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It's not my Fault
Canada is, by any measure, an immigrant country. Yet it recent years two trends have combined to cause stress on the fabric of Canadian society. A fault line has opened up between new Canadians who have recently arrived and those who have longer roots in the country. This fault causes social frictions, as the mores and ethics of Canadian society are influenced by the newcomers, and by the many newcomers who have difficulty adjusting to certain aspects of Canadian society. This paper will take a closer look at some of these issues, in particular with reference to the provinces and cities most shaped by immigration -- Vancouver (BC) and Toronto (Ontario).
In surveys of the cities with the strongest immigrant influence, Vancouver and Toronto routinely make the list, joining the likes of Dubai, Miami and Hong Kong. Even major world cities like London…… [Read More]
Geography, The Study of the Earth
What are the most important things you have learned in geography this semester and how does a knowledge of geography have survival value for American citizens?"
Many people might think geography is a boring and unimportant subject -- they are wrong. The first role of Geography is the study of our earth, countries, landmasses, water, minerals and natural resources. Geography is a science that opens the world to be studied. There is a branch of this science called Cultural and Human Geography. This deals with people and their environment - from cities to transportation to religion to food. Another branch is agricultural Geography which studies the crops and domesticated animals of the planet needed to provide food to sustain the various populations. All of these together form the syllabus of Geography taught in many schools today and it what makes Geography relevant, interesting and…… [Read More]
Livingstone's Geographical Tradition -- Should the history of geography be rated X
This is the first intellectual history of a subject that over the last five centuries has played a significant role in the development of Western civilization. The author describes the activities of the explorers and map-makers of Renaissance and early modern Europe; the role of geography during the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment and the Darwinian Revolution; and the interactions between geography and empire building in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Throughout the book the development of geographical thought and practice is portrayed against the broader social and intellectual context of the times.
Since 1945 activity in the subject has been intense: David Livingstone provides a critical account of the trends, developments and occasional revolutions by which geography has emerged as a multi-faceted discipline offering unique and revealing perspectives on a wide range of pressing social and…… [Read More]
The existence of geographical features profoundly influences a nation's development.
One geographical feature that determines a nation's development is the presence or absence of natural resources. Consider how the presence of natural resources impacts the nations of Japan and Portugal. Natural resources are typically defined as land or raw materials; they occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by man, in a natural form. Japan has very few mineral natural resources, with the result that it is the world's largest importer of coal and liquefied natural gas, as well as the second largest importer of oil. Japan does however have an abundance of fish. Portugal on the other hand has a long list of natural resources: fish, cork forests, iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, and hydropower. A country's natural resources can make or break its economy. The…… [Read More]
Geography relates to more than what common belief assumes it does. It covers climate, environment, natural elevations, but it also addresses peoples' habitual conditions, that is to say how people live, how space is used for working environments, etc. Thus, learning about France from a geographical perspective does not only enable one to gain knowledge of the weather and climate, but indeed about its people and the social conditions in the country.
Preconceptions can indeed be subverted based on geographical knowledge. Human geography that deals with various cultural elements such as religion, language, etc., may determine one to change opinions over the French people and culture.
Although geography covers two main domains which are physical and human geography, various sub-domains associated with the aforementioned exist. This is why learning about a country's geography may be more effective and indeed interesting when individuals are able to assess exactly what their area…… [Read More]
Geography - GIS Systems
Geographic information systems called GIS in short, is a constituent of all the complex geographic information technologies that exist today. The Global Positioning System or GPS and remote sensing are all parts of the emerging technologies that are today referred to as GIS systems. GIS thus encompasses both the digital and geographical techniques involved in the systems used for the processing and dissemination of geographic information. (New Horizons for the Social Sciences Geographic Information Systems) GIS may be defined as an automated system that allows the creation, editing, studying, analyzing and displaying spatially referenced data. A GIS has the capacity to manipulate several different spatial datasets at the same time. GIS plays a significant role in resource planning and other planned activities with reference to the geographical aspects of an activity. (Definitions)
GIS makes use of both the traditional disciplines as well as technology. It is…… [Read More]
De Valera advocated economic nationalism. He felt that Ireland should be self-sufficient. It was during this period that he attempted to industrialize Ireland. Free trade was abandoned, and protective tariffs were installed on nearly every manufactured product. Fianna Fail would remain in power until the year 1948. At that point, Ireland's first coalition government ousted them. Ever since then, two political parties - Fine Gael and Fianna Fail, have dominated Irish political life. The former of these two parties is noted for being less interventionist when it comes to the economy. In the 1970s and early 1980s, Ireland was hit by major economic problems, including two oil crises, a series of bank strikes, poor relations in the industrial sector, and runaway inflation. Then, in the mid-90s, Ireland experienced an economic boom that would come to be known as the Celtic Tiger. y the year 2005, Ireland was voted by Economist…… [Read More]
The rain, averaging only 2-4 inches annually, comes in seasonal bursts that sometimes result in flash floods. Temperatures throughout the Gobi Desert are equally extreme, with lows records at -40 degree Fahrenheit and highs of 113 degrees Fahrenheit (Sadler 76). All of these climatic and geologic forces have combined to shape the landscape throughout the Gobi Desert. They have created immense megadunes a quarter of a mile tall held together by sparse deposits of subsurface water (Middleton 60). This doesn't even include the normal sized sand dunes, grassland plateaus frequented by nomadic herdsmen, badlands, and towering mountain ranges (Sadler 76).
