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Life After Death: Afterlife Within the ealm of Ancient Greek Beliefs
The question as to what happens after death is not fathomable within human reason. As such, it remains one of the biggest mysteries of life. The belief in life after death is what keeps the hopes of the human race intact even in the face of the tragedy of death. The concept 'afterlife' appears absurd in light of rational thought yet strangely familiar. Since time immemorial, numerous theories and beliefs have emerged in bid to work out this disarray. As for Christians, there is a mainstream belief that revolves around Heaven and Hell for rewarding righteousness and punishing evil respectively. In Hinduism, the belief is that upon death, the human soul deserts the body and reincarnates in a different form based on 'actions and consequences.' In Ancient Greek religion, there was a wide range of beliefs. As it appertains…
Buxton, R (2004). The complete World of Greek Mythology London: Thames & Hudson Ltd.
Fairbanks, A (1900). "The Chthonic Gods of Greek Religion" The American Journal of Philology (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 21 (3): 241 -- 259.
Long, J. B (2005) "Underworld" Encyclopedia of Religion (Macmillan Reference USA) 14: 9451 -- 9458.
Mikalson, JD (2010 Ancient Greek Religion West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell.
But everyone deserves their fate: 'It was with conscious knowledge that the people of this world sinned, and that is why torment awaits them'" (Nadler 54). The writer of Ezra even provides some specific guidance concerning what can be expected by on the day of judgment, with the just and righteous being guarded in silence by angels until they are presented to God but the souls of the wicked for doomed to wander aimlessly until their day of judgment to give them ample time to contemplate their wrongdoings and what is in store form them once God gets hold of them: "The soul of the just person, freed from the confines of the mortal body, will, before the final judgment, be present before God and will contemplate his being.... The souls of the wicked, on the other hand, are condemned to wander aimlessly, anticipating with dread the final sentence they…
Burland, C.A. "Is There a Life After Death?" In Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Supernatural, Vol. 1. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 1970.
Grabbe, Lester L. Judaic Religion in the Second Temple Period: Belief and Practice from the Exile to Yavneh. London: Routledge, 2000.
Nadler, Steven. Spinoza's Heresy: Immortality and the Jewish Mind. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001.
Rayner, John D. Jewish Religious Law: A Progressive Perspective. New York: Berghahn Books, 1998.
religious views afterlife held ancient Mesopotamian ancient Egyptians
Ancient Mesopotamians believed that the world was a sphere that was divided in two parts -- one occupied by the living and one occupied by the dead. Gods were present in both environments and controlled much of what happened in the world of the living and in the world of the dead. Even with the fact that this civilization emphasized that a ferry individual carried individuals from the grave to the Underworld, there is limited information concerning what happened to dead people once they got there. Mesopotamians were generally pessimistic with regard to the afterlife and believed that it involved a horrible place where individuals would go through great pains.
In contrast to Mesopotamians, Egyptians were optimistic concerning afterlife and actually focused on preparing a deceased person in order for him or her to experience pleasurable experiences once they reached the world…
Cohen, Andrew C., "Death rituals, ideology, and the development of early Mesopotamian kingship: toward a new understanding of Iraq's royal cemetery of Ur," (BRILL)
Hornung, Erik, and Lorton, David, "The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife," (Cornell University Press, 1999)
Death and Afterlife
"If you believe only in an afterlife, you are restricted to a very limited, dualistic view of time. There is only 'here' and 'after.' But if life is continuous, if the soul never stops making its journey, a completely different worldview opens up" (Deepak Chopra, 2000, p. 258).
How do various religions -- Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Hinduism -- view the afterlife? hat are the beliefs of these faiths as to what happens when believers pass away? These questions will be addressed in this paper.
The Afterlife From the Perspective of Judaism, Christianity, Islam and Buddhism
In Judaism believers use the Old Testament exclusively. In the Old Testament there are many passages that refer to the afterlife, including Job 20:26: "And when after my skin this is destroyed. Then without my flesh shall I see God" (Morse, 2005, p. 155). Another reference to the afterlife in the…
Chopra, Deepak. How to Know God: The Soul's Journey into the Mystery of Mysteries. New York: Three Rivers Press, 2000.
Gerner, Katy. Religions of the World. Tarrytown, NY: Marshall Cavendish, 2008.
Huda. "Islam: Definition of 'Youm Al-Qiyaman.' About.com. Retrieved October 28, 2011, from http://Islam.about.com/od/heavenhell/g/qlyama.htm?p=1. 2011.
Morse, Donald R. "Can Science Prove the Soul, the Afterlife and God?" The Journal of Religion
Wang Chong and Lucretius on their beliefs of afterlife. We will also discuss how their beliefs were shaped by other philosophers of their time. Finally, we will conclude by providing an analysis of the subject matter.
ome and Lucretius
The success of the oman Empire is often attributed to the auspicious religious beliefs that permeated that society. A book entitled, The World of ome, describes the thoughts of the historian Polybius who asserted that The quality in which the oman commonwealth is most distinctly superior is in my opinion the nature of their religious convictions. I believe that what maintains the cohesion of the oman state is the very thing which among other peoples is an object of reproach: I mean superstition... It is a course which perhaps would not have been necessary had it been possible to form a state composed of wise men, but since every multitude is…
http://www.questia.com /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Art conveys the values and beliefs of a culture, including prevailing attitudes toward death and the afterlife. Often imagery associated with death and the afterlife will contain religious symbolism or iconography, because religions tend to be occupied with questions related to human mortality and the nature of the soul. Some cultures were preoccupied with preparations for death and the afterlife, and have left behind a panoply of objects testifying to their beliefs and practices. For example, Egyptian art includes richly decorated tombs, mummies, sarcophagi, and urns. Other cultures like Christianity link death directly with the role of God. European Christian art from the medieval period onwards stresses the central image of Jesus dying on the cross, and that death is either depicted in a bloody and vivid fashion or it is depicted as a spiritual transition from the mundane world to the world of the spirit. Finally, some works of…
"Canpoic Jar." Penn Museum. Retrieved online: http://www.penn.museum/collections/object/301556
"Egyptian Mummy." Penn Museum. Retrieved online: http://www.penn.museum/collections/assets/201402_300.jpg
"Funerary Plaque." Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/54.11.5
"Virgin and Child." Philadelphia Museum of Art. Retrieved online: http://www.philamuseum.org/collections/permanent/101841.html?mulR=1695477908 -- 11
Additionally, many of the inscriptions in the temples were written in a deliberately elaborate and confusing hieroglyphic script to safeguard their meaning against those who could read standard hieroglyphs. The language in these inscriptions is one that was dead even at the time that they were being written. It was not the spoken language of the period, but a priestly revival of a much older stage of the Egyptian language. This clearly illustrates that other world myths most likely existed even prior to the Egyptians belief in the after-life.
World mythology, religion and cultural beliefs will always remain an enticing mystery, as people search and yearn for something to believe in. Death and what occurs afterwards is one of the most fascinating aspects of any religion. The beliefs of the ancient Egyptians differ from many present-day theories of what occurs after death. Most people currently believe in some form of…
Robinson, B.A. "What Happens at the time of our Death?" Religious Tolerance. 2004.
