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Robert Purvis was an important member of the abolitionist community in the United States during the mid-1800's. Originally from South Carolina, Purvis was only 1/4 black, and although he was light skinned enough to pass for white, chose to present himself as a black man. Purvis was important for his association with a number of abolitionist causes including the founding of the American Anti-Slavery Society, Young Men's Antislavery Society, and the American Moral Reform Society (AMRS), Philadelphia Vigilance Committee. (Alexander 506) He wrote "Appeal of Forty Thousand Citizens to Protest Disenfranchisement in Pennsylvania," used his home as a stop on the Underground Railroad, and support black troops during the Civil ar.
John esley Cromwell was born into slavery but went on to become a lawyer, organizer, historian, educator, and writer. Freed in 1851 when his father purchased his family's freedom, John returned to Virginia after the…
Alexander, Leslie, and Walter Rucker. Encyclopedia of African-American History, Vol. 1.
(Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2010), 506.
Alex-Assensoh, Yvette, and Lawrence Hanks. Black and Multiracial Politics in America.
(New York: New York University Press, 2000), 338.
Nevertheless, when a specific law was disgustingly unfair, that unfair law itself placed a threat on the society's reverence for law in general. In case the unfair law was not possible to be changed by way of regular legal channels, intentional breaching of that particular law may be defensible. Since the person committing civil disobedience had utmost regard for the value of law, he would breach the unfair law in gay abandon, and he would eagerly acknowledge the outcomes for infringing it. He will get involved in breaching the law and admit its punishment as a vehicle of drawing the interest of the community to the dissipation of that particular law. (the Civil ights Movement: The Immigrant Heritage of America) King also stressed how significant it was that the civil rights campaign did not percolate to the stage of racists and hate mongers they struggled against. The ideology of King…
Austin, Curtis J. On Violence and Nonviolence: The Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi. Retrieved at http://mshistory.k12.ms.us/features/feature24/ms_civil_rights.html. Accessed on 20 May, 2005
Coombs, Norman. The Civil Rights Movement. The Immigrant Heritage of America. Twayne Press. 1972. Retrieved at http://www.csusm.edu/Black_Excellence/documents/pg-c-r-movement.html . Accessed on 20 May, 2005
Heroes of the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved at http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html . Accessed on 20 May, 2005
Kennedy, Randall. Martin Luther King's Constitution: a Legal History of the Montgomery Bus Boycott. Yale Law Journal; April, 1989. No: 98; pp: 999-1067. Retrieved at http://academic.udayton.edu/race/02rights/civilrights03.htm . Accessed on 20 May, 2005
Board of Education case of 1954. There is no case in education board's history that has played a more important role or has served as a bigger judicial turning point than this case. In the history of important cases, Brown vs. Board of Education occupies a top slot because of its impact not only on education system in the country but on the fate of African-Americans in United States. It just changed the way Americans handled issue of human rights.
In 1950s, racial segregation in schools was a norm. While schools were required to be equal in quality of education, they were also meant to be separate. It was found that even equality principle was not followed in spirit since most black schools offered education which inferior in quality. In 1849, a similar case oberts vs. City of Boston surfaced to challenge the education system of racial segregation but nothing…
1] Dr. Howard O. Lindsey, "A History of Black America," pg. 34-35
2] Edward W. Knappman, ed., Great American Trials (Detroit: Visible Ink, 1994) 467.
3] Knappman 467.
4] Benjamin Munn Ziegler, ed., Desegregation and the Supreme Court (Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1958) 78-79
Generations of Bondage
please note I have provided references so that you may include them if you wish
The book upon which this review is written is a fantastic, true story of the African-American family that shows how it survived through some of American history's most detestable and hypocritical times. This essay will attempt to answer the specific questions associated with the book review, for didactical purposes, but will strive to also provide an overview sprinkled with some intimate details into the family's journey from slavery to the 21st century.
To begin, the Lewis-Green family history includes specific characters that portray the strength of the Black Family. These are found in every person, but most notably comprise Violet, Syntha, Kitty and Tom. Violet, with whom the book begins, arrives in America in the 18th century, and is considered "freeborn." Due to the times' circumstances, Violet has the ability to sue…
Moving Towards the American Dream: The Story of Robert Joseph Pershing Foster
“I was taking a part of the South to transplant in alien soil, to see if it could grow differently, if it could drink of new and cool rains, bend in strange winds, respond to the warmth of other suns, and, perhaps, to bloom” is the Richard Wright passage from where Isabel Wilkerson derives the title of her 2010 ethnography The Warmth of Other Suns. Wilkerson interviewed more than 1000 people for her research, before whittling those numbers down and selecting three individuals who she believed captured the diversity of experiences shaping the Great Migration (“Great Migration: The African-American Exodus North”). Three people cannot necessarily stand in for the six million African Americans who moved from the South between 1915 and 1970; as Lepore puts it, “Can three people explain six million?” (Lepore 1). The answer might actually…
Franklin, J.H. and E. Higginbotham. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans, 9 th ed. NY: McGraw Hill, 2011.
“Great Migration: The African-American Exodus North.” NPR. 13 Sept, 2010. https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=129827444
Lepore, Jill. “The Uprooted.” The New Yorker. 6 Sept, 2010. https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2010/09/06/the-uprooted
Wilkerson, Isabel. The Warmth of Other Suns. First Vintage, 2010.
Franklin & Higgenbotham (2011) provide an Afro-centric view of history, albeit one that focuses on how Africa evolved vis-a-vis Europe and especially with regards to the slave trade. Salient points F&H point out include the diversity, richness, and complexity of African societies and their relationships with one another as well as with outside traders from Europe and the Middle East. Social stratification, hierarchy, and patriarchy all characterized the most powerful and important African societies. The slave trade, both trans-Atlantic and across the Mediterranean, transformed both African societies and European ones as well. The F&H book offers insight into how the systematic exploitation of disenfranchised individuals creates wealth for capitalists, but the book is not focused on slavery or economics. Rather, From Slavery to Freedom talks about how people of African decent, in the diaspora and on the continent, have made tremendous but often unheralded contributions to the arts, the sciences,…
Franklin, J.H. & Higgenbotham, E.B. (2011). From Slavery to Freedom. McGraw-Hill.
Giddings, G.J. (n.d.). Afrocentric Jay-Z.