Though we might be surprised to find human effects on a landscape this harsh and this remote, human beings have left their mark on the Gobi Desert, with settlements found dating back 4,000 years (Middleton 59). Of Mongolia's population of only 2.2 million, 40% make their lives as nomads on…… [Read More]
"Between and beyond these two large areas lie two more fields of great importance, the East Texas field and the Panhandle field in northwest Texas. Separate from these fields but also of major importance are those located in southern California. In the mid-1960s, exploitation of deposits of petroleum and natural gas was begun along the north Alaska slope." (Birdstall & Florin, 1992)
This is not enough to sustain the American economy, as Americans consume about 25% of the world's total energy production. The United States imports half the petroleum it consumes, an increasing share of the iron ore and natural gas used, nearly all of its tin and aluminum, and large quantities of many other mineral ores.
This dependence upon oil has spawned conflict within the United States political system in terms of its dependence on foreign oil, and also fears of damage to the U.S. environment because of fossil…… [Read More]
Of Mice and Men ends much the same way it began: with rich, lyrical descriptions of the local geography and landscape. Salinas means "salt marsh" in Spanish. Marshy waters make up much of what Steinbeck describes in the novel. At the end of the book, Lennie and George meet at a watering hole, their secret spot. Here, Lennie sees a heron, a grand, green water bird. Hungry, the heron tries to capture some water snakes slithering around its feet. Although marshy, the surrounding areas are also heavily wooded; the lynch mob arrives through the woods nearby. Moreover, Steinbeck notes that the landscape is rather hilly.
Undoubtedly eed was far more mountainous than Salinas, however. hile Lenny and George do not describe eed in any detail, it is clear they worked there for a while. In fact, a similar situation occurred in eed as in Salinas: Lennie got in trouble for…… [Read More]
In the recent years, aid from Turkey has touched over $400 million per annum. ("Cyprus: CIA -- the World Factbook," n. d.)
In 1878, political conflicts started between the two communities when the Turkish Cypriots rejected the Greek Cypriots' desire for ENOSIS for Union with Greece. A campaign of armed terror was initiated by the Greek Cypriots in 1955 for uniting the island with Greece which was rejected by the Turkish Cypriots. The International Treaties of 1960, by having Great Britain, Turkey and Greece as the guarantor powers, gave Cyprus its freedom from Great Britain and named the epublic of Cyprus. The 1960 partnership epublic was not for the sake of a fully independent epublic but for the purpose of self-preservation. The independence of Cyprus was restricted by the International Treaties of 1960 which did not allow Partition or Enosis; thus leading to the creation of a bi-national partnership state…… [Read More]
Israel's focus on these types of economic exports has been dictated largely by limitations in the available natural resources and geographic layout of the country. hile there are some significant deposits of natural resources, as with Israel's agriculture, these resources are highly specialized and lend themselves to the creation of a specialized industrial economy. The focus on military equipment exports has been dictated in large part by Israel's history of conflict since the nation's creation in 1948 ("Country Profile") and the subsequent wars with neighbors and the native Palestinians.
In Israel, industrial centers are concentrated along the western edge of the nation where access to shipping and transportation resources is highest. This is especially convenient since most of the country's natural resources are located in the southern Negev Desert region. Resources that can be found in any significant amounts include copper, phosphates, potash, ceramic clay, and gypsum (Safran and Pollock…… [Read More]
Geography of Europe
Current religious trends in Europe can largely be traced to one of three significant factors. The first is the increase of Muslim immigration. The second is the decline of Soviet-Style Communism, which had an official atheist ideology. Finally, there is the question of the long-term prognosis for religion in Western Europe, as more people identify themselves as non-religious or as atheists.
The growing slamic presence in Europe is a recent trend, although hardly a trend that has been unknown to history before. The Moorish dominance of Spain and Portugal continued into the early modern period, until their expulsion. The Ottoman Empire made frequent incursions into eastern Europe in the middle ages and into the enlightenment, conquering territory as far as Vienna. And present trends have their origin in the post-war German economic boom of the late 1960s and 1970s, when German manufacturing was sustained by large numbers…… [Read More]
Displaying a large version of the map on the board at the front of the room and handing out identical personal copies for students to mark, a fun activity might be to have individual students come to the front and pin cut-out landmark images to the corresponding locations on the map. Once a cut-out from an image bank has been properly affixed to a location and students have marked the location on their personal maps, the instructor can offer a little educational anecdote about the specific place or landmark that will help to associate the information gained from the game with some knowledge thereabout.
Indeed, among the other activities which are shown to be best-practices in an elementary setting and which are important to promoting the development of all important faculties for future education, an interactive story time is particularly appealing. By telling a story and involving the children by…… [Read More]
For example, the polar regions of the earth reflect sunlight because their solar angle is so low, due to their latitude, so they derive little heat from the constant sun they receive. At the equator's latitude, in contrast, things are much warmer and more humid because there is less reflection. Higher altitudes are colder and dryer than lower elevations. Oceans moderate temperature and increase humidity, while inland locations are dryer and more prone to extremes of hot and cold, and also more extreme weather events, like the tornados that often affect the Midwest. Local terrain like mountains can cause clouds and precipitations on the side of the summit closest to the wind ("Earth's climate and climate change," 2007, PowerPoint Presentation).
Explain why our energy depends on fossil fuel and why it is a major problem for the U.S. And environmentally for the world.
Greenhouse gases are chemically stable gases such…… [Read More]
There are many significant similarities between the geography of Japan and the United States. Japan is a country with a 99% literacy rate, and unemployment of 5.4%, while the U.S. has a 97% literacy rate and unemployment of 5.8%. The countries are quite similar in industry, trade, and education. Japan sits on part of the Pacific im, just as the U.S. West Coast and Alaska do, and so, there are commonly earthquakes in all these areas. In addition, like this area, Japan contains many volcanoes, the largest of which is Mt. Fuji, which is also Japan's highest point. At a little over 12,000 feet, Mt. Fuji points out the extremes of America's geography, which are much more pronounced than Japan's. Our highest point is over 20,000 feet, and our lowest is almost 300 feet below sea level.
Of course, there are also many differences between the two countries.…… [Read More]
In fact, almost all of the economic and industrial variations among colonial regions can be traced to geographic matters of chance. The New England colonists found their forests rich with fur-bearing animals, and their seas teaming with fish. Wildlife was abundant throughout the colonies, but the fur trade was especially lucrative to settlers in the northern colonies who established regular trades with the French and Indian populations outside their political borders. Middle and Southern colonies enjoyed warmer climates and different micro-terrains. The South became the agricultural hub of the colonies, built because of slavery, because of the rich soils and climate conducive to cash crops like cotton and tobacco. Cotton and tobacco became key commodities that offered the Southern colonies and many of the middle ones political leverage with the Old World, and geography would also play a major role in determining which states remained friendly toward the institution of…… [Read More]
The conflicts are not cultural, but political and economical, at times ethnical, but not civilization conflicts. Let's consider some of the most recent ones. The war in Georgia last year was not a cultural conflict: the Georgian and Russian histories are often intertwined, both countries are Orthodox and, according to Huntington, they belong to the same civilization. The conflict was political, determined by Russia's will to dominate the Southern Caucasus, and economic, related to the energy routes in the area.
Perhaps the greatest weakness in Huntington's theory comes from his lack of understanding of the fact that the post-Cold War world is, first of all, essentially a globalized framework in which the interdependencies between the countries is greater than at any other point in history. From an economic, but also communicational and cultural perspective, the relations have become globalized, which means that countries and people will work together even if…… [Read More]
The African influence on Middle and South America is very apparent. rought to the area forcefully as slaves by Europeans, the African immigrants brought many skills from their home continent. The Africans quickly became "masons, carpenters, smithies, lithographers, sculptors, artists, locksmiths, cabinetmakers, jewelers, and cobblers." (radford) The skills of tending to herd animals in Africa lent the Africans to be quite talented as horse-riding cowboys, and have been particularly noted as influential in the razilian hinterlands. It is speculated that it was in fact the African workers who were sent to the gold mines in razil that introduced the modern pans used to this day in the process of gold-washing in the area. Africans introduced their own native traditions of religious worship including folkplays, dancing, and music into the society, and particularly into the church that was developing. African influence on the Catholic church is still very visible in…… [Read More]
The many different social movements establishing that worked to establish equal rights for various minorities and underprivileged groups are in one way evidence that the founders didn't get pluralism perfect in their first attempt, but on the other hand they show a definite ability for the government and society of this country to change through non-revolutionary means. Writing in USA Today, Llewellyn Howell notes that the right for every culture to exist and assert itself is a "mantra" of American intellectualism (par. 2). The concept of an equal say is part of our national ethic, and though who this equality extends to has required adjustment, the nation's greatest orators and writers have consistently defended this intellectual attitude.
This, of course, has led to some concrete practical differences between our own pluralist society and others. The United States from its very inception has had a markedly decreased sense of class differences…… [Read More]
S. And Mexico border is a sign, immigration to the U.S. is probable to become more dangerous in the years to come. ecently the U.S. House of epresentatives passed a bill to crack down on covert immigrants. As it anticipates action in the Senate, policymakers in France are also bearing in mind legislation that aspires to decrease immigration (Brottem, 2006).
The United States financial system has a voracious hunger for low-wage labor that absorbs immigrants by the millions. The same cannot be said for France, which has a joblessness rate that has hovered at ten percent for years. Joblessness is much higher for immigrants and young people. Even though immigrants, mostly from sub-Saharan Africa, persist to challenge to reach the European Union by crossing the Mediterranean, France is much less friendly to its previous colonial subjects than it used to be (Brottem, 2006).
Once started, migration has a kind of…… [Read More]
In such a vast place, regions and sub-regions have changed hands many times - the vagaries of political control have played their part too. Yet one fact stands out - and that is that, the great change which the area is now witnessing is, for the most part, of recent origin. It is a cultural phenomenon. Yes, it involves the exploitation of different environments, and the interaction of different political arrangements, but it shares a common culture; a culture that possesses different local variants, and in many cases, a diverse history; but it is one culture nonetheless. Industrialization and globalization threaten to level all differences in terrain; to reduce pristine mountains to slag heaps, thriving forests to arid wastes, and vibrant indigenous cultures to homogenized global villages whose people perhaps celebrate their differences on the occasional local holiday, or show them off at the local market in the form of…… [Read More]
Geography of Soils and Vegetation in Coastal Environments; focus on Florida Coast
A significant relationship exists between vegetation and soil: soil supports sufficient vegetation growth by providing the latter with moisture, anchorage, and essential nutrients; meanwhile, vegetation serves as a protective covering for soil, safeguarding it against erosion and also facilitating the maintenance of soil nutrition levels using nutrient cycling (i.e., accumulation of litter and its subsequent decay). Thus, soil and vegetation may be said to be reciprocally interrelated. Vegetation is responsible for supporting essential ecosystem functions at multiple spatial scales.
Furthermore, it strongly influences soil quality and attributes such as texture, volume, and chemistry that, in turn, and reciprocally impact several characteristics of vegetation, like floristic composition, productivity, and structure (Eni et al., 1). In this paper, coastal area vegetation and soil geography will be analyzed. But as considerable variation exists between different coastal areas (e.g., the coast…… [Read More]
Loans needed to buy the equipment and seeds create indebtedness to Western banks. Western professionals are needed to intervene and to manage. The productivity of monocrops (e.g., rice or maize) undermines other native crops. Routledge writes, "The project destabilized traditional farming methods, which further rationalized the use of new technologies from the West, and the displacement of traditional foodstuffs by the HYVs" (316). The whole agro-food system has damaged the soil fertility and made dependent the poorer nations, who are compelled to use the seeds of the manufacturers and their means of industrial growth (fertilizer, experts, credit, etc.). People are viewed as irrational and a hindrance to progress. State control over natural and financial resources consolidates the power of the national ruling party who serves the interests of transnational corporations. Routledge writes, "In the process, traditional subsistence economies and their associated cultures are being destroyed; people face displacement from their…… [Read More]
A version of this is already in existence in the 17-nation Major Economies Forum. This has been a model of decorum and progress compared with what the world saw unfold at the climate talks (Sarwar and Chesterman, 2009).
One country in particular that did not come away from Copenhagen 15 with any warm and fuzzy feelings was that of Canada. Canada's once good reputation as an international leader has been seriously damaged because of its repeated failure to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). While many of the COP 15 countries have successfully managed to reduce emissions since 1990, Canada's GHG emissions have increased 26.2% over the same period (Elston, 2009). Canada has never before seen its international reputation sink so low, with environmental groups and officials from many countries accusing Canada of obstructing an urgently needed world treaty on climate change (Lalonde, 2009).
Most feel that Copenhagen 15 was a…… [Read More]
geography (when I even thought about it) was that it was a class that I had to take in high school as part of my graduation requirements. Additionally, I believed that it was the study of land including a wide variety of areas such as; mountains, lakes, streams, hills, desert and forest areas. If I considered it, I would also think of it as a subject that I was not very knowledgeable in, nor did I really entertain any thoughts about gaining any knowledge about it.
After attending the lecture and reading the article, I learned (much to my surprise) that geography as a study was much more diverse, interesting and intriguing than what I had previously imagined. I discovered that geography is a field that studies much more than just the physical attributes of Mother Earth. Geography studies more than just the mountains, hills, streams and lakes; it also…… [Read More]
Geography on Political, Cultural, and Economic Development of Early Civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley
The focus of this study is the effect of geography on the political, cultural, and economic development of early civilization in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. The characteristic that Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley all have in common is that they were all river valleys. Therefore, the geography of these locations was very much alike and likewise their culture, political landscape, and economic development were all very much the same.
Statement of Thesis
The civilization of Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley were highly affected by the geography of these regions, which resulted in rapid expansion, and growth of these civilizations and which affected the cultural, political, and economic environment of these areas of the world.
Mesopotamia & Egypt
What is known as the Urban revolution occurred in Mesopotamia and Egypt…… [Read More]
There will always be terrorist organizations such as Hamas, it seems, but with the Palestinians and Israelis getting along diplomatically, it could lead to better relationships with other countries, as well, and it could lead to a much stronger unity between the countries in the Middle East. This should be a long-term goal of the peace process, to bring an end to tension throughout the entire region, so they can concentrate on other elements of society and government.
In conclusion, the oad Map for Peace in the Middle East still seems to be a long way from conclusion. Israel has stopped all construction in East Jerusalem, another are under contention in the peace process, and talks are still going on bi-weekly between the two parties (as of the end of February, at least). A lasting peace would bring a new decade of hope to the region, and a new peace…… [Read More]
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…… [Read More]
Geography as a Determinant of History In Egypt, Israel and Greece
Geography is important in history. For an individual to properly examine and understand history, he/she must learn or understand geography. This implies that without geography, it is relatively difficult and nearly impossible to understand history given the role of geography in history. Actually, geography has shaped history in various diverse ways, which reflects its importance in understanding nations. The significance of geography in history is demonstrated in how it matters to Egypt, Israel, and Greece. The history of these countries is understood through geography, which played an important role in the formation of these nations. Apart from being an important aspect, there are various limits of geography as a determinant of history in Egypt, Israel, and Greece.
