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Unfortunately, the perverted socio-economic institution known as slavery has always had significantly greater psychological ramifications and horrors for women, than it has traditionally had for men. This is particularly the case when one considers chattel slavery, such as that which was prevalent in the United States in the inception of this country's founding. Many of the perverse manifestations made evident by slavery's effects upon women are detailed in Harriet Jacob's thinly veiled fictional/autobiographical accounting of her life entitled An Incident in the Life of a Slave Girl. hile the inhumane, unnatural occurrence of having one's body, soul and mind owned as a piece of property by another is similar for both men and women, the effects of this perceived ownership are inherently different for women and affects the nature not only of their servitude, but of their attempts to escape it.
The attempt to escape slavery is one…
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. New York: Barnes and Nobles. 2005. Print.
The resistance tactic of educating black youth is challenged and despite the fact that the boy has likely been told that this education will free him of prejudice, through proof of his intellect he is called back and told to keep the error to himself, so as not to overturn the apple cart. The idea that adopting the ideals and goals of whites, in this case education as resistance has proven, at least in this case to be ineffective as the boy is crushed by his awareness of the fault in the message of his grandmother and others about his power through education.
Both the Morrison and the right works demonstrate that social change, through the economy of legitimate society is the real nature of the oppression of blacks. There is a clear indication that though these messages have only limited connectivity to black identity, they mark a thematic source…
Morrison, Toni Song of Solomon, New York: Vintage, 2004.
Posnock, Ross, Color and Culture: Black Writers and the Making of Modern Intellectual. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Wright, Richard Native Son, New York: Harper Perennial, 1998.
He had lived his life as a white child, and even after his discovery of his true race lived as a white man. He was allowed to pass as white, and therefore turned his back on his real heritage. Thus, his blackness became a secret, something to be ashamed of and hide; "I know that in writing the following pages I am divulging the great secret of my life, the secret which for some years I have guarded far more carefully than any of my earthly possessions," (Johnson 2). This shows a much different reaction to the understanding of oneself as black in the United States.
Both these texts involve understanding oneself relative to how others view you. Realistically, from a physical standpoint, being African-American means little difference to being white. However, from a social and psychological standpoint, it is a major difference, especially in the tie period these stories…
Cornell University Law School. "Civil Rights." Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 10 Sep 2009 at http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/civil_rights .
Hurston, Zora Neale. "How it Feels to Be a Colored Me." Mules and Men. The University of Virginia. Retrieved 10 Sep 2009 at http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA01/Grand-Jean/Hurston/Chapters/how.html .
Johnson, James Weldon. Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. Kessinger Publishing. 2004.
The two have a unity in their interactions, wanting essentially the same things.
The family forms a social system based on the interactions among the members of the family. This is seen throughout the book as each member shows that what he or she has, needs and values depends upon the nature of the social system to which he or she belongs. In this case, Maya, as do other people, belongs to different social systems at the same time. The family is one such social system, and in that system Maya interacts with Bailey, Momma, and Uncle illie according to their specific roles in the family group. The individual has different roles in the system according to whom they are interacting with -- Maya shows one kind of behavior with Bailey and quite another with Momma.
These authors write about the black experience, and just because this is only a…
Angelou, Maya. I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. New York: Bantam Books, 1970.
Chesnutt, Charles W. The Marrow of Tradition. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1969.
Ellison, Ralph. The Invisible Man. New York: vintage Books, 1989.
Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: Perennial Classic, 1990.
Politics of Motherhood: African-American Literature
It is fairly apparent from an examination of the following texts that depict slave narratives and those of indentured servitude -- Harriet Jacobs' Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl, Harriet ilson's Our Nig and Frances Harper's Iola Leroy that both in literature, as well as in life itself, the conception of a mother both denotes and connotes images of home. hat sort of images, of course, are largely determined by the nature of the relationship that one has with his or her mother. In some narratives, that relationship is unabashedly positive and is one in which the mother represents the stability, peace and domesticity (as much as is possible for slaves and those who have been newly freed from slavery to have). In other narratives, based on the marked dearth of a relationship with the principle characters mothers, matriarchs are representative of a…
Harper, F. (1892). Iola Leroy. Free Books. Retrieved from http://www.fullbooks.com/Iola-Leroy2.html
Jacobs, H. (2005). Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Wilson, H.E. (1859). Our Nig: Sketches From the Life of a Free Black. Full Books. Retrieved from http://www.fullbooks.com/Our-Nig1.html
The Black Arts Era is characterized by powerful voices such as that of Ishmael Reed or Amiri Baraka. In his poem Black Art, Amiri Baraka potently draws attention to the need for a self-conscious black poetry which would accentuate intentionally all the features specific to the African-American culture. The harsh tone of the poem at the beginning and the almost raging, ferocious rhythm indicate the desire to awaken the spirit of the black to their individuality: "Poems are bull***** unless they are / teeth or trees or lemons piled / on a step...Poem scream poison gas on beasts in green berets / Clean out the world for virtue and love, / Let there be no love poems written / until love can exist freely and / cleanly."(Gates and McKay, 935) the poem starts in a harsh and even violent tone, to end in a soft voice speaking about love. The…
Dept. Of State: International Information Programs: Publications - Outline of American Literature." International Information Programs. Apr. 2002. U.S. Department of State. 18 Mar. 2008 http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/amlitweb.htm.
Gates, Henry L., and Nellie Y. McKay, eds. The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature. New York W.W. Norton & Company, 1997.
Gorski, Paul C. "Classic African-American Literature." EdChange Multicultural Pavilion. 2008. EdChange. 18 Mar. 2008 http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/sites/aframdocs.html.
Keenan, AM. "African-American Review." African-American Review. 5 Mar. 2008. Saint Louis University. 16 Mar. 2008 http://aar.slu.edu/.
The effect this had on many slaves was to make them determined to gain their freedom at all costs.
Family relationships, something most people take for granted, were not considered in the lives of slaves. Two of the narratives note, "At the close of that year I was sold to a Thomas Stanton, and had to be separated from my wife and one daughter, who was about one-month-old" (Smith 13). "Could you have seen that mother clinging to her child, when they fastened the irons upon his wrists; could you have heard her heart-rending groans, and seen her bloodshot eyes wander wildly from face-to-face, vainly pleading for mercy; could you have witnessed that scene as I saw it, you would exclaim, Slavery is damnable!" (Jacobs). Masters commonly sold one or two members of the family, and they were often separated for life.
The families of the enslavers in contrast, were…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass. New York: Dover Publications, 1995.
Equiano, Olaudah (Gustavus Vassa). "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by Himself." I Was Born a Slave: An Anthology of Classic Slave Narratives, 1770-1849. Ed. Yuval Taylor. Vol. 1. Chicago: Lawrence Hill Books, 1999. 34-180.
Jacobs, Harriet. Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl. 2004. 20 Oct. 2006. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~Hyper/JACOBS/hj-site-index.htm
Smith, Venture. "Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Venture, a Native of Africa: But Resident above Sixty Years in the United States of America." From African to Yankee Narratives of Slavery and Freedom in Antebellum New England. Ed. Robert J. Cottrol. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1998. 1-31.