Religious Tolerance.Org. 07 Aug. 2006 http://www.religioustolerance.org/chr_deat.htm .
Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society. Mankind's Search for God. New York: Watch
Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1990.
As a result of their religious beliefs, even though not routinely practiced, the Romans, by contemporary standards, were highly superstitious. ri-malchio routinely took extreme precautions to attempt to ward away bad luck. On the other hand, Encolpius appears less superstitious, in fact, sarcastic in regard to the posting of a slave to ensure no one trips over the dining room threshold (sec. 30) (Ruden, 2000, p. 169). Animal sacrifice, another religious practice in/or Roman religion, reportedly helped secure divine favor in exchange of a gift. he animal sacrifice was generally an inedible piece of the animal. Sometimes the religious person would withhold his gift until he was assured he had his gift or that it was on the way. Encolpius, for example, does not automatically make a sacrifice, but names animals he will sacrifice to Priapus "once he gets his virility back (sec. 133)" (Ruden, 2000, p. 169). When…
The traditional Roman religion did not provide an-swers to life questions for the ancients, while the philosophical religions, reportedly did provide some answers. During Petronius' time, Stoicism and Epicureanism rivaled each other for the hearts and minds of men. Sto-icism would win. Stoicism, founded in Athens about 300 B.C.E. By Zeno of Citium, constituted the practice of being enduring, Those who were stoic mastered suffering, as well as their emotions for what they perceived as higher cause.
This practical prescription of the ancient belief system included the following logic: "To be virtuous is to live according to the will of God (a monotheistic lan-guage was used), which is manifested in nature. If one observes nature, it is plain that God decrees constant change" (Ruden, 2000, p. 185). The Romans perceived that to harmonize with na-ture, one became compliant with change, yet did not seek positive change. This religious practice, in turn fostered numbness; permitting a myriad of things to be sought, including "health, material well-being, human relationships, honor) and avoided (illness, poverty, loneliness, shame) but purists insisted that the only really important attainment was controlling one's attachments (Ibid, p. 186).
Controlling ones attachments contributed to the "perfect" Stoic. Their detachment reportedly mimicked the detachment some perceived God to possess. In the afterlife, they claimed one who had become the perfect Stoic sage could achieve unity with God. Suicide to stoics served as a religious act, in which the person signified the human will's ultimate transcendence over circumstance. In general, due to various be-liefs about the person's soul and the value placed on honor, Ro-mans were somewhat tolerant of suicide. They considered it a great evil to defend themselves. In doing
Schwartz happens to be a Gemini, but John had a one in twelve chance of getting that one right. John continues to take stabs at guessing more about Gary Schwartz's family, guesses that are completely and probably deliberately vague. Not only could the mediums be making wild and general guesses but they could have also acquired information through traditional sources or nonverbal cues. For example, the medium might have known beforehand that Schwartz's birthday fell during the Gemini month, and that his mother's name contained the letter "S" in it. Barring such obvious fraud, guesswork seems as plausible an explanation as any other.
Schwartz fields accusations of fraud at several points in his book. One of his rebuttals is that "mediums need not be perfect," they just have to be better than everyone else (54). In fact, Schwartz designed all of his studies with this premise in mind, using a…
Hyman, Ray. "How Not to Test Mediums: Critiquing the Afterlife Experiments." Sceptical Inquirer. Jan 2003. Published online by Committee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. Retrieved 26 Nov 2004. http://www.csicop.org/si/2003-01/medium.html .
Schwartz, Gary. The Afterlife Experiments. New York: Pocket, 2002.
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…
Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Hume and the Lack of a Causal Link Between Our Known Experiences and the Existence of a Supreme Being
The "here and now": That is what concerns David Hume. There is simply no value in discussing such amorphous intangibles as one can infer from "the course of nature." More precisely, humans -- of them, philosophers -- cannot and should not be enticed to "regulate" their "conduct" by parameters such as the afterlife or God. Hume grounds his thinking in causality -- specifically the lack of causal link between "the experienced train of events" and the existence of a perfect being.
To understand Hume's view that contemplations of God are "uncertain and useless," one has to begin with Hume's philosophical methods. Hume is an empiricist philosopher. Hume works to bring the rigors of scientific methodology to the otherwise more fluid process of philosophical reasoning. The critical lynchpin here is Hume's distinction…
It can be argued that they have no way of knowing the outcome of their reactions. And indeed, nor does Chris. What differentiates Chris from the rest of the crew is the love he feels for Rheya. Love in the end is the essential force that enables him to forgive both Rheya and himself, and in the end love both redeems and kills him. This dichotomy furthers the ineffability of both death and the god force symbolized by Solaris.
Chris chooses to remain on the doomed station rather than face further life without Rheya on earth. He has no way of knowing what the outcome will be and most likely believes that he will simply die. His "redemption" is therefore not based upon faith, but rather upon the love emotion. Emotion in this case takes the place of faith in redemptive force. Furthermore, his "afterlife" entails life with his love…
Modern Protestantism tends more to suggest that salvation is purely the work of God, and that the human need only accept salvation and all past and present sins will be forgiven, requiring them to do nothing more to be saved. In this schema, good works are merely acts of devotion. In either case, the death of Christ provides forgiveness for sins, and the soul which has been forgiven is upon death taken into heaven where it is purified and allowed to live eternally in luxury thereafter. The only downside, here, is that one has only one life in which to accept Christ. Anyone failing to do so in that time, is sentenced to never-ending punishment and pain.
The uddhist idea or Enlightenment, on the other hand, leads to a Nirvana which is the cessation of pain and suffering and one-ness with the universe. This enlightenment comes from the individual learning…
Chandra, Summet. "Allah and Krishna are the Same Person." Prabhupada Hare Krishna News Network, http://religion.krishna.org/Articles/2000/10/00184.html
Names of Paradise," Al-Islam. http://dictionary.al-islam.com/
Robinson, B.A. "Introduction to Islam" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr.htm & http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr1.htm
Robinson, B.A. "BUDDHISM: Comparison of Buddhism & Christianity" Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism4.htm
Thus, Sam argues that although the world often seems unjust (and is filled with innumerable instances of evil), yet P. is solved through the belief that every condition (good, in this case) necessitates an equal and opposite condition (evil, as it were.) However, Gretchen counters by asking whether those who behave in an evil way are ever punished for their transgressions, and whether there is any motivation for people to not simply act in their own best interests, whether or not this involves behaving in an immoral manner. Sam's rejoinder appeals to the afterlife as the site in which the importance of morality becomes manifest: "But the doctrine of an afterlife, in whatever form, says that this isn't the whole story" (47). However, Sam disregards the fact that God is purported to pardon many sinners, which would ostensibly mean that he regularly pardons instances of injustice.
The dialogue between Sam…
Anselm. Proslogium. Trans. S.N. Deane. Internet History Sourcebook. Fordham University, Aug. 1998. 10 Sep. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anselm-intro.asp .
Aquinas, T. Summa of Theology. Trans. B.P. Copenhaver. Publisher Unknown, 2005.
Hopkins, J. A New Interpretation of Anselm's Monologion and Proslogion. Minneapolis: Arthur J. Banning Press, 1986.
Hume, D. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Unknown Publisher, 1779.