How Geography Matters to Egypt, Israel and Greece
As previously mentioned, the history of Egypt, Israel, and Greece was largely shaped by…… [Read More]
Socially Constructed Geography
As a society, humans by nature relate to the world and define norms by identifying with the environment around them. In America for example, the foundation for the society was built on idealisms that suggested that the first entrants into this society were pioneers, overcoming a vast wilderness and pristine landscape in order to build the foundation upon which modern society now reigns supreme. People by nature identify with social constructed realities that bring them together in a communal and socially responsible manner. In order to help civilians learn about society and social norms, it is often necessary to deconstruct and reconstruct the geographic landscape of a land to build a culture from a blank template.
Human beings have socially constructed the view that the landscape of this nation prior to discovery was naked, raw, virgin; basically one might conclude that it was a pristine…… [Read More]
French geography help to broaden and deepening your knowledge of France? Does learning geography help to change preconceived notions or stereotypes about France and the French people? What in your view is a good way to learn about a country's geography?
Have you ever stopped to wonder if your geographic origins have affected how you think about yourself?
For example, I have always noticed that I sound a lot like the people who grew up in my town, but if I go 100 mles south or north, I no longer quite fit in. If I go further than that, I sometimes sound foreign to people aoround me. In 1977, I went from my home town of York to Portsmouth on the south coast of England. I moved about 300 miles from the north to the south. During try-outs for the volleyball team, one of the coaches, hearing me speak, asked…… [Read More]
Thematic Teaching: Geography Through a Lens of Multiculturalism
All too often, students feel that they must leave their everyday lives, experiences and interests outside of the classroom. From the perspective of many students, the more rigid foci of traditional curriculum do not allow for inclusion of personal dimensions such as ethnic background, distinct cultural knowledge or unique personal history. And as students reach the pre-adolescent stages of middle school, and as the formulation of personal identity becomes a stronger force in each individual's life, this rigid quality can have the impact of alienating the individual from the formal educational process. Thus, it is incumbent upon us as educators to find ways to bridge this gap between personal life and public education; between individuals strengths and learning needs; between creative freedom and academic proceduralism. As the Head of the Geography Department for 5th, 6th and 7th Graders, I propose…… [Read More]
1). Ironically, these workers who feed others are often hungry themselves, even when they bring home some of the rejected crop they harvest to feed their families. A 2007 study of agricultural workers in the area found that nearly half (45%) met the criteria of food insecurity. 34% of respondents were food insecure without hunger while an additional 11% were food insecure with hunger (irth et al. 2007, p.1). "Nearly half (48%) of eligible respondents reported utilizing the food stamp program, which is comparable to 53% of eligible Fresno County residents. However, food stamp participation varies by season. hereas 55% of eligible respondents utilized the program in the winter, only 37% of eligible respondents did so in the summer. Many respondents interviewed during the summer believed they were not eligible for this program because they were working or earned too much" (irth et al. 2007, p.24). They had little or…… [Read More]
Jameson Defined Geography Components
(Jameson (2007) has defined geography as one of the possible components of cultural identity needed for cross cultural communication in global business. Discuss how a company might take this component into account in managing their business.
Over the last several years, globalization has been causing firms to begin establishing operations in different areas of the world. Part of the reason for this, is because many regions can offer them significant benefits such as: lower labors costs and the ability to maximize their profit margins. Evidence of this can be seen by comparing labor costs of many developing countries with the United States. As, the below table is illustrating how they are significantly lower in comparison with the U.S.
Table 1: USA Labor Costs vs. Developing Nations
Hourly Labor Costs
South Africa…… [Read More]
hy could Africa be considered on of the richest continents on Earth? Discuss some of sub-Saharan Africa's Assets. Then address why, despite these facts, the majority of African states remain poor. Be sure to include several factors relation to this region's unique physical geography, complex human geography, history.
The spectrum of environments which exist in Africa spans entire moisture and temperature gradients, from perhaps the most arid to among the well-watered places on earth, from the coolness of the Cape to the furnace that is the Sahara. This environmental diversity is mirrored in the proliferation of its fauna and flora, for Africa has seemingly every conceivable combination of climatological, geological, and pedological factors; the plant and animal communities have evolved over time to reflect this heterogeneity. Moreover, it is an ancient continent that has provided a cradle for a wide range of taxonomic groups, from among the very…… [Read More]
In some regards, the idea of 'culture' is highly mutable and subject to widespread variations in characterization. Quite in fact, the concept of culture is highly implicated in the weaponzation of words that may be used by one nation to subjugate another. Ideas about how cultures interact, about which cultures are superior and indeed about whether or not the practices of some peoples should even be called 'cultures' have been subjected to rationalization as colonialist nations have subjugated various parts of the developing sphere. It is this understanding that inclines Said's (2002) perspective in "The Clash of Definitions."
Here, Said opposes the idea that there are distinct incompatibilities which persist between civilizations. Instead, he argues that this is the impression which has been foisted upon us by the shifting notions of what is meant by culture, particularly as this depends upon the perspective of hegemonic ethnic groups. This…… [Read More]
57). This makes the idea that the minority communities that are using the community as a "springboard" for assimilation because there are less of the domestic non-Hispanic whites in the areas in which immigrants would typically assimilate.
There has even been the development of what is referred to as planned communities. Irvine California serves as a good example of such a development. Irvine was developed from ranch lands from a single developer that constructed "urban villages" in Orange County (Maher, 2004, p. 782). The particular site selected for this 1-997 study was in many ways a "typical" Irvine neighborhood. A planned community developed in the mid-1970s, Ridgewood comprised 246 single-family homes on a collection of cul-de-sacs connected by three public through streets: on average, residents were highly educated- 39% had graduate or professional degrees- and most of those who were employed worked in professional, managerial, technical, or sales positions (Maher,…… [Read More]
Dakota: a Spiritual Geography by Kathleen Norris
Dakota: a Spiritual Journey, by award-winning writer Kathleen Norris, covers the author's move, with her family, from New York City to rural South Dakota. The book covers the changes the author experienced in her life following the move: her disengagement from city life, and her immersion in to the daily rhythms of life in the country. The book follows the transformation of the author following this immersion in country living, and describes how the landscape, rather than everyday stresses, began to rule her life, and how the peace and tranquility of her surroundings became her comfort, rather than the noise of the city, and networks of friends, as had been the case in her life in New York.
y recording the pathway of these changes, the book reveals how the author found herself becoming a much more spiritual person, following her encounters with…… [Read More]
Geography & Economics
Common Market of the South: "Mercado Comun Sur"
This work intends to explore Mercosur and understand the goals and objectives, economic significance as well as the advantages and disadvantages for the countries involved and to identify the method used in dispute resolution. Finally, to identify future plans and objectives of Mercosur.
Mercado Comun Sur" or, Common Market of the South in English, is a marketing structure composed of four Latin American Countrys who have through complementation agreements, a type of trade agreement, managed to find cohesiveness together. Argentina and razil have long been rivals in the world of trade. However, along with Uruguay and Paraguay established an environment of cohesive streamlined trade and the reward is having a competitive edge in today's volatile and troubled global market. Officially established in 1995, the Common Market of the South operates under the established guidelines of the Assuncion Treaty.
I.…… [Read More]
postindustrial transformation of the United States and Canada? What are its impact on the human geography of this realm?
The term "postindustrial transformation" can be thought of as the alteration of an area in response to an ending of the age of industry. This postindustrial age is dominated by the production and manipulation of information, technology, and highly skilled workers. This age indicates that the area manufactures and operates on a global scale, rather than retaining a framework of regional business interactions. The transformation that occurs in this postindustrial age is one in which new business and regions emerge, while older businesses and regions attempt to reinvent their concepts and ideas to appeal to the new global market. These alterations to human geography are accompanied by an alteration of the use of space, since technology advancements create the possibility of new ways to create and sustain space.
In terms of…… [Read More]
A disturbingly large number of Americans cannot find their own country on a map. Although satirists like Steven Shehori (2008) exaggerate the problem, the truth is that too few Americans are geographically literate. According to osenberg (2007), the number of Americans who cannot locate their home country on a map is around three in fifty: or six percent of the total population. Shehori (2008), a Canadian, jokes that "a full 37% of American citizens are incapable of identifying their home country on a map of the United States." Shehori's hyperbole draws attention to the failures of the American education system in providing the most effective possible geography lessons. Even if 96% percent of Americans can identify the United States on a map, a much fewer number can identify other countries. For example, oach (2006) cites research showing that "63% of Americans aged 18 to 24 failed to correctly locate"…… [Read More]
During the beginning of ancient times, Classical civilization still lived as hunters and gatherers. They used the resources available to them and learned to gather grains, berries, and other plant foods and store them for the winter. This required them to live where the geography and climate could support them, and where supplies of water were easily available. Early settlements clustered around rivers and streams for this reason. y the end of the Classical Era, The Roman Empire had fallen. European cultures had been influenced by Rome's accomplishments, however, and Europeans knew how to build aquifers to bring the water to them. They had learned to build both roads and bridges. They had tamed livestock and used them for transportation. y the Classical Era, many of geography's limitations had solutions. Thus people could live in villages, towns and cities, farm the surrounding countryside and transport it to where…… [Read More]
But after local wastewater plants were "...upgraded and farms' management practices were improved, the amount of phosphorus declined and the copper sulfate was no long considered necessary" (Royte, 2007). The Times' story reports that to prevent the dumping of partially treated sewage water into the waterways, septic tanks need to be upgraded and "cleaning the water in sewage treatments plants even more thoroughly before it is discharged into the watershed..." is necessary. That will be quite a job, because "more than two dozen of the roughly 100 wastewater treatment plants that discharge into the city's watershed use a suboptimal cleaning process."
TO: The flooding problem. hy has it become a more serious problem in recent years? Taking New York City as an example of the problem and its roots, the New York Times article alluded to in the previous section points out that recently, as developers began clearing more and…… [Read More]
Groundwork and Initial Steps
For this research and analytical paper, we have chosen to work as the members of a small NGO and conduct a research as an executive director of a small non-governmental organization that would utilize its funding of one million dollar donation by establishing its branch in Pakistan, a third world country in order to improve and strengthen the country's educational arena. In this phase, we first had to decide a third world country that actually deserved a good financial aid in the form of a million dollar donation to improve its educational facilities. I came up with Pakistan, because this is one country that unfortunately has one of the most appalling literacy rates and percentages. So, in order to solve the problem at hand that is to answer the question as to where invest the donation, I chose Pakistan. Since, we have twenty years…… [Read More]
Thus, when it comes to vowels, this short comparison led me to believe the southern dialect uses longer, more rounded, looser vowels than the inland North dialect.
Consonant sounds also differ between the two regions; or perhaps it is more accurate to note that consonants are used in different ways in the southern and inland northern areas of the United States. Take, for instance, the word "white." While I pronounce this word with a defined, voiced [j] sound at the end, the southern speaker allows it to conclude by lengthening the [a] vowel, as in father. This difference leads to southern words sounding softer and more rounded than the hard, tight edges of Northern words. Although there is a great deal of bias regarding the Southern dialect in the United States today, with some saying it sounds uneducated, listening to the features alone reveal it as a beautiful, if different,…… [Read More]
The geographic coordinate system basically refers to longitudinal and latitudinal lines and the reference points on them. The lines of longitude and latitude are based on the Earth's polar axis. Latitude lines are parallel to the equator, and are measured in degrees, with the equator's value set at 0 degrees. From the equator to each of the poles there are ninety latitude lines, for a total of 180. Latitudes north of the equator are distinguished from lines south of the equator, which divides the earth into the north and south hemispheres. Latitude lines are parallel to the Earth's polar axis and are therefore also referred to simply as parallels.
Longitude lines are perpendicular to latitude lines. They are drawn parallel to the arbitrarily created Prime Meridian, which runs through Greenwich, England and therefore establishes the reference point for international time zones as well. Like latitude lines, longitude lines are…… [Read More]
Diseases that are not native to a certain population and are introduced by outsiders or foreigners can have devastating effects. Native populations are vulnerable to germs and viruses brought in by outsiders because they lack the immunological strength and ability to combat these illnesses. Such was the case during the conquest of both North and South America during early colonial times. The native population was blindsided and crippled by the various diseases that the white man brought with them.
The white man overpowered the Indigenous populations of America with their superior weaponry and battle tactics. These two factors contributed greatly to the white man's dominance, another factor that contributed was, undoubtedly the spread of disease and germs. Some of the diseases that were introduced to the native population by Europeans included: smallpox, measles, typhus, and venereal diseases (Ashburn 199). Small pox was one of the diseases that absolutely decimated the…… [Read More]
Trip to Ireland
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and create a dream trip to Ireland. Shaara. Specifically, it will include the plan for a trip, including all the necessary arrangements a trip like this would entail. I have always dreamed of visiting Ireland because my family has roots there, and because I love the history of the place, and would love to see it first hand. I want to see as many of the castles and countryside as I possibly can, and of course, take in a pub or two! I also would like to stay in bed and breakfasts as much as possible, because I would enjoy seeing the countryside as opposed to the city, and getting to know the people a little more. I will drive or take the bus as much as possible throughout the country so I can experience it first…… [Read More]
In each case, what are the symbols of Irishness and Englishness?
The symbols of Irishness according to the Irish-Americans who organized the parade in Boston included heterosexuality. Their definition of their "nation" did not include those with alternate sexualities. This may have been reinforced by the strong Catholic ties in the group. In the case of Blacks in the English countryside, the Black woman feels accepted as "English" when she accepts the "sense of place" from the larger society that she belongs in urban areas but not in the overwhelmingly White countryside.
Whom did you feel sympathy for in each case? Why?
I felt sympathy for both groups. Those who organized the parade were blind to the gays and bisexuals among them, and for whatever reason, alternate sexualities just weren't part of what they thought of when they thought of "Irish." But at the same time, it's hard to…… [Read More]
These waterfalls provide a contrast to Blue Mountain and other mountains. As mountains rise, waterfalls fall. Another question that this project is focused on is the different ways in which waterfalls and mountains are valued differently as well as how they are valued the same in other situations.
This is how the government of Ontario describes and honors the Niagara Escarpment:
Designated a UNESCO World Biosphere eserve in 1990, the Niagara Escarpment is an internationally recognized landform and is the cornerstone of Ontario's Greenbelt. A landscape of rich biodiversity, home to hundreds of Ontario's Species at isk, vital watersheds, agricultural areas and 450-million year old geological history, the Niagara Escarpment is a treasure to protect for future generations of Ontarians. (Niagara Escarpment)
Perhaps it is that waterfalls can be seasonal while mountains remain all year round. But for a mountain that is defined by snow as opposed to just by…… [Read More]
The biosphere consists of all living organisms on the planet. The atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere function collectively to provide he environment which sustains the biosphere. These four spheres interact to create ecological systems. These ecosystems, as they are called, are groups of organisms and the nonliving environment which they exist in.
In the process of living and working in an area, people modify the landscape to suit their purposes or tastes. These are called cultural landscapes. Many geographers maintain that the entire surface of the earth constitutes a cultural landscape, as humans have changed the face of the planet to such a great degree. Some geographers also put forth environmentalist theories, which emphasize the role of the environment in human life. The interaction between humans and the environment is a circular effect- environment affects human life and culture, while humans alter and transform the environment. Geographers have studied the ways…… [Read More]
Leopold, Luna Bergere. Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology. Dover Publications, 1995.
Leopold's well-written and insightful book should be a required basic text for anyone interested in geomorphology. Specifically, the author delves into the basics of fluvial geomorphology, otherwise known as the study of the development of landforms under processes that are associated with running water.
Fluvial Processes in Geomorphology was originally written over 35 years ago, and does an amazing job of presenting the basic facts for fluvial geomorphologists. Over the years, a significant amount of additional detail has been added as the field of fluvial geomorphology has expanded.