The Implications of African-American Literature
How African-American Literature Has Changed -- Across the Genres
Slave Narratives and Biographies
African-American Literature and Its Impact on Society
Literature is very important. Many people love to read, and still others love to write. Together, they make a winning combination. Literature is often studied, but one aspect of it has been getting very little attention. African-American literature has often times been ignored, or been only selectively visible. hether or not African-American literature is influential on society, and whether or not it can be considered important and viable are questions and concerns that need to be answered.
The intent and purpose of this paper is to answer those questions, and others. However, in order to do that, there are several issues that will have to be discussed. Naturally, the importance of African-American literature will be discussed, but one…
Associated Press. "90% of public school teachers white, national study finds." San Francisco Chronicle, (17 Oct. 1996): A2.
Asim, Jabari. African-American literature in the black. 1 June 1997. The Washington Post. 17 March 2003. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/25thann/asim.htm .
Beyond Academics: Harvard's Dream Team Has Salvaged Black Studies." Emerge (1999):38.
Blackface Renaissance: Scholars discuss the resurging interest in." Black Issues In Higher Education (1999): 14.
African-American LITEATUE/MUSIC ON AMEICA/AMEICAN CULTUE
Music is one of the most important elements among the African-American culture, through songs culture's history was revealed, pass information about events and activities to be done, evaluate and criticize a group effort or tell of some emotional apex. Music also played a significant role in comforting and healing. Africans in America used music in different situations such as; in their labor, sadness, happy moments, communication and resistance against oppression.
George, Games, etl. (2006) said that African-American music has great melodic lines and rhythm that has remained famous and influential. The African-American music comprised of sounds of gospels and revival of spirituals that accompanied the civil rights movement (adano, onald, etl 2003). Jazz which was later named "American classical music" was the beacon of the height of birth of African-American music, it was not only music of generation but also music that motivated the generation,…
1. Johnson, James Weldon, and J. Rosamond Johnson. The Second Book of Negro Spirituals. New York: The Viking Press, 2006.
2. Johnson, James Weldon, J. Rosamond Johnson, and Lawrence Brown. The Book of American Negro Spirituals. New York: Viking Press, 2005.
3. Monson, Ingrid, and Freedom Sounds: Civil Rights Call Out to Jazz and Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007
4. Radano, Ronald Michael. Lying Up a Nation: Race and Black Music. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Fences, by August Wilson. Specifically, it will contain an analysis of the following essay question: Develop the theme of "responsibility of family." Throughout the play, the importance of Troy's family plays an all-important place in his life. His responsibility to his family is paramount to him, even though he does not always show it, and they do not always know it.
Death ain't nothing but a fastball on an outside corner" (Wilson 10).
Troy Maxson is not a model father and husband by any means. He alienates his wife who loves him by siring an illegitimate child with his mistress, who dies giving birth. ose, Troy's wife, agrees to raise the child, but the love between the two is forever damaged, and ose will no longer give Troy all her love. "ose... I'm standing here with my daughter in my arms. She ain't but a wee bittie little old…
Wilson, August. Fences. New York: New American Library, 1987.
That being said, it is quite difficult to be honest with oneself, even thought as we stand in front of the mirror, naked and bare, Didion says we remain "blind to our fatal weaknesses." One might think that being too self-critical would damage the ego, but for Didion, it is completely the opposite -- by knowing out flaws, accepting some and working towards the goal of solving others, we become more actualized and powerful. Without this realization, "one eventually discovers the final turn of the screw: one runs away to find oneself, and finds no one at home."
Both Didion and Walker focus on self-respect, self-actualization, and in a very real way, a pseudo-Marxian approach to alienation from society. There are several points in common for the authors: one's own approach to self; seeking and finding self-respect; and taking an active role in our own place in the universe. Conversely,…
Hooks, B. Rock My Soul: Black People and Self-Esteem. Washington Square Press, 2004.
Sanford, L. Women and Self-Esteem: Understanding and Improving the Way We Think
About Ourselves. Penguin, 1987.
The Evolution of American Identity Through Literature
The diversity within the American experience, and as well within the canon of American literature, precludes the possibility of singling out two or even ten of the novels, poems, or short stories that best encapsulate what it means to be American. From the colonial and early national era and the fledgling formation of national identity through the struggles of emancipation from slavery and transcendentalism, onwards to the industrial and capitalist eras, American literature has provided an accurate reflection of the lives of individuals and communities that comprise life in different regions of the country. Geographic and cultural differentiations also help to expand what it means to be American, taking into account race, class, gender, and generation. Threads that tie together Americans throughout time and in spite of radical differences in worldview include staunch independence and self-reliance, coupled with a profound optimism. Trust in…
Brent Staples and Jamaica Kinkaid have written seminal short stories, contained in anthologies of American and African-American literature. Although Kinkaid's "Girl" and Staples's "Just alk on By" were published about twenty years apart, they share in common themes related to racism and the experience of being black in the United States. Kinkaid and Staples both address the intersection of gender and race, with Kinkaid focusing on the role expectations of women in black society and Staples concentrating on the perception of black males by the dominant white culture. Both Staples and Kinkaid imbue their writing with emotional intensity, not shying from anger, but rather, transforming powerful feelings of frustration into points of liberation.
In "Just alk on By," the narrator describes his experience as a night walker, someone who enjoys taking long walks at night in the city. hat would typically be considered a normal activity takes on tremendous political…
Kinkaid, Jamaica. "Girl." Retrieved online: http://www.thesae.k12.ca.us/apps/download/mAyAZX5yjR1CTUVTqlvLuDtnyDIATlYLqshuMeIxmRxmz1AQ.pdf/Reading%20activities%20-%20Girl%20by%20Jamaica%20Kincaid.pdf
Simmons, Diane. "The Rhythm of Reality in the Works of Jamaica Kinkaid." World Literature Today. Vol. 68, No. 3.
Staples, Brent. "Just Walk on By." Retrieved online: http://openhighschoolcourses.org/pluginfile.php/6364/mod_resource/content/0/TKAM/Just%20Walk%20on%20By%20 (Eng%209B).pdf
The fact that this figure remains a guess says something important about what orrison was up against in trying to find out the full story of the slave trade. uch of that story has been ignored, left behind, or simply lost.
Through her works she attempted to retell the stories of grief associated with slavery and terror, her characters living their lives with greater understanding of its value than almost any other set of characters in fiction today.
Within the genre of the autobiography there is a different tenor of thought the words and deeds are that of the author and the message is clearly self, devolvement. Angelou in the Heart of a Woman demonstrates the ideals of her time, as a civil rights organizer and protestor. She clearly spells out the strife that exists between whites, and blacks and the dangerous dance they are doing during what most would…
Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 97.
Maya Angelou, the Heart of a Woman, (New York, Bantam Books, 1981) 191.
Alice Walker in love & Trouble: Stories of Black Women (New York Harcourt Press, 1973) 47-59.
In keeping with the theme of individuality highlighted above, each of the main characters in the assigned readings struggle to define his or her identity in terms of the dichotomies in the society they observe. Each point-of-view differs according to the person's stage of life and background, and each person seeks to establish an identity by means of the cultural and social tools they have at their disposal. At times these tools comprise family members, friends, or teachers, and at others they are something much more focused and personal, such as the intellect or determination.
Sylvia, the main character of "The Lesson," establishes her identity in terms of the financial contrast between her own social construct and those who can spend $1,000 on a toy. For her, the concept of financial security provides a platform for constructing an identity. Her determination to contend with the rich for a place…
A cannot live on tomorrow's bread." (Langston Hughs)
The poem of Hughs ends by expressing that freedom comes to be needed by those who are deprived the most of freedom.
CULLEN: UNCLE JIM
In the work of Cullen entitled "Uncle Jim" the entirety of understanding this poem is in the first line which states:
White folks is white," says Uncle Jim" (Countree Cullen)
In just the first line of this poem it is expressed how all the blacks were not ready at the time of this poem for feeling or accepting that they were, just as the white people, Americans.
ROWN: "ITTER FRUIT OF THE TREE"
Many of Sterling rowns first works have been called "...lighthearted narratives...' To be followed by "itter Fruit of the Tree" which has been termed to be a "...spiteful vendetta..." In which he speaks of the suffering of his family, specifically his grandmother and grandfather…
Claude McCay (1919) Review of "If We Must Die" Online available at http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/mckay.html
Langston Hughs - "Democracy" Online available at http://www.poemhunter.com/p/m/poem.asp?poet=6691&poem=32573
Countree Cullen - "Uncle Jim" http://www.ragistan.com/cgi-bin/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=next_topic&f=7&t=002198&go=newer
The Poets: Sterling Brown (1901-1989) Online available at http://education.yahoo.com/homework_help/cliffsnotes/american_poets_of_the_20th_century/56.html
African-Americans are second only to Native Americans, historically, in terms of poor treatment at the hands of mainstream American society. Although African-Americans living today enjoy nominal equality, the social context in which blacks interact with the rest of society is still one that tangibly differentiates them from the rest of America. This cultural bias towards blacks is in many notable ways more apparent than the treatment of other people of color, such as Asian immigrants, as is reflected in disparate wages and living conditions experienced by these respective groups. Common stereotypes hold the successful, college educated black man or woman as the exception rather than the rule, whereas Asians are commonly thought of as over-achievers. Although any bias undermines social interaction in that it shifts attention away from individual merit, the bias towards African-Americans can be said to be worse than most, and lies at the root of discrimination and…
Tamar Lewin. Growing Up, Growing Apart. New York Times, June 25, 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/search/article-page.html?res=9402E1DF1730F936A15755C0A9669C8B63
Thomas Dolan. Newark and its Gateway Complex. Rutgers Newark Online, September, 2002. http://www.newarkmetro.rutgers.edu/reports/2002/09/gateway/gateway2.php
George Breitman (Ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements, published in 1990 by Grove Weidenfeld: New York, NY. pp 4-17 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/malcolmxgrassroots.htm
High Rises Brought Low at Last. The Economist: July 9, 1998. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=142018
e learn that art can indeed reflect life but it can also inspire it beyond what the human mind can dream.
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
Richard Powell. African-American Art. 2005 Oxford University Press. http://www.aawc.com
Rodriguez, Junius P.. "African-American Experience: Art." African-American Experience. 12 September, 2008. http://aae.greenwood.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, (1990). 278.
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, (1994). 69.
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a…
Bailey, Thomas, et al. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company, 1994.
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave. New York: Penguin, 1982.
Levernier, James a. "Frederick Douglass: Overview." Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed. 1994. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed August 3, 2006. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990.
African-American males between the ages of 15 and 24 are at relatively higher risk of suicide according to Center for Disease control and prevention. Since 1980s the suicide rate has increased tremendously and many young seemingly successful males are committing suicide following years of suffering from chronic depression. Such cases highlight the importance of recognizing signs of depression young males but since researches and studies do not always reach parents on time, they fail to stay on top of it. This is how Gina Smallwood felt when in 2008 her young son shot himself right before his 20th birthday. (Thomas, 2009) Gina had no idea Kelvin was at the risk of suicide or that there were any statistics that placed African-American youth at greater risk of suicide. Instead she felt that since her son had been an honor student and had a bright future ahead of it; suicide would be…
Poussaint, A., & Alexander, A. (2000). Lay my burden down: Unraveling suicide and the mental health crisis among African-Americans. Boston: Beacon
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control.
Suicide injury deaths and rates. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov
Barnes, DH (2006). The Aftermath of Suicide Among African-Americans. Journal of Black Psychology, 32(3), 335-348.
If someone returns a questionnaire with identifying personal information, then it will not be used in the study and will be destroyed. The questionnaires will also be constructed so that there will be no questions that could potentially violate the participants privacy in any way. For instance, there will be no questions asked about the particulars of the child's suicide, where the mother works, what particular community she's from and what church she is a member of, etc. Questions such as these could deter the target audience from responding because of fear that their privacy could be jeopardized.
The introductory letter sent with the questionnaire plays an important role in weeding out any ethical issues that may arise. The letter will clearly define the survey and discuss why the prospective participants were chosen. They will know that none of their personal information was used in order to send them the…
LEADING CAUSES OF MOBIDITY:
Some of the diseases which often result in early death in African-Americans, provided that the go untreated or undiagnosed, include hypertension, coronary heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, dementia (i.e., Alzheimer's disease), diabetes and certain types of cancer, most notably lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and prostate cancer (in men). Exactly why the morbidity rates for these disease are so much higher in African-Americans than in other ethnic/racial groups include a lack of education, lower incomes and the inability to access professional health care providers and clinics ("Health and Health Care," 2009, Internet). At the top of the list, there is hypertension, coronary heart disease (especially arterial blockage), stroke and some major types of cancer. With hypertension, some studies have shown that if a black male lives in poverty, his chances of being stricken with high blood pressure increases, perhaps because of the stress which goes…
"Health and Health Care of African-American Elders." (2009). Internet. Accessed June 24,
2009 from http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/african.html .
Spector, Rachel E. (2008). Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness. New York: Pearson
In G. Landsberg, M. Rock, & L. Berg (Eds.), Serving mentally ill offenders and their victims: Challenges and opportunities for social workers and other mental health professionals. New York, NY: Springer.
Carroll K.M. (1997). Enhancing retention in clinical trials of psychosocial treatments: Practical strategies. In L. Onken, J. Blaine, & J. Boren, (Eds.), Beyond the therapeutic alliance: Keeping the drug-dependent individual in treatment. [NIDA Research Monograph Series #165, 4-24]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Chou C.P., et al. (1998). Interaction effects of client and treatment program characteristics on retention: An exploratory analysis using hierarchical linear models. Substance Use & Misuse, 33(11), 2281-2301.
Goldkamp, J.S., White, M.D., & Robinson, J.B. (2001). Do drug courts work? Getting inside the drug court blackbox. Journal of Drug Issues, 31(1), 27-72.
Snyder, H., Finnegan, ., Stahl, A., & Poole, R. (1999). Easy access to juvenile court statistics: 1988-1997 [data presentation and analysis package]. Pittsburgh,…
The Developmental Pathways Model (2005) Health Services Technology Assessment Text HSTAT Online available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat5.section.18578
Deborah Prothrow-Stith, M.D., Deadly Consequences "An Endangered Species -- Young Men of Color Living in Poverty" Chapter 5,-page 64-79 (1991).
