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Religion -- Books of the Old and New Testaments
The Bible contains many types of genres, themes, events and characters illustrating the seeds of Christianity in the Old Testament and the Old Testament's fulfillment by Jesus and the young Christian Church of the New Testament. Using the genres of epic and simple narratives, law, prophecy, wisdom, pastoral letters and apocalyptic expression, both Testaments show the struggle of ordinary people trying to understand God and build their relationships with Him. Beginning with the Old Testament, how their understanding of God grew from that of a tribal god to the universal, loving God.
The book of Exodus is written in the basic epic narrative genre. The book and flows from Genesis into the designation of Israelites as God's people and His salvation of His people from earthly powers. The key themes/purposes/personalities/issues of Exodus are: describing signs and wonders, including…
Mark is written in the basic genre of a narrative Gospel. Mark is believed to be the first written of the four Gospels despite the fact that it comes second in the order of Gospels. In many ways, is the simplest and most straightforward in its telling of Jesus' life, which has led some scholars to believe that it was written the closest in time to the actual life of Jesus. The key themes/purposes/personalities/issues are: the Messianic Secret, which consists of Jesus' exhortation to his followers to keep his mission as Messiah unrevealed to others; the suffering of the Messiah who reveals his Messianic mission to the people and arouses their anger against him because of his true revelations of his mission; the fact that the suffering and crucifixion of Jesus as Messiah casts its shadow over the entire course of Jesus' adult mission to the people; the Church of the risen Jesus being Israel's genuine successor in God's providence (Browning, 1997; Harbin, 2005, p. 334).
Acts is written in the basic narrative genre and recounts the gospel's spread from its Jewish small beginnings to Rome, which is the very seat of the greatest worldly power of that time. The book's key themes/purposes/personalities/issues are: Luke's testimony and Paul's guidance; the continued and, in some ways, renewed hope for the second coming of Jesus, the Messiah; the growth
eligion and Society
eligion is defined as an organized collection of belief systems, views about the universe, or cultural systems that humans use to relate spiritual and moral values to their lives. Many religions have symbols, traditions, and histories that explain the origin of life, the way the universe works, and the moral, ethical and legal ways to organize human life (De Vries, ed., 2008). While the exact origin of religion is unknown, anthropologists suggest that it evolved to both explain the nature of humanity and the universe and to allow for a basic degree of organization within society:
Many of the great world religions appear to have begun as revitalization movements of some sort, as the vision of a charismatic prophet fires the imaginations of people seeking a more comprehensive answer to their problems than they feel is provided by everyday beliefs. Charismatic individuals have emerged at many times…
Akhenaton's Longer Hymn to the Aton. (n.d.) Trans. J. Breasted. Retrieved from: http://www.brainfly.net/html/books/aton.htm
Abulafia, D. (1988). Frederick II: A Medieval Emperor. New York: Oxford University Press.
Armstrong, K. (2001). Holy War -- The Crusades and Their Impact on Today's World, 2nd ed. New York: Anchor Books.
DeVries, H., ed. (2008). Religion: Beyond a Concept. Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press.
A key celebration in the village invites a festive dance in which the performers fall into a stupor and try to stab themselves with knives (Heinrich, 2005 p. 78). Rituals in life are pertinent events for religious display and artistic expression. Events of puberty, marriage life and burial offer opportunities for alinese to express their notions regarding statuses, society and the afterlife.
The alinese denomination organizes their faith in a hierarchical manner with a small portion of the aristocracy, the rahmans or priestly classes being the highest in rank. rahman priests have no association with any temple but act as spiritual figures, leaders and advisors to families in several homesteads distributed throughout the island. People consult the priests when celebratory events requiring holy anointment water emerge. In other instances, individuals may hire doctors and traditional healers.
uddhism in Indonesia
uddhism in Indonesia in the 1990 period was the unbalanced product…
Esposito, J. (2000). Islam in Asia: Religion, Politics and Society, Oxford: Oxford University Press on Demand.
Vroom, H. (2002) Religion, Conflict and Reconciliation: Multifaith Ideals and Realities, Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Intan, B. (2006) Public Religion and the Pancasila-based State of Indonesia: An Ethical and Sociological Analysis, Alexandria: Peter Lang.
Heinrich, S. (2005) Key into Indonesia, Melbourne: Curriculum Press.
Vocabulary, Christianity: citing your sources:
• Gospel -- pertains to one of the first four books of the New Testament (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John), or refers more generally to the life and teachings of Jesus (Babylon)
• parable -- a "symbolic story" that teaches a moral or religious lesson (Babylon)
• baptism -- initiation into Christianity via ritual submergence in water (Babylon)
• trinity -- group of three; in Christianity, referring particularly to the theological trinity of Father, Son, and Holy Ghost (Babylon)
• creed -- belief, usually religious; personal faith (Babylon)
• eucharist or communion -- Christian ceremony commemorating the Last Supper (Babylon)
• ecumenical -- referring to the Church, worldwide or universal nature (Babylon)
• bishop -- "church official who oversees a number of Christian churches," (Babylon)
• heresy -- beliefs that contrast with the established religion (Babylon)
• schism -- faction or division, generally into…
Babylon Dictionary. Retrieved online: http://dictionary.babylon.com/
BBC Religion. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/holydays/easter.shtml
Bible: NIV ( http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+1&version=NIV )
Fairchild, M. (n.d.). Basic Christian beliefs. About.com. Retrieved online: http://christianity.about.com/od/christiandoctrines/a/basicdoctrines.htm
Examples where religion has become intersected with politics are present throughout the entire history, and in more recent years, include the debates on same sex marriages or on abortion.
