in terms of employment, voting rights, decision rights - is also an important aspect. Women should be involved more both in society, but also in corporations, where they could put in practice their entrepreneurial skills.
The assurance of food and health protection, so as to limit the negative consequences of diseases and epidemics, is essential.
The huge growth potential of African countries can be explored by adopting the above mentioned governmental resolutions, directly targeted to the African society.
1) Abjibolosoo, K. -S. S. (1995).…
1) Abjibolosoo, K. B-S. S. (1995). The Human Factor in Developing Africa. Westport, CU: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc.
2) James, U.V. (1999). Sustainable Development in Africa: Prospects for the 21ST
Century. Bethesda: International Scholars Publications.
3) Lall. S., Stewart. F., & Wangwe. S. (1992). Alternative Development Strategies in SubSaharian Africa. New York: St. Martin's Press
World Trade issues are an important issue to the plight of Africa as well. Providing a more level playing field for Africa to get into the game will set the wheels in motion for improvement and allow Africa to begin reaping some of the benefits of the world trade agreements. That money can be funneled back into the development of the continent thereby reducing the need for outside funding.
Debt cancellation and a significant rise in official development aid, though helpful, cannot simply put right Africa's deep-seated problems. The commission report emphasizes that ultimate prosperity depends on robust private investment-led growth. Sir Mark Moody-Stuart, chairman of Anglo-American, said at the G8 Business Summit in London: "There will only be sustainable development in Africa if the increase in government aid flows is complemented by a resurgence of enterprise (Small, 2005)." Echoing similar views, Arun Sarin, chief executive of Vodafone Group, remarked:…
Abrahamsen, Rita (2005) Blair's Africa: the politics of securitization and fear.
Alternatives: Global, Local, Political
Anderson, Bruce (2005) Political grandstanding and yet more wasted aid will not lift Africa out of poverty.(Features) The Independent (London, England)
Moss, Todd (2004)A Marshall Plan is not what Africa needs The politics of aid
Africa - Politics
Africa and democracy haven't always been two words that go together well, because following the colonization of much of Africa, democracies were established but they struggled (and sometimes failed) to become stable -- and many continue to struggle today. This paper reviews the democratic movements in Africa, some of which failed, and some have succeeded. This paper also projects the success or failure of future democracies in Africa.
hat are the primary characteristics for the existence of a democracy?
A democracy is far more than just the establishment of government institutions and the setting up of a constitution. It is more than just a set of values, rules, laws, and the election of the people who are sworn to uphold those values, rules, and laws. According to the U.S. Department of State, a democracy is a government in which "…power and civic responsibility are exercised by all…
African Development Bank. "Democratic Elections in Africa -- Opportunities and Risks."
Retrieved July 3, 2014, from http://www.afdb.org . 2013.
Dibie, Robert A. The Politics and Policies of Sub-Saharan Africa. Lanham, MD. University
Press of America, 2001.
They note that the reign of Idi Amin in Uganda was not simply bad, but an example of "three decades of civil strife" where military abuses were inflicted by the nation's rulers upon the populace (312)
However, there is no question that the technological imbalance between Africa and Europe in terms of military power affected the development of the region's history, although the European possession of arms should not be seen as an example of estern moral superiority or civilization. During the 19th century, as well as the demand for ivory and slaves, one of the most significant forces that changed old ways of life in Africa was the demand for firearms by the central inhabitants of the interior against other African warring tribes.(95). For better or for worse, colonialism changed the region forever.
The book is as much a history of changing European perceptions of Africa and the European…
Oliver, Roland & Anthony Atmore. Africa Since 1800. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 2005.
Africa and the Anthropologist Literature Review
AFRCA AND THE ANTHROPOLOGST: LTERATURE REVEW
The work of Lefkowitz (2012) and the work of Bernal (1996) oppose one another on the history of Greece as it relates to the history of Egypt with each of these authors making valid points for their argument however, Lefkowitz stubbornly refuses to consider that anything good or worthy could have arisen out of Africa while the evidence is clearly to the contrary.
Afrocentric interpretations of the history of Africa are related in the work of Lefkowitz in the reply to Bernal. Bernal believes that the interpretation of this history by Lefkowitz is sloppy at best. This study examines Africentrism and each of these author's views.
The work of rele (2002) entitled "Negritude: Literature and deology" published by Oxford University Press in the Journal on African Philosophy reports that Pan-Africanism has been described as being "essentially a…
Irele, Abiola, F. (2002 ) Negritude: Literature and Ideology in: Philosophy From Africa. eds PH Coetzee and APJ Roux. Oxford University Press.
Appiah, KA. (1997) Europe Upside Down: Fallacies of the new Afrocentrism: Fanon, Frantz. 1963. On National Culture
Lefkowitz, M. (1996) The Afrocentric Interpretation of Western History: Lefkowitz Replies to Bernal. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. No. 12 Summer 1996.
Companies in sub-Saharan Africa cannot simply afford to reuse provision of AIDS drugs to its workforce. As a socially responsible organization Heineken has taken the issue seriously and issues are being considered at corporate level within its subsidiaries as well as in headquarters. They are aware of the complexities of issues at hand. The management has not only identified the issues but they are looking for ways for the remedies and thus plying their role in social responsiveness. They have already introduced their AIDS program in Rwanda and Burundi and are looking for a roll out in the rest of the countries where they have their operations. Due to their active role the company along with other active companies is being hailed by the media and their active programs and policies have also made other companies like Coca Cola a target of criticism. However the approach cannot still be considered…
Africa can be able to make up for the economic and social gaps in comparison with the rest of the world. To determine this, we will look at various statistics and discuss alternative solutions. Once this occurs, is when we will be able to see what steps need to be taken to deal with these challenges.
Over the last several years, Africa has been the focus of many different NGO's. The reason why, is because a number of officials inside these organizations believe that positive economic development will help to address a host of challenges facing the region. A few of the most notable include: wars, abject poverty, malnutrition, corruption, terrorism and HIV / AIDS. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the below chart, which is illustrating how Africa ranks in comparison with the lowest income countries in the world.
Table 1: The Health Indicators for Africa…
Corruption Perceptions Index. (2011). Transparency International. Retrieved from: http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2010/results
Libya. (2011). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from:
Africa and its Diaspora
The purpose of this particular document is to show what has happened to Africans throughout the years and indicate that, at least to some extent, they have let it happen. This is not because they have willingly gone along with much of what has been done to them, but because they have not stood up and fought it strongly. They have not seen themselves as being at the center, and therefore have accepted what the Europeans said about them, named the oceans around them, and did with their history. The strongest purpose of the document, however, is to show that African history has been greatly affected by the European ideals that were used to create it, and in order for it to be accurate, Africans must create their own history and not let others embellish or change it.
This is very important for Africans across the…
South Africa Country Report
The country of South Africa is a diverse and varied nation. As an international player in the economic and political system many comparisons between nations have been made. One comparison that is often analyzed is the one between the United States and South Africa. Though demographically the two countries are quite different there are several similarities worth note and of coarse the interplay between these two nations is a crucial point of analysis, for the development of a more comprehensive understanding of world relations. This work will compare the demographic structure between the United States and South Africa and will further discuss issues associated with cooperation between the two nations.
According to the CIA orld Fact Book for 2003 South Africa is comprised of approximately 42,768,678 people, who live within a land-mass of 1,219,912 sq km, including the Prince Edward Islands, geographic entity roughly twice the…
Binns, Tony, and Etienne Nel. "Tourism as a local development strategy in South Africa." The Geographical Journal 168.3 (2002): 235+. Questia. 12 Dec. 2003 http://www.questia.com/ .
Central Intelligence Agency of the Untied States, World Fact Book: South Africa 2003 at http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/sf.html.
Central Intelligence Agency of the Untied States, World Fact Book: United States 2003 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/us.html .
Central Intelligence Agency of the Untied States, World Fact Book: Rank Order http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/rankorder/2157rank.html.
Countries which have not technologically or sociologically progressed through the years are considered under-developed. This means that most or much of the population still live as they did in past centuries. Most of the population lives in poverty and there are not enough schools or hospitals. There is not enough drinkable water and children in the regions still die from conditions which have been easily treated for decades in more advanced places of the world. As a whole, people living in Africa have the shortest projected life expectancy of anywhere else in the world. Despite a wide variety of natural resources which are available for human use and consumption, the continent of Africa as a whole remains heavily underdeveloped. The reasons for this continued underdevelopment are many and scientists and sociologists have endeavored to isolate these reasons to little progress, but most experts agree that the key explanations…
As depicted here, the other female actresses in the film -- played by actual Africans -- are naked above the waist. The white actress is not. Indeed, the lower photograph depicts Gehrts-Schomburgk reclining on a leopard skin rug, while a topless native woman fans her with an elaborate fan made of feathers. The ludicrous excess of the colonialist fantasy could not be more evident here.
Yet this actress is the same woman whose "anthropological" photographs would be included in the English-langugage publication of Felix Bryk's Dark Rapture. As a result of the photographer's own strange backstory, Meg Gehrts-Schomburgk's photographs of Africa occupy a rather unique place: although some are included in her early memoir of the "ethnodramas" -- whose English-language version (published in 1915 in Philadelphia and London) was entitled A Camera Actress in the ilds of Togoland -- they would be collected by themselves in 1930 under the title…
Bryk, Felix. Dark Rapture: The Sex-Life of the African Negro. New York: Juno Press, 1944. Print.
Comaroff, Jean, and Comaroff, John L. "British Beginnings: Spirits of an Age, Signs of the Times." In Of Revelation And Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991. pp. 49-85. Print.
Comaroff, John L., Comaroff, Jean, and James, Deborah. Picturing a Colonial Past: The African Photographs of Isaac Schapera. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Print.
Gehrts, M. A Camera Actress in the Wilds of Togoland: The Adventures, Observations, and Experiences of a Cinematograph Actress in West African Forests Whilst Collecting Films Depicting Native Life and When Posing as the White Woman in Anglo-African Cinematograph Dramas. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott, 1915. Archive.org. Retrieved 30 April 2014 at: https://archive.org/details/cameraactressinw00gehrrich
The Ghana Empire was one of the most powerful empires of pre-colonial West Africa. Geographically, the empire occupied a territory south of the Sahara Desert, encompassing lands that are part of the modern-day nations of Mauritania and Mali, with a trading influence that extended much further. The Ghana Empire spanned a period of our around 400 years, from 830 CE to 1235 CE. While the Ghana Empire was little known in Europe, Arabs in the North of Africa were aware of the powerful empire that lay south of the desert. In particular, they were aware of the abundance of gold from which the empire derived its wealth and power (Conrad, 2010).
The Ghana Empire rose to prominence in the 9th century when Arabs became aware of its wealth and power. Most of this derived from gold, and control over trade routes in the region. West Africa's trade…
Africa SI. (2014). Mali Empire and Djenne figures. Africa.SI.edu. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://africa.si.edu/exhibits/resources/mali/
BBC. (2014). Ancient Ghana. British Broadcasting Company. Retrieved November 20, 2014 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/africa/features/storyofafrica/4chapter1.shtml
Princeton. (2014). Atlantic slave trade. Princeton University. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Atlantic_slave_trade.html
Conrad, D. (2010). Empires of Medieval West Africa: Ghana, Mali and Songhay. Chelsea House: New York.
Africa Since Independence" Review
Africa, as a continent, went through an extended colonial period. Although the entire continent was not involved, the greatest part of the nation was and many achieved independence from other nations in a relatively short span after world ar II. Legum says that at the end of the ar only five nations had achieved independence (though one, South Africa, was still under a form of dominance) and that over the next 15 years that number was quadrupled (2). The fact that so many nations experienced freedom from colonial rule in such a short period of time meant that they all went through periods of romanticism, disillusionment and reality at roughly the same time. "Africa Since Independence" examines the cultural, political and religious renaissance of the many countries that occupy the African continent and how they have risen through the periods suggested in the book as markers.…
Bauer, Gretchen, and Scott D. Taylor. Politics in Southern Africa. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc., 2005. Print.
Legum, Colin. Africa Since Independence. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1999. Print.
My personal favorite African cuisine is Ethiopian, because of the spongy teff bread injera. Injera is like an edible plate, and is piled with delectable morsels of tasty, well-spiced dishes that we eat with our hands. The cuisines of other African countries include flavorful stews replete with rich goat meat and root vegetables. South African foods have been influenced by European cuisines, with some regional variations. Root vegetables like cassava are among the most ubiquitous foods served throughout the African continent. South Africa also has a world-renowned wine region, which makes it a fun place to visit.
One of the main reasons to visit Africa is for its wildlife and stunning scenery. Many of the animals found on the African continent are not found anywhere else in the world including giraffes and zebras. Tourists tend to enjoy safaris in southern and eastern African nations like Kenya and Uganda. Madagascar has…
Overview of Africa’s Post-Conflict History
Historical Formal Institutions
Colonial legacies persist in Africa in spite of a post-colonial era (Austin, 2010). These legacies have continued in post-conflict Africa’s history. In Africa, there has been no real unifying factor bringing individuals together, primarily because of the communal aspect of society throughout the continent. Community exists and can be found everywhere in Africa. Structural, dramaturgic and institutional factors in formal institutionalization in Africa of health care has come about as a result of investment, development, and political stability (Ratcliffe, 2013). The relationship among cultural traditions, laws of society, and the symbolic boundaries have served to create the structural meanings behind formal institutions; the expressive dimension, communicative properties and interaction of these elements have made up the dramaturgic, and the actors and organizations themselves have manifested the institutional. An example of this can be seen in Nigeria.
Structurally, dramaturgically and institutionally, Africa has…
World Vision in Sierra Leone
In 1996 after the civil war in Sierra Leone, the World Vision-Sierra Leone was launched. The organization’s vision was to support the 15000 farm families’ recover in agriculture in the eastern and southern regions and offer nutritional support to the more than 140,000 internally displaced persons in Bo town. They NGO also played a vital role in aiding the IDPs resettlement soon as the agriculture in the southern and eastern region had begun to flourish (World Vision, 2015). After achieving these milestones by February in 2003, the organization expanded their vision by transitioning to community-oriented area development programs (ADPs). The programs had long-term goals to effect change in the communities. More than 25 ADPs were effective by 2016 with the organization serving more than 58,000 children nationwide.
World Vision’s Mission
The organization is founded on international relations of Christian believers who follow the Christian teachings…
Awoko Newspaper, (2015). Sierra Leone News: World Vision Launches WELD Project in Makeni. Retrieved from https://awoko.org/2015/06/17/sierra-leone-news-world-vision-launches-weld-project-in-makeni/ on 6 February 2018
Ngaujah, S. (2017). Women Empowered for Leadership and Development (WELD Project): children impacted through economic empowerment. World Vision, Sierra Leone. Retrieved from https://www.wvi.org/sierra-leone/article/women-empowered-leadership-and-development-weld-project-children-impacted on 6 February 2018
UNITED STATES AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AFRICA BUREAU (USAID), (2003). World Vision Sierra Leone youth reintegration training and education for peace. World Vision Sierra Leone. Retrieved from http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/pdabx974.pdf on 6 February 2018
World Vision International, (2017). Our Mission Statement. Retrieved from https://www.wvi.org/our-mission-statement on 6 February 2018
World Vision, (2015). World Vision Sierra Leone.
Assumptions about truth can be dangerous in any research because they can lead to bias shaping the research: a researcher may suffer from confirmation bias, seeking only the type of answers that align with his assumptions (Nickerson, 1998). Objectivity and subjectivity, therefore, are important to consider when conducting research, just as deriving the correct interpretation of the meaning of collected data is important. Objectivity, subjectivity and meaning are interconnected, as both objectivity and subjectivity will feed in to how meaning is understood. Every person is capable of being both objective and of having a subjective experience at the same time. Being mindful of how one’s subjective experience can shape one’s perspective is critical to being as objective as possible.
Potential concerns for this study consist of the risk of researcher bias and confirmation bias intruding up on the methodology. Removing researcher bias and preventing confirmation bias are critical…
The Post-Colonial World Outlook in Africa: From Colonialism to Neocolonialism?
During the colonial era, vast regions of Africa and Asia were taken over and subsequently dominated by the more powerful western nations. In essence, the main agenda of colonialism was exploitative – with economically stronger nations seeking to exert control over weaker and less developed countries so as to exploit both their human and natural resources. Also, colonial powers deemed their colonies as viable markets for their products. The cultural and social aspects of the subjugated countries were affected and adapted in significant ways, with the said countries being forced to embrace the cultural, religious, as well as social ideals of the colonial countries. Most of the dominated countries got their independence back by way of concessions, compromise, or force – giving way to the post-colonial era. During the postcolonial era, former colonies attempted to claim their autonomy back,…
.....ending terrorism in Africa, the methods employed should be oriented towards measuring outputs. The outputs that are expected with this particular study are the ending of terrorism in Africa. The inputs are the various strategies and programs that are implemented in order to bring about this outcome. The outcome has to be measured in a quantitative manner in order that a statistical analysis can be performed. Thus, the type of quantitative study that could be utilized here may depend upon the type of evaluation that is to be undertaken.
Two types of evaluations could be used here -- a vertical evaluation or a horizontal evaluation. A vertical evaluation is used to measure "specific programs from inception to outcome" while a horizontal evaluation is used to assess "the efforts undertaken by multiple agencies and entities to support a specific government action plan or strategy" (Romaniuk, Fink, 2012, p. 13).
Africa so Poor?