African-American Males and the Correlation Between Substance Abuse
African-American in the Media
The comedy Barbershop, starring Ice Cube juxtaposes the harshness of city life with the resiliency of the people living in the city. The movie with its black cast has an impressive standing in the movie industry for the year 2002. I'm not sure that I agree that this specific film means a breakthrough for African-Americans in the industry. The Black person has after all been part of the industry for a long time, and there are many African-American stars, not featured in this movie, who have made a great success of their movie careers.
The "integration period" for example is determined to be around the years 1949-1969. During this period there is an integration of Black people into the societies depicted in films. Thus the African-American is portrayed in a more positive way. Also, "black" themes and issues of conflict among races and peers are depicted…
A Comparison of Two Poems by Phillis heatley
In times of hardship, a community often finds a voice through which it can express its torment and its hopes. This can range from expressions of culture through storytelling to the incitement of a movement. The Black community, for instance, has always endured a unique hardship, especially in the United States. For this reason, it has adopted many kinds of means of expression. One of the earliest pioneers of the African-American 'voice' was Phillis heatley. Along with a few other early African-American authors, heatley helped establish the earliest Black print presence in the United States in a time reserved only for those privileged. This paper will analyze two heatley poems, both focusing on the death of Reverend George hitefield, in order to better understand heatley's role during this time in American history.
An Elegiac Poem and On the Death of…
Works Cited (MLA format)
1. Brooks, Joanna. "The Early American Public Sphere and the Emergence of a Black Print Counterpublic." The William and Mary Quarterly 62.1 (2005): 67-92. Print.
2. Brooks, Joanna. "Our Phillis, Ourselves." American Literature 82.1 (2010): 1-28. Print.
3. Wheatley, Phillis. "An Elegiac Poem: George Whitefield." (Source sent by customer).
4. Wheatley, Phillis. "Phillis' Poem on the Death of Mr. Whitefield." (Source sent by customer).
(Cha-Jua, 2001, at (http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm)
Another aspect of representation, however, concerns collective memory and the representation of a shared past. Through the context for dialogue they create, social movements facilitate the interweaving of individual stories and biographies into a collective, unified frame, a collective narrative. Part and parcel of the process of collective identity or will formation is the linking of diverse experiences into a unity, past as well as present. Social movements are central to this process, not only at the individual level, but also at the organizational or meso level of social interaction. Institutions like the black church and cultural artifacts like blues music may have embodied and passed on collective memories from generation to generation, but it was through social movements that even these diverse collective memories attained a more unified focus, linking individuals and collectives into a unified subject, with a common future as well as a…
Cashmore, E. (2003). Encyclopedia of Race and Ethnic Studies. New York: Routledge.
Cha-Jua, S.K. (Summer 2001) "Slavery, Racist Violence, American Apartheid: The Case for Reparations" New Politics, 8:3. At http://www.wpunj.edu/newpol/issue31/chajua31.htm
Dubois, W.E.B., (1987) Writings, New York: Library of America.
Davis, A. (1999) Blues Legacies and Black Feminism, New York: Vintage.
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).
Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:
Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile
(Source: Binkin, p.94)
How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…
Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL
Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.
Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
African-American Perspectives on Education for African-Americans
Education has been an issue at the forefront of the African-American community since the first Africans were brought to the colonies hundreds of years ago. For centuries, education was forbidden to enslaved Africans in the United States with penalties such as whipping and lynching for demonstrating such skills as literacy. As the abolitionist movement gained strength and the Civil War commenced, more and more enslaved Africans saw education as a sign of freedom and a representation of the many ways in which they were held back yet simultaneously integral to American culture. Two African-American writers, scholars, and leaders, W.E.B. Du Bois and Frederick Douglass, discuss the power and the potential for education in the African-American Community. Douglass wrote his seminal work, his autobiography, in the middle of the 19th century, before the Civil War, econstruction, the industrial revolution, and the turn of the 20th…
Douglass, Frederick. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave. 1845. Available from http://www2.hn.psu.edu/faculty/jmanis/f-douglas/Narrative-Douglass.pdf. 2012 May 05.
Du Bois, W.E.B. "Of Our Spiritual Strivings." The Souls of Black Folk. 1903. Available from http://www.bartleby.com/114/1.html . 2012 May 05.
Rowley, Stephanie J., Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Smith, Mia A. "The Relationship Between Racial Identity and Self-Esteem in African-American College and High School Students." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 3., 715 -- 724, 1998.
Sellers, Robert M., Chavous, Tabbye M., & Cooke, Deanna Y. "Racial Ideology and Racial Centrality as Predictors of African-American College Students' Academic Performance." Journal of Black Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 8 -- 27, 1998.
American Ethnic Literature
Analyzing the Nature of American Ethnic Literature
America has a distinct history: like ancient ome, its inhabitants have come from all over and few of them can truly say to be natives of the place. This fact alone makes American Literature a compelling label: what makes American Literature American? This paper will attempt to answer the question by showing how many ethnicities have converged in one nation allowing various writers with different ethnic, social, political, economical, and social perspectives to define and/or illustrate a time and place.
As Morris Dickstein states, "When America was merely a remote province of world culture, its educated elites were Anglophile, Francophile, or broadly cosmopolitan. Education was grounded in classical learning, a respect for the ancients over the moderns, and a deeply ingrained respect for old Europe's artistic heritage" (p. 155). This type of background made American letters similar to European. What…
African-American Literature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 1-11.
Asian-American Lliterature. (n.d.). Introduction, pp. 2-12.
Casey, J.G. (n.d.). Canon Issues and Class Contexts. Radical Teacher 86, pp. 18-27.
Dickstein, M. (n.d.). Going Native. The American Scholar.
Further, I believe the best American (and other) literature, has always done that, and does that now, within any age.
However, I also do not feel that American literature should do anything different from other national literatures (except to spring, which it would and does naturally) from the distinct environment in which it was or is written). It should definitely not be confined, either, to focusing only on American topics (another category difficult to actually limit or define). If American literature anthologies or collections are any guide to what the term "American literature" may actually mean, John Winthrop's "A Model of Christian Charity," composed as sermon to be read at sea to the author's fundamentalist flock of Puritan Dissenters sailing toward an unknown New World; and the 20th century ussian emigre Vladimir Nabokov's novel Pnin (about a ussian emigre professor and writer in America), qualify equally well (and is included,…
Literature. (1995). Webster's New American dictionary.
New York: Merriam-
Tocqueville, a. de. (1998). Democracy in America [online text]. Retrieved March
However, conventional beliefs that there is low rate for African-American involvement in suicidal activities, there exists minimal focus on learning the possible suicide patterns among African-Americans. Social workers are not aware of the risks and protectiveness among African-Americans. This gives room for misinterpretation of facts concerning self-destructive activities of African-Americans. The research further stresses the importance of social workers to the study of suicide among African-Americans. They also have the capacity for influencing national policies and strategies for the mitigation of suicidal cases. Through the research, it was evident that there exists extremely little information about the empirical knowledge of social workers practicing in this sector with regard to the works featured by the social work researchers.
With the evidently increasing need for social workers, it is necessary to study the capacities of knowledge of social workers regarding issued of suicide. This is relevant to the increase of social workers…
Anderson, J.A. (2010). Clinical research in context: Reexamining the distinction between research and practice. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, 35(1): 46-63.
Andrews, P.W. (2006). Parent-Offspring Conflict and Cost-Benefit Analysis in Adolescent
Suicidal Behavior: Effects of Birth Order and Dissatisfaction with Mother on Attempt
Incidence and Severity. Human Nature, 17(2), 190-211. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
African-American people from a qualitative perspective. The literature review will provide a brief background on African-American people and leading health problems they face along with a brief inclusion of census data to create a general picture of health from the perspective of an African-American person. One African-American man was interviewed. His answers provide a means of generating a construct that will be used to draw conclusions for nursing practice and standard of care development.
African-American People: Literature Review
A website called: 'Dimensions of Culture', examines cultural patterns existent in many African-American communities. Those that recently immigrated from Africa show an even different culture compared to African-Americans that have lived in the United States for generations. One common cultural pattern experienced by African-Americans is the 'Black' Experience, which is diverse, representing a wide array of skin tones and backgrounds. The next is the social structure. The social structure often takes on…
Racial identity plays a strong role in the definition of self; Lorde recognized the importance of racial identity even in the struggle for gender equality. Her argument implicitly supports Jones' assertion that racial equality is "prior" to the cause of gender equality for African-American women. The implicit argument is that feminism could not be a united force because white women did not have the ability through their institutionalized advantages to cogently appreciate the tribulations of African-American women. As a result, there could never have been unity in the first place. In understanding this key point, the justification for African-American unity and the subjugation of the black feminist movement appears to be a more appealing strategy.
A final poignant comparison and relationship between the greater struggle for racial equality and black feminism rests in the internal conflict within African-American culture. One of the greatest ironies of the Civil Rights movement is…
Whereas in 1963, 70% of all African-American families were headed by married couples, that rate had dipped to 46.1% by 1996. In 2001, the rate had increased to 47.9%, the first uptrend in 40 years (Kinnon, 2003). The rate of African-American crime and incarceration, which is closely linked to males from single-parent households, has also dipped since 1996.
Concerns about TANF and current welfare programs
While the statistics are compelling, there are a series of questions which have not been addressed by these welfare reforms. There are still about 50% of the former welfare population which has not been able to graduate from the welfare-poverty cycle, nor have they been able to find work. In states where the TANF provisions were enacted, including the 5-year limitation on welfare benefits, there has been a back-sliding on the part of state legislatures to extend welfare assistance for the "hard core" unemployed.
Bush, L. (2000). African-American Mothers/African-American Sons: A Critical Examination of the Social Science Literature. Western Journal of African-American Studies, 145-167.
Cherry, F. & . (1977). Physical and cognitive development in children of low-income mothers working in the child's early years. Child Development, 158-166.
Garfinkle, I. a. (1986). Single Mothers and their children: A new American dilemma. Washington: Urban Institute.
Haskins, R. (1989). Beyond metaphor: The efficacy of early childhood education. American Psychologist, 274-282.
African-Americans have experienced higher rates of recidivism in contrast with other segments of the population. Evidence of this can be seen with a study conducted by the U.S. Justice Department. They found that those individuals in this demographic and between the ages 18 to 35 have a 32% chance of being incarcerated. Once they are released from prison or placed on probation, the odds of them committing another crime are double in contrast with other population groups. (Kury, 2011) To fully understand why this is occurring requires examining the root causes of the problem. This will be accomplished by conducting a literature review on the subject. These findings will illustrate the primary causes as to why this segment has higher recidivism rates.
The target population is focusing on African-Americans from ages 18 to 35. This study will examine how the lack of education, substance dependency and criminal history are influencing…
Andrews, D. (2010). Rehabilitating Criminal Justice Policy. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 16 (1), pp. 39 -- 55.
Bellair, P. (2011). Low Skill Employment Opportunities. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 48 (2), pp.
176 -- 208.
Kury, H. (2011). Punitivity. Munich: Borckmeyer.
African-American women are at greater risk for contracting HIV than other races. Stemming from this hypothesis, it will be investigated whether race, in this case being African-American, impacts the course of HIV after infection. Past research has indicated that African-American women, including both adults and adolescents, are disproportionately at risk for the contraction of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the resultant development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011; Johnson et al., 1994). esearchers have explored the impact that sex-related issues have on the increases risk among this population, and it has been determined that sexual assertiveness is an interpersonal predictor of sexual behavior that poses increased risk for contracting HIV (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011). Furthermore, research has indicated that women demonstrated low sexual assertiveness are at a greater risk for the development of HIV (Kennedy & Jenkins, 2011). It may be suggested that research in this…
Kennedy, B.R., Jenkins, C.C. Promoting African-American women and sexual assertiveness in reducing HIV / AIDS: an analytical review of the research literature. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 18(4), 142-9.
Johnson, E.H., Jackson, L.A., Hinkle, Y., Gilbert, D., Hoopwood, T., Lollis, C.M., Willis, C., Gant, L. (1994). What is the significance of black-white differences in risky sexual behavior? Journal of the National Medical Association, 86(10), 745-59.
The impact of slavery on the sexuality of African-American women has been largely overlooked for many years. In addition, the negative manner in which African-American Women are portrayed in the media has been a topic of debate in recent years.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore how the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem. In addition, we will examine how the larger American public views and portrays black women in the media.
How the experience of slavery shaped the development of African-American women's sexual identity and self-esteem
How slavery impacted the Family Unit
The Slavery in America is one of the most heinous events in history.
What many fail to realize is that the experience of slavery has fashioned the way that African-American women view their sexuality and body image. efore we can fully understand the impact that slavery had…
Bay, Mia. The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas about White People, 1830-1925. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Davis, Olga Idriss. "A Black Woman as Rhetorical Critic: Validating Self and Violating the Space of Otherness." Women's Studies in Communication 21.1 (1998): 77+.
"Outsiders" in a Multicultural Society
The United States is generally recognized for the multitude of cultural values present in the country as a result of the wide range of ideas that have been introduced here across the years. hile the majority of individuals in the country have often discriminated against people that they considered "outsiders," many notable non-white persons in the country's history have managed to emphasize the fact that they too are an active part of its culture and that they are able to contribute to making society as a whole acknowledge its complex nature. Langston Hughes and Jhumpa Lahiri are two of the most prominent artists responsible for making the American community accept its multicultural character and for influencing Americans to adopt less discriminatory attitudes concerning non-white individuals. Hughes got actively involved in changing the way that the masses and African-Americans in particular saw discriminated groups…
Hughes, Langston. "Song for a Dark Girl." Create ed. McGraw-Hill, 2011. 223. Print.
Lahiri, Jhumpa. "The Third and Final Continent." Create ed. McGraw-Hill, 2011. 417-430. Print.
Metacognition and Effective Study Strategies Among African-American College and University Students, Bernadette Nwafor discusses the fact that many African-American students have trouble with basic concentration and retention skills and how the implementation of various study techniques could enhance student concentration. Nwarfor purports that those students that try to understand what they are reading through "meaningfulness, collaboration and establishment of relationships between new ideas and old experiences" are more likely to do better on tests than those who learn by merely reading through text or memorization It is her perception that African-American students learn better when they can relate to the material in question. In this article she studies the three kinds of memory (sensory, short-term and long-term memory) as she shows that if a person associates something familiar with new material they are able to retain it better in their long-term memory. She cites for her example a study by…
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
Yank in "Hairy Ape" by Eugene O'Neill
In the play, "Hairy Ape," by Eugene O'Neill, the character of Yank portrays the individual who seeks to conform in his society and is always in need to belong with other people. Robert Smith, or Yank, is illustrated as an individual who personifies anything that is deviant in the society: O'Neill portrays him as "broader, fiercer, more truculent, more powerful, and surer of himself than the rest. They respect his superior strength -- the grudging respect of fear. Then, too, he represents to them a self-expression, the very last word in what they are, their most highly developed individual." This passage from the play shows how, because of both his physical appearance and personality, Yank is immediately identified as 'distinct' and 'different' from other people.
Looking into his portrayal in the play, Yank also shows apparent dislike for conformity, deviating from all the…
Black Soldier During the American ar for Independence
Many Americans today are aware of the military service of blacks during the First and Second orld ars, and some are even aware of the major contributions of these troops to the Union's victory in the Civil ar. Far fewer modern Americans, though, are aware of the contribution of black soldiers during America's ar for Independence. In fact, by war's end in 1783, fully five thousand black soldiers would serve in the military for a country that otherwise held them and their compatriots in slavery and contempt. This paper reviews the literature to determine the role of the black soldier during the American ar for Independence, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning their role in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Although they were at a clear disadvantage economically, politically and socially, many black men recognized the need…
"African-American Patriots of the Revolutionary War." The New Crisis (January/February 1999) 106(1): 24-31.
Ferling, John. "Myths of the American Revolution." Smithsonian (January 2010), 10(3): 37-41.
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: The New Press, 1995.
American history [...] changes that have occurred in African-American history over time between 1865 to the present. African-Americans initially came to this country against their will. They were imported to work as slaves primarily in the Southern United States, and they have evolved to become a force of change and growth in this country. African-Americans have faced numerous challenges throughout their history in this country, and they still face challenges today.
After the Civil War ended in 1865, African-Americans were freed from slavery. However, that did not end their struggle for freedom. In fact, in many ways, it only made their situation worse. Many slaves who were in fairly decent situations were thrust out to fend for themselves, or they became sharecroppers for their former masters, barely making enough money to stay alive. This was the time of "reconstruction" in the South, and it was recovering both politically and economically…
Adeboyejo, B. (2005, May/June). Q & A: Curating African-American history for the nation. The Crisis, 112, 7.
Dagbovie, P.G. (2006). Strategies for teaching African-American history: Musings from the past, ruminations for the future. The Journal of Negro Education, 75(4), 635+.
Editors. (2010). African-American history timeline. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Peterson Education Web site: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmtimeline.html .
Editors (2008). African-American odyssey. Retrieved 15 Nov. 2010 from the Library of Congress Web site: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart7.html .
tomorrow / Bright before us / Like a flame. (Alain Locke, "Enter the New Negro," 1925)
rom the 1920's Alain Leroy Locke has been known as a prominent figure in the Harlem Renaissance. Through his writings, his actions and his education, Locke worked to educate not only White America, but also the Negro, about the beauty of the Negro heritage. He emphasized the idea that no single culture is more important than another. Yet it was also important to give sufficient attention to one's own culture and its beauty. This was Locke's philosophy of cultural pluralism.
The White heritage has enjoyed prominence for a large part of American history. During the colonization period, the Whites have emphasized their own superiority while at the same time ensuring that people of other ethnic heritages knew in no uncertain terms their own inferiority. This gave rise to a nearly monocultural America, where all…
Furthermore Locke's writings are lauded for their cultural and historical importance rather than their literary style. Being very prominent in educational and artistic circles I find this hard to believe. Certainly a man who has been educated in the highest of quality schools should be able to produce something of purely literary merit.
Despite these issues which are admittedly a matter of opinion, it is very significant that Locke's influence extends to modern literary circles in this way. Locke's influence in the areas of education, culture and empowerment also remain to this day in terms of recognized Black culture and the promotion of cultural pluralism. The ALLS has been officially recognized by the American Philosophical Association in a letter from Secretary-Treasurer, William Mann, on November 26, 1997.
Locke's influence thus reaches far beyond his lifespan in order to not only empower and inspire, but also to enlighten and to entertain. Locke was the epitome of the New Negro.
Economic, Political, and Social History
African American culture arose out of the turmoil and despair of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. From West African port towns to plantations, African American culture is unique in that it was forged under the pressure of bondage. People with different cultures and languages formed new identities relative to their subordinate social, economic, and political status—their culture therefore being in part defined by the experience of oppression and the determination to overcome it. Bereft of social, political, or economic independence for centuries, African American culture nevertheless emerged as organically as any other, but flourished especially after emancipation.
Yet the economic history of African American culture cannot be divorced from the human capital model of slavery. The Emancipation Proclamation laid the first foundation stones for African American economic, political, and social empowerment but Reconstruction failed to fulfill the objective of genuine liberation (DuBois, 1994). African Americans in…
Among the main concerns, other than health, poverty, and education, are political involvement and the patronage of black businesses. Voter registration is another concern, closely tied to political involvement, that many black Americans need to take note of. When more black Americans become involved with politics, they have more of an opportunity to make changes that are needed. This does not mean that Smiley advocates changing the laws and rules of this country so that blacks are in power and whites are submissive, but only that the equality that should be there for all Americans does not always extend to black Americans as much as it was designed to do originally.
Some of this discrimination is intentional, but there is also discrimination that is not deliberate, but simply happens because of the way that laws are written or the way that things have always been done. This is the kind…
e. The lack of a collective intellectual voice. In response to this and in part as a result of new affluence gained by some as well as a growing exposure to education, albeit mostly segregated, many began to develop what is known as the Harlem enaissance.
The 1920s in American history were marked by a sociocultural awakening among Afro-Americans. More blacks participated in the arts than ever before, and their number increased steadily throughout the decade. This florescence of creative activity extended to many areas -- music, poetry, drama, fiction. In literature, the few Negro novels published between 1905 and 1923 were presented mainly by small firms unable to give their authors a national hearing. However, in the succeeding decade, over two dozen novels by blacks appeared, and most of them were issued by major American publishers. (Singh, 1976, p. 1)
The Harlem enaissance came about for many reasons not…
Golay, M. (1999). A Ruined Land: The End of the Civil War. New York: Wiley
Jonas, G. (2005). Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. New York: Routledge.
Jim Crow Laws. (2004). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia
Kivel, Paul. (1995) Uprooting Racism: How White People Can Work for Racial Justice.
Du Sable Museum
A Reflection of African-American History
The DuSable Museum of African-American History is the oldest major museum related to African-American legacy. Founded by Margaret Taylor in 1961, the museum runs on a self-governing model with focus on collection, interpretation and achievement of African-American history. Its location in Chicago provides it an edge over other museums entailing artifacts related to this subject as Chicago was one of the prime cities where the major migration of African-American migration took place. Therefore, the city has African-American blood and heritage in its roots. This is the reason why the organization receives donations from local communities which ranges from single artifact to entire collection. The Diaspora of black people and the regions that black communities were related to, is well-reflected by the collection of Artifacts provided by local African-American communities. Its extensive collection of African-American heritage gives it a status of connoisseurship in…
Wade, B.(1991). "Practical traveler; tracing the trail of black history." The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CEFDC173DF937A25754C0A967958260 .