A more specific look at the relationship between politics and religion has revealed at least three points of intersection -- the role of churches, the evolution of human rights and the emergence and impacts of religious conflicts. In terms of the role of churches, these generally insufflate moral ideals and values to their churchgoers, which in turn become more involved in the political act and strive to implement the norms of morality and dignity. On the other hand however, by promoting these values at a community level and becoming engaged in voluntary work for churches, individuals miss out on the political practice. Secondly, in terms of human rights, these have been forwarded by religion and have evolved in the same ascendant…
Bruce, I., January 25, 2008, 72,000 American Casualties: Toll of War on Terror, the Herald (Scotland Herald)
Campbell, D.E., 2004, Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement, Political Behavior, Vol. 26, No. 2
Demerath, N.J., 2007, Introduction: Religion, Politics and the State, at Home and Abroad, Sociology of Religion, Vol. 68
Rieffer, B.A., 2006, Religion, Politics and Human Rights: Understanding the Role of Christianity in the Promotion of Human Rights, Human Rights and Human Welfare, Vol. 6
eligion is belief in the existence of a supreme being while science is a study to explain the how. The main conflict of these two disciplines begins with the concept of life. eligion explains that God is the creator and giver of life, whereas scientists argue that life evolved from a microorganism. The debate between religion and science is highly controversial but I choose to take the stand of the integrative advocates who believe the two are one and only different artificially. This is through an attempt to understand God and His works through reason. Chardin, 1955 argues that science shows that there has been a progressive evolution from the simplest life forms to humans today. This means that history blends with a Christian vision to see future development to even higher development like the Omega Point.
Human beings are free individuals who chose to have faith in a…
Stringer, M.D. (2011). Contemporary western ethnography and the definition of religion.
Platvoet, J.G., & Molendijk, A.L. (1999). The pragmatics of defining religion: Contexts, concepts and contests. Leiden: Brill.
Hare, J.E. (2009). God and morality: A philosophical history. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Religion and ar
Religion has been, and will continue to be, a cause of war. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate how religion, but more precisely faith-based thinking, has been used to foment violence and cause war.
To understand the role that religion has played in sparking violence and causing nations, tribes, etc. To go to war, one must first understand what exactly war is. One of the best approaches to understanding war, and the components of war, was articulated by Carl Von Clausewitz in his seminal work On ar.
In his book, Clausewitz defines his trinity model of war, also known as the "remarkable trinity." That is, Clausewitz argues that war consists of three distinct forces (1) primordial violence, hatred, and enmity; (2) the play of chance and probability; and (3) war's element of subordination to rational policy" (Bassford, 2011). Here one will notice the Hegelian…
Bassford, C. (2011). Tip-Toe Through the Trinity. Clausewitz.com. Retrieved from http://www.clausewitz.com/readings/Bassford/Trinity/Trinity8.htm
Clausewitz, C.V. (1982). On War. New York: Penguin Classics.
Dawkins, R. (2006). The God Delusion. New York: Bantam Books.
Weinberg, S. (1999). Address at the Conference on Cosmic Design. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Washington, D.C.
"Embryo cloning is the technology that would make the creation of eugenically engineered 'designer babies' commercially feasible." (Darnovsky M. 2002) This also relates to the growing concern in some quarters that technologies such as stem cell manipulation can be subject to abuse. "Many disability rights activists argue that it is being used in a misguided search for 'perfect' babies, and many feminists voice concern about its use to satisfy 'gender preference'." (Darnovsky M. 2002)
There is therefore, from a religious point-of-view, strong objection to this new technology from many large churches, particularly the Catholic Church. From a conservative religious perspective stem cell research and the cloning of body parts are seen to be tantamount to saying that man can create himself instead of God. This means that man and not God becomes the creator; which obviously undermines the foundations of many of the world's prominent theologies.
Therefore many who are…
Antiaging. December 5, 2006. http://www.antiagings.co.uk/
Darnovsky M. Embryo Cloning and Beyond. December 5, 2006. http://www.genetics-and-society.org/resources/cgs/200207_tikkun_darnovsky.html
Goldenberg S. Religious right fights science for the heart of America. 2005.
December 6, 2006. http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0,12271,1407422,00.html
9%-11.2% while the proportion of Hindus decreased from 84.9%-82.7%. He could not attribute the proportional changes to differences in migration or mortality, but to differences in fertility. Census and survey data show fertility is higher among Muslims than among Hindus, he claims. The total marital fertility rate for Muslim women was 11% higher in urban areas and 20% higher in rural areas than the rate for Hindus in those same areas, according to the 1971 census data. Even when education was controlled, the Muslim rate was higher. The 11 demographic survey findings reveal consistently higher fertility rates for Muslims than Hindus. When education and socioeconomic factors were controlled, studies demonstrated that differences narrowed yet remained.
alasubramanian claims that one of three hypotheses is generally used to explain the differences. The first hypothesis attributes the fertility differences to background or socioