Afterlife Essays (Examples)

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Homer and Virgil

Words: 355 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69200133

afterlife in two philosophers' representations. Specifically, it will explain and compare conceptions and representations of the afterlife in Homer and Virgil.

Homer and Virgil

Homer and Virgil both described Hades and their versions of the afterlife in their works, and they were far different views. In Homer's Hades, the area looks much like Earth, but it is barren and twisted, the geography is definitely warped and there is little scenery, it is more like a dreamland. Homer sees suffering far differently than Virgil. His residents of Hades do not really seem to suffer much, although he does indicate some tortures inflicted on some poor souls. Mostly, his Hades is filled with people who are there because of personal trials and tribulations, and the Devil does not deem it necessary to place them on display as a warning to others. Virgil's view of Hades is more traditional, with fire erupting out of the River Styx, and a massive gate barring entry (or exit). In addition, Virgil's underworld is also devoid of individuality, which is quite frightening…… [Read More]


Thuleen, Nancy. "Interaction and Reaction in Virgil and Homer." Personal Web Page. 1992. 18 Dec. 2003.
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Satyricon Litterae Thesaurum Est the

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14510414


As a result of their religious beliefs, even though not routinely practiced, the Romans, by contemporary standards, were highly superstitious. Tri-malchio routinely took extreme precautions to attempt to ward away bad luck. On the other hand, Encolpius appears less superstitious, in fact, sarcastic in regard to the posting of a slave to ensure no one trips over the dining room threshold (sec. 30) (Ruden, 2000, p. 169). Animal sacrifice, another religious practice in/or Roman religion, reportedly helped secure divine favor in exchange of a gift. The animal sacrifice was generally an inedible piece of the animal. Sometimes the religious person would withhold his gift until he was assured he had his gift or that it was on the way. Encolpius, for example, does not automatically make a sacrifice, but names animals he will sacrifice to Priapus "once he gets his virility back (sec. 133)" (Ruden, 2000, p. 169). When he regains his manhood, Encolpius, proclaims: "The great gods of higher heaven it is have made me a man again!." When one received what he had petitioned the gods for, he as Encolpius, would readily attribute credit to them.

During particular set aside times of the year, those who were…… [Read More]

The traditional Roman religion did not provide an-swers to life questions for the ancients, while the philosophical religions, reportedly did provide some answers. During Petronius' time, Stoicism and Epicureanism rivaled each other for the hearts and minds of men. Sto-icism would win. Stoicism, founded in Athens about 300 B.C.E. By Zeno of Citium, constituted the practice of being enduring, Those who were stoic mastered suffering, as well as their emotions for what they perceived as higher cause.

This practical prescription of the ancient belief system included the following logic: "To be virtuous is to live according to the will of God (a monotheistic lan-guage was used), which is manifested in nature. If one observes nature, it is plain that God decrees constant change" (Ruden, 2000, p. 185). The Romans perceived that to harmonize with na-ture, one became compliant with change, yet did not seek positive change. This religious practice, in turn fostered numbness; permitting a myriad of things to be sought, including "health, material well-being, human relationships, honor) and avoided (illness, poverty, loneliness, shame) but purists insisted that the only really important attainment was controlling one's attachments (Ibid, p. 186).

Controlling ones attachments contributed to the "perfect" Stoic. Their detachment reportedly mimicked the detachment some perceived God to possess. In the afterlife, they claimed one who had become the perfect Stoic sage could achieve unity with God. Suicide to stoics served as a religious act, in which the person signified the human will's ultimate transcendence over circumstance. In general, due to various be-liefs about the person's soul and the value placed on honor, Ro-mans were somewhat tolerant of suicide. They considered it a great evil to defend themselves. In doing
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Mediumship in His Trade Book

Words: 1253 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43015139

Schwartz happens to be a Gemini, but John had a one in twelve chance of getting that one right. John continues to take stabs at guessing more about Gary Schwartz's family, guesses that are completely and probably deliberately vague. Not only could the mediums be making wild and general guesses but they could have also acquired information through traditional sources or nonverbal cues. For example, the medium might have known beforehand that Schwartz's birthday fell during the Gemini month, and that his mother's name contained the letter "S" in it. Barring such obvious fraud, guesswork seems as plausible an explanation as any other.

Schwartz fields accusations of fraud at several points in his book. One of his rebuttals is that "mediums need not be perfect," they just have to be better than everyone else (54). In fact, Schwartz designed all of his studies with this premise in mind, using a control group of mostly undergraduate students who had no mediumship experience. Schwartz claims that "mediums are neither frauds nor freaks," and that the experiments presented in the book proves this is that case.

Hyman states that a true control group would more closely resemble the mediums; they would have had…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hyman, Ray. "How Not to Test Mediums: Critiquing the Afterlife Experiments." Sceptical Inquirer. Jan 2003. Published online by Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. Retrieved 26 Nov 2004.

Schwartz, Gary. The Afterlife Experiments. New York: Pocket, 2002.
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Differentiating Between Religions

Words: 1954 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48854000

Religious Studies

The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.

Overview of Christianity and Islam

Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as a missionary religion to its current widespread all over the world. Christians use the bible as their religious book. The bible has two parts, one representing the old, and the other the New Testament (Voorst, 2006). The New Testament came into use after the death of Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ's…… [Read More]


Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
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Egyptian Art Glory in Death

Words: 1794 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82216989

On viewing extensive amounts of Egyptian art, the similarities between the subjects and styles is somewhat astounding to a Western eye, which is more trained to notice the different signs of individual artists. It easily becomes clear that though the Egyptians saw aesthetic value in art and material things, most of the artwork they left behind -- especially in tombs and funerary chapels -- serve a much higher purpose through representation.

Mummification is only the most prominent sign of the Egyptians' beliefs regarding the after life and the preparations necessary for it. Their art was consumed with the same ideals, and in many ways their culture could be said to be a sort of death cult -- this life was primarily used to celebrate and represent the next.… [Read More]


Applegate, Melissa Littlefield. The Egyptian Book of Life. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications Inc., 2000.

David, Ann Rosalie. The Experience of Ancient Egypt. New York: Routledge, 2000.

Forman, Werner and Malek, Jaromir. In the Shadow of the Pyramids. London: Little Brown & Co., 1986.

Powell, Linda Maynard. "Egyptian Tomb Art: Expressions of Religious Beliefs." Yale-New Haven Teacher's Institute. Accessed 29 March 2009.
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Hume and the Lack of a Causal

Words: 1750 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19784168

Hume and the Lack of a Causal Link Between Our Known Experiences and the Existence of a Supreme Being

The "here and now": That is what concerns David Hume. There is simply no value in discussing such amorphous intangibles as one can infer from "the course of nature." More precisely, humans -- of them, philosophers -- cannot and should not be enticed to "regulate" their "conduct" by parameters such as the afterlife or God. Hume grounds his thinking in causality -- specifically the lack of causal link between "the experienced train of events" and the existence of a perfect being.

To understand Hume's view that contemplations of God are "uncertain and useless," one has to begin with Hume's philosophical methods. Hume is an empiricist philosopher. Hume works to bring the rigors of scientific methodology to the otherwise more fluid process of philosophical reasoning. The critical lynchpin here is Hume's distinction between matters of fact and relations of ideas.

Hume explains that anything one can say about the world is a matter of fact -- as in, experiences. However, these matters of fact can be denied without contradiction, as someone else's experiences are entirely different. Relations of ideas can teach us…… [Read More]

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Solaris God and Ineffability the

Words: 1420 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56581753

It can be argued that they have no way of knowing the outcome of their reactions. And indeed, nor does Chris. What differentiates Chris from the rest of the crew is the love he feels for Rheya. Love in the end is the essential force that enables him to forgive both Rheya and himself, and in the end love both redeems and kills him. This dichotomy furthers the ineffability of both death and the god force symbolized by Solaris.

Chris chooses to remain on the doomed station rather than face further life without Rheya on earth. He has no way of knowing what the outcome will be and most likely believes that he will simply die. His "redemption" is therefore not based upon faith, but rather upon the love emotion. Emotion in this case takes the place of faith in redemptive force. Furthermore, his "afterlife" entails life with his love rather than a religious god force. As such, Chris's love comes to symbolize the deepest force of contemporary humanity. Love redeems humanity from its sinful coldness and cruelty towards each other. It redeems Chris from his unforgiving and inexcusable reactions that led to Rheya's death. Furthermore, both Chris and Rheya…… [Read More]

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Allah and Brahman Perhaps the

Words: 1894 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89442419

Modern Protestantism tends more to suggest that salvation is purely the work of God, and that the human need only accept salvation and all past and present sins will be forgiven, requiring them to do nothing more to be saved. In this schema, good works are merely acts of devotion. In either case, the death of Christ provides forgiveness for sins, and the soul which has been forgiven is upon death taken into heaven where it is purified and allowed to live eternally in luxury thereafter. The only downside, here, is that one has only one life in which to accept Christ. Anyone failing to do so in that time, is sentenced to never-ending punishment and pain.

The Buddhist idea or Enlightenment, on the other hand, leads to a Nirvana which is the cessation of pain and suffering and one-ness with the universe. This enlightenment comes from the individual learning how to let go of attachments and slowly come to perceive the pattern of the universe and aligning him or herself with it. Being righteous is not a requirement for Enlightenment, rather it is an affect of it -- as one is aligned with the pattern and becomes detached, one…… [Read More]


Chandra, Summet. "Allah and Krishna are the Same Person." Prabhupada Hare Krishna News Network,

Names of Paradise," Al-Islam.

Robinson, B.A. "Introduction to Islam" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. & 

Robinson, B.A. "BUDDHISM: Comparison of Buddhism & Christianity" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.
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Religion Anselm Aquinas and Hume

Words: 2500 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24187463

Thus, Sam argues that although the world often seems unjust (and is filled with innumerable instances of evil), yet P. is solved through the belief that every condition (good, in this case) necessitates an equal and opposite condition (evil, as it were.) However, Gretchen counters by asking whether those who behave in an evil way are ever punished for their transgressions, and whether there is any motivation for people to not simply act in their own best interests, whether or not this involves behaving in an immoral manner. Sam's rejoinder appeals to the afterlife as the site in which the importance of morality becomes manifest: "But the doctrine of an afterlife, in whatever form, says that this isn't the whole story" (47). However, Sam disregards the fact that God is purported to pardon many sinners, which would ostensibly mean that he regularly pardons instances of injustice.

The dialogue between Sam and Gretchen involves the attempt to locate God's existence empirically, with some indexical proof that he has removed injustice from the world. However, this is ultimately impossible, which is why the book does not constitute a successful attempt proving His existence. However, if Sam had read Anselm, he might have…… [Read More]


Anselm. Proslogium. Trans. S.N. Deane. Internet History Sourcebook. Fordham University, Aug. 1998. 10 Sep. 2012. Retrieved from

Aquinas, T. Summa of Theology. Trans. B.P. Copenhaver. Publisher Unknown, 2005.

Hopkins, J. A New Interpretation of Anselm's Monologion and Proslogion. Minneapolis: Arthur J. Banning Press, 1986.

Hume, D. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Unknown Publisher, 1779.
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Dante One of the Great Ironies of

Words: 1556 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62615346


One of the great ironies of Dante's Inferno is the centrality of earth-bound fame, moral reputation, praise and blame. The importance of reputation would seem to contradict Virgil's efforts in leading Dante through Purgatory to impart a more meaningful moral message. Yet it is important to remember that Dante travels alive; Virgil's lessons are instructive in a direct and practical manner. Dante ascertains life lessons from those he encounters in the afterlife, so that he may improve his prospects for earthbound fame. The importance of fame seems paradoxical when considered in light of the transitory nature of existence. However, Purgatory presents the consequences of a poor public relations scheme. Investment in moral reputation has the potential to strengthen The Divine Comedy's overarching pretensions, by linking the importance of one's earthly life to the life beyond.

Dante makes it clear that reputation does not necessarily have to be pristine to be good; in fact, it is far better to have a bad reputation than no reputation at all. For example, in Canto III:

"This miserable fate Suffer the wretched souls of those, who lived / Without or praise or blame, with that ill band Of angels mix'd, who nor rebellious…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Alighieri, Dante. Inferno. Retrieved online:
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Roman Catholicism According to Many

Words: 3414 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31312233

Catholic Philosophy

Unlike some other Christian faiths, Catholics can approach the concept of evolution from a scientific standpoint. For example, Catholics can believe in evolution as a scientific hypothesis which "seeks to determine the historical succession of the various species of plants and of animals on our earth... [and, which] does not consider the present species of plants and of animals as forms directly created by God." (Knight). However, this scientific theory does not concern itself with determining the origin of life, and leaves room for people to believe that life originated with a supreme being. Therefore, the scientific theory of evolution is not incompatible with Catholicism, with regards to plants and non-human animal life. However, Catholics believe in the creation of man by God, and do not believe that man could have evolved from brute animals, because, unlike other animals, humans have souls. (Knight).

Catholicism, like many of the major world religions, should be a lived religion. According to Catholics, their religion is integral to the purpose of life: "Catholics believe that the purpose of life is to have life and have it more abundantly. For this reason we follow to love God with all your heart, mind and…… [Read More]

Works Cited "The Largest Catholic Communities." Largest Religious Communities. 2005. 13 Aug. 2008 .

Bogle, Joanne. "Women Priests- No Chance." Catholic Education Resource Center. 1997. 14 Aug. 2008
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Learn'so Little About These Ancient Eastern

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5086656

learn so little about these ancient Eastern civilizations?

Ancient Greece and Rome are often called the cradles of modern, Western civilization. Greece 'gave birth' to democracy and major philosophic and scientific ideas spanning from the concept of atoms to geometry. Once upon a time, all roads famously lead to Rome, reflecting the importance of Rome in shaping the landscape of the modern globe. But simply because these civilizations were so important in shaping our own worldview does not mean we should discount the contribution of the East.

The recent excavation site of the Dadiwan relics of Qin'an at the Gansu Province is a demonstration of the richness of the early civilizations of the area. The archeological site has yielded some of the earliest findings of agriculture and pottery ever discovered, pushing back the date of the discovery of millet to a far earlier time than originally assumed. New evidence of the existence of the Chinese writing system, elaborate palace-style constructions, and concrete floors are some of the other major findings of the site. In contrast to the hunting, gathering, and relatively transient lifestyle of the Anglos and the Saxons, the inhabitants of the Gansu Province had created a thriving and…… [Read More]

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Typology in Christianity the Author of This

Words: 2483 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22988965

Typology in Christianity

The author of this report is reviewing typology in Christianity with a strong focus on a few particular dimensions. Typology, for the purposes of Christianity, is the translation and transition between the Old Testament and New Testament. Indeed, the different faiths that center on the traditional Christian God usually (but not always) rely on the Bible, or at least part of it, with some sects focusing mainly or solely on the Old Testament while other sects or groups do the same thing with the New Testament. Obviously, since both Testaments are part of the same Holy Bible, it is important to look into how they are connected and how that connection, and the church itself, has evolved over the years. A focus on how typology was done, different groups that engaged in it like the Alexandrin school and the overall history from the time of the Apostles, which paralleled the time of Jesus and a short time thereafter, through the pre-Reformation in the 1500's AD will be assessed and described.

Many historians differ greatly on a lot of the facets of Christianity. Some assert that Christianity did not even exist until the first century AD while others…… [Read More]


Barna, G. (1983). Typology offers perspectives on growing Christian market. Marketing News, 17(19), 12.

Brent, Allen. 2009. A Political History of Early Christianity. London: T & T. Clark, 2009. eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).

Cook, Jonathan A. 2006. "Christian Typology and Social Critique in Melville's "The Two Temples." Christianity & Literature 56, no. 1: 5-33. Religion and Philosophy Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).

Driesen, Isolde, Chris Hermans, and Aad De Jong. 2005. "Towards a Typology of General Aims of Christian Adult Education." Journal Of Empirical Theology 18, no. 2: 235-263. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).
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Life After Death From Plato to the Present

Words: 1920 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86814150

Life After Death

Is there such a thing as life after death? This is a question which has attracted the attention of philosophers, scientists, and religions for centuries. The difficulty with the question of life after death is that there exists no genuine persuasive proof on the question one way or another: attempts to prove the phenomenon are seldom universally persuasive. In examining some realms in which the question of life after death has been approached -- by philosophy (exemplified by Socrates and Plato), and by science in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries (exemplified by Sir Oliver Lodge) and by contemporary research (focusing on near-death experience) -- I hope to demonstrate that the persistence of belief in life after death remains, because the alternative is unappealing to the majority of people.

We must first consider the question from the standpoint of philosophy. In philosophical terms, life after death is generally considered a matter of faith rather than evidence. There is no undisputed proof that such a thing as life after death exists -- instead it is mostly a question of faith, which is (as the New Testament puts it) the "evidence of things unseen." From the standpoint of philosophical investigation,…… [Read More]


Alexander, E. (2012). Proof of heaven: A neurosurgeon's journey into the afterlife. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Beauregard, M. (2012). Brain wars: The scientific battle over the existence of the mind and the proof that will change the way we live our lives. New York: HarperOne.

Beauregard, M and O'Leary, D. (2007). The spiritual brain: A neuroscientist's case for the existence of the soul. New York: HarperOne.

Burpo, T. And Vincent, L. (2010) Heaven is for real: A little boy's astounding story of his trip to Heaven and back. New York: Thomas Nelson.
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Bread Sara Miles Take This

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83479489

Many may call this pragmatism, and by following in the path of Christ, even unknowingly, is to embrace pragmatism is one's life. Sara Miles spent her time among the poorest people on the planet, similar to Christ's instruction that performing acts of kindness to the "least of these my brothers, you did it to me." (Matt. 25:40)

So when she finally decided to enter a Episcopal church and celebrate the Holy Eucharist, it would seem a natural extension of her life experiences. Food had always been an underlying, but important part of her, and there she was sharing the body and blood of Christ. She had always been involved in social justice, albeit in a secular way, and had not embraced the Christian Liberation Theology that was popular at the same time. This could have been caused by her acquired distrust of theological dogmas. However, it seems that the sharing of food was the connection she needed to recognize the Christian ideology that was already in her heart.

For the first few years, Sara Miles allowed herself to become entangled in the theological and ideological discussions and arguments surround the teachings of Jesus. But when she decided to open the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Good News Bible: The Bible in Today's English Version. New York: American Bible

Society, 1976. Print.

Miles, Sara. Take This Bread: A Radical Conversion. New York: Ballantine, 2007. Print.
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Religions Throughout the World It

Words: 643 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51100556


In the "Bhagavad Gita, a greatly revered philosophical poem depicting the dialogue between God as Krishna and a devotee, it says: 'All creatures great and small- I am equal to all; I hate none, nor have I any favorites.' This rules out the claim of anyone to be the privileged or 'chosen' agent of God, and thus makes exclusivism impossible in Hinduism (Mugilan)."

One of the largest differences between "Hinduism and other revealed religions is that Hinduism recognizes no prophet as intermediary with exclusive claim over truth. One is not required to acknowledge an intermediary as a prophet or as a chosen agent of God. In a revealed religion, one who denies the authority of this intermediary is called a non-believer, even if one believes in God (Mugilan)."

The Hindus can not conceive "any accommodation of a belief system that denies one's freedom of choice and conscience. Therefore, even an atheist is welcomed in Hinduism. A Hindu is free to question any or all of the scriptures and one does not cease to be a Hindu if he denies the authority of the scripture (Mugilan)."

Hindus look upon scripture as merely a guide, while other religions revere their scriptures…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mugilan, Kalai. "Spiritual freedom: The essence of Hinduism." University Wire. (1998): 26 May.

Unknown. "Hinduism." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.

Unknown. "Hindu philosophy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
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Jewish Faith in Life and Death of

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72084774

Jewish Faith in Life and Death

Of the main components of the human life cycle, dying is probably the one most people prefer to avoid or at least ignore until the last possible moment. Nevertheless, even though many of us prefer not to think about it, death is as much part of humanity as birth and life. Hence, every religion has its particular views on death and rituals to help those who have passed on their way to whatever concept of the afterlife exists in that religion. In this, the Jewish religion is not unique. Centuries of tradition still survive today as modern Jews practice the ancient art of their religion, both in life and when death occurs. When considered in terms of Foucault's "Technologies of the Self," one might say the elaborate Jewish rituals surrounding dying and death can be seen from the viewpoint of both self-care and self-renunciation.

One of the central tenets of the Jewish faith and lifestyle is that no person should face life, or death, alone (Diamant, 1998, p. 8). This is evident in the way in which the Jewish community and tradition approach the event of death. Once death occurs, the bereaved is seldom…… [Read More]


Diamant, A. (1998). Saying Kaddish: How to comfort the dying, bury the dead, and mourn as a Jew. New York: Shocken Books.

Foucault, M. (1988). Technologies of the Self. Retrieved from: 

Lamm, M. (2000). The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning. New York: Jonathan David Publishers, Inc.
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Opening of the Mouth Ceremony

Words: 821 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87242269

Moreover, it helps explain the practice of embalming and mummification, which restored a body that had been rendered into multiple pieces into a single whole, in a hope of defeating death. The bodies did not have to be dismembered in the mummification process, because death was a form of dismemberment. Osiris dies, but is reborn through the sky-goddess and becomes a god, himself. Osiris plays a role in the justification of the dead. The deceased has to justify himself as the personification of death, with respect to an enemy, and with respect to a divine prosecutor where the deceased has to answer for his conduct on earth (Assmann 1989, p.146).

4. What are the main concerns of the deceased in the "Declaration of Innocence" from Chapter 125? What do these tell us about Egyptian ideas of morality?

The main concerns of the deceased in the "Declaration of Innocence" are in demonstrating that he has led a moral life that is alignment with the ethical norms and expectations of his lifetime. This helps explain the moral and ethical beleifs of ancient Egypt. "Practical religious action needs to be related to conceptions of ethics and morality. These two terms do not refer…… [Read More]


Assmann, J. 1989, 'Death and initiation in the funerary religion of ancient Egypt' in Religion

philosophy in ancient Egypt, Yale University, New Haven, pp. 135-159.

Baines, J. 1991, 'Society, morality, and religious practice,' in Shafer, B., ed., Religion in ancient

Egypt: gods, myths, and personal practice, Cornell University Press, Ithica, pp.123-200).
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Concept of Life and Death and Freud and Nietzsche

Words: 1474 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64325866

Life and Death and Freud and Nietzsche

What are the similarities between Plato's concept of life after death and the early Christian concept of life after death? How did later Christians combine these concepts? What is the evidence that Jesus came back to life after execution?

Plato is often considered as one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived. He wrote about the concepts of justice and social order, of moral right and wrong, and about the dichotomy of life and death. Throughout a person's life they are inexorably moving ever closer to their own demise. It is inevitable and yet people are terrified of this event even though it is as natural a part of living as is breathing or the beating of your heart. In one piece, Plato expresses his beliefs on the immortality of the soul (Peterson 214). He explains this in different ways, first of which is the "cyclical argument" which is that since the human body is mortal and can perish, then the soul must be a formal opposite. Just like matter cannot be either created or destroyed, only changed, so too the human soul cannot either begin or end; it simply changes forms. The…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Peterson, Michael, Hasker, William, Reichenbach, Bruce, & Basinger, David. Reason and Religious Belief: and Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 2003. Print.
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Roman Catholic

Words: 1215 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80232321

Roman Catholicism is the oldest of the Christian faiths. It is a direct descendent of the institutions put in place by the disciples of Jesus. The first leaders of what later became Catholicism were the twelve apostles. Originally, these men set-up organizations in various towns and cities across the Roman Empire to spread the word of their God, and in so doing, became the first bishops and saints. Roman Catholic bishops, cardinals, and popes of today can still trace their succession back to the apostles.

Christianity itself grew out of the Jewish faith. "Christianity was one form of the faith of the Jews, and not only in its first years. Jesus was a Jew." (Chadwick 10). The God of the Jews also the God of the Christians but the interpretations of the nature of the Lord, and most particularly, the divinity of Christ are where these two religions first split.

The first Christians were persecuted by Roman Emperors. For hundreds of years the religion was outlawed and thousands died as martyrs in the Roman gaming arenas. In 324 A.D. Constantine became the first Christian Emperor. Soon after, "The Emperor Theododius I banned paganism, made Christian heretics liable to penalties, and…… [Read More]


1. Chadwick, Owen. A History of Christianity. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1995.

2. Davies, Oliver. Selected Writings. New York: Penguin Books USA, Inc., 1994, pp. 236-7.

3. Feinberg, Joel, and Russ Shafer-Landau. Reason and Responsibility. International: Wadsworth Publishing, 1999.

4. Packer, J.I., Grant Osborn, and Colin Brown. Exploring the Christian Faith. Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1996.
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Theosophy New Age

Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32655219

New Age

Crystals, witchcraft, ESP, tarot cards, tai chi, yoga, and the I Ching, which are seemingly disparate tools, practices, and beliefs, come under one spiritual rubric: the New Age movement. The New Age amalgamates ancient philosophies and religious practices ranging from shamanism to Sufism and including everything in between. The New Age is almost an anything-goes spiritual path, as it has no one set of beliefs, no central text, no concrete origin, and a malleable theology. In fact, technically atheists can participate in New Age religion, for the New Age also embraces straight science and often espouses an impersonal universe devoid of an overarching anthropomorphic deity. However, the New Age can be isolated and analyzed as a distinct, albeit modern religious movement that began loosely around the turn of the twentieth century when Theosophy delivered fresh ideas from Eastern religions to the Western world and as the Western world was becoming increasingly more secular. The New Age is also characterized by an emphasis on personal responsibility and on the individual's unmediated connection with the divine. While there are no set dogmas associated with the New Age, concepts like karma and reincarnation and practices like meditation, vegetarianism and holistic healing…… [Read More]

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Ancient Art Sarcophagi

Words: 2774 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54746192

Roman Sarcophagi sculptures, one sarcophagus of portraying Roman deity as portrayed on the Sarcophagus with the Indian Triumph of Dionysus' triumphal return from India, contrasted with the other the Sarcophagus Depicting a Battle between Soldiers and Amazon made for a military leader.

During the second and 3rd centuries, inhumation became more and more used than cremation, and this created a push for a greater need for sarcophagi, as the departed were placed inside these vessels. "Sarcophagi are of eminent importance for the study of Roman art, for they provide the largest single body of sculptural material in which we may study both the style and subject matter of the art of the tumultuous years of the later Roman empire, when there are few other monuments with pictorial relief to which we can turn… through sarcophagus reliefs we can trace and re-experience the profound shift in pagan religious thought, away from a primitive fear of death to a positive hope for immortality. A life in the beyond may be looked forward to with joy and anticipation, whether clothed in myth or symbolic allegory" (McCann, 20). This is precisely the overall meaning that The Indian Triumph of Dionysus represents. This Roman sarcophagus…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Awan, H.T.. "Roman Sarcophagi." The Metropolitan Museum, n.d.

Web. 1 Apr 2014.

Koortbojian, Michael Myth, Meaning, and Memory on Roman Sarcophagi. Berkeley:

University of California Press, 1995.
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Judaism Religion

Words: 2266 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82903762

Jews will face after death? How do Jewish ideas about the afterlife affect their attitudes toward death itself? This is a relatively more complicated question to answer than how the attitudes held by Christians about the afterlife affect their views toward death because in the case of Judaism there is no small amount of ambiguity.

Jewish beliefs about death cannot be understood independent of Jewish theology as a whole, and so it may be helpful to begin here with a definition of what we mean by religion as a whole. Religion is both an intensely personal area of life as well as one that is practiced publicly.

The result of this second attribute is that people tend to think that they know what religion means and how it functions because they frequently see people performing religious rites. But as a consequence of its former attribute, we do not actually know as much about people's most fundamental religious beliefs as we think we do.

Religion can be defined in its most general sense to be a way of life that is based on an individual's understanding of his or her relation to the universe or to God or to a collection…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carmody, D. & Carmody, J. (1989). Ways to the center. New York: Wadsworth.

Dunlap, K. (1991). Religion: The functions in human life. Chicago: University of Chicago.

Hopfe, L. (1991). Religions of the world. New York: Macmillan.

Rosenblatt, Stanley. Murder of Mercy: Euthanasia on Trial. New York: Prometheus, 1992.
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Egyptian Mythology Most of the People Would

Words: 3642 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20747239

Egyptian Mythology

Most of the people would define a myth as a story. But this is not the correct meaning of a myth. The debate over the accurate meaning of myth has been going through since last 2000 years. The most generally accepted definition of a myth is that, myths are stories regarding the gods. They are sacred stories and they give an explanation about the way the world is. They are traditional stories that contain knowledge and information. (Pinch 1-5)

Mythological stories have been told by the Egyptians for thousands of years. They, however, properly started recording and writing these mythological stories from 2000 BC. In the ancient times the Egyptians had a number of gods. People belonging to different regions had different gods whom they worshiped. With the development of society, people of different regions started living together, and the stories regarding the culture, traditions, religion and way of living of people of different region started to blend together. The people from one region started to include the gods from another region in their myths. The structure of these myths somewhat overlapped but the Egyptians were completely satisfied with this structure. The myths from different regions contradict each…… [Read More]

Works Cited "BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Ancient Egypt and the Modern World." 2010. Web. 1 May 2013. < >.

Center for Future Consciousness. "Ancient Myth, Religion, and Philosophy." 2013. Web. 1 May 2013. .

David A., Warburton. "Myth as the Link between Event and History." IBAES X. 283-292. Web. 1 May. 2013. .

Dijk, Jacobus. Myth and Mythmaking in Ancient Egypt. Groningen: University of Groningen, 2008. 1697-1700. Web. .
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Virtual Museum Tour

Words: 691 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76662073

Virtual Museum Tour

One of the most readily identifiable architects of the ancient Egyptian civilization is the Great Pyramid of Khufu. It's sheer size and enduring nature (it has stood for the better part of 4,000 years, and is the sole Seven Wonders of the World that is still existent) has made it synonymous with the high degree of cultivation of sophistication which the ancient Egyptian society is known for. A closer look at the Great Pyramid, however, reveals much about the cosmology of this group of people, especially as it pertains to their religious and philosophical beliefs about the afterlife. A close analysis of this structure and its significance elucidates a great deal about the ancient Egyptians' religious beliefs about the soul and its transformation after life.

In under to begin to understand the way the Great Pyramid is a testament to the religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians and their conception of the afterlife, one must become acquainted with those beliefs themselves. Egyptians not only believed in the enduring nature of the soul which would continue to exist following the physical death of the body, but they also had a sophisticated idea of what today are called 'pagan'…… [Read More]


Banks, J.A., Beyer, B.K, Contreras, G., Craven, J., Ladson-Billings, G., McFarland, M.A., Parker, W.C. (2000). Ancient World: Adventures in Time and Place. New York: McGraw-Hill.

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Classical Greek Indian Civilizations Egyptian Civilization

Words: 2201 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63746864

art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.

The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite of Arles, too. It was made by painstakingly chipping away bits and pieces from a solid block of marble (the original size of the block is show at the base of the statue, which shows how long this process must have taken). This is a visual art form that I…… [Read More]


Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site:

Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site: .

Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site:

Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site:
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Life and Death Explored in

Words: 2207 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84857193

All of these scenes indicate that there might be little more than nothing after life. This poem allows us to see that Dickinson was not happy with accepting the traditional attitudes toward death and dying.

Another poem that examines death is "The Bustle in the House." Again, we see death is uneventful. Elizabeth Piedmont-Marton claims that in Dickinson's poetry, "the moment of death seems often less momentous than ordinary" (Piedmont-Marton) and it is "one of the most disturbing and powerful characteristics of Dickinson's poems" (Piedmont-Marton). "The Bustle in the House," demonstrates this assertion very well with its idea of humanity continuing to get along with the "industries" (the Bustle in the House 3) of life after a loved one dies. The heart of the dead is swept up (4), making it seem like the process of death needs a clean sweep and that is it. Mourning is nothing more than a household chore and it is best done quickly. Piedmont-Marton asserts that "by suggesting that the rituals of grief are like the rituals of domestic duty, Dickinson offers a measure of consolation: death is a stage in a cycle, not an end; love will return in time" (Piedmont-Marton). We have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dickinson, Emily. "Because I Could Not Stop for Death." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.

Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.

Some keep the Sabbath going to Church." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.

Tell All the Truth but Tell it Slant. " the Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
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Spread of Christianity in an

Words: 1815 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75425234

This made the religion even more appealing. For example, because Christianity was born from Jewish traditions, it could be accepted by Jews; because of it's mystical attributes, Greek and other Orientals found it attractive. As a philosophy, Christianity was appealing because it offered solutions to many of the problems that ailed the world. In addition, its monotheism gave not only God but also man a place in the universe. Its promise of an afterlife provided mysticism and answers to many of the fears and worries that plague mankind. People had a reason to believe in a good God. John Crossan asserts, "God will act to restore justice in an unjust world" (Crossan 283). Indeed, the mystical aspect of this religion was very appealing because it was good. Even faith - faith in God, Jesus, and one's fellow man - becomes a significant factor in Christianity.

Christianity was a movement that has been unmatched since its emergence. At a time when society was reaching for hope, Christianity offered not just hope but a reason to believe and live a good life. Individuals were searching for guidance and they needed something to believe in. Jesus and his message gave them something to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crossan, John. The Birth of Christianity. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers. 1998.

Goodman, Martin. A World History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1999.

Hastings, Adrian. A World History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1999.

Stegemann, Ekkehard. The Jesus Movement. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1989.
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Religious Convictions and Practices of

Words: 1862 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94938216


There is no one standard for what is considered right and wrong in the world of American religion. The American religion that exists today may be described as "Agnostian-Secularian" meaning it is made up of multiple faiths, beliefs and convictions, some more Christian based and some more abstract in nature.

By and large the American 'religion' or modern society is varying accepting of people of many different faiths and idealisms. Though the government of this country is somewhat heavily influenced by Christian fundamentalist ideals such as those that Bush emphasizes, the public by and large particularly in the eyes of the media, is much more open and flexible in nature. There are some beliefs that may be considered more 'universal' in nature than others. There is for example an obvious preference among people living in the modern American world to belief in the basic concepts of right and wrong.

There is evidence that suggests that most people believe in some form of afterlife, though they are not certain what exactly this life will entail. Most people also carry with them the conviction that there are certain principles that are right and wrong. Though there is no one size fits…… [Read More]

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Egyptian Pyramids History and Construction

Words: 2209 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65718700

"According to Redford, pharaohs traditionally began building their pyramids as soon as they took the throne. The pharaoh would first establish a committee composed of an overseer of construction, a chief engineer and an architect. The pyramids were usually placed on the western side of the Nile because the pharaoh's soul was meant to join with the sun disc during its descent before continuing with the sun in its eternal round. Added Redford, the two deciding factors when choosing a building site were its orientation to the western horizon where the sun set and the proximity to Memphis, the central city of ancient Egypt" (Science Daily). The entire process was thought out to complete a journey that would extend beyond life.

Most historical experts believe ramps were the mode of building the pyramids up. Donald Redford agrees with the prevailing thought that ramps were used to build pyramids. These ramps were made of mud brick and coated with chips of plaster to harden the surface. Redford says, "If they consistently raised the ramp course by course as the teams dragged their blocks up, they could have gotten them into place fairly easily," he noted. At least one such ramp still…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brier, Bob. "How to Build a Pyramid." Archaeology. 2007. 60.3. March 03-2011. Web.

EBSCO Resource Database.

National Geographic: "Pyramids." March 03-2011. Web.
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Life 1998 Director Hirokazu Kore-Eda's

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23805264

More specifically, one new resident is a rebellious young man who objects to having to pick a single memory; meanwhile, another resident is an elderly man who cannot decide what memory to pick from the 72 years of his life. All of the employees are also deceased individuals; they remain employed at the facility because they were unable or unready to move on to eternity. This element gives rise to the drama that unfolds when one of the caseworkers realizes that one of the new residents was married to his former fiance prior to his own death as a very young man.


One of the most interesting aspects of the film is the way that it is shot as a dramatic movie in some respects but as a documentary in others. In the first respect, the director uses traditional framing and camera positioning; in the second respect, he uses the handheld technique typically associated with documentary films and real-life interviews of real people rather than actors. There'd also something true-to-life about the comparatively drab or realistic choice of setting. Whereas afterlife scenes are often depicted in highly modernistic or sterile environments, After Life utilizes the ordinary type of administrative…… [Read More]

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Death the Four Categories of

Words: 2676 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34163404

As one performs their dharma, they earn karma, which is the cause and effect aspect of Hinduism. Karma explains good actions bring good results, and by obeying this principle and dharma, one can experience rebirth into a "better" life that puts one in a stronger position to achieve moksha. The ultimate goal for any Hindu soul is to achieve moksha, which is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of life and death (Chidester: 85). The critical aspect of Hinduism is realizing when the body dies, the Self (Atman) does not die. The Self is carried from life to life, through reincarnation, and the secret to death is to realize the Supreme Self hidden in the heart through meditation and grace (Kramer: 30). Realizing Self in Hindu customs is required to achieve moksha, and be liberated from the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth of samsara. Only when the Self is realized can one truly achieve death.

The Buddhist concept of death is similar to Hinduism with respect to the idea of liberation. In Buddhism, samsara refers to the continuous flow of life and exposure to suffering. Buddhist understanding of death explains that all life is vulnerable to suffering, everything…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:

Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-216. Print.

Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL

Paulist Press, 1988. 27-166. Print.
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Sketches of Jewish Social Life

Words: 5878 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7035364

However, Edersheim also points out that Jews were more child-centered than their contemporary cultures. One example of the Jewish reverence for children is that only Jews and one other culture had prohibitions against infanticide, while other cultures openly permitted the practice.

In chapter seven, Edersheim goes on to discuss the raising of Jewish children. Different ages of children had different roles and expectations. Children learned early on the protection of the Mesusah. In addition to formal instruction, children learned by observing their parents engage in rituals. The book of Proverbs is helpful to an understanding of how Jews were to raise their children. The most important part of the education of a Jewish child was religious education. Much of this instruction came as the result of children watching their parents, because Jews lived their religion as part of their daily lives. In addition to informal instruction, some children received formal instruction. While the degree of formal instruction was not dependent upon class, it was dependent upon gender; generally, only male children were entitled to extensive, formal religious instruction.

In chapter eight, Edersheim goes into greater depth regarding education. He starts out by saying that, under systems of heathenism, as civilization…… [Read More]

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Puritan Life Was Heavily Contaminated by Death

Words: 1611 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60935225

puritan life was heavily contaminated by death. Half of the original 102 pilgrims that settled in America died during the first winter and it was not uncommon for children to perish before they reached adolescence. Funerals were a common occurrence in everyday life and the air of towns was often littered with the sounds of church bells. From the early stages of learning, children were educated on the grim reality that they faced and if they were fortunate enough to grow up, their demise still followed them wherever they ventured to. Puritan religion explains that a person is unable to control their destiny. Their ascendance to heaven or hell is pre-determined before the time of their birth and their actions in life have no influence on their final destination.

Although her lifetime took place more than two centuries after their arrival, Emily Dickinson presented poetry that offered views on death that were influenced by puritan belief. She believed that the manner in which a person dies would reflect their afterlife. For instance, a person that died a peaceful death, perhaps at home in the company of their family and friends, meant the person found harmony with the God after passing.…… [Read More]

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Expliactaion Hamlet Act 3 Scene

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69759439

One of the running metaphors that Hamlet uses throughout the soliloquy is that of sleep as a symbol for death. This is made explicit when Hamlet mentions the "sleep of death," but it is used prior to this in more symbolic ways. This helps to bring out Hamlet's weariness and desire for simple peace. This desire is central to his character and to the soliloquy itself; it is his desire for peace and rest that drives him to contemplate suicide, but the fact that these things are far from guaranteed in the afterlife -- especially for one who commits suicide -- is enough to make the action unpalatable even in what he perceives as his extreme circumstances. There is also a sense of travel associated with death and the transition to the afterlife that appears in the soliloquy, from "shuffl[ing] off this mortal coil" to the "undiscover'd country" that is used as a stand-in for the afterlife itself. This makes suicide and even simply death more of an active pursuit than it might otherwise be thought, and adds an interesting layer of meaning to the soliloquy. One of Hamlet's major problems throughout the lay is his inability to act, and…… [Read More]

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Women's Choice Lead a Celebate Life Remain

Words: 3758 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83281442

Women's choice lead a celebate life, remain a virgin, a rejection societal expectations? A conclusion drawn thesis question. I attaching suggested books citation. Essay 12 pages length counting citations bibliography.

Was a Women's choice to lead a celibate life or remain a virgin a rejection of societal expectations?

The role of women in the society has been widely debated throughout the history of both philosophical thought and social sciences. Women have a particular place in society since ancient times and there are clear indications, in the religious literature, that women have had specific views and opinions regarding their own place in the society. In this context, the current research discusses the choice of women to lead a celibate life or keep herself a virgin and whether this choice was a reaction to societal expectations and social pressures. The perspective of the research analysis is focused on Christian traditions from the Apostles to the Reformers.

The research, in the first part, focuses on providing a short background of the current role women have in society and points out common signs of submissiveness. In the second part, the discussion takes into account the main perspectives of women in the Bible up to…… [Read More]

Kung, 2001, p22-3

Karant-Nun, 2003, p10

idem, p11
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Role of Islam as a Unifying Force

Words: 4109 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4354718

role of Islam as a unifying force

Perhaps more than any other religion in the world, Islam has put to work its less obvious sense in order to unify the peoples sharing the same belief. Through its art, its common language and its judicial system that has the Koran teachings at its base, Islam was a unifying force among the Arabic peoples of the Arabic Peninsula, Northern Africa and the Middle East.

There is a short discussion I would like to address here and that is to identify the differences between culture and civilization. This will help us see how religion LO is included in this set of concepts. From my point-of-view, religion LO can be considered an element of civilization through its cultural component. If we exclude Marxist ideology that argue that civilization is but a certain level that culture has attained and make no distinction between the two, when we refer to culture, we refer to the spiritual values of a people or a group of people. In this way, it is the spirit that gives birth to cultural manifestations and we connect culture directly to the spirit. As for civilization, this would, in my opinion, include both…… [Read More]

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Epicurus on the Fear of

Words: 1887 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60235995

Religion was also something that stood in the way of people's happiness in life because religion inflicted people with the fear of gods and of the afterlife.

If one could only get over his or her own fear of death, then there was nothing that could stand in the way of pleasure in life. Individuals could achieve peace of mind, according to Epicurus, simply by maximizing their enjoyment while they are alive.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bryant, Clifford D. Handbook of Death and Dying. Sage Publications; 1st edition, 2003.

Green, O.H. "Fear of Death." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Sept. 1982,


Konstan, David. A Life Worthy of the Gods: The Materialist Psychology of Epicurus.
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Ancient Civis an Examination of

Words: 1418 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25047016

Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).

The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for further storage and as a strong room.


Etruscan civilization marks the first instance of city formation in the Italian peninsula. By the 8th century BC, the Etruscans had established themselves in a confederacy of twelve city-states mirroring those seen in Mesopotamia. Much of our knowledge of the Etruscans…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belmonte, Juan Antonio. From the Atlas to the Caucasus: The Other Side of the Mediterranean Before Islam. Archaeoastronomy 15.(2000): 78.

de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace, 1980.

Dimock, Wai Chee. The Egyptian Pronoun: Lyric, Novel, the Book of the Dead. New Literary History 39.3 (2008): 619-643.

Maddison, Angus. The Contours of World Development. The World Economy, OECD, 2010.. Web.
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Pessimistic View of Eternal Life

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16516229

Nor would sexual saturation without challenge be the Heavenly solution to sexual frustration in life. In principle Heaven would provide the precise mix of success and failure that corresponded to maximum happiness; it would not provide unlimited success if that would detract from its value. In Heaven, one would have the opportunity to play only as much golf as would be maximally enjoyable; one would be precisely as proficient at the game as to reinforce rather than detract from its enjoyment. Likewise, if sexual encounters without any prospect of rejection would be unfulfilling, Heaven would provide the precise mix of success and failure to avoid reducing the subjective pleasure involved. Therefore, it is Barnes's lack of imagination rather than the limitations of Heaven that account for his conclusions.


The counterargument is that anything would become boring if one lived eternally, including even the perfect mix of success and failure, whether with respect to golf, sexual fulfillment, or anything else that human beings are capable of enjoying during the ordinary life span. In an eternity, one would play golf so often (i.e. An infinite number of times) and eventually encounter every possible shot and combination of shots and outcomes an…… [Read More]

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Judaism and Christianity

Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89575957

functions of monotheism in two religions, Judaism and Christianity. Only Judaism has been considered a truly monotheistic faith because Christianity at times has been said to offer some confusion in this regard and that it actually strays from the true definition of monotheistic. Judaism is considered to be the world's first monotheistic faith. One can take away from this that their way of thinking influenced more or less the origins of Christianity. Because Judaism was first, this work addresses Judaism's origin, God, scriptures, worldview, problems and solutions for man and then attempts to address their view of the afterlife and what it takes for mortals to attain it. Judaism has philosophical combinations of agreements and disagreements that can either encourage or prevent a person from following the religion as a whole.

This is as good a place to start as any -- Judaism as a religion is one that is either fully accepted or the outsider is totally against. There is not much middle ground when it comes to the Jewish faith. This may be because of certain causes: the first issue is that the Torah has, what can be interpreted as many inconsistent texts, that have been said to…… [Read More]


A Christian View of Ethics. Ed. CIM. CIM Technical Papers. Retrieved on November 6, 2009, from

Internet Jewish History Sourcebook. Ed. Retrieved on November 6, 2009, from

Macbeath, A. Experiments in Living: A Study of the Nature and Foundation of Ethics or Morals in the Light of Recent Work in Social Anthropology. London: Macmillan, 1952.

Pellegrino, Edmund D. "Managed Care: An Ethical Reflection." The Christian Century, Vol. 115. August 12, 1998.
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People You Meet in Heaven

Words: 1979 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55992688

But now, here, in order to move on, you must understand why you felt what you did, and why you no longer need to feel it…" Ruby served as the voice of Albom, and even God, acting as Eddie's guide to the path towards enlightenment, forgiveness (and self-forgiveness), and ultimately, happiness.

Indeed, this pivotal moment in Eddie's life culminated with the characters of Marguerite and Tala, symbols of love and forgiveness, respectively. With Marguerite, he began crying again, releasing repressed feelings he never thought he still had with him until he died. It was through Marguerite that Albom explicated true and lasting love, which permeates through life and death.

Eddie's ultimate emotional release was through Tala, the young girl whom he never forgave himself for not being able to save her from a fire while he was stationed as a soldier in the Philippines. It was with Tala that Eddie made peace with himself, removing all the blames he put on himself to not feel the guilt he had been feeling all his life. Tala was his 'redeemer': it was through her that he forgave himself, and it was through her help that he learned that he, indeed, saved the…… [Read More]


Albom, M. (2003). The Five People You Meet in Heaven. NY: Hyperion Books.

Doty, G. (2009). "Signs, Symbols, Meanings, and Interpretation." Missouri University of Science and Technology web site. Available at:

Wellek, R. (2003). "Symbol and symbolism in literature." University of Virginia Library. Available at:
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Mixed Company by C Rucker

Words: 2204 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21454656

He wants to honor his dead wife, so he takes the dog along with him just as she did. This is perhaps the only gesture the father makes toward the dog. Throughout the poem, it appears as if the father is indifferent to the dog, if anything at all.

The paradox we encounter in the poem is if a dog can actually suffer from grief with the ultimate question resting on the notion of animals missing human beings. The most ironic aspect of this poem is how the dog appears to be suffering more than the father is. The poet does not go into the father's suffering at all, except to say that he refuses counseling. The meaning and primary idea behind the poem is that all creatures suffer loss whether or not they can express it in ways that humans might be able to understand. It took death for the poet's father to believe that an animal could experience anything such as separation anxiety. The poet approaches death from the perspective of an animal to emphasize that loss is a real feeling experienced by any creature that experienced anything like love. The tone of "Mixed Company" is somber -…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rucker, C. "Mixed Company"
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Everyman the Treatment of Death in Everyman

Words: 1455 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48064165


The Treatment of Death in Everyman

Everyman is one of the longest running morality plays during the Middle Ages. The morality plays presented moral lessons and Christian ideals to the illiterate masses. The plays taught the masses how they should be behave and act towards one another in order to maintain a Christina lifestyle (Cummings, 2010). Everyman is a play that is about man's life and his fight to apply Christian ideals so that he will be allowed into the kingdom of heaven when he dies. The theme of death is central to the plot. The play continually reminds the viewer that our life here is temporary. It teaches them to focus on what happens when they die. However, this study will examine the thesis that even though the play contains numerous depictions of death and death imagery, Everyman is not really about death, it is a play about life and the life eternal.

Life Eternal

The title of the play implies that the messages contained within apply to every single person on earth equally and that no one can escape them. This message applies to every man, regardless of their station in this lifetime. The focus of Everyman…… [Read More]


Cummings, M. (2010). Everyman. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from 

Halsall, P. (1998). Medieval Sourcebook: Everyman, 15th Century. Medieval Sourcebook. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from

King, D. (2008). Notes on Everyman. Middle English Literature. Retrieved December 16, 2010 from

Sanders, A. (2007). English Literature Beowulf to Dryden. Retrieved December 16, 2010 from
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Monolithic Theories and Egyptian Myth

Words: 1520 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41941582

The spell here actually contains the gist of the myth itself, which is the threat of crocodiles. It is improbable here that a priest spontaneously composes an incantation against a crocodile in the afterlife without having registered the threat beforehand. It is more likely that the threat of carnivorous crocodiles awaiting the dead in the afterlife led to the precautions against it.


The five monolithic theories of myth are tremendously insightful and useful. However, as Kirk pointed out, "…analysis of myth should not stop when one particular theoretical explanation has been applied and found productive. Other kinds of explanation may also be valid." (Kirk, p. 39). The subtlety and pure strangeness of the myths should make us think twice about restricting ourselves to one monolithic theory in their interpretation.… [Read More]


Pinch, G. (2004). Egyptian mythology: A guide to the gods, goddesses, and traditions of ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

G.S. Kirk, the Nature of Myth, (1974: 38-68)

Budge, E.A.W. (1920). The Book of the Dead. Waiheke Island: Floating Press. Taylor, J.H. (2001). Death and the afterlife in ancient Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Budge, E.A.W. (1969). The gods of the Egyptians: Or, Studies in Egyptian mythology. New York: Dover Publications.
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Chinese First Emperor as With the Egyptian

Words: 1431 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99027813

Chinese First Emperor as with the Egyptian pharaohs, the tomb was a microcosm of the world that they knew in life, and filled with the objects that they would use in the afterlife. In early times, servants, soldiers, concubines and entertainers were even put to death so they could serve the monarch in the next world, although later these were mostly represented by statues and replicas. For the First Emperor of China, the tom was an elaborate "analogue of life," reportedly constructed by 700,000 men over many years -- far more than the number of workers used by the Egyptian pharaohs to build their tombs and pyramids (Rawson, 2007, p. 123). He even had a terracotta army with cavalry, archers, chariots and thousands of troops buried in pits to defend him from his enemies in the next world, along with stone armor to protect against evil spirits. Pit 1 had a terracotta army of 6,000 men and 160 chariots, all standing at attention. Although their individual features were unique and likely modeled from live soldiers, they had clearly been assigned eternal guard duty and were "forbidden to move unless directed to do so by superiors" (Rawson, p. 143). This was…… [Read More]


Burstein, S.M. (2009). Ancient African Civilization: Kush and Axum. Markus Wiener Publishers.

Krishan, Y. (1996). The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development. New Dehli: Munshiran Manoharlal Publishers.

Mitchell, S. (ed). (2000). Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. NY: Three Rivers Press.

Rawson, J. (2007). "The First Emperor's Tomb: The Afterlife Universe" in Portal, J. (ed), The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army. British Museum Press: 114-51.