One of the great ironies of Dante's Inferno is the centrality of earth-bound fame, moral reputation, praise and blame. The importance of reputation would seem to contradict Virgil's efforts in leading Dante through Purgatory to impart a more meaningful moral message. Yet it is important to remember that Dante travels alive; Virgil's lessons are instructive in a direct and practical manner. Dante ascertains life lessons from those he encounters in the afterlife, so that he may improve his prospects for earthbound fame. The importance of fame seems paradoxical when considered in light of the transitory nature of existence. However, Purgatory presents the consequences of a poor public relations scheme. Investment in moral reputation has the potential to strengthen The Divine Comedy's overarching pretensions, by linking the importance of one's earthly life to the life beyond.
Dante makes it clear that reputation does not necessarily have to be pristine to…
Alighieri, Dante. Inferno. Retrieved online: http://www.bartleby.com/hc/
learn so little about these ancient Eastern civilizations?
Ancient Greece and Rome are often called the cradles of modern, Western civilization. Greece 'gave birth' to democracy and major philosophic and scientific ideas spanning from the concept of atoms to geometry. Once upon a time, all roads famously lead to Rome, reflecting the importance of Rome in shaping the landscape of the modern globe. But simply because these civilizations were so important in shaping our own worldview does not mean we should discount the contribution of the East.
The recent excavation site of the Dadiwan relics of Qin'an at the Gansu Province is a demonstration of the richness of the early civilizations of the area. The archeological site has yielded some of the earliest findings of agriculture and pottery ever discovered, pushing back the date of the discovery of millet to a far earlier time than originally assumed. New evidence of…
Typology in Christianity
The author of this report is reviewing typology in Christianity with a strong focus on a few particular dimensions. Typology, for the purposes of Christianity, is the translation and transition between the Old Testament and New Testament. Indeed, the different faiths that center on the traditional Christian God usually (but not always) rely on the ible, or at least part of it, with some sects focusing mainly or solely on the Old Testament while other sects or groups do the same thing with the New Testament. Obviously, since both Testaments are part of the same Holy ible, it is important to look into how they are connected and how that connection, and the church itself, has evolved over the years. A focus on how typology was done, different groups that engaged in it like the Alexandrin school and the overall history from the time of the Apostles,…
Barna, G. (1983). Typology offers perspectives on growing Christian market. Marketing News, 17(19), 12.
Brent, Allen. 2009. A Political History of Early Christianity. London: T & T. Clark, 2009. eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).
Cook, Jonathan A. 2006. "Christian Typology and Social Critique in Melville's "The Two Temples." Christianity & Literature 56, no. 1: 5-33. Religion and Philosophy Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).
Driesen, Isolde, Chris Hermans, and Aad De Jong. 2005. "Towards a Typology of General Aims of Christian Adult Education." Journal Of Empirical Theology 18, no. 2: 235-263. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed September 30, 2013).
Many may call this pragmatism, and by following in the path of Christ, even unknowingly, is to embrace pragmatism is one's life. Sara Miles spent her time among the poorest people on the planet, similar to Christ's instruction that performing acts of kindness to the "least of these my brothers, you did it to me." (Matt. 25:40)
So when she finally decided to enter a Episcopal church and celebrate the Holy Eucharist, it would seem a natural extension of her life experiences. Food had always been an underlying, but important part of her, and there she was sharing the body and blood of Christ. She had always been involved in social justice, albeit in a secular way, and had not embraced the Christian Liberation Theology that was popular at the same time. This could have been caused by her acquired distrust of theological dogmas. However, it seems that the sharing…
Good News Bible: The Bible in Today's English Version. New York: American Bible
Society, 1976. Print.
Miles, Sara. Take This Bread: A Radical Conversion. New York: Ballantine, 2007. Print.
In the "Bhagavad Gita, a greatly revered philosophical poem depicting the dialogue between God as Krishna and a devotee, it says: 'All creatures great and small- I am equal to all; I hate none, nor have I any favorites.' This rules out the claim of anyone to be the privileged or 'chosen' agent of God, and thus makes exclusivism impossible in Hinduism (Mugilan)."
One of the largest differences between "Hinduism and other revealed religions is that Hinduism recognizes no prophet as intermediary with exclusive claim over truth. One is not required to acknowledge an intermediary as a prophet or as a chosen agent of God. In a revealed religion, one who denies the authority of this intermediary is called a non-believer, even if one believes in God (Mugilan)."
The Hindus can not conceive "any accommodation of a belief system that denies one's freedom of choice and conscience. Therefore, even…
Mugilan, Kalai. "Spiritual freedom: The essence of Hinduism." University Wire. (1998): 26 May.
Unknown. "Hinduism." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
Unknown. "Hindu philosophy." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
Jewish Faith in Life and Death
Of the main components of the human life cycle, dying is probably the one most people prefer to avoid or at least ignore until the last possible moment. Nevertheless, even though many of us prefer not to think about it, death is as much part of humanity as birth and life. Hence, every religion has its particular views on death and rituals to help those who have passed on their way to whatever concept of the afterlife exists in that religion. In this, the Jewish religion is not unique. Centuries of tradition still survive today as modern Jews practice the ancient art of their religion, both in life and when death occurs. When considered in terms of Foucault's "Technologies of the Self," one might say the elaborate Jewish rituals surrounding dying and death can be seen from the viewpoint of both self-care and self-renunciation.…
Diamant, A. (1998). Saying Kaddish: How to comfort the dying, bury the dead, and mourn as a Jew. New York: Shocken Books.
Foucault, M. (1988). Technologies of the Self. Retrieved from: http://heavysideindustries.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Michel-Foucault-Technologies-of-the-Self.pdf
Lamm, M. (2000). The Jewish Way in Death and Mourning. New York: Jonathan David Publishers, Inc.
Life and Death and Freud and Nietzsche
hat are the similarities between Plato's concept of life after death and the early Christian concept of life after death? How did later Christians combine these concepts? hat is the evidence that Jesus came back to life after execution?
Plato is often considered as one of the greatest philosophers who ever lived. He wrote about the concepts of justice and social order, of moral right and wrong, and about the dichotomy of life and death. Throughout a person's life they are inexorably moving ever closer to their own demise. It is inevitable and yet people are terrified of this event even though it is as natural a part of living as is breathing or the beating of your heart. In one piece, Plato expresses his beliefs on the immortality of the soul (Peterson 214). He explains this in different ways, first of which…
Peterson, Michael, Hasker, William, Reichenbach, Bruce, & Basinger, David. Reason and Religious Belief: and Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. New York, NY: Oxford UP, 2003. Print.
Crystals, witchcraft, ESP, tarot cards, tai chi, yoga, and the I Ching, which are seemingly disparate tools, practices, and beliefs, come under one spiritual rubric: the New Age movement. The New Age amalgamates ancient philosophies and religious practices ranging from shamanism to Sufism and including everything in between. The New Age is almost an anything-goes spiritual path, as it has no one set of beliefs, no central text, no concrete origin, and a malleable theology. In fact, technically atheists can participate in New Age religion, for the New Age also embraces straight science and often espouses an impersonal universe devoid of an overarching anthropomorphic deity. However, the New Age can be isolated and analyzed as a distinct, albeit modern religious movement that began loosely around the turn of the twentieth century when Theosophy delivered fresh ideas from Eastern religions to the Western world and as the Western world…
The Role of a Photojournalist in Shaping the Syrian Narrative
This paper discusses the role of the photojournalist in shaping the Syrian narrative. The images that photojournalists create are used by a variety of media outlets, both mainstream like CNN and alternative like social media uploaders, to develop a narrative that promotes a perspective on events and advocates for a reaction from the public—either support for intervention or condemnation of the use of force by governments that are not directly involved in the conflict. The paper examines the gassing incident at Khan Shaykhun in Syria to see how photojournalism played a part in shaping the responses of the American president. It also examines how spectacle, soft power, embedded reporting, interventionism and the CNN effect all play a part in shaping the narrative built on the work of photojournalists.
The paper also discusses the impact of photojournalism in the Digital…
Roman Sarcophagi sculptures, one sarcophagus of portraying Roman deity as portrayed on the Sarcophagus with the Indian Triumph of Dionysus' triumphal return from India, contrasted with the other the Sarcophagus Depicting a Battle between Soldiers and Amazon made for a military leader.
During the second and 3rd centuries, inhumation became more and more used than cremation, and this created a push for a greater need for sarcophagi, as the departed were placed inside these vessels. "Sarcophagi are of eminent importance for the study of Roman art, for they provide the largest single body of sculptural material in which we may study both the style and subject matter of the art of the tumultuous years of the later Roman empire, when there are few other monuments with pictorial relief to which we can turn… through sarcophagus reliefs we can trace and re-experience the profound shift in pagan religious thought, away from…
Awan, H.T.. "Roman Sarcophagi." metmuseum.org. The Metropolitan Museum, n.d.
Web. 1 Apr 2014.
Koortbojian, Michael Myth, Meaning, and Memory on Roman Sarcophagi. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1995.
Jews will face after death? How do Jewish ideas about the afterlife affect their attitudes toward death itself? This is a relatively more complicated question to answer than how the attitudes held by Christians about the afterlife affect their views toward death because in the case of Judaism there is no small amount of ambiguity.
Jewish beliefs about death cannot be understood independent of Jewish theology as a whole, and so it may be helpful to begin here with a definition of what we mean by religion as a whole. Religion is both an intensely personal area of life as well as one that is practiced publicly.
The result of this second attribute is that people tend to think that they know what religion means and how it functions because they frequently see people performing religious rites. But as a consequence of its former attribute, we do not actually know…
Carmody, D. & Carmody, J. (1989). Ways to the center. New York: Wadsworth.
Dunlap, K. (1991). Religion: The functions in human life. Chicago: University of Chicago.
Hopfe, L. (1991). Religions of the world. New York: Macmillan. http://judaism.about.com/library/lifecycles/blshiva1.htm
Rosenblatt, Stanley. Murder of Mercy: Euthanasia on Trial. New York: Prometheus, 1992.
Most of the people would define a myth as a story. But this is not the correct meaning of a myth. The debate over the accurate meaning of myth has been going through since last 2000 years. The most generally accepted definition of a myth is that, myths are stories regarding the gods. They are sacred stories and they give an explanation about the way the world is. They are traditional stories that contain knowledge and information. (Pinch 1-5)
Mythological stories have been told by the Egyptians for thousands of years. They, however, properly started recording and writing these mythological stories from 2000 BC. In the ancient times the Egyptians had a number of gods. People belonging to different regions had different gods whom they worshiped. ith the development of society, people of different regions started living together, and the stories regarding the culture, traditions, religion and way…
Bbc.co.uk. "BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Ancient Egypt and the Modern World." 2010. Web. 1 May 2013. .
Center for Future Consciousness. "Ancient Myth, Religion, and Philosophy." 2013. Web. 1 May 2013. .
David A., Warburton. "Myth as the Link between Event and History." IBAES X. 283-292. Web. 1 May. 2013. .
Dijk, Jacobus. Myth and Mythmaking in Ancient Egypt. Groningen: University of Groningen, 2008. 1697-1700. Web. .
Virtual Museum Tour
One of the most readily identifiable architects of the ancient Egyptian civilization is the Great Pyramid of Khufu. It's sheer size and enduring nature (it has stood for the better part of 4,000 years, and is the sole Seven Wonders of the World that is still existent) has made it synonymous with the high degree of cultivation of sophistication which the ancient Egyptian society is known for. A closer look at the Great Pyramid, however, reveals much about the cosmology of this group of people, especially as it pertains to their religious and philosophical beliefs about the afterlife. A close analysis of this structure and its significance elucidates a great deal about the ancient Egyptians' religious beliefs about the soul and its transformation after life.
In under to begin to understand the way the Great Pyramid is a testament to the religious beliefs of the ancient Egyptians…
Banks, J.A., Beyer, B.K, Contreras, G., Craven, J., Ladson-Billings, G., McFarland, M.A., Parker, W.C. (2000). Ancient World: Adventures in Time and Place. New York: McGraw-Hill.
YOU HAVE THE REFERENCE INFO FOR THE PICTURE OF THE PYRAMID, I DON'T
art from three different cultures. Specifically it will discuss pieces from the Classical Greek, Indian Civilizations, and Egyptian Civilizations, including the meaning of the work and an art analysis of the work. Each of these different cultures produced very different works of art that were meant to entertain, enlighten, and be viewed for enjoyment. They used different techniques, but there were commonalities, as well. They represent some of the best and most beautiful artwork the world has ever seen.
The Classic Greek work of art I have chosen is the marble sculpture the Venus of Arles, which now resides in the Musee du Louvre in Paris. It is made of Hymettus marble and is thought to be as old as the third century BC. It is thought that the Venus was created by the sculptor Praxiteles, in an attempt to recapture his sculpting career. It is often called the Aphrodite…
Bens, K. (2009). Aphrodite of Arles. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Museum of Antiques Web site: http://www.usask.ca/antiquities/collection/classicalgreek/aphroditearles.html .
Editors. (2009). Kishangarh miniatures - In quest of divine love. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the India Profile Web site: http://www.indiaprofile.com/art-crafts/kishangarhminiatures.htm .
Nalubwama, E. (2009). Ancient Egyptian papyrus. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Minnesota Web site: http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/prehistory/egypt/dailylife/papyrus.html.
Sikander, N. (2009). Bani Thani paintings. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Ethnic Paintings Web site: http://www.ethnicpaintings.com/indian_painting_styles/miniature/rajput/bani_thani/.
All of these scenes indicate that there might be little more than nothing after life. This poem allows us to see that Dickinson was not happy with accepting the traditional attitudes toward death and dying.
Another poem that examines death is "The Bustle in the House." Again, we see death is uneventful. Elizabeth Piedmont-Marton claims that in Dickinson's poetry, "the moment of death seems often less momentous than ordinary" (Piedmont-Marton) and it is "one of the most disturbing and powerful characteristics of Dickinson's poems" (Piedmont-Marton). "The Bustle in the House," demonstrates this assertion very well with its idea of humanity continuing to get along with the "industries" (the Bustle in the House 3) of life after a loved one dies. The heart of the dead is swept up (4), making it seem like the process of death needs a clean sweep and that is it. Mourning is nothing more than…
Dickinson, Emily. "Because I Could Not Stop for Death." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Some keep the Sabbath going to Church." The Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
Tell All the Truth but Tell it Slant. " the Compact Bedford Introduction to Literature: Reading, Thinking, Writing. 8th edition. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's Press. 2009.
This made the religion even more appealing. For example, because Christianity was born from Jewish traditions, it could be accepted by Jews; because of it's mystical attributes, Greek and other Orientals found it attractive. As a philosophy, Christianity was appealing because it offered solutions to many of the problems that ailed the world. In addition, its monotheism gave not only God but also man a place in the universe. Its promise of an afterlife provided mysticism and answers to many of the fears and worries that plague mankind. People had a reason to believe in a good God. John Crossan asserts, "God will act to restore justice in an unjust world" (Crossan 283). Indeed, the mystical aspect of this religion was very appealing because it was good. Even faith - faith in God, Jesus, and one's fellow man - becomes a significant factor in Christianity.
Christianity was a movement that…
Crossan, John. The Birth of Christianity. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers. 1998.
Goodman, Martin. A World History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1999.
Hastings, Adrian. A World History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1999.
Stegemann, Ekkehard. The Jesus Movement. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1989.
There is no one standard for what is considered right and wrong in the world of American religion. The American religion that exists today may be described as "Agnostian-Secularian" meaning it is made up of multiple faiths, beliefs and convictions, some more Christian based and some more abstract in nature.
By and large the American 'religion' or modern society is varying accepting of people of many different faiths and idealisms. Though the government of this country is somewhat heavily influenced by Christian fundamentalist ideals such as those that Bush emphasizes, the public by and large particularly in the eyes of the media, is much more open and flexible in nature. There are some beliefs that may be considered more 'universal' in nature than others. There is for example an obvious preference among people living in the modern American world to belief in the basic concepts of right and wrong.…
More specifically, one new resident is a rebellious young man who objects to having to pick a single memory; meanwhile, another resident is an elderly man who cannot decide what memory to pick from the 72 years of his life. All of the employees are also deceased individuals; they remain employed at the facility because they were unable or unready to move on to eternity. This element gives rise to the drama that unfolds when one of the caseworkers realizes that one of the new residents was married to his former fiance prior to his own death as a very young man.
One of the most interesting aspects of the film is the way that it is shot as a dramatic movie in some respects but as a documentary in others. In the first respect, the director uses traditional framing and camera positioning; in the second respect, he uses…
As one performs their dharma, they earn karma, which is the cause and effect aspect of Hinduism. Karma explains good actions bring good results, and by obeying this principle and dharma, one can experience rebirth into a "better" life that puts one in a stronger position to achieve moksha. The ultimate goal for any Hindu soul is to achieve moksha, which is the liberation from samsara, the cycle of life and death (Chidester: 85). The critical aspect of Hinduism is realizing when the body dies, the Self (Atman) does not die. The Self is carried from life to life, through reincarnation, and the secret to death is to realize the Supreme Self hidden in the heart through meditation and grace (Kramer: 30). Realizing Self in Hindu customs is required to achieve moksha, and be liberated from the endless round of birth, death, and rebirth of samsara. Only when the Self…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 1-216. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 27-166. Print.
However, Edersheim also points out that Jews were more child-centered than their contemporary cultures. One example of the Jewish reverence for children is that only Jews and one other culture had prohibitions against infanticide, while other cultures openly permitted the practice.
In chapter seven, Edersheim goes on to discuss the raising of Jewish children. Different ages of children had different roles and expectations. Children learned early on the protection of the Mesusah. In addition to formal instruction, children learned by observing their parents engage in rituals. The book of Proverbs is helpful to an understanding of how Jews were to raise their children. The most important part of the education of a Jewish child was religious education. Much of this instruction came as the result of children watching their parents, because Jews lived their religion as part of their daily lives. In addition to informal instruction, some children received formal…
puritan life was heavily contaminated by death. Half of the original 102 pilgrims that settled in America died during the first winter and it was not uncommon for children to perish before they reached adolescence. Funerals were a common occurrence in everyday life and the air of towns was often littered with the sounds of church bells. From the early stages of learning, children were educated on the grim reality that they faced and if they were fortunate enough to grow up, their demise still followed them wherever they ventured to. Puritan religion explains that a person is unable to control their destiny. Their ascendance to heaven or hell is pre-determined before the time of their birth and their actions in life have no influence on their final destination.
Although her lifetime took place more than two centuries after their arrival, Emily Dickinson presented poetry that offered views on death…
One of the running metaphors that Hamlet uses throughout the soliloquy is that of sleep as a symbol for death. This is made explicit when Hamlet mentions the "sleep of death," but it is used prior to this in more symbolic ways. This helps to bring out Hamlet's weariness and desire for simple peace. This desire is central to his character and to the soliloquy itself; it is his desire for peace and rest that drives him to contemplate suicide, but the fact that these things are far from guaranteed in the afterlife -- especially for one who commits suicide -- is enough to make the action unpalatable even in what he perceives as his extreme circumstances. There is also a sense of travel associated with death and the transition to the afterlife that appears in the soliloquy, from "shuffl[ing] off this mortal coil" to the "undiscover'd country" that is…
Women's choice lead a celebate life, remain a virgin, a rejection societal expectations? A conclusion drawn thesis question. I attaching suggested books citation. Essay 12 pages length counting citations bibliography.
Was a Women's choice to lead a celibate life or remain a virgin a rejection of societal expectations?
The role of women in the society has been widely debated throughout the history of both philosophical thought and social sciences. Women have a particular place in society since ancient times and there are clear indications, in the religious literature, that women have had specific views and opinions regarding their own place in the society. In this context, the current research discusses the choice of women to lead a celibate life or keep herself a virgin and whether this choice was a reaction to societal expectations and social pressures. The perspective of the research analysis is focused on Christian traditions from the…
Kung, 2001, p22-3
Karant-Nun, 2003, p10
role of Islam as a unifying force
Perhaps more than any other religion in the world, Islam has put to work its less obvious sense in order to unify the peoples sharing the same belief. Through its art, its common language and its judicial system that has the Koran teachings at its base, Islam was a unifying force among the Arabic peoples of the Arabic Peninsula, Northern Africa and the Middle East.
There is a short discussion I would like to address here and that is to identify the differences between culture and civilization. This will help us see how religion LO is included in this set of concepts. From my point-of-view, religion LO can be considered an element of civilization through its cultural component. If we exclude Marxist ideology that argue that civilization is but a certain level that culture has attained and make no distinction between the two,…
Religion was also something that stood in the way of people's happiness in life because religion inflicted people with the fear of gods and of the afterlife.
If one could only get over his or her own fear of death, then there was nothing that could stand in the way of pleasure in life. Individuals could achieve peace of mind, according to Epicurus, simply by maximizing their enjoyment while they are alive.
Bryant, Clifford D. Handbook of Death and Dying. Sage Publications; 1st edition, 2003.
Green, O.H. "Fear of Death." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Sept. 1982,
Konstan, David. A Life orthy of the Gods: The Materialist Psychology of Epicurus.
Las Vegas, NV: Parmenides Publishing; Rev. & Expanded ed Edition, 2008.
Kundera, Milan. Immortality. NY: Harper Perennial Modern Classics; 1st Edition, 1999.
Miller, Fred D. "Epicurus on the Art of Dying." The Southern Journal of Philosophy.
Bryant, Clifford D. Handbook of Death and Dying. Sage Publications; 1st edition, 2003.
Green, O.H. "Fear of Death." Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Sept. 1982,
Konstan, David. A Life Worthy of the Gods: The Materialist Psychology of Epicurus.
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…
Belmonte, Juan Antonio. From the Atlas to the Caucasus: The Other Side of the Mediterranean Before Islam. Archaeoastronomy 15.(2000): 78.
de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace, 1980.
Dimock, Wai Chee. The Egyptian Pronoun: Lyric, Novel, the Book of the Dead. New Literary History 39.3 (2008): 619-643.
Maddison, Angus. The Contours of World Development. The World Economy, OECD, 2010.. Web.
Nor would sexual saturation without challenge be the Heavenly solution to sexual frustration in life. In principle Heaven would provide the precise mix of success and failure that corresponded to maximum happiness; it would not provide unlimited success if that would detract from its value. In Heaven, one would have the opportunity to play only as much golf as would be maximally enjoyable; one would be precisely as proficient at the game as to reinforce rather than detract from its enjoyment. Likewise, if sexual encounters without any prospect of rejection would be unfulfilling, Heaven would provide the precise mix of success and failure to avoid reducing the subjective pleasure involved. Therefore, it is Barnes's lack of imagination rather than the limitations of Heaven that account for his conclusions.
The counterargument is that anything would become boring if one lived eternally, including even the perfect mix of success and failure,…
functions of monotheism in two religions, Judaism and Christianity. Only Judaism has been considered a truly monotheistic faith because Christianity at times has been said to offer some confusion in this regard and that it actually strays from the true definition of monotheistic. Judaism is considered to be the world's first monotheistic faith. One can take away from this that their way of thinking influenced more or less the origins of Christianity. Because Judaism was first, this work addresses Judaism's origin, God, scriptures, worldview, problems and solutions for man and then attempts to address their view of the afterlife and what it takes for mortals to attain it. Judaism has philosophical combinations of agreements and disagreements that can either encourage or prevent a person from following the religion as a whole.
This is as good a place to start as any -- Judaism as a religion is one that is…
A Christian View of Ethics. Ed. CIM. CIM Technical Papers. Retrieved on November 6, 2009, from http://www.fni.com/cim/technicals/ethics_t.html .
Internet Jewish History Sourcebook. Ed. Retrieved on November 6, 2009, from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/jewish/jewishsbook.html
Macbeath, A. Experiments in Living: A Study of the Nature and Foundation of Ethics or Morals in the Light of Recent Work in Social Anthropology. London: Macmillan, 1952.
Pellegrino, Edmund D. "Managed Care: An Ethical Reflection." The Christian Century, Vol. 115. August 12, 1998.
But now, here, in order to move on, you must understand why you felt what you did, and why you no longer need to feel it…" uby served as the voice of Albom, and even God, acting as Eddie's guide to the path towards enlightenment, forgiveness (and self-forgiveness), and ultimately, happiness.
Indeed, this pivotal moment in Eddie's life culminated with the characters of Marguerite and Tala, symbols of love and forgiveness, respectively. With Marguerite, he began crying again, releasing repressed feelings he never thought he still had with him until he died. It was through Marguerite that Albom explicated true and lasting love, which permeates through life and death.
Eddie's ultimate emotional release was through Tala, the young girl whom he never forgave himself for not being able to save her from a fire while he was stationed as a soldier in the Philippines. It was with Tala that Eddie…
Albom, M. (2003). The Five People You Meet in Heaven. NY: Hyperion Books.
Doty, G. (2009). "Signs, Symbols, Meanings, and Interpretation." Missouri University of Science and Technology web site. Available at: http://web.mst.edu/~gdoty/classes/concepts-practices/symbolism.html.
Wellek, R. (2003). "Symbol and symbolism in literature." University of Virginia Library. Available at: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/cgi-local/DHI/dhiana.cgi?id=dv4-45 .
He wants to honor his dead wife, so he takes the dog along with him just as she did. This is perhaps the only gesture the father makes toward the dog. Throughout the poem, it appears as if the father is indifferent to the dog, if anything at all.
The paradox we encounter in the poem is if a dog can actually suffer from grief with the ultimate question resting on the notion of animals missing human beings. The most ironic aspect of this poem is how the dog appears to be suffering more than the father is. The poet does not go into the father's suffering at all, except to say that he refuses counseling. The meaning and primary idea behind the poem is that all creatures suffer loss whether or not they can express it in ways that humans might be able to understand. It took death for…
Rucker, C. "Mixed Company"
Fellowship, for example, seems cruel in his dismissal of Everyman, and he gives immoral advice: "But and thou wilt murder, or any man kill, / in that I will help thee with a good will!" Everyman's cousin says: "I will deceive you in your most need."
However, there is a contradiction in this total denial of the world, because Everyman's actions in the world will save him, namely his Good Deeds. Although other worldly ties and attributes will not help him, his obedience to God's commandments will follow him after death. Of course, one might ask, for whom does he do 'Good Deeds,' very likely his family, friends, and other peoples? But the play is designed not to engage in philosophical speculation, but to graphically and simply represent received religious truths. Even Knowledge, or the positive value of intelligence, is dismissed in the play. Knowledge, just like Beauty and Worldly…
The Treatment of Death in Everyman
Everyman is one of the longest running morality plays during the Middle Ages. The morality plays presented moral lessons and Christian ideals to the illiterate masses. The plays taught the masses how they should be behave and act towards one another in order to maintain a Christina lifestyle (Cummings, 2010). Everyman is a play that is about man's life and his fight to apply Christian ideals so that he will be allowed into the kingdom of heaven when he dies. The theme of death is central to the plot. The play continually reminds the viewer that our life here is temporary. It teaches them to focus on what happens when they die. However, this study will examine the thesis that even though the play contains numerous depictions of death and death imagery, Everyman is not really about death, it is a play about…
Cummings, M. (2010). Everyman. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/Guides3/Everyman.html
Halsall, P. (1998). Medieval Sourcebook: Everyman, 15th Century. Medieval Sourcebook. Retrieved December 15, 2010 from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/everyman.html
King, D. (2008). Notes on Everyman. Middle English Literature. Retrieved December 16, 2010 from http://www.montreat.edu/dking/MiddleEnglishLit/notesonEveryman.htm
Sanders, A. (2007). English Literature Beowulf to Dryden. Retrieved December 16, 2010 from http://faculty.goucher.edu/eng211/Everyman.html
The spell here actually contains the gist of the myth itself, which is the threat of crocodiles. It is improbable here that a priest spontaneously composes an incantation against a crocodile in the afterlife without having registered the threat beforehand. It is more likely that the threat of carnivorous crocodiles awaiting the dead in the afterlife led to the precautions against it.
The five monolithic theories of myth are tremendously insightful and useful. However, as Kirk pointed out, "…analysis of myth should not stop when one particular theoretical explanation has been applied and found productive. Other kinds of explanation may also be valid." (Kirk, p. 39). The subtlety and pure strangeness of the myths should make us think twice about restricting ourselves to one monolithic theory in their interpretation.
Pinch, G. (2004). Egyptian mythology: A guide to the gods, goddesses, and traditions of ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University…
Pinch, G. (2004). Egyptian mythology: A guide to the gods, goddesses, and traditions of ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
G.S. Kirk, the Nature of Myth, (1974: 38-68)
Budge, E.A.W. (1920). The Book of the Dead. Waiheke Island: Floating Press. Taylor, J.H. (2001). Death and the afterlife in ancient Egypt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Budge, E.A.W. (1969). The gods of the Egyptians: Or, Studies in Egyptian mythology. New York: Dover Publications.
Chinese First Emperor as with the Egyptian pharaohs, the tomb was a microcosm of the world that they knew in life, and filled with the objects that they would use in the afterlife. In early times, servants, soldiers, concubines and entertainers were even put to death so they could serve the monarch in the next world, although later these were mostly represented by statues and replicas. For the First Emperor of China, the tom was an elaborate "analogue of life," reportedly constructed by 700,000 men over many years -- far more than the number of workers used by the Egyptian pharaohs to build their tombs and pyramids (awson, 2007, p. 123). He even had a terracotta army with cavalry, archers, chariots and thousands of troops buried in pits to defend him from his enemies in the next world, along with stone armor to protect against evil spirits. Pit 1 had…
Burstein, S.M. (2009). Ancient African Civilization: Kush and Axum. Markus Wiener Publishers.
Krishan, Y. (1996). The Buddha Image: Its Origin and Development. New Dehli: Munshiran Manoharlal Publishers.
Mitchell, S. (ed). (2000). Bhagavad Gita: A New Translation. NY: Three Rivers Press.
Rawson, J. (2007). "The First Emperor's Tomb: The Afterlife Universe" in Portal, J. (ed), The First Emperor: China's Terracotta Army. British Museum Press: 114-51.
features that characterize an "African" outlook to the world as represented by Mbiti and Tempels. How coherent and how convincing do you find them, and why?
For the Bantu, it appears that the unique experience which influence and shape an "African" outlook to the world is one which the African sees himself as a being of force. For the Bantu, a great deal of their specific perspective on the world is shaped by the fact that they find the concepts of being and force absolutely inextricable from one another. Tempels is quick to explain that this concept represents a truly fundamental difference between Western thought and the thought which largely shapes the world of the Bantu people. "Force' in his thought is a necessary element in 'being', and the concept 'force' is inseparable from the definition of 'being'. There is no idea among Bantu of 'being' divorced from the idea…
Mbiti, J.S. African religions & philosophy. London: Heinneman, 1969. Print.
Tempels, P. . Bantu Philosophy. Praesence africaine, 1969. Print.
The fifteenth-century Spanish travelers who embarked on voyages of discovery and conquest in the Americas expected to encounter primitive savage races. Instead, they found advanced civilizations with intricately designed cities, complex social hierarchies and accurate methods of calculating calendars. But despite this evidence, the Spaniards used the differences between the two sets of cultural beliefs and practices as proof of the inferiority of the Andean civilizations. Because of this backwardness, the Spanish believed that colonization was needed to bring "civilization" to the new world. Susan Ramirez described this Eurocentrism as a "disregard of others' cultures and identities" (Ramirez, 10-11).
This paper applies Ramirez's critique of Eurocentrism by looking at the civilization of the Chimu, a powerful coastal kingdom in Northern Peru. By looking at the Chimu religion and social structure - as evidenced in their ceramic art and in their architecture - this paper posits that the Chimu…
Kubler, George. The Art and Architecture of Ancient America: The Mexican, Maya and Andean Peoples. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1990.
Leicht, Hermann. Pre-Inca Art and Culture. New York: Orion Press, 1960.
Mason, J. Alden. The Ancient Civilizations of Peru. New York: Penguin Books, 1979.
McIlvee, Rose. "A catacomb of palace/tombs defined ancient Peruvian leaders." (December 4, 1998). Indiana University Homepage. Retrieved November 25, 2002 at http://www.iuinfo.indiana.edu/HomePages/120498/text/conrad.htm
Shakespeare's Hamlet contains messages that are relevant to modern society, including the problem of revenge and the disturbing nature of death and the afterlife. These themes repeat themselves throughout Hamlet and are dealt with by the play's protagonist, Prince Hamlet of Denmark. Issues of revenge and death shape Hamlet's character and color his perception of life and the people around him. His encounter with the specter of his late father early in the play brings Hamlet into intimate contact with death and the afterlife. Physical reminders of death also drive home this theme of the play, such as the decaying bodies in the cemetery and Yorick's skull. Closely related to the theme of death is that of revenge, for death is the ultimate outcome of vengeful retribution and the primary motivation for the play's protagonist. King Hamlet's ghost demands that his son exact revenge on Claudius: "If thou didst ever…
Buddhist and Christina Ethic on Suicide and Euthanasia
The ethical issues associated with suicide and euthanasia are often viewed through the secular eyes of our modern world, yet many of the issues that are a part of the reasons why an individual might be for or against suicide and euthanasia are based almost entirely upon religious ethics. In this work a comparison will be drawn between the Christian and Buddhist views of the ethics of suicide and euthanasia. Comparing these two faith's standards and moral guidelines regarding these two issues will demonstrate a greater understanding of the ethics and standards associated with the modern secular moral stand on the issue in a political and personal way. The Christian and Buddhist ethic on suicide and euthanasia demonstrate a historical perspective of a very ancient ethical dilemma and the similarities and differences of the outgrowth of social and cultural responses to it…
Becker, Carl "Buddhist Views of Suicide and Euthanasia," June 14, 2004 http://ccbs.ntu.edu.tw/FULLTEXT/cf_eng.htm.
Coward, Harold G. "Memory and Scripture in the Conversion of Augustine." Essays on Augustine. Ed. Meynell, Hugo Anthony. Calgary, Alta.: University of Calgary Press, 1990. 17-27.
Eliade, Mircea ed. Encyclopedia of Religion New York, NY: G.K. Hall and Co.
Phaedo, a dialogue written by the famous Plato, depicts the death of Socrates. Socrates, a great philosopher, was the center focus of Plato during Socrates' final days. It was the previous dialogue of the seven that Plato penned during this period which comprised of: Theaetetus, Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, Statesman and Sophist. Socrates instructed Plato. After his death, Plato went on to reconstruct his dialogues. These dialogues described the principles Socrates had in respects to immortality of the soul. Phaedo, Euthyphro, Apology, and Crito are recognized as the tetralogy as they discuss the trial and subsequent demise of Socrates. Phaedo, is the longest of the tetralogy and also deliberated to have the most in depth dialogue and has become quite significant to most philosophers. In Phaedo four arguments describe how the soul can be immortal with the fourth argument presenting what most deem the most convincing and the most sound. However,…
Frede, D. (1978). The Final Proof of the Immortality of the Soul in Plato's Phaedo 102a - 107a. Phronesis: A journal for Ancient Philosophy, 23(1), 27-41.