Outstanding Black Americans Change Racial Viewpoints
One of the first black spokespersons ever to come into the living rooms of millions of white Americans was Oprah Winfrey. Prior to that black Americans excelled in sports. They might have seen Mohammad Ali in a boxing match. Black Americans were gaining recognition in politics. Of course, there was the memory of Martin Luther King. The flamboyant Jesse Jackson was often on news programs. Oprah Winfrey was the one black person who not only gained entry into millions of living rooms but also was welcomed warmly. For years Black Americans gained recognition for their ability in baseball, basketball, football and tennis. But it was Oprah who changed the viewpoints of millions of Americans who identified with the compassionate woman. She not only became a household name, but a woman whom viewers held in high esteem regardless of their race. Her political agenda transcended…
African-Americans History And Culture
The false and misleading notion that "African-Americans created themselves" completely ignores and invalidates the rich history of those whose ancestry lies in the great African continent. While African-Americans have adopted and incorporated many cultures into their own (not unlike any other cultural group in America) that in no way signifies that African-American's have no culture or history of their own.
"Black people have no history, no heroes, no great moments," this was told to a young Arthur Schomburg by his 5th grade teacher. Schomburg, with both African and Puerto ican ancestry went on to become a great historian and curator of African-American history; helping to dispel the very "truth" that his teacher tried to feed him about his own history and culture many years prior. The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" simply means that the Black American is devoid of history and a culture to call…
Bascom, L.C. (1999). A renaissance in Harlem: Lost voices of an American community. New York, NY: Bard.
Painter, N.I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present. London: Oxford University Press.
Derek's racist beliefs are cemented, and became the springboard to his activism and leadership of the skinheads when his father is killed by a black man, fighting a fire in a crack house in an inner-city neighborhood. hen two young African-Americans try to steal his car, Derek is determined that he, unlike his beloved father, will emerge the winner. The film makes it clear that Derek has been waiting for this to happen. Again, the film does not excuse the theft of his vehicle, but indicates that the world is filled with potential justifications for racism, and Derek is looking for such 'reasons' to engage in hateful action. Derek is both a product of his environment and his simmering male adolescent rage.
Derek sent to prison for three years. His younger brother tries to assume Derek's role by harassing immigrants and other non-whites. He also finds himself, like Derek, of…
American History X. Directed by Tony Kaye. 1998.
African-American Perspectives on Education for African-Americans
Education has been an issue at the forefront of the African-American community since the first Africans were brought to the colonies hundreds of years ago. For centuries, education was forbidden to enslaved Africans in the United States with penalties such as whipping and lynching for demonstrating such skills as literacy. As the abolitionist movement gained strength and the Civil War commenced, more and more enslaved Africans saw education as a sign of freedom and a representation of the many ways in which they were held back yet simultaneously integral to American culture. Two African-American writers, scholars, and leaders, W.E.B. Du Bois and Frederick Douglass, discuss the power and the potential for education in the African-American Community. Douglass wrote his seminal work, his autobiography, in the middle of the 19th century, before the Civil War, econstruction, the industrial revolution, and the turn of the 20th…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1845. Available from http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/f-douglas/Narrative-Douglass.pdf. 2012 May 05.
Du Bois, W.E.B. "Of Our Spiritual Strivings." The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. Available from http://www.bartleby.com/114/1.html . 2012 May 05.
Rowley, Stephanie J., Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Smith, Mia A. "The Relationship Between Racial Identity and Self-Esteem in African-American College and High School Students." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 3., 715 -- 724, 1998.
Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Cooke, Deanna Y. "Racial Ideology and Racial Centrality as Predictors of African-American College Students' Academic Performance." Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 8 -- 27, 1998.
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in…
American history [...] changes that have occurred in African-American history over time between 1865 to the present. African-Americans initially came to this country against their will. They were imported to work as slaves primarily in the Southern United States, and they have evolved to become a force of change and growth in this country. African-Americans have faced numerous challenges throughout their history in this country, and they still face challenges today.
After the Civil War ended in 1865, African-Americans were freed from slavery. However, that did not end their struggle for freedom. In fact, in many ways, it only made their situation worse. Many slaves who were in fairly decent situations were thrust out to fend for themselves, or they became sharecroppers for their former masters, barely making enough money to stay alive. This was the time of "reconstruction" in the South, and it was recovering both politically and economically…
Adeboyejo, B. (2005, May/June). Q & A: Curating African-American history for the nation. The Crisis, 112, 7.
Dagbovie, P.G. (2006). Strategies for teaching African-American history: Musings from the past, ruminations for the future. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(4), 635+.
Editors. (2010). African-American history timeline. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Peterson Education Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmtimeline.html .
Editors (2008). African-American odyssey. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart7.html .
At the same time, however, the ghettoes resulted from the people's desire to form a united community to which they could relate and that could offer comfort from a society that, despite its more opened views, still viewed blacks from the point-of-view of the segregation policy.
The ghettoes however represented an environment that would later offer one of the most important and relevant elements of the American culture: the music and religious atmosphere that was traditional for the black community. As a means of resisting the struggle against segregation and inequality, many communities saw music as the connection that united all black people in their suffering. The soul music thus became a means of expressing both sorrow and joy, hope and despair among the black communities. Even though such practices had been seen in the South as well, once the Great Migration started, the black people exported their core values…
African-American World. The Great Migration. Educational Broadcasting Corporation. 2002. 28 April 2007 http://www.pbs.org /wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Crew, Spencer R. "The Great Migration of Afro-Americans, 1915-40." Monthly Labor Review,
Encyclopedia Britannica, Jim Crow law, 2007. 28 April 2007 http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9043641/Jim-Crow-law/
Grossman, James. "Great Migration." The Electronic Encyclopedia of Chicago. 2004. 28 April 2007 http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/545.html
The 1950s was a time when the last of the generation of slaves were beginning to disappear from communities but their first generation children were attempting to make sense of the lives they led and the cautionary tales they had applied to their lives as a result. The work shows that for the 1950s African-American family it was a time of remembrance and resolution as well as a time to reflect on change and hope for even greater change in the future, with the inclusion of the fact that defacto segregation and suppression was still occurring in a rampant manner all over their lives.
Jewell, K. Sue. 2003. Survival of the African-American Family: The Institutional Impact of U.S. Social Policy. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Jewell develops a social history that demonstrates all the many disparities of the African-American vs. majority culture and how these disparities, legal, social and economic…
McLoyd's work brings to mind the manner in which the 1950s conservative slant echoed the discrimination of the past and present. The work demonstrates that during the 1950s academic work began to be even more direct with its assassination of the individual as the source of limited progress. In other words the period demonstrates an extreme prejudice, where African-American Families themselves were in short blamed directly for their inability to succeed in the American landscape, regardless of the fact that the social, legal and economic conditions were almost completely against them.
Itagaki, Lynn M. 2003. Transgressing Race and Community in Chester Himes's if He Hollers Let Him Go. African-American Review 37, no. 1: 65.