Why is it that Africa, despite the aid and help and support that she gets from different sources all over the world, is still very much impoverished and in a state of poverty even now? It is a fact that this continent has been availing of outside help and has also been a site where numerous large-scale experiments have been performed over the years in order to improve and reform its economy for its innate betterment, but it has still remained in the same condition in which it has been existing all these pats few centuries. The truth is that none of the above experiments have been able to succeed in achieving a sustained and continuous economic growth in Africa and this has also led to the astonishing fact that most African three dozen nations are, today, even poorer than they were during the 1980's. It is…
African Alternative Framework to Structural Adjustment Programs for Socio-Economic Recovery and Transformation. Retrieved From http://www.africaaction.org/african-initiatives/aafall.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005
Africa's Development Crisis. Retrieved From http://www.econdad.org/Berlin.htm Accessed on 28 February, 2005
Basu, Anupam; Calamitsis, Evangelos A; Ghura, Dhaneshwar. Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Monetary Fund. August 2000. Retrieved From
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/issues/issues23 / Accessed on 27 February, 2005
Challenges to Democratic Development in Africa
The political life in Africa has largely been characterized by poor governance and an inherently poor democratic record. This has in most cases led to not only political disillusionment, but also despair – effectively stifling the continent’s economic advancement. In effect, the challenges facing the continent as far as democratic development is concerned stem from political misrule coupled with the adverse effects of imposed westernization, as well as globalization and resource exploitation. As a consequence, the continent continues to suffer demobilization on the political front which has effectively led to economic decapitation. Millions of the continent’s inhabitants continue to be afflicted by disease and poverty, and illiteracy levels continue to be high in most countries. This text assesses and evaluates challenges to democratic development in Africa in the context of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Democracy, as per its dictionary definition, has got…
Colonial Authorities in Africa and Their Attempts to Curb Leisure Activities through the Law: The Conflict between African Identity and British Rule
The British colonial administrators in Africa viewed Africans like “children” in need of training in terms of how to be more masculine ala the Western tradition: for that reason, Oliver Bell, president of the British Film Institute, wrote “the native must be treated as we treat a ten-year-old white child, i.e….he must be shown films of action of the Western type” (Burns, 2002, p. 103). While it was true that Africans enjoyed cowboy films, in the years that followed Bell’s recommendation, there occurred among the settlers the sense that cowboy films were inspiring a violent attitude among the Africans and should therefore be banned. This attempt on the one hand to cultivate a Western ethic in the African and on the other to curtail aggressive or perceived hostile…
POLITICAL ECONOMY ANALYSIS & IMPLICATIONS FO SOCIAL POTECTION POLICY & POGAMS IN AFICA
SOCIAL POTECTION POLICY AND POGAMMES IN AFICA
Analysis and Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa
Analysis and Implications for Social Protection Policy and Programs in Africa
the role of the welfare state
The perception of welfare state requires the government to promote and protect the social well-being of citizens and their economic situation. This is guided by the doctrine of public responsibility, capital sharing, and equal opportunity. The general term covers a wide variety of social and economic organization. Social welfare is an imprecise and encompassing term. In most cases, it is defined in terms of interventions and organized activities or some other elements that suggest programs and policies aimed at improving the well-being of individuals at risk and responding to recognized social problems. (Handa, Devereux, and Webb, 2011) have shown that the concept…
Atkinson, A.B. (1995). "Incomes and the Welfare State. Cambridge" Cambridge University Press
Bender, K., Kaltenborn, M. & Pfeiderer, C. (2013). "Social Protection in Developing Countries: Reforming Systems" Routledge
Berg, A & Ostry, J.D (2011). Inequality and Unsustainable Growth: Two Sides of the Same Coin?" IMF Staff Discussion Note SDN/11/08, International Monetary Fund
Bradley, D., Huber, E., Moller, S., Nielson, F. & Stephens, J.D. (2003) "Determinants of relative poverty in advanced capitalist democracies" American Sociological Review 68:3:
It is worth noting that in southern portions of these countries, the Berber population does not self-identify with any Arabic identity, and clearly Berber individuals often face discrimination as a result (Mesdoua, 2011).
Power distance is a cultural artifact that reflects the degree to which individuals in society are equal (Hofstede, 2012). North African countries tend to be hierarchical in nature, such that people feel they have a place in society and that roles can be defined by one's position in society. North African culture is generally a collectivist society, as opposed to an individualistic one. Some traits associated with collectivist societies are loyalty and helps to determine relationships in the society, as individual actions are perceived to have an impact on the groups (families, companies) with which one is associated.
A fifth element of North African culture that is worth being discussed because of its contribution to the modern…
Hofstede, G. (2012). Morocco. Geert-Hofstede.com Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com/morocco.html
Jenkins, O. (2004). Major types of Islam. Orville Jenkins. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://orvillejenkins.com/outlineintro/types.html
Mesdoua, I. (2011). Will the Arab Spring make the Arab Maghreb Union bloom? Think Africa Press. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://thinkafricapress.com/morocco/arab-spring-arab-maghreb-union-bloom
NASP. (2012). Defining culture. National Association of School Psychologists. Retrieved February 14, 2012 from http://www.nasponline.org/resources/culturalcompetence/definingculture.aspx
War in Africa
Due to European colonization and then decolonization, Africa was left in a similar state of the other former colonies. What state were the other colonies left in and what are the similarities?
Concomitant colonization and decolonization of Africa left most of the countries in a state of utter economic dependence on their colonial masters. This state is more or less similar to what happened to former colonies in the Americas and Asia. While there are other socio-political impacts that also resulted, this brief paper focuses only on the state economic dependence that African colonies found themselves in soon after colonial masters went back to their countries.
Prior to the "Scramble and Partition of Africa," African economies were on an upward trend in most areas, but more so in terms of trade. Africans had already established trade patterns with some long distance traders walking covering miles just to…
Bojicic, Savo. America…. America…. Or Is It? New York, NY: AuthorHouse, 2010.
Clayton, Anthony. Frontiersmen; warfare in Africa since 1950. Philadelphia: UCL press, 1999
Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.
Shipway, Martin. Decolonization and Its Impact: A Comparative Approach to the End of the Colonial Empires. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub, 2008.
Article weaknesses: On page two the authors write, "hat else can we say about the Ethiopian and Kenya Rifts? Quite a lot actually." This is very sophomoric narrative for scientists to be putting forth. Using a cliche like that tends to lessen the value of the science. It takes the authors quite a long time to get to one of the most interesting points of the article. That is, the rifting is important in terms of understanding human evolution. It seems like that fact could have been placed at or near the front of the article. There are many "hominid fossil finds" in the rift, which means that the evolution of humans can be traced by scientists because the evolution of the rift itself is giving clues to human evolution.
The weakness here is because the authors waited until the last page to present something about humans that is far…
Wood, James, and Guth, Alex. (2007). East Africa's Great Rift Valley: A Complex Rift System
Geology.com. Retrieved July 14, 2012, from http://geology.com/articles/east-africa-rift.shtml .
East Africa's Great Rift Valley: A Complex Rift System"
Wood and Guth's article, "East Africa's great rift valley..." details some of the lesser known facts about the shifting of the earth and how continents are formed. The authors are extremely enthusiastic about this topic, and write about it with a familiarity and adherence to scientific principles that edifies the reader. Although the subject matter is fairly dense and filled with unfamiliar vocabulary words, the authors do well to explicate their main points and bring a better understanding of this subject matter. As such, it is a decidedly valuable work of literature.
The main point of this article is to discuss the origins and the significance of rifts in Africa, specifically the Lake Albert Rift and the Albertine Rift (which collectively are known as the East African Rift), and the Ethiopian Rift (which along with the other two comprises the East…
This can be traced to the conservative view that lacks have in fact no real history in comparison to the richness and significance of European history. "As astonishing as it seems most of the prestigious academics and universities in Europe and America have ridiculed the idea that blacks have any substantive history."
This derogatory view has its roots as well in the colonial attitude that tended to see all lack people as inferior in status and 'ignorant' in order to justify the intrusion and invasion of their lands and territories.