Williams, L. (1988). "Black memorabilia: the pride and the pain." The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved from http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=940DEFDC1338F93BA35751C1A96E948260 .
DuSable Museum Page 2
2009). The interventions used in this research study proved to be ineffective, however, and it has been suggested that more culturally relevant study leading to the development of more highly-culturally-specific practices is needed in this regard (Pekmezi et al. 2009).
Certain studies have also demonstrated a reduced efficacy of certain blood-pressure regulating pharmaceuticals in the African-American community, with certain individuals responsive to one type of medication but not others (Lackland 2004). This is significant in the area of hypertension prevention in the African-American community for several reasons, not the least of which is the fact that it is evidence of certain mechanisms at work that are still not fully understood or even necessarily identified in the medical literature (Lackland 2004). In addition, this suggests that there are certain predispositions that both affect hypertension and interrupt the mechanisms of drugs proven efficacious in other communities, which could provide greater insight into…
Douglas, J., Bakris, G., Epstein, M., Ferdinand, K., Ferrario, C., Flack, J…. & Vidt, D. (2003). Management of High Blood Pressure in African-Americans: Consensus Statement of the Hypertension in African-Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Archives of Internal Medicine 163(5): 525-41.
Glover, M., Greenlund, K., Ayala, C. & Croft, J. (2005). Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999-2002. JAMA 293(8): 923-5.
Harvard. (2003). High blood pressure isn't color-blind. Harvard heart letter 13(10):1.
He, J., Klag, M., Caballero, B., Appel, L., Charleston, J. & Whelton, P. (1999). Plasma insulin levels and incidence of hypertension in African-Americans and Whites. Archives of internal medicine 159(5): 498-503.
What they found was that religiosity played a significant role in predicting the level of religious stigma, which led to beliefs that HIV/ADIS might be a curse or punishment from God (Muturi & an, 2010). This leads to the conclusion that faith-based organizations could play an important role in HIV / AIDS prevention and treatment in the community.
Anyone familiar with HIV research is aware of the high correlation between drug using populations and HIV infection, because addicts engage in practices like needle sharing and are more likely to engage in unprotected sex with unknown partners. Therefore, one would expect that HIV prevalence would be higher among African-American women in detoxification than in other groups given that the prevalence is higher in the regular population. What they found was that whites and Hispanics had higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection use scores than African-Americans (Wu et…
Hendree, E.J., Berkman, N.D., Kline, T.L., Ellerson, R.M., Browne, F.A., Poulton, W.,
Wechsberg, W. (2011). Int J. Pediatr: 389285. doi:10.1155/2011/389285
Inungu, J., Lewis, a., Mustafa, Y., Wood, J., O'Brien, S., & Verdun, D. (2011). HIV testing among adolescents and youth in the United States: Update from the 2009 behavioral risk factor surveillance system. Open AIDS J, 5, 80-85. doi:10.2174/1874613601105010080
Muturi, N., & an, S. (2010). HIV / AIDS stigma and religiosity among African-American women. J Health Commun., 15(4), 388-401.
HIV / AIDS on African-American Community in U.S.
Certain diseases occur more frequently within certain communities or ethnic groups. In part, this can be connected to genetics, heritage, environment, or the habits of a given cultural or ethnic group. This phenomenon is no different with HIV / AIDS, an illness which has been aggravated in the African-American community. HIV stands for the human immunodeficiency virus, a virus which can eventually turn into AIDS, also known as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. HIV / AIDS is believed to have come from a chimpanzee in West Africa: "They believe that the chimpanzee version of the immunodeficiency virus (called simian immunodeficiency virus, or SIV) most likely was transmitted to humans and mutated into HIV when humans hunted these chimpanzees for meat and came into contact with their infected blood. Studies show that HIV may have jumped from apes to humans as far back as…
Cdc.gov. (2013, May 29). What is HIV? Retrieved from cdc.gov: http://www.cdc.gov /hiv/basics/whatishiv.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Lived Experiences of African-American Women who have lost a male child to suicide
he lived experiences of late-adolescent female suicide survivors: 'A part of me died' by Willem a. Hoffmann; Chris Myburgh; and Marie Poggenpoel.
Explain how the study tested the constructs of the new theory.
Over the years there have been two precise sampling strategies used by numerous researchers. hese two strategies are the probability and a non-probability sampling strategies. he main distinction between these two strategies is that the former is more casual and does not have a specific target or segment of the population in mind; whereas the non-probability sampling procedure is very official and very purposeful in its choice of who the researcher studies and why. he researcher used non-probability purposive sampling to hand pick students. More specifically, the research participants were five female late-adolescents (aged 17 -- 22 years) who were recruited by means of…
The researcher points out that there is a paucity of research on suicide survivors and even fewer studies exist on African-American suicide survivors. He conceptualizes suicide survivors as individuals who have lost a family member to suicide. Furthermore, he illustrates that although suicide is a relatively rare event, particularly among African-Americans, the recent dramatic increase in suicide among African-American youth makes it critical to understand this phenomena.
Subsequently he signifies the phenomenon of suicide survivors by highlighting various facts. For instance, he highlights that according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), between 1980 and 1995, rates for African-American youth aged 15 to 19 increased 128% compared to 19% for Whites. Furthermore, he argues that although there has been a recent decline in the suicide rates among African-American youth, suicide continues to be the third-leading cause of death for 15- to 24-year-old African-Americans (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2004).
He conceptualizes that bereavement with regards to suicide and points out that it has many emotional complexities that may evoke such symptoms as anxiety, difficulty concentrating, sleep disturbance, and depression. Lastly, he conceptualizes the awareness o suicide figures amongst African-Americans and points out that unfortunately, some African-Americans continue to deny that suicide is a problem within the Black community; this view is buttressed by the fact that suicide is a relatively rare behavior among all ethnic groups. Lastly, he linked grief and suicide strongly and argued that grief when associated with suicide differs from grief from other forms of death because of the emotional complexities that go along with losing someone this way.
This story clearly outlines the level of difference and separation that is experienced by many members of the African-American community in a variety of ways, and most clearly deals with the economic impact and institutional nature of the racism this community has experienced.
Another very interesting perspective is provided in McPherson's memoir regarding his own experiences, Crabcakes (1999). Many different episodes reflecting sometimes subtle and sometimes quite obvious differences in perspective appear in this memoir, yet one strain that appears significant several times is the role of religion -- and more specifically, of Church -- in the development of the African-American community and African-American individuals. Again, a clear lack of consensus amongst the community is seen here, as some individuals are very religious while others regard it with outright contempt, yet there is also a cohesion in the Church-centered communities that exist. This makes for an interesting juxtaposition of perspectives…
Flinn, E. (1999). It Happened in Hoboken. BookSurge.
McPherson, J. (1977). Elbow Room. Fawcett.
McPherson, J. (1999). Crabcakes. New York: Touchstone.