Gallop, D. (1975). Phaedo. Oxford [Eng.: Clarendon Press.
Keyt, D. (1963). The Fallacies in Phaedo 102a-107b. Phronesis: A journal for Ancient Philosophy, 8(1), 167-172.
O'brien, D. (1967). The Last Argument of Plato's Phaedo. I. The Classical Quarterly, 17(02), 198.
Burial ituals: The Early Chinese
From Early Chinese periods, starting roughly from the Shang Dynasty, the Chinese community have been of the belief that the souls of those who demise subsist in another world. This world is referred to as the netherworld and that graves were their earthly dwellings (China Highlights, 2016). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the different burial rituals and customs that were practiced in the ancient Chinese period.
The appropriate manner of the burial ceremony has always been an aspect of great significance to the Chinese. A person's soul was believed to leave the physical body at the time of death, with the purpose of taking its place in the spirit realm. Therefore, according to the Early Chinese, an elaborate funeral provided the spirits in the subsequent world, together with the bereaved persons left behind, a proper indication of the rank of…
Bradley, J. (2016). Traditions of Ancient China Regarding Death. Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://classroom.synonym.com/traditions-ancient-china-regarding-death-7976.html
China Highlights. (2016). A Grave Day -- the Culture of Death! Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/article/death-culture.htm
Clydesdale, C. H. (2009). The Vibrant Role of Mingqi in Early Chinese Burials. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mgqi/hd_mgqi.htm
Lagerwey, J., Kalinowski, M. (2009). Early Chinese Religion: Part One: Shang Through Han (1250 BC-220 AD) (2 Vols). Netherlands: Brill.
He also feels that in his work, he is reminded of his own mortality, and fleeting time here on Earth. He strives to accomplish much with the talent he possesses. Milton's use of the line, "They also serve who only stand and wait." (Milton, 14) shows that standing idle and waiting for death and the inevitable extinguishing of one's talents and senses is something that must be avoided. This line also shows Milton's concern for impending events and the unrelenting nature of death and mortality themselves.
Milton's Sonnet XXIII, entitled, "On His Deceased Wife" also deals with death quite directly. The poet works to paint an image of a loving, sweet wife who returned from the grave to greet him in his dreams. But, just as he goes to embrace her, she disappears. Milton writes,
"Full sight of her in Heaven without restraint,
Came vested all in white, pure as…
The other universal concept shared among so many human religions relates to the fate of the individual (or of the individuals spirit or "soul"). Judeo-Christian religious traditions generally teach that a soul survives physical death and the eternal fate of that soul is substantially determined by the behaviors and choices of the individual in life (agan, 1997). Eastern religious traditions generally reflect a more general belief in the cycles of life and in multiple successive lives sharing a fundamental kernel of identity even if not exactly in the same form of soul as described in Western religions (Armstrong, 1993). Contemporary objective moralists would (again) suggest that any energies or thought in life about perpetual existence in another spiritual form of any afterlife is a waste of time.
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings…
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Egner RE and Denonn LE. (1992). The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell. London:
Einstein a. (1954). Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown
The Japanese myth partly resembles that of Adam and Eve present in the Bible and in the Quran. However, the first beings in Japan are considered to hold much more power than their equivalents in the west. Another resemblance between the Japanese legends and those in the west is the fact that the kami are considered to live in the high planes of Takamagahara, somewhat resembling mount Olympus, from Greek mythology. Japanese mythology is different from other mythologies through the fact that all of the deities involved in it are good in their character.
In the sixteenth century, when Buddhism entered Japan, the locals had a hard time keeping Shinto as their main religion, since it had not been an organized religion. Even with the fact that Buddhism had been spreading quickly around the country, the presence of Shinto could be felt everywhere, in people's lifestyles and in their culture.…
1. Amudsen, Christan. (1999). "Insights from the Secret Teachings of Jesus: The Gospel of Thomas." 1st World Publishing.
2. Herman A.L. (1991). "A Brief Introduction to Hinduism: Religion, Philosophy, and Ways of Liberation." Westview Press.
3. Kato, Etsuko. (2004). "The Tea Ceremony and Women's Empowerment in Modern Japan." Routledge.
4. Kumagai Fumie, Keyser Donna J. (1996). "Unmasking Japan Today: The Impact of Traditional Values on Modern Japanese Society." Praeger.
Indeed, this is also clear in his occupation with both scientific, philosophical, and literary things. Being human in a well-rounded and complete way, despite the conflict he experiences regarding this, is the poet's triumph.
The conflict indicated in the poem is one that Lord Tennyson has experienced throughout his life, according to authors such as Andrew Lang. Indeed, as a boy he was continually investigating even early theories of evolution, long before it became socially fashionable to consider such issues. The poem is therefore the culmination of long years, not only of writing the poem itself, but also of deeply philosophical thought about scientific and biological issues.
Viewed in connection with the rest of the poem, Lyric CXX can then be seen as representing Tennyson's philosophical thought about death as representing hope within despair, loss, and sorrow. The loss of faith does not necessarily need to mean loss as a…
Tennyson, Lord Alfred. "In Memoriam" Lyric CXX.
Jacobs, Joseph. Tennyson and "in Memoriam": An Appreciation and a Study. BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2009.
Lang, Andrew. Alfred Tennyson. William Blackwood & Sons, 1901. Republished online by David Price. http://www.fullbooks.com/Alfred-Tennyson1.html
The Hasidic Jews are extremely pious and their numbers are small around the world. Each of these sects has relatively different views of their faith and values, but they all consider themselves bound as Jews beyond their specific beliefs.
It is also important to note that Jews have been some of the most persecuted and hated of religions of all times. They were thrown out of Babylon in their early history, they were consistently banned from European cities and countries, Hitler exterminated millions of them during the Holocaust, and when Israel was created in 1948, the Arab neighbors immediately attacked and tension continues in the region. Jews have maintained their beliefs despite all these setbacks, which points to the strength of their religion and beliefs.
In conclusion, Judaism is quite different from Christianity in its philosophy and beliefs, but that does not mean it is "wrong" or "bad." There are…
Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003
Rosen, Jeremy. Understanding Judaism. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 2003.
Marc Lee Raphael, Judaism in America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 16.
hile the poems are no doubt universal, we can see elements of Americana sprinkled throughout them. Cultural issues such as decision-making, the pressure of responsibility and duty, and the complexity of death emerge in many poems, allowing us to see society's influence on the poet. In "The Road Not Taken," we see how life is filled with choices. Because we are American, we are lucky enough to experience freedom but this does not always come without difficulty. ith this poem, the narrator explains how decision-making can be trying because we never actually know how things are going to turn out. Nevertheless, we must make choices and get on with our lives. In "Stopping by oods," the narrator encounters a similar type of conflict in that the pull of our fast-paced American lives makes him or her want to stay in the woods for just a little while to enjoy the…
Frost, Robert. "Design." The Harper American Literature, Single Volume. 3rd Ed. New York: Longman. 1998.
Stopping by Woods." The Harper American Literature, Single Volume. 3rd Ed. New York: Longman. 1998.
The Road Not Taken." The Harper American Literature, Single Volume. 3rd Ed. New York: Longman. 1998.