In other words, the justification for conquest and what was in reality the theft of African land and wealth was provided to a great extent by the ' rewriting' of iblical texts. lacks were cast as 'heathen' people who had not achieved the enlightenment that the white group had attained through the ible and Christianity and therefore lacks were seen…
"African Heritage: The Original African Heritage Study Bible," http://kenanderson.net/bible/html/african_heritage.html (accessed September 20, 2010).
BibleGateway, Genesis 2:10- 14,
http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Genesis+2%3A10-14&version=NIV (accessed September 20, 2010).
"BLACK HEBREW ISRAELITES," http://www.angelfire.com/sd/occultic/hebrew.html , (accessed September 20, 2010).
Part One: Research Proposal
Problem and Purpose Statement
Despite an abundance of natural resources, a modern infrastructure, and increasingly aggressive efforts by the national government and support from multiple nongovernmental organizations since apartheid ended in 1994, more than half (about 55% or 30.3 million people) of the South Africa population still lives in poverty today and another 13.8 million South Africans do not have enough to eat each day (Poverty & equity brief 2021). Moreover, current economic development indicators show that the per capita annualized consumption growth rate of the bottom 40 percent of the South African population actually suffered a 1.34% decline during the 4-year period from 2010 through 2014 (the latest statistic available from The World Bank). In sum, the situation for the poorest people in South Africa is worsening and there are few new opportunities available on the short-term horizon that can help them achieve their full…
“Global Cases.” (2021). Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. [online] available: https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html .
Kavya, B and Santhakumar, S (January 2020). “Economic Development, Financial Development, and Income Inequality Nexus.” Borsa Istanbul Review [in press].
Neuman, W (2008). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. New York: Pearson.
“South Africa economy” (2021) CIA World Factbook. [online] available: http://teacherlink.ed. usu.edu/tlresources/reference/factbook/geos/sf.html.
“South Africa Poverty and equity brief.” (2021). The World Bank. [online] available: https://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/poverty/33EF03BB-9722-4AE2-ABC7-AA2972D68AFE/Global_POVEQ_ZAF.pdf .
Strategic Context of Sub-Saharan Africa
In response to the political administration of United States, interest in Africa changes. It is either decreased or increased. Cuba, China, France and Soviet Union are among those countries that have been influences for decades by the African continent which had pulled attraction of many towards itself. Africa has also been assisted by an economically powerful country i.e. United States. This continent had been able to gather a large number of consumers that were around 600 million. But this potential for the economic investment and growth was slowed down because of the instability. Another reason for this was the increase in the rate of migration (AEC, 2010).
Because of the foreign policy, Africa and United States were not able to maintain a close relationship as cold war came to an end. The strategy that had been used by United States was to make efforts to…
AERC (African Economic Research Consortium) (2010), Proceedings from the Conference on Africa-China Relations, Hilton Hotel, Addis Ababa, 28-30 September.
African Union (2010), "African Union Commission-Regional Economic Communities Common Position Paper on EPAs," AU Conference of Ministers of Trade, 6th Ordinary Session, Kigali, 29 October -- 2 November 2010.
AUC (2006), The Review of Millennium Development Goals and the Millennium Declaration: An African Common Position, African Union Commission, Addis Ababa.
Cumbo, J.E. (2003) U.S. Foreign Policy towards Africa. U.S. Army War College: Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania.
protea, one of the world's most striking flowers, is a crucial part of South African culture, economy, and politics. The largest (and arguably the most spectacular of the proteas), the king protea, has an important place in the country's coat of arms and on the official currency, as well as acting as the nation's national flower. Today, the understanding and preservation of the protea has become an integral part of understanding and preserving the very nature of the nation of South Africa.
The King Protea
The king protea (Protea cynaroides) is the national flower of South Africa. The king protea was first seriously considered for South Africa's official national floral emblem in 1962, when a commission was set up to study its use as a national emblem. The South African Association of Botanists supported the choice of the spectacular flower, the king protea, however the choice of the flower as…
Agriculturalist Online. Protea for flower power in South Africa. 08 December 2003. http://www.new-agri.co.uk/01-5/focuson/focuson8.html
Department of Foreign Affairs. South African Coat of Arms. 08 December 2003. http://www.dfa.gov.za/department/coa.htm
International Marketing Council of South Africa. FLORA: Feast of flora. http://www.safrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/fauna_flora/flora.htm
Protea Atlas Project. 08 December 2003. http://protea.worldonline.co.za/default.htm
As we have seen, fashion is not the only field that has the idea of integrating usiness with philanthropy. Other industries have focused on other African causes such as AIDS/HIV, Water, Business, health, education.
(RED), a division of the ONE Campaign advertises itself as "fighting for AIDS for a free generation." Using an optimistic message, (RED) promotes itself as an organization that elieves that it can change the face of the AIDS epidemic in Africa y stopping transmission of HIV form mothers to aies. In 2010, 1,000 aies were orn every day with HIV. In 2011, that numer was reduced to 900. (RED) urges shoppers to uy (RED) products. The manufacturers send the contriutions to the Gloal Fund which then uses all of the money -- no proceeds going to RED -- to finance HIV / AIDS programs in Africa.
ING is another original philanthropic program that promises to send…
Menkes, S (November 15, 2012 ) Philanthropy in Fashion. The NY Times. Fashion and Style. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/16/fashion/16iht-fbono16.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Philanthropy, fashion, and compassion http://www.philanthropyfashion.com/
Aid for Africa: http://www.aidforafrica.org/shop/
The weaker segments in Africa, women and children, were and are the worst hit by HIV / AIDS, which then is spread to the families and communities. (Bage 2004)
Dealing with this is a great scientific, social, and moral challenge that every organization and country, especially developed countries must rise up to. It is time to mobilize resources and contribute to make changes in the policies so that we at the United Nations can do something worthwhile to combat Africa's problem with this disease. There were commercial interests earlier that would not allow the developed nations to provide subsidized medicine. For instance the United States, there was a stance that there could be no recognition of the problem and a denial of need. This was followed by a policy that placed the solving of the problem on the affected countries. Until George W. Bush, the United States and many developed…
Bage, Lennart. 2004. HIV / AIDS in Africa: Shifting the Horizons of Development. UN
Chronicle, vol. 41, no. 3. September-November, pp: 49-54.
DeConde, Alexander. 1963. A History of American Foreign Policy. Charles Scribner's
Sons: New York.