EDUCING ISKY BEHAVIO FO African-American TEENS
An Intervention for educing isky Behavior Among African-American Female Adolescents: Provider Cultural Competency Training
The Office of Minority Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013) quotes Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. As a way to introduce the topic of updating and enhancing the National CLAS (Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services) Standards. The quote is "Of all forms of inequality, injustice in health care is the most shocking and inhumane" (p. 14). Long recognized as a significant problem in the United States, health inequity along social, economic, racial, and ethnic boundaries has become a central focus of health care policy in this country. Although health care providers have little control over the historical determinants of discrimination in the U.S. they can work towards eliminating health disparities that exist through cultural competency. In addition to the ethical and moral rationale for attaining…
Aronowitz, T. & Agbeshie, E. (2012). Nature of communication: Voices of 11- to 14-year-old African-American girls and their mothers in regard to talking about sex. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 75-89.
Aronowitz, T. & Eche, I. (2013). Parenting strategies African-American mothers employ to decrease sexual risk behaviors in their early adolescent daughters. Public Health Nursing, 30(4), 279-87.
CDC. (2012). HIV and AIDS among African-American youth. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
CDC. (2013). HIV among African-Americans: Fast facts. Retrieved 2 Feb. 2014 from: .
The questions that follow will guide the study. By responding to these two questions, the study will have addressed the problem cited in the problem statement and at the same time achieved the purpose of the study:
1). What perceptions are held by school administrators as regards the influence that cultural difference has on the placement of students in the special education programs?
2). what theme informs the perceptions held by teachers and social workers in their dealing with African-American and Hispanic students?
Guided by the research questions, the research hopes to finding whether there is an overriding theme in teacher perception of the students from the minority groups. The response from interviews with teachers will provide a good set of data that can be used for its qualitative plus quantitative significance (Bursztyn, 2007). A candid look at the factors leading to teachers referring students to referral…
Anderson, T., & Stewart, J.B. (2007). Introduction to African-American studies: Transdisciplinary approaches and implications. Baltimore, Md: Inprint Editions.
Arnold, M., & Marie, E.L. (2003). Overrepresentation of minority students in special education. Education, 124(2), 230-236. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/196430282?accountid=35812
Brandon, R.R., & Brown, M.R. (2009). African-American Families in the Special Education Process: Increasing Their Level of Involvement. Intervention in School and Clinic, 45(2), 85-90. SAGE PUBLICATIONS, INC. Retrieved from http://isc.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1053451209340218
Bursztyn, a.M. (2007). The Praeger handbook of special education. Westport: Conn.: Praeger.
Voice of the Fugitive- an Alternate Nation for Afro-Americans
The African-American community in USA has faced many obstacles but through all its challenges, has withstood the test of time. It has faced severe discrimination in terms of treatment. The poem, 'Genuine Prize Song for Jenny Lind' is a piece that focuses on the depth of these discriminatory practices and establishes an absence of national belonging, where the African-Americans felt it was better to start living someplace else. This analysis on the poem argues that the poem was based on the 'absence of the sentiment of national belonging towards USA, and encourages the lack community to explore other places to settle in, predominantly Canada.'
Many African-Americans following the call for a united front, published papers and periodicals that were aimed at consolidating efforts for freedom from slavery. As Frederick Douglass famously said that if the path taken by the Whites to…
DeLombard, Jeanine Mary. "African-American Cultures of Print." Hall, David D. Cultures of Print. Boston: University of Massuchusetts, 1996. 360.
Gundaker, Grey. "Africans Americans, Print, and Practice." Gross, Robert A. And Mary Kelley. An Extensive Republic: Print, Culture, and Society in the New Nation, 1790-1840. North Carolina: UNC Press Books, 2010. 483-495.
The Voice of the Fugitive. 29 January 1851. 9 March 2012 .
Community resources must be identified and brought together to meet needs. Actions can be developed to prevent poor health outcomes by: appropriately identifying, collecting, and reporting racial/ethnic group-specific data; identifying where data are lacking and developing appropriate tools to collect those data; and linking poor health status indicators to social conditions and influences, as well as personal behaviors and genetics.
As indicated by other counties, the populations experiencing these disparities have many strengths and traditions to draw upon for solutions. In the African-American communities, churches provide connections and leadership on community issues. Other models have provided the use of community engagement principles encouraged throughout any state and local processes addressing eliminating health disparities, whether funded by this initiative or not. Such community engagement principles include fostering openness and participation in the planning process, ensuring that those representing a specific community truly represent that community's values, norms, and behaviors, and using…
Alpha.org. "Racial / Ethnic Disparities." Fact Sheets. 2004. 17 May 2005. www.apha.org/NPHW/facts/RaceEth-PHW04_Facts.pdf.
Fenwick, E. et.al. "Improving the Efficiency and Relevance of Health Technology
Assessment: The Role of Iterative Decision Analytic Modeling." 2003. Che
Discussion Paper. 17 May 2005. http://www.york.ac.uk/inst/che/DP179.pdf .
Sylvia Plath explores ambiguity from the perspective of a woman living in a man's world in The Bell Jar. Esther receives different messages about who she is and who she wants to be. Society tells her to be the good wife and mother but she never adapts well to this notion. She feels ambivalence toward most of the women she meets and ultimately feels pulled in different directions when it comes to expectations and desires. The conflict Esther experiences results from what society expects from "good girls." The article Mrs. Greenwood sends her exposes the hypocrisy she cannot ignore. The article explains how a "man's world was different than a woman's world and a man's emotions are different than a woman's emotions" (Plath 65). The notion of women being pure as the wind-driven snow and submitting to the will of their husbands becomes more of a burden than anything else…
Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Signet Books. 1952.
Heller, Joseph. Catch 22. New York: Dell Publishing Co. 1961.
Plath, Sylvia. The Bell Jar. New York: Bantam Books. 1971.
Salinger, J.D. The Catcher in the Rye. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. 1951.
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…
African-American male unemployment: Robert Carmona. (2007). Congressional Testimony.
Retrieved May 12, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P135839035.html
Algernon Austin. (2008, January 18). What a recession means for black America. EPI Issue Brief
#241. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib241/
African-American Children in Special Education Programs
The large amount of minority children, specifically African-American children, who have ended up in special education programs for students who have learning disabilities, behavioral disabilities, emotional disabilities, or mental disabilities, has remained a very strong reality even though it has been recognized for more than 20 years (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). After looking at many of these patterns and how often they recur, it is important to look at the assumptions, beliefs, worldviews, and epistemologies that are often used by many who work in special education in order to determine what is causing the disproportionate amount of these individuals in special education programs throughout the country (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996).
This problem, being extremely persistent, is affecting large groups of African-American individuals and their families in a negative way (Townsend, Thomas, itty, & Lee, 1996). It also affects society in…
Apple, M. (1990). Ideology and curriculum. New York: Routledge.
Aronowitz, S., & Giroux, H.A. (1991). Postmodern education: Politics, culture, and social criticism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Artiles, A.J., & Trent, S.C. (1994). Overrepresentation of minority students in special education: A continuing debate. The Journal of Special Education, 22, 410-436.
Gordon, E.W., Miller, F., & Rollock, D. (1990). Coping with communicentric bias in knowledge production in the social sciences. Educational Researcher, 19(3), 14-19.