Itagaki's work is a literary and social criticism of the works of Chester Himes, an African-American man who moved his family to Los Angels in the late 1940s and through the 1950s and 60s experienced contradictions in the ideal and the actions of those living there. The white community rejected and repressed the African-American family with all the same and worse segregation and discrimination when they were attempting to grow and become stronger, many by leaving the south. The work describes the volume of Himes' works but looks most closely at his beloved novel if He Hollers Let Him Go. The message of the work is distinctly responsive to the 1950s as a period of social transition for the African-American families, as they are told one thing and treated in a manner altogether different.
African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…
Tamar Lewin. Growing Up, Growing Apart. New York Times, June 25, 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/search/article-page.html?res=9402E1DF1730F936A15755C0A9669C8B63
Thomas Dolan. Newark and its Gateway Complex. Rutgers Newark Online, September, 2002. http://www.newarkmetro.rutgers.edu/reports/2002/09/gateway/gateway2.php
George Breitman (Ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, published in 1990 by Grove Weidenfeld: New York, NY. pp 4-17 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/malcolmxgrassroots.htm
High Rises Brought Low at Last. The Economist: July 9, 1998. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=142018
African-American Heritage & the Amish
African-American people traditionally have different communication patterns and family roles than their white counterparts. They are more likely to have families headed by single parents (usually single mothers) and they are also more likely to have poor communication skills and not express their deepest feelings so that they can get help for the family problems they are facing (Franklin & Moss, 2001). Unemployment and underemployment runs high through the African-American community, although there are certainly exceptions. Because the culture of the majority of African-American people is different from the culture seen in the white community, the interaction between the two groups can sometimes be more complex than one would expect. African-Americans are more likely to be part of the high-risk population when it comes to health and well-being (both mental and physical), and they are more like to live in areas of the country and…
Franklin, J.H., & Moss, A. (2001). From Slavery to Freedom. A History of African-Americans. New York: NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Kraybill, D.B. & Olshan, M. A, ed. (1994). The Amish Struggle with Modernity. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England.
Salzman, J., ed. (1996). Encyclopedia of Afro-American culture and history, New York, New York: Macmillan Library Reference USA.
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1970, 1995.
Foner, Philip S. History of Black Americans. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1983.
Katz, William Loren. The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African-American Role in the Westward Experience of the United States. NY: Random House, Inc., 2005.
Katz, William Loren. Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
e learn that art can indeed reflect life but it can also inspire it beyond what the human mind can dream.
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
Richard Powell. African-American Art. 2005 Oxford University Press. http://www.aawc.com
Rodriguez, Junius P.. "African-American Experience: Art." African-American Experience. 12 September, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, (1990). 278.
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, (1994). 69.
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a…
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
Webster appears to be in agreement with Calhoun regarding the North's part in damaging the relationship between the North and the South. According to Webster however, the main culprit in this dynamic is the rhetoric of the abolition societies. While the author acknowledges that these societies include mostly honorable and just people who believe in their cause, he also holds that their rhetoric has become unacceptably emotional and their tactics, such as spreading anti-slavery literature to the South, essentially dishonorable. According to the author, such tactics ironically lead only to strengthen the Southern cause and increase enmity and violence.
William Henry Seward believes that the abolishment of slavery is inevitable as the economy and humanitarian institutions grow. According to this author, the institution is simply an "accidental" institution that came into being as a result of a combination of certain factors at a certain time. As times are changing,…
The fact that this figure remains a guess says something important about what orrison was up against in trying to find out the full story of the slave trade. uch of that story has been ignored, left behind, or simply lost.
Through her works she attempted to retell the stories of grief associated with slavery and terror, her characters living their lives with greater understanding of its value than almost any other set of characters in fiction today.
Within the genre of the autobiography there is a different tenor of thought the words and deeds are that of the author and the message is clearly self, devolvement. Angelou in the Heart of a Woman demonstrates the ideals of her time, as a civil rights organizer and protestor. She clearly spells out the strife that exists between whites, and blacks and the dangerous dance they are doing during what most would…
Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 97.
Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 191.
Alice Walker in love & Trouble: Stories of Black Women (New York Harcourt Press, 1973) 47-59.
African-American Fixation and Modern Superiority in Sports
Sports are significant in many ways to any individual of the society and their values can notarize any political ideology. Sports have often been considered as a missionary tool of liberation, as anti-hegemonic. Fascists, communists, liberal marketers and filibusters have always revered sports. Even political group of dissidents has also vituperated sports, paradoxically. Sports have marked itself as the most powerful form of human expression during all of man's time. Sadly, sports fail to serve the United States ideology in any ways people decided to define democratic values during this, the American Century, when we became the most powerful purveyors of sports in all history (Gerald Early, Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern orld).
Race does not comprise of a system consisting of the privileged or discredited abilities. It is rather an entirety of clashing rumination of what it means to…
Gerald E. 17 Aug. 1998. Performance And Reality Race, Sports and the Modern World.
The Nation, Sports: A View From Left To Right.
The African-American Sports Fixation. Available on the address http://istsocrates.berkeley.edu/~africam/sportsfix.pdf. Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
Black Children Still Victimized By Savage Inequalities. Available on the address http://www.blackcommentator.com/13_education.html . Accessed on 14 Mar. 2003.
" (Seitles, 1996)
Seitles claims that integration has been a success in the fight against racial prejudice and states that: "Social consequences of racial isolation intertwine with grim economic realities for minorities. Due to the lack of interaction between racial groups, African-Americans are unprepared to work and socialize in a white majority society, while conversely, whites are not relating to, working with, or living with blacks. Prospects for African-American children raised in such communities are greatly diminished because of the lack of interaction between blacks and whites. Moreover, minority possibilities for advancement consequently decline from the lower quality of education afforded to them in ghetto schools, precluding them from competing for high-income employment. Although these inequalities are not always directly caused by intentional discrimination, residential racial segregation perpetuates these inequalities. Thus, minorities who live in racially homogeneous communities are faced with disadvantages beyond the present economic and social inequalities associated…
Thomas Lee Philpott, The Slum and the Ghetto: Neighborhood Deterioration and Middle Class Reform, 1880-1930 New York: Oxford University Press, 1978. Appendix A, 407-410. Online available at: Plotkin (1997) http://www.public.asu.edu/~wplotkin/DeedsWeb/newberry.html
Wilen, William P. & Stasell, Wendy L. (2000) Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis: The Conflict Between Achieving Integration and Providing Decent Housing for Very Low-Income African-Americans Copyright 2000 by National Center on Poverty Law. All rights reserved. 34 Clearinghouse Rev. 117. http://www.povertylaw.org/legalresearch/articles/free/wilen.htm
Ranney, D. & Wright P. (2000) Race, Class, and the Abuse of State Power: The Case of Public Housing in Chicago Nathalie P. Voorhees Center for Neighborhood and Community Improvement 2000 March, Publication#: V172 http://www.uic.edu/cuppa/voorheesctr/racepaper.htm
Gautreaux and Chicago's Public Housing Crisis:
In keeping with the theme of individuality highlighted above, each of the main characters in the assigned readings struggle to define his or her identity in terms of the dichotomies in the society they observe. Each point-of-view differs according to the person's stage of life and background, and each person seeks to establish an identity by means of the cultural and social tools they have at their disposal. At times these tools comprise family members, friends, or teachers, and at others they are something much more focused and personal, such as the intellect or determination.