South Africa: Electoral and Institutional Arrangements, Party Competition, and Checks and Balances in Government
South Africa's government is a constitutional democracy based upon a system of proportional representation. In other words, its national legislature is a parliament, with two houses, the National Assembly and the National Council of Provinces (NCOP). The parliament called the National Assembly awards seats to each political party based upon that party's proportionate support in the national election. Elections for the National Assembly are held every five years. The second general democratic post-apartheid election in 1999 in yielded a majority for the African National Congress (ANC) Party, the party famously lead by the imprisoned Nelson Mandela during the years of apartheid that disenfranchised most of South Africa's majority black population ("Government in South Africa," SouthAfricainfo, 2008).
In addition to the ANC, South Africa has sixteen registered political parties under the Independent Electoral Commission, spanning a variety…
Government in South Africa." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/government/gov.htm
South Africa's Political Parties." Southafrica.info. 24 Mar 2008. http://www.southafrica.info/ess_info/sa_glance/constitution/polparties.htm
Scramble for Wealth in Africa
1880-1900 was a period that was characterized by rapid colonization of the entire African continent by European nations. This was what was known as the scramble for Africa and it took place due to various economic, social as well as political evolutions that were taking place in Europe. This scramble was known as the race of Africa or partition of Africa was a process of invasion, occupation and eventual annexing of the African territory by European powers during the new imperialism period.
By 1880, around the coast of Africa and a small distance inland found along major rivers like Niger and Congo were under the European rule which was only a small part of Africa. This paper will therefore look at the scramble for Africa and the reasons that led to this evolution. There are various factors that led to the impetus scramble for Africa,…
Global security.org (2013). The Scramble for Africa - 1880-1899.retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/scramble-for-africa.htm
Boddy-Evans, A. (2010). What Caused the Scramble for Africa? Retrieved February 9, 2013 from http://africanhistory.about.com/od/eracolonialism/a/ScrambleWhy.htmc
I unequivocally believe that Africa is attractive in these times in which we live. There are several different reasons that I posit this notion. Firstly, Africa is in the process of modernizing and truly participating in the global economy. It has a number of economic opportunities which it has not had in the past. African countries are becoming more well versed in technology and in all of the different facets of modernity that have kept it regulated in what some people tend to think of as the proverbial third world. However, Africa's attraction encompasses the fact that because of this perception that was embraced by many outsiders, it has taken several strides to shed this image and to become a contemporary as other Western powers. Additionally, Africa has a growing infrastructure that is constantly increasing which adds to its presence domestically and internationally, in separate countries and on the…
There are many symptoms that further support this contention, aligned by a rising level of ethnocentrism which is further blinding the company from its outside environment. Second, the lack of congruency of planning to leadership (Guay, 2013) and lack of organizing with delegation (Sengul, Gimeno, Dial, 2012) is leading to employees searching for other positions to further their careers.
In defining the plan for turning around the company, two objectives have been defined using the SMAT method. These objectives are:
1. To complete an audit of managerial and leadership effectiveness of the South African expansion operations including employee satisfaction surveys and 360-degree feedback of leadership strategies.
2. To define minimum performance levels of management and leadership at Australian headquarters in terms of alignment with and strategies to overcome significant differences in Hofstede Cultural Dimension attributes.
Bass, B.M. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly,…
Bass, B.M. (1999). Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 10(2), 181-217.
Fitzgerald, S., & Schutte, N.S. (2010). Increasing transformational leadership through enhancing self-efficacy. The Journal of Management Development, 29(5), 495-505.
Guay, R.P. (2013). The relationship between leader fit and transformational leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28(1), 55-73.
Hofstede, G. 1998, "Think Locally, Act Globally: Cultural Constraints in Personnel Management," Management International Review, vol. 38, pp. 7-26.
Investment in South Africa
In your judgment, were the possible utilitarian benefits of building the Caltex plant in 1977 more important than the possible violations of moral rights and of justice that may be involved? Justify your answer fully by identifying the possible benefits and the possible violations of rights and justice that you believe may be associated with the building of the plant, and explaining which you think are more important.
The possible utilitarian benefits of building the Caltex plant in 1977 were not more important than the possible -- or actual -- violations of moral rights and justice involved. The violations of moral rights and justices should have been prioritized. Looking back on the situation, of course, we have the benefit of knowing history, and the case of the South African apartheid is an exemplary case for the power of socially responsible investment movement.
In 1977, when the…
1. Jack Magarrell, "U.S. Adopts Stand on Apartheid: Backed on Many Campuses," The Chronicle of Higher Education, 12 March 1979.
2. See Herman Nickel, "The Case for Doing Business in South Africa," Fortune, 19 June 1968, p. 72.
3. Investor Responsibility Research Center, Analysis E-Supplment No. 9, 7 April 1977, p. E 114.
4. Texaco Proxy Statement, 1977, item 3.
As anyone that knows history understands full well, the history of Africa has been fairly tumultuous over the years. Just looking over the last half a millennium reveals a very turbulent stretch of time that is full of slavery, colonialism, escape from said colonialism, genocide, starvation, anarchy and so forth. However, there have also been some good to great things that have happened in Africa and many of them are recent. This report shall look at the totality of post-colonial Africa. Much like the rest of the world, Africa has had to make a lot of adjustments since the imperialism of the French, British and Spanish has fallen away. Africa is far from being the only corner of the world that can say this about itself but Africa has quite obviously been hit harder than most continents and regions and this is especially true over the last half…
CDC,. (2015). 2014 Ebola Outbreak in West Africa| Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever | CDC. Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2 August 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/
Democracy in the Rough: Long Awaited Congolese Elections. (2015).
Gilbert, E., & Reynolds, J. (2012). Africa in world history. Boston: Pearson.
Rwanda: A History of Genocide. (2015).
Spread of Islam in Africa and Asia Along Trade Routes
The Islam religion spread in Asia and Africa mainly due to trade of such goods as spices, gold, as also due to slaves. The advantages of proximity with the greatly profitable and powerful traders of the Islam religion triggered the conversions of merchants and rulers' into Muslims. Islam spread slowly; it took centuries, but in most places where the conversion took place, people still hold on to the religion (Debrouse). This paper explores the reasons of spread of Islam religion along Asian and African trade routes, particularly centering on the success of Islam in Middle Asia.
Early Trade Connections
Since the era of Muhammad, it has been believed that trade is closely related to the religion as well as its development. Inmecca, the people of the Qurayshtribe were leaders in business. They extended their connections and influence to Syria and…
In addition to these external factors, Thomson (202) notes two colonial and post-colonial economic policies and developmental strategies that proved to be erroneous in the long-term, having an ultimately damaging effect upon the ability of African countries to make sound, profitable investments. The first of these is that African governments focused excessively upon import substitution, while the second is that too much revenue was invested in the expansion of state institutions. This paradigm emerges from the success of European and other Western economic developments. However, such strategies were far from suitable for the African continent, as it resulted in a lack of investment in Africa's richest resources: agricultural and mineral development.