Leopold's book consists of three main sections. The first part of the book centers on the process of change in the evolving landscape, and how geomorphology relates to field problems. The second part focuses on studies of climate, weather, flooding and erosion. The final third of the book centers on the processes…… [Read More]
entfrow et al. (2008) present the processes or pathways by which geography influences personality. Personality affects behavior and behavioral norms. Group behaviors in turn impact geographic representation. Social influences and related external factors affect behavioral traits. Institutions within a specific state or region affect behavior. Furthermore, social norms have a strong impact on the development of individual and group-level traits.
The research has several limitations that impact is internal and external validity. For example, the sample was taken from a group of Internet users who responded to an online solicitation for participation in the research. This is a spurious form of sample gathering, and may not be as representative of the population as the researchers would like. One of the most glaring problems with the research is the assumption that state-level characteristics are salient. The authors do not point out differences within states, even ones as large and diverse as…… [Read More]
Role of Geography in Human Adaptation," researchers Graham Coop and his colleagues examined the way that human beings evolve in a given location and whether or not the climate and topography of their homeland has any influence on that evolution. Since the discovery of evolution and adaptation, scientists have tried to find causations for certain adaptations and how they pass down through generations. Only in relatively recent periods have populations begun to mix genetically. Thus the population of a region will likely have had millennia to evolve and adapt to the particular geography of their environment. If geography does indeed have an impact on genealogy, then it is likely that people will begin to see genealogical adaptations which take into consideration the changing geography of our modern world.
The basic thesis in which the researchers are exploring does make a lot of since with what people have come to accept…… [Read More]
power and describe the three ways that the authors suggest this subject may be viewed and modeled. The essay will conclude with comments on the criticalness of this article and discuss the aims of this article and what the authors are wishing to transform or modify.
The authors suggested that the process of naming streets was directly linked to expressing explicit power over a situation or territory. This can be compared to a dog marking his territory by spreading his marking or scent. They wrote " the discursive act of assigning a name to a given location does much more than merely denote an already existing place. ather, as scholars from various fields have suggested, the act of naming is itself a performative practice that calls forth the 'place' to which it refers by attempting to stabilize the unwieldy contradictions of sociospatial processes into the seemingly more 'managable' order…… [Read More]
One aspect at which Cesar's work excels in the interrelation between the descriptive geography and the characterization of the Germans is the political geography approach. In fact, much of Cesar's work is relevant exactly because it is a very scientific description of the way the tribes lived together in tribal formations during that time and how they came in contact with one another. Cesar is always very descriptive in his approach and clearly marks the areas in which these tribes lived, including the Germans, but also many of the neighboring tribes (his focus is certainly on the Gauls).
The Rhine is obviously central to the existence of the Germans and Cesar mentions it several times in his work, although most of the time only so as to limit the theatre if his own operations in Gaul. As such, his approach is that the Rhine marks the delimitation and border between…… [Read More]
Differential Heating of Materials
Lab eport in Geography
The heating of materials varies considerable depending on material composition and atmospheric conditions. A considerable amount of the sun's energy can be reflected back into the atmosphere, in a process called albedo (Lutgens & Tarbuck, 1998, p. 36). The average albedo rates for sand, mud, asphalt, and water are approximately 20-30%, 10%, 5-10%, and 3-80%, respectively, depending on the position of the sun relative to the surface of water (p. 40).
The process of heating materials will vary as well. For example, asphalt and dry sand would primarily use conduction for thermal transfer, while bodies of water or air would use convection (p. 30). On the other hand, thermal transfer for wet soil or mud has the added complexity of latent heating (p. 76). Latent heating or evaporation has a strong cooling effect on the liquid moisture remaining, a loss of 600…… [Read More]
Some of the key examples of where geospatial information can be important are during emergency responses during natural disasters especially for purposes of evacuation arrangement, and damage estimation assignments. MarcFarlane (2005) indicates that it is important to use geoinformatics to prevent disasters rather than try to deal with them after they happen. Geoinformatics assists those involved in the emergency processes by providing the necessary data and giving appropriate plans on how and from what point the hit areas should be approached. This makes the whole process convenient and effective since there is no time wasted in guessing the steps to take and the actions taken are accurate and appropriate (Oosterom et al. 2005). It has to be noted however that there are a number of difficulties that are faced in using geoinformatics to manage disaster as explained by Zerger & Smith (2003).
The transport network in any region is highly…… [Read More]
Culturally, Mt. Elbrus represents an immovable beast of a mountain, and the ussians and Soviet Union have taken full advantage of this image when using it in propaganda campaigns (Shklarov, 2010). After the Nazi's captured Priut 11 in 1942, the ussians sent a bomber to destroy the structure, which was a few thousand feet below the summit. The Nazi's that took the Priut had climbed Elbrus and hoisted a giant Nazi flag at the summit, further emboldening the ussians to take back the mountain and the hut as both a propaganda action as well as a way to visibly defeat the Germans. According to official records, the only bomb to have landed near the hut destroyed the fuel tank (Shklarov, 2010). But the Nazi's and later, archaeologists studying the event disagreed that the fuel depot was even significantly damaged during the bombing. The ussian pilot was none the less awarded…… [Read More]