Sylvia, the main character of "The Lesson," establishes her identity in terms of the financial contrast between her own social construct and those who can spend $1,000 on a toy. For her, the concept of financial security provides a platform for constructing an identity. Her determination to contend with the rich for a place…
In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer.
Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301.
Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72.
Snyder, H., Finnegan, ., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh,…
The Developmental Pathways Model (2005) Health Services Technology Assessment Text HSTAT Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat5.section.18578
Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., Deadly Consequences "An Endangered Species -- Young Men of Color Living in Poverty" Chapter 5,-page 64-79 (1991).
African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse
African-American Religious Movements
The African-American religious experience went through a period of "…extraordinary change" in the years between I and II (Fulop, et al., 1997, p. 314). Several "sects" and "cults" worshiped in storefront churches, moving from "mainline churches" into organizations that had political, fraternal and "benevolent" approaches to spirituality. But as to mainline Black churches, between 1926 and 1936, the Black Baptist movement grew from 3.2 million to 3.8 million and hence by 1936 the Black Baptist congregation had become the largest Christian church affiliated with the African-American community; indeed, 67% of "all Black Church members" were connected to the Black Baptist movement (Fulop, 315). This growth within the Back Baptist faith was partly due to the decrease in Black membership of the African Methodist church, the Churches of Christ and the Churches of the Living God (Fulop, 315).
Nation of Islam: allace D. Fard came to the United…
Fulop, Timothy Earl, and Raboteau, Albert J. (1997). African-American Religion: Interpretive
Essays in History and Culture. Florence, KY: Psychology Press.
Nation of Islam. (2012). National of Islam in America / A Nation of Beauty & Peace. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.noi.org/about.shtml .
Public Broadcasting Service. (2006). This Far by Faith. Retrieved December 2, 2012, from http://www.pbs.org .
African-American in the Media
The comedy Barbershop, starring Ice Cube juxtaposes the harshness of city life with the resiliency of the people living in the city. The movie with its black cast has an impressive standing in the movie industry for the year 2002. I'm not sure that I agree that this specific film means a breakthrough for African-Americans in the industry. The Black person has after all been part of the industry for a long time, and there are many African-American stars, not featured in this movie, who have made a great success of their movie careers.
The "integration period" for example is determined to be around the years 1949-1969. During this period there is an integration of Black people into the societies depicted in films. Thus the African-American is portrayed in a more positive way. Also, "black" themes and issues of conflict among races and peers are depicted…
Even after the Emancipation Proclamation, the Supreme Court held that separate but equal was a legitimate stance under American law, essentially codifying human beings into different racial categories like a caste system, until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. In short, America was a nation founded upon a paradox. It idealized freedom and personal choice, yet it also was based upon a system that did not allow a substantial percentage of the population to exercise that freedom and enjoy in their liberties.
The Civil Rights movement was so radical, because it demanded that the promise of American freedom finally be truly realized and granted to Black Americans, which America was unwilling to do, until African-Americans demanded their rights through this eloquent and articulate protest movement. Sadly, the damage of hundreds of years of slavery had taken their psychological and economic toll upon some Black Americans. One of the saddest…
Major Problems in American History Since 1945. Third Edition.
New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
If someone returns a questionnaire with identifying personal information, then it will not be used in the study and will be destroyed. The questionnaires will also be constructed so that there will be no questions that could potentially violate the participants privacy in any way. For instance, there will be no questions asked about the particulars of the child's suicide, where the mother works, what particular community she's from and what church she is a member of, etc. Questions such as these could deter the target audience from responding because of fear that their privacy could be jeopardized.
The introductory letter sent with the questionnaire plays an important role in weeding out any ethical issues that may arise. The letter will clearly define the survey and discuss why the prospective participants were chosen. They will know that none of their personal information was used in order to send them the…
Self-esteem and self-efficacy are issues that are of primary importance. These are affected by a number of environmental factors, including immediate family, but also the environment in which a person moves, as well as the wider social environment.
Contextualism was promoted in 1942 by S.C. Pepper, and was previously known as "pragmatism." This term was often used in the work of Charles S. Peirce, William James, Henri
ergson, John Dewey, and George Herbert Mead (Morris, 1997). In psychological development, contextualism suggests the influence of a broad number of categories, beginning with the immediate family, and broadening to the peer group, society, and global environment. ehavior is therefore to be seen in the context not only of immediate family and peer influence, but also in the context of broader society.
According to Morris (1997), Pepper's use of the term "contextualism" first occurred during 1932, where he referred to John Dewey's…
Blunden, Andy. (2001, February). "The Vygotsky School." Spirit, Money and Modernity Seminar. http://home.mira.net/~andy/seminars/chat.htm
Blunden, Andy (1997). "Vygotsky and the Dialectical Method."
Domitrovich, Celene E. (2001, April). "Parenting practices and child social adjustment: Multiple pathways of influence" In Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. Wayne State University Press
Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
S. news magazines between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1998. They concluded that the images of the poor in these news magazines "do not capture the reality of poverty, but instead provide a stereotypical and inaccurate picture of poverty that results in a misconception of beliefs about the poor, antipathy toward blacks and lack of support for welfare programs.
Similarly, Dixon and Linz (2000) researched the content of a random sample of local TV news programming in Los Angeles and Orange counties to determine representations of blacks, Latinos, and whites as lawbreakers and law defenders. "Intergroup" comparisons of perpetrators found that blacks and Latinos are significantly more apt than whites to be shown as lawbreakers. "Interrole" comparisons, lawbreakers vs. law defenders, similarly found that blacks and Latinos are more likely to be shown as lawbreakers than as defenders, whereas whites are significantly more apt to be portrayed as defenders…
Chavous, T.M., Green, L., Harris, a, Lumas, H., and Rivas, D. (2004). Racial Stereotypes and Gender in Context: African-Americans at Predominantly Black and Predominantly White Sex Roles. A Journal of Research. 51(1-2), 1.
Clawson, R.T., (2000) Poverty as we know it; Media portrayals of the poor. Public Opinion Quarterly 64(1) 53-65
Dixon, T., and Linz, D.(2000) Overrepresentation and Under representation of African-Americans and Latinos as Lawbreakers on Television. Journal of Communication. 50 (2), 131
Fogel, R.W. (1989).Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery New York W.W. Norton.
As the vast majority of African-Americans do not know where their ancestors came from, it is difficult to trace one's roots back to the African continent. At the same time, the United States, while certainly the nation that nearly every African-American would consider to be home, has hardly been hospitable to African-Americans throughout history. Even today, nearly a quarter of all African-American families in the United States live below the poverty line.
Nation plays a more prominent role in Hispanic-American communities, as these communities tend to organize themselves around national heritage. For example, the Puerto ican community in the United States is distinct from the Mexican-American community.
It should be kept in mind, however, that both Hispanic-Americans and African-Americans tend to identify their national heritage with the United States of America - despite their troublesome relationship with their home country over the centuries.
Institutional networks continue to play…
Boddy-Evans, a. (N.D.) the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from African History web site: http://africanhistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa080601a.htm
Davis, R. (N.D.) Surviving Jim Crow. Retrieved December 1, 2007 from the History of Jim Crow web site: http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/surviving.htm
Educational Broadcasting Corporation (2002). The Great Migration. Retrieved December
1, 2007 from African-American World web site: http://www.pbs.org /wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html
Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).
A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…
"Progressing into the 20th Century the Progressive Movement." (n.d.). 14 February 2010,
"Progressive Movement." (2010). 14 February 2010,
British reactions to the colonies wavered throughout the colonial era, from the policy of salutary neglect to the tightened controls of King George III. The Crown faced a dilemma: to allow the colonies to develop thriving commercial enterprises in the hopes of a trickle-down benefit for Great Britain; or to tighten the leash on the colonial governments to demand more regular tax revenues. In light of the thriving colonial economies in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Maryland, King George III opted for the latter, imposing tariffs on the colonies. Britain's policies toward the New World colonies remained, therefore, primarily economic: the Stamp and Sugar Acts exemplify the Crown's interest not so much in the development of colonial culture as in the colonial economy.
Friction between English settlers and Native Americans also impacted the development of colonial life and of Crown policies. Infiltration into lands inhabited by the indigenous Americans led to numerous…
An Outline of American History." Embassy of the United States, Stockholm. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://stockholm.usembassy.gov/usis/history/chapter2.html
Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763." The Library of Congress. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/indians/indians.html
From Revolution to Reconstruction." Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/H/1994/ch1_p9.htm
Du Sable Museum
A Reflection of African-American History
The DuSable Museum of African-American History is the oldest major museum related to African-American legacy. Founded by Margaret Taylor in 1961, the museum runs on a self-governing model with focus on collection, interpretation and achievement of African-American history. Its location in Chicago provides it an edge over other museums entailing artifacts related to this subject as Chicago was one of the prime cities where the major migration of African-American migration took place. Therefore, the city has African-American blood and heritage in its roots. This is the reason why the organization receives donations from local communities which ranges from single artifact to entire collection. The Diaspora of black people and the regions that black communities were related to, is well-reflected by the collection of Artifacts provided by local African-American communities. Its extensive collection of African-American heritage gives it a status of connoisseurship in…
Wade, B.(1991). "Practical traveler; tracing the trail of black history." The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEFDC173DF937A25754C0A967958260 .
Williams, L. (1988). "Black memorabilia: the pride and the pain." The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEFDC1338F93BA35751C1A96E948260 .
DuSable Museum Page 2
e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing exposure to education, albeit mostly segregated, many began to develop what is known as the Harlem enaissance.
The 1920s in American history were marked by a sociocultural awakening among Afro-Americans. More blacks participated in the arts than ever before, and their number increased steadily throughout the decade. This florescence of creative activity extended to many areas -- music, poetry, drama, fiction. In literature, the few Negro novels published between 1905 and 1923 were presented mainly by small firms unable to give their authors a national hearing. However, in the succeeding decade, over two dozen novels by blacks appeared, and most of them were issued by major American publishers. (Singh, 1976, p. 1)
The Harlem enaissance came about for many reasons not…
Golay, M. (1999). A Ruined Land: The End of the Civil War. New York: Wiley
Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. New York: Routledge.
Jim Crow Laws. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia
Kivel, Paul. (1995) Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.
Richard Allen: A Biography and Historical Context
African-American minister and agitator against colonialism
The life and struggles of Richard Allen provide contemporary historians of African-American history with one of the earliest narratives and examples of how Blacks resisted the institutions of American and world slavery, colonialism, and oppression. Allen's life, as noted by the entry on his life in the encyclopedia of African-American Lives, serves as a unique and profound window for readers as to what life was like for colonial-era slaves and how, while America resisted the tyranny of Britan, African-Americans similarly resisted the tyranny of slavery upon their lives, bodies, and livelihoods. (Gates, pp. 20-21)
Richard Allen was born a slave on February 14, 1760, in Philadelphia. The young Allen grew up on a plantation in Delaware. From the very beginning of Allen's life, he strove to buy his freedom. Allen eventually succeeded in doing so as an…
Franklin, John Hope & Alfred J. Moss. From Slavery to Freedom. Eighth Edition. New York: Knopf, 2000.
Gates, Henry Louis. African-American Lives. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004
Toppin, Edgar Allan. "Allen, Richard." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. 1 Dec. 2004. .
eligion in Human Transformation of the African-American topic with a focus on the African-American Christianity experience. The writer explores the transformation to Black Christianity and uncovers some of the underlying features of its existence. The writer examines the patterns and experiences of spirituality for the Black Christian experience in North America as well as the ways that the particular historical experiences of Blacks in the United States assisted in creating distinct forms of spirituality in the communities. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The Christian movement in North America is a large one. Millions of Christians worship in churches across the continent each week and the numbers continue to climb. African-American Christians have a faith and spiritual path that is somewhat different than white Christians follow. The terms "black church" and "black Christian" can be heard periodically in theological discussions. From the music to the underlying beliefs,…
Fulop, Timothy. African-American Religion: Interpretive Essays in History and Culture
Routledge (February 1, 1997)
Rabateau, Albert. J. Slave Religion: The Invisible Institution in the Antebellum South (Galaxy Books).Oxford University Press; New Ed edition (March 1, 1980)
Murphy, Joseph. Working the Spirit: Ceremonies of the African Diaspora
Hispanics and 40,375,000 African-Americans live in the United States and the respective percentages of these population groups are projected to continue to increase well into the foreseeable future. The purpose of this study was to provide descriptions of these two cultures and why they are of interest as well as a comparison of similarities and differences related to time orientation, communication, physical and mental health, group relationships, and perceptions and measures of intelligence between these two population groups. The study also presents a description of the theoretical framework that guided the analysis of both of these cultures as well as an explanation concerning how each culture influences human development, identity development, and personality development within it. An examination concerning how each culture influences the expression of emotion, the development of morality, gender, aggression, and marital fidelity and an explanation concerning potential biases that may influence the analysis of these cultures…
Brown, D. (2002, Winter). The role of work and cultural values in occupational choice, satisfaction, and success: A theoretical statement. Journal of Counseling and Development, 80(1), 48-51.
Buzi, R. S. & Weinman, M. L. (2010, Summer). Depression and risk behaviors among males attending family planning clinics. International Journal of Men's Health, 9(2), 91-93.
Carter-Parker, K., Edwards, K. A. & McCleary-Jones, V. (2012, Summer). Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African-American women who are physically active and those who are not. The ABNF Journal, 51-58.
Choi, K-H, Paul, J., Ayala, G., Boylan, R. & Gregorich, S. E. (2013, March 14). Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African-American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 1-7.
, in 1963 brought him worldwide attention. He spearheaded the Aug., 1963, March on Washington, which brought together more than 200,000 people. In 1964 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize." (Columbia Encyclopedia, 2003)
However, King's leadership in the civil-rights movement was challenged in the mid-1960s as others such as Malcolm X grew more militant. Indeed, his life paralleled the life of his hero Mahatma Gandhi. The originator of the nonviolent protest, Gandhi too took criticism as more militant colleagues pushed against non-violence in his later years.
Martin Luther King Jr.'s interests, however, broadened from civil rights to subsume criticism of the Vietnam War and a deeper concern over poverty. His plans for a Poor People's March to Washington were interrupted (1968) for a trip to Memphis, Tenn., in support of striking sanitation workers. On Apr. 4, 1968, he was shot and killed as he stood on the balcony of…
Adams, Russell. (1963) Great Negroes Past and Present, pp. 106-107. Chicago, Afro-Am Publishing Co.
Bennett, Lerone, Jr. (1964) What Manner of Man: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr. Chicago, Johnson.
Have a Dream: The Story of Martin Luther King in Text and Pictures. New York, Time Life Books, 1968.
African-American Desk Reference. (2005). Thomas W. Burton. New York: Schaumberg.
American History prior 1877 signed . Start introduction paragraph discuss historical events / people occurances, devote approximately page topic chosen.
"Unimportant" American Events
In spite of the fact that they had a decisive influence on the American society, particular historic events are likely to be forgotten by the masses. Little people know something regarding Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" pamphlet or about the influence that it had on colonists during the ar of Independence. The Three-fifths compromise made it possible for Southerners to increase their power in the U.S. through exploiting the fact that they had slaves. The Fugitive Slave Clause of 1793 was among the first legislations issued with the purpose of allowing slaveholders to get their slaves back. The ar of 1812 played an essential role in shaping U.S. history, but received little attention from the public across time. The Land Act of 1820 prohibited the acquisition of public…
"Common Sense," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=267
"Land Act of 1820," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University of Oklahoma Website: http://jay.law.ou.edu/faculty/Hampton/Mineral%20Title%20Examination/General%20Reading%20-%20Land%20Act%20of%201820.pdf
"The Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University at Buffalo Website: http://www.nsm.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/SlaveActs.html
"The Presidency of Andrew Jackson," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=637
African-Americans in Major Historical Events
Although African-Americans have been seen as being the catalysts of major historical conflicts such as the Sectional Crisis, the Civil ar, and Reconstruction, they actually impacted these events. For example during the Sectional Crisis, African-American presence in the U.S. Courts, as they sued for their freedom, brought the injustice that African-Americans faced to the national spotlight. In addition, during the Civil ar, African-Americans' presence was widespread as they fought on the field and worked behind the scenes. Finally, African-Americans shaped the period of Reconstruction as they continued their fight for equality through their presence in government politics. This essay will discuss these specific contributions of African-Americans during each of these eras.
The Dred Scott Decision
The Sectional Crisis was the period preceding the Civil ar that began in the 1840s and peaked during the 1850s. During the period of the Sectional divide contributions of African-Americans…
Murphy, Heather K. "African-Americans in the Civil War." Web. 14, Dec. 2010.
United States v. Dred Scott, 60 U.S. 393 (1856). Web.
Worth, Richard and Schwarz, Philip. African-Americans During Reconstruction. New York,
New York: Infobase Publishing, 2006. Print.
1. Describe the impediments to, and reasons for, the development of civil rights from 1877 to 1940.
Reconstruction had failed, leading to unresolved issues and the entrenchment of racist institutions in the social, economic, and political fabric of American life. After the formal end of Reconstruction in 1877, many impediments to civil rights were in fact legal but also ideological. Due to the lack of formal legal protections for African Americans, civil rights movements remained critical, particularly given the sinister nature of Jim Crow.
2. Discuss some of the major laws and events related to civil rights since 1940.
World War Two did have a major bearing on civil rights legislation, particularly as it led to the de-segregation of the American armed forces in 1948. The 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v Board of Education was also a major event signaling a shift in civil rights law in America.…
The Civil War was one of the most defining events in the nation’s history, and at the time was the most important event since the American Revolution. Whereas the Revolution embodied the ideals, values, and principles of the new nation, setting it apart from the British Crown and forever altering the geopolitical landscape, the Civil War revealed the persistent hypocrisy that continues to plague American society. Unresolved conflicts left brewing in the American psyche led to built-up tensions, exposing fissures in the society along the lines of culture, ethnicity, religion, race, gender, and socioeconomic class. The causes of the Civil War can be traced in fact to the inability of the original framers to take a firm stance on slavery, and to divest too much of the federal government’s power to the states. At the same time, protecting states’ rights was critical in the late eighteenth century when the nation…
He would not be allowed to leave during his contracted bondage, and would be treated like an escaped slave who committed a crime if he tried to escape a cruel master. Although, unlike a slave if his master was honest, he would be set freed and given a new start in life at the end of the contracted period.
20-year-old Puritan bride in the Massachusetts Bay Colony: This bride likely would have been subjected to tremendous religious prejudice and persecution back in her native England. After suffering a long and grueling passage to the colony, she would have faced conditions she had never experienced in England -- a rough life, difficult farming conditions, and the threat of Native Americans whose culture she little understood. If she survived and she was lucky enough to have a good relationship with her husband, she would have seen the beginnings of a new society…
At this time, African-Americans were not allowed to enroll in this institution Autherine only stayed for three days not because she could not cope with the education, but because her life was in danger. Majority of the white students protested because of her presence. There is also the George allace incident that has also been mentioned bringing the University of Alabama into the limelight.
The university is also well-known for its prowess in football which was initiated in 1892 in the institution. Football in the University of Alabama is on a professional level ranked next to clubs in the league (Brad, 3). Many students receive football scholarships thus providing career opportunities to the students not only through education.
Alabama has been at the centre stage of civil rights activities involving fight against segregation, and providing inspirational individuals who will forever be celebrated like Reverend Martin Luther King and Rosa…
Alabama . Infoplease. 2005. 18 Oct. 2010.
Brad, Jason. Alabama Is No. 1 in Preseason Poll. New York Times
Oct. 18, 2010: 3
African-American Roles in the ar for Independence and the Civil ar
America was founded on the principle of freedom. ith this in mind, it comes as little surprise that both the ar for Independence and the Civil ar have the similarity that they both involved the struggle for freedom. Both wars sought to overcome oppression and both wars encompassed a vision of basic human rights connected with a sense of justice. The other similarity these two wars shared was the heroic efforts of African-Americans in their participation in the fight for freedom. This paper will seek to compare and contrast their involvement in these to similar, but different wars.
To understand African-American involvement in the Revolutionary ar, one must first paint a picture of what colonial life was like. Colonists faced the labor-intensive task of trying to carve out a life on a new continent. These were harsh conditions unlike…
Arnesen, E. "Fighting for Freedom." Footsteps 5(4) Sept./Oct. 2003: p. 12-15. MasterFILE Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. May 25, 2004 http://www.epnet.com .
Buffalo Soldier Feats No Longer Ignored." FDCH Regulatory Intelligence Database. 5 Feb. 2002. Business Source Premier. EBSCOHost. University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ. May 25, 2004
Whereas in 1963, 70% of all African-American families were headed by married couples, that rate had dipped to 46.1% by 1996. In 2001, the rate had increased to 47.9%, the first uptrend in 40 years (Kinnon, 2003). The rate of African-American crime and incarceration, which is closely linked to males from single-parent households, has also dipped since 1996.
Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs
While the statistics are compelling, there are a series of questions which have not been addressed by these welfare reforms. There are still about 50% of the former welfare population which has not been able to graduate from the welfare-poverty cycle, nor have they been able to find work. In states where the TANF provisions were enacted, including the 5-year limitation on welfare benefits, there has been a back-sliding on the part of state legislatures to extend welfare assistance for the "hard core" unemployed.
Bush, L. (2000). African-American Mothers/African-American Sons: A Critical Examination of the Social Science Literature. Western Journal of African-American Studies, 145-167.
Cherry, F. & . (1977). Physical and cognitive development in children of low-income mothers working in the child's early years. Child Development, 158-166.
Garfinkle, I. a. (1986). Single Mothers and their children: A new American dilemma. Washington: Urban Institute.
Haskins, R. (1989). Beyond metaphor: The efficacy of early childhood education. American Psychologist, 274-282.
Racial identity plays a strong role in the definition of self; Lorde recognized the importance of racial identity even in the struggle for gender equality. Her argument implicitly supports Jones' assertion that racial equality is "prior" to the cause of gender equality for African-American women. The implicit argument is that feminism could not be a united force because white women did not have the ability through their institutionalized advantages to cogently appreciate the tribulations of African-American women. As a result, there could never have been unity in the first place. In understanding this key point, the justification for African-American unity and the subjugation of the black feminist movement appears to be a more appealing strategy.
A final poignant comparison and relationship between the greater struggle for racial equality and black feminism rests in the internal conflict within African-American culture. One of the greatest ironies of the Civil Rights movement is…
What is most amazing is that just a century or two before, the English were immigrants to America, and yet they could not recognize the commonalities between their own quest for a better life and the quest of thousands of immigrants who came to America to better themselves.
My question in relationship to this reading is quite simple. What can Americans do to erase the stereotypes and racial hatred that still exists today? This seems like a simple question, and yet, it is much more complicated than the first glance indicates. Obviously, this hatred and bigotry still exists in many (or even all) areas of the country. The fact that this problem still exists at all is a sad testament to American society. While we may pride ourselves on being one of the most progressive and successful nations on Earth, we still deny many of our citizens the same rights…
African-Americans have experienced higher rates of recidivism in contrast with other segments of the population. Evidence of this can be seen with a study conducted by the U.S. Justice Department. They found that those individuals in this demographic and between the ages 18 to 35 have a 32% chance of being incarcerated. Once they are released from prison or placed on probation, the odds of them committing another crime are double in contrast with other population groups. (Kury, 2011) To fully understand why this is occurring requires examining the root causes of the problem. This will be accomplished by conducting a literature review on the subject. These findings will illustrate the primary causes as to why this segment has higher recidivism rates.
The target population is focusing on African-Americans from ages 18 to 35. This study will examine how the lack of education, substance dependency and criminal history are influencing…
Andrews, D. (2010). Rehabilitating Criminal Justice Policy. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 16 (1), pp. 39 -- 55.
Bellair, P. (2011). Low Skill Employment Opportunities. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48 (2), pp.
176 -- 208.
Kury, H. (2011). Punitivity. Munich: Borckmeyer.
African-American and Mexican-American
Civil Rights in Texas
This essay discusses African-American and Mexican-American civil rights in Texas. The goal is to discover what some of the key events was in each the African-American and the Mexican-American battles for their group's civil rights. The secondary objective is to see how these movements resembled each other and how they differed from one another and if one was more effective than the other. As the United States and its individual states like Texas become more racially diverse, all new criteria will arise that may be more closely linked to India's caste system than to what we understand and take for granted here in the United States. Economic barriers and not racial barriers are gradually becoming the underlying motivator of the civil rights movement. In other words, being black or Mexican will not matter in regard to civil rights. If the respective…
Arnoldo De Leon. (1982). "The Tejano Community, 1836-1900." Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Alwyn Barr (1973). "Black Texans: A History of Negroes in Texas, 1528-1971." Austin: Jenkins.
Michael L. Gillette. (1978). "The Rise of the NAACP in Texas." Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 81, April.
David Montejano (1987). "Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986." Austin: University of Texas Press.
However, conventional beliefs that there is low rate for African-American involvement in suicidal activities, there exists minimal focus on learning the possible suicide patterns among African-Americans. Social workers are not aware of the risks and protectiveness among African-Americans. This gives room for misinterpretation of facts concerning self-destructive activities of African-Americans. The research further stresses the importance of social workers to the study of suicide among African-Americans. They also have the capacity for influencing national policies and strategies for the mitigation of suicidal cases. Through the research, it was evident that there exists extremely little information about the empirical knowledge of social workers practicing in this sector with regard to the works featured by the social work researchers.