Maponga and Maxwell (97) mention the concentration of national economies as a further factor that may lead a lack of concomitant growth for countries (and in particular African countries) that are rich in natural resources. In addition to the…
Maponga, Oliver & Maxwell, Philip. Are Abundant Mineral and Energy Resources a Catalyst for African Development? (Issue 6). Minerals and Energy, 2001.
Thomson, Alex. An Introduction to African Politics. London & New York: Routledge, 2004.
AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa?
AIDS in Ghana
AIDS, or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, has devastated much of Africa, hitting this continent worse than any other in the world. In fact, in the year 2000, 80% of the world's total AIDS-related deaths were within Africa. (C 2000) One of the areas hit the hardest by this virus has been the Sub-Saharan region. Ghana, within that region, has also been ravaged by AIDS, but it has a significantly lower percentage of AIDS cases than much of the rest of Africa. While the AIDS within Ghana has many of the same causes and effects on the people who are infected with the disease, it is a unique situation within Africa because of its particular effects on the women of the country, and the fact that there are comparatively fewer AIDS cases within this country.
The first reported cases of AIDS in Ghana were…
BBC. 2003. "Africa's Aids burden." UK: BBC News, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1045156.stm )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Brief Statistics on HIV / AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/functionalities/statusandimpact/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=13 )
Ghana AIDS Commission . 2003. "Women and AIDS." Ghana: Ghana AIDS Commission, Retreieved December 1, 2003. ( http://www.ghanaids.gov.gh/barefacts/practicalinformation/articledescription.asp?ArticleID=24 )
Ofeibea Quirst-arcton. 2003. "Aids Treatment Plan Begins In January." Accra: AllAfrica.com, Retreived December 1, 2003. ( http://allafrica.com/stories/200311300172.html )
Governments will not provide public goods to those they mistrust, as they will not expect to be able to collect taxes at a later date. In Africa, this again can be related to ethnic tensions -- governments and regions from different ethnic groups may have mutual mistrust that predates the colonial era.
Every nation will develop in its own way. For the most part, however, specific antecedents to development can be identified. Strong government is essential as lack of security will reduce investment -- both domestic and international -- and thus stifle economic growth. Strong government must nonetheless not confuse the rule of law with a mandate to expropriate wealth. The government will need to tax, but must do so only in accordance with the needs of the region for public goods. At some point, trust will need to be developed between the government and the people of the…
Acemoglu, D. 2005. Politics and economics in weak and strong states. Journal of Monetary Economics. Vol. 52 (2005): 1199-1226.
Herbst, J. 1990. War and the state in Africa.
Acemoglu, D. & Robinson. Economic Structure and Democracy.
Aryeetey, E. 2004. Financing Africa's future growth and development: Some innovations. Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research. 1-44.
It produced a net increase in perceived benefits of protective behavior and in self-efficacy among both males and females, and a reduction in perceived barriers to protective behavior among females. Consistent with these changes, it was also associated with a reduction in risky sexual behavior among young men and an increase in contraceptive use among young men and women (Agha, 2002, p. 67+).
Agha also noted that there was more positive change among young women than among young men, a fact that "may reflect a better ability of these adolescent sexual health interventions to address the concerns of women than of men, or a greater receptivity to such interventions among young women than among young men" (2002, p. 67+). Because of the success of this program, however, Agha suggests that means of reaching young men to the same extent are worthy of additional study, and multi-media, educational programs of long…
Agha, Sohail. "A Quasi-Experimental Study to Assess the Impact of Four Adolescent Sexual Health Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa." International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 28, no. 2 (2002), vol. 28, no. 2, p. 67+. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Dijamba, Yanyi K. "Social Capital and Premarital Sexual Activity in Africa: The Case of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal Title: Archives of Sexual Behavior. 32, no. 4, (2003), 327+. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Kiragu, Karungari and Laura Schwab Zabin. "The Health Consequences of Adolescent Sexual and Fertility Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa." Studies in Family Planning, vol. 29, no. 2 (1998), 210+. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Koblinsky, Marjorie A., Oona M.R. Campbell, S.D. Harlow. "Mother and more: A broader perspective on women's health." In The Health of Women: A Global Perspective. Ed. Marlene A. Koblinsky, Judith Timyan, and Jill Gay. Boulder, CO. Westview Press. (1993) Pp.33-62.
In the three regional organizations in Africa discussed here, it is important that these entities reaffirm their commitment in joining the war against crime and the fight against terrorist groups; which are an obstacle to the success of Africa's economies (Fulgence, 2015). There is a lot of work cut out for sub-Saharan African countries which are grappling with abject poverty. They have plenty of work to do to attain middle income status in their economies.
The terms of economic cooperation vision would have been trained on food production to fight hunger among populations that are growing fast, reducing poverty levels through a host of economic interventions aimed at reducing unemployment and boosting production. With respect to political cooperation, the organizations in question have plenty of work to do in areas of the rule of law and reduction of abuses against human rights (Fulgence, 2015). Incidence of civil unrest, wars; both…
Since they had so much invested in South Africa, they were in a position of power, and they could have used that power much more effectively. They might even have been able to bring change about sooner than it occurred. While they did not take their responsibility seriously, companies do have a moral and ethical responsibility to themselves, their communities, and their shareholders. The companies that do not recognize this should not gain support or business from their consumers. It is up to the shareholders to hold the companies responsible for their ethical behavior and to how they manage their investments. The company has a responsibility to make money and to stay healthy, but not at the expense of morals or ethics. It does not have to be difficult to act morally and responsibly. It can become a part of the everyday actions of the business, and it should be…
Author not Available. Case study: Investment in South Africa.
Velasquez, M.G. (2006). Chapter two. Ethical principles in business. Business ethics: Concepts & cases, Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Velasquez, M.G. (2006). Chapter three. The market and business. Business ethics: Concepts & cases, Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
-- but Glaxo contends that Cipla violates the companies' patents and international intellectual- property agreements"(Boseley, 2002). In moral defense of its actions, Glaxo's CEO, told shareholders "Some people might see patents as the obstacle to getting medicines to patients in poorer countries. Nothing could be further from the truth....Even in countries where low cost generics are available millions of people are dying every year because they cannot obtain low cost generic treatments for malaria, TB and other common diseases. e should also remember that 95% of the medicines on HO's Essential Drugs List are not covered by patent protection anywhere in the world, let alone in developing countries, many of which have no effective intellectual property laws" (Samson, 2001).