With the evidently increasing need for social workers, it is necessary to study the capacities of knowledge of social workers regarding issued of suicide. This is relevant to the increase of social workers…
Anderson, J.A. (2010). Clinical research in context: Reexamining the distinction between research and practice. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 35(1): 46-63.
Andrews, P.W. (2006). Parent-Offspring Conflict and Cost-Benefit Analysis in Adolescent
Suicidal Behavior: Effects of Birth Order and Dissatisfaction with Mother on Attempt
Incidence and Severity. Human Nature, 17(2), 190-211. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Baggetta says, "My painting process is a very active one where my first marks and impressions are usually quiet and deliberate strokes" (Marla pp). Two of her pieces, "Across the Fields," (9"x9") and "inter Hike," (12"x12") are excellent examples of her work as a landscape artist, and can be found at gabrie.com/marla_baggetta.html. Other examples of her landscape work, including "Breath of inter," (12"x12"), "Across the Valley," (18"x18"), "Cedar Oak," (30"x20"), and "Fairyland," (12"x12"), can be seen at Village of illiamette Arts Festival eb site, village-arts.org/Artist/266/2004.
Baggetta has exhibited extensively in the Northwest and has received numerous awards for her landscape painting including Best of Show, Oregon Pastel Society 2003, Best in Show two-dimensional, Art in the Pearl 2000, Arts for the Parks Top 100, 1999, and has been included in numerous regional and national pastel society exhibitions (Marla pp). Moreover, she was featured in the February, 2004 issue of Pastel…
John E. Rozelle. Retrieved July 27, 2005 at http://www.johnrozelle.com/Navigation/Frameset.htm
Ken Christensen. Retrieved July 27, 2005 at http://www.gabrie.com/ken_christensen.html
Ken1 Christensen Originals. Retrieved July 27, 2005 at http://www.lovesemporium.com/catalog.php?cid=17
Marla Baggetta. Retrieved July 27, 2005 at http://www.gabrie.com/marla_baggetta.html
The impact of slavery on the sexuality of African-American women has been largely overlooked for many years. In addition, the negative manner in which African-American Women are portrayed in the media has been a topic of debate in recent years.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore how the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem. In addition, we will examine how the larger American public views and portrays black women in the media.
How the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem
How slavery impacted the Family Unit
The Slavery in America is one of the most heinous events in history.
What many fail to realize is that the experience of slavery has fashioned the way that African-American women view their sexuality and body image. efore we can fully understand the impact that slavery had…
Bay, Mia. The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Davis, Olga Idriss. "A Black Woman as Rhetorical Critic: Validating Self and Violating the Space of Otherness." Women's Studies in Communication 21.1 (1998): 77+.
Deglamorizing American Street Gangs
Social researcher and author Deborah Lamm eisel (2002) says that the glamorized image of the American street gang as drug dealers is not the image that is consistent with historical research (Lamm eisel 75).
The drug gang} is certainly not a typical street gang... They didn't even grow out of a street gang. These kids started out to make money by pedaling crack and that is a very different phenomenon than street gangs (Knox 66) (Lamm eisel 75)."
Lamm eisel has gone back to the essence of the historical gangs that go back to the earliest immigrants who carved out sections of neighborhoods for themselves using coercion and violence to maintain territorial boundaries. However, it is easy to disagree with Knox, because for decades now street gangs have been associated with the violence and trafficking of illegal drugs.
In a journal article by John M. Hagedorn…
Contemporary Gangs: An Organizational Analysis. New York: LFB Scholoarly Publishing, 2002. Questia. 14 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111541620 .
Coppola, Francis Ford (dir). The Godfather, motion picture. Paramount Pictures (1972), USA.
The effect will also trickle into the political arena: the more minorities and women are visibly in positions of power in companies and organizations, the more women and minorities will be elected as public officials and perhaps, some day, to the highest office in America, the Presidency.
Third, the changing workforce in America could herald deep cultural changes throughout the nation. Values that were founded on European Christian civilization might be replaced by values shared by different cultures from around the world: Asian, African, and Middle Eastern. Public policies could therefore change to reflect social values different from those that have been in existence over the past several hundred years. The creative arts and the media would also change as a result of these changes to cultural expression…
lack Church and Homosexuality
There are plenty of reasons why the black church refuses to accept homosexuality amongst its patrons. The African-American people have been one of the most oppressed races in America. They felt separate from the rest of the Americans due to the color of their skin. The African-American community has struggled with a lot of racism. In order to allow their society to survive and remain united they turned to prayer. The church was their salvation and helped them deal with oppression and racism. It was a sacred ground for them to heal their pain and regain their respect.
lack Church and their opposition
The black church knows that homosexuality rips the social fabric apart. They feel that gay people are not able to reproduce. They feel it's a threat to the survival of society and can also bring innocent children into the fold. It is a…
1. Black Pastors Bridle at Gay Marriage, Christine McCarthy McMorris, Religion in the news, 2004
2. Religious gays press case for equal rights, Joe Crea, Washington Blade, November, 2004
3. The failure of the black church, Rev. Renee McCoy, Black Light, 2004
4. Hostility rules amongst black congregations, Atlanta journal and constitution, 2003
Metacognition and Effective Study Strategies Among African-American College and University Students, Bernadette Nwafor discusses the fact that many African-American students have trouble with basic concentration and retention skills and how the implementation of various study techniques could enhance student concentration. Nwarfor purports that those students that try to understand what they are reading through "meaningfulness, collaboration and establishment of relationships between new ideas and old experiences" are more likely to do better on tests than those who learn by merely reading through text or memorization It is her perception that African-American students learn better when they can relate to the material in question. In this article she studies the three kinds of memory (sensory, short-term and long-term memory) as she shows that if a person associates something familiar with new material they are able to retain it better in their long-term memory. She cites for her example a study by…
This fact and the preceding quotation proves that Maggie views heritage as an interactive process, unlike the viewpoint of her sister. The fact that Maggie's mother ultimately gives her the quilts alludes to the fact that she shares this belief as well.
The conclusion of this story in which Maggie's mother gives her the valued quilts appears to suggest that the author believes that the more interactive application of heritage, as opposed to the passive reverence of heritage as art, is more valid. Walker does not seem to pose the notion that these two views of heritage are incompatible with one another, however. Instead, she indicates that Dee is simply not able to understand the value in the form of heritage that her mother and sisters represent and practice. The following quotation which ends the story and precedes Dee's departure, alludes to this fact.
"You just don't understand," she said,…