Still, a recent scandal revealing that "nearly $18 million worth of reduced-price HIV drugs intended for impoverished Africans have been intercepted by profiteers and shipped back to Europe to be sold…
Boseley, Sarah (6 Sept. 2002). "Glaxo cuts AIDS drug prices in Africa." The Guardian. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,786919,00.html
Glaxo: Cheap AIDS drugs not enough." (25 May 2001) BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1351153.stm
HIV Drugs for Africa Diverted to Europe. (3 Oct 2002). Centers for Disease Control.
International News. Retrieved 20 Jan 2007 at http://www.thebody.com/cdc/news_updates_archive/oct3_02/hiv_drugs.html
Spain chose, instead, to allocate its territorial expansion to the Americas. However, Spain was able to exploit its existing African holdings to supply Spanish colonies in the Americas with African slaves ("The Spanish Colonial System" par. 4).
Unlike its concerted efforts in the Americas, Spain's focus in Africa was not so pointed in its colonies there, namely Spanish Guinea, Spanish Sahara, and Morocco. The majority of Spain's African colonies were located along the northern coasts and served primarily as strongholds from which Spain could protect its shipping and commerce activities in the Mediterranean as well as between the Old orld and the New.
Campos, Alicia. "The Decolonization of Equatorial Guinea: The Relevance of the International Factor." The Journal of African History 44.1 (Jan. 2003): 95-114.
"Spanish Empire." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2008. 20 July 2008 .
"The Spanish Colonial System, 1550-1800: Population Development." The Encyclopedia of orld History.…
Campos, Alicia. "The Decolonization of Equatorial Guinea: The Relevance of the International Factor." The Journal of African History 44.1 (Jan. 2003): 95-114.
"Spanish Empire." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2008. 20 July 2008 .
"The Spanish Colonial System, 1550-1800: Population Development." The Encyclopedia of World History. Ed. Peter Stearns. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001.
he currency in South Africa is the rand. he rand is a free floating currency meaning that there are few controls on the value of the currency. While the rand is a reference currency in the southern Africa region, it is not considered to be a "hard" currency. he performance of the rand against the USD in the past year is as follows:
he chart shows the downward trajectory of the rand against the dollar. A year ago, the rand traded at 7.73 to the dollar, and today it is 9.12, a decline of 18%. his bodes well for a manufacturing operation in South Africa, where the already-low labor costs would be decreasing over time. It does not bode well for selling in South Africa, however, as the country's currency continues to get weaker, which means profits from South Africa will be worth less in dollar…
The Chinese yuan is not a floating currency. Its exchange rate is managed heavily by the Chinese government and as a result trades within a band set by the Chinese government, on a soft peg to the U.S. dollar. China's currency manipulation may perpetuate the band, but the country is under severe inflationary pressure. This puts the yuan on a steady, long-run appreciation, which can be seen in its chart for the past year:
The yuan one year ago traded at 6.29 to the dollar and today it trades at 6.23. This represents an appreciation of 0.9%. The country face high inflation for much of the year, but that inflation is reported to have dropped to 2.1% in March 2013. This inflation rate is not much different than that of the U.S., which would imply that the exchange rate should remain fairly stable. However, the overriding factor is China's currency band, which is likely to be maintained for the foreseeable future. As a result, the yuan will appreciate in the next year, but only by around the same amount as last year, so that the rate will be around 6.17 yuan to the dollar.
Overall, China represents the best option for Dorchester for selling it televisions. This is almost by default. South Africa is facing a weakening rand amid economic uncertainty. The country still has potential, but the timing is wrong given that the macroeconomic conditions are tough and the rand is depreciating faster than the inflation rate. The situation in Japan is worse. The economy might be better, but the yen is depreciating and there is deflation in the economy. This is bad news all round, and earning yen right now it not wise. This leaves China. China has its own problems -- growth is slowing and currency controls mean that there is a difference between earning yuan and being able to return those earnings to the United States. However, the slow appreciation of the yuan and some overtures to convertibility highlight the reality that China is a fairly safe country in which to invest, in terms of currency exchange rate expectations.
(Feldman and Slattery 201)
In this environment, it is likely that the people of Somalia would welcome the devil himself if he was carrying food and water, and these circumstances have not been lost on those who would exploit them for their own political agenda.
Historical Role of NGOs in Somalian Reconstruction.
The experiences of the United Nations and other relief agencies in Somalia are proof positive that even the best intentioned humanitarian efforts cannot succeed if nongovernmental organizations are targeted by political forces that deem their presence counterproductive for their political agendas. According to Boulden (2001), "The UN response to the Somalia crisis ran the gamut from the extreme of total disregard to total involvement then back to total disregard. During the first year of anarchy, the situation within the country became so dangerous that most nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and UN humanitarian agencies left the country" (54). This author…
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Boulden, Jane. Peace Enforcement: The United Nations Experience in Congo, Somalia, and Bosnia. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
De Waal, Alex. (1998). "U.S. War Crimes in Somalia." New Left Review a (230):132.
Doh, Jonathan P., Hildy Teegen and Sushil Vachani. (2004). "The Importance of Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs) in Global Governance and Value Creation: An International Business Research Agenda." Journal of International Business Studies 35(6):463.
Combating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus in South Africa
Although Swaziland has the highest incidence rate for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at 27.7%, South Africa suffers from the largest number of people living with HIV in the world (6.8 million) (The global HIV / AIDS epidemic, 2016) out of a total population of around 53.5 million (South Africa population, 2016). In fact, during the time required to read this introduction, someone died of HIV in South Africa. Unfortunately, South Africa is certainly not unique in experiencing these high rates of infection and many sub-Saharan African nations are likewise seriously affected by the disease (The global HIV/AID epidemic, 2016). South Africa, though, is also suffering from a number of social problems that have exacerbated the HIV epidemic. In response to these alarming trends, the international community, including the United States, has allocated an enormous amount of resources to help stop the…
Birnbaum, J. K. & Murray, C. J. (2011, April). Exposing misclassified HIV / AIDS deaths in South Africa. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 89(4), 278-281.
du Toit, J. & Burger, A. (2010, Spring). Tackling HIV / AIDS in the workplace: Best practice being developed in South Africa carries an important message for companies everywhere. European Business Forum, 17, 70-73.
Global Fund overview. (2016). Global Fund. Retrieved from http://www.theglobalfund.org/en / overview/.
South African economy. (2016). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov / library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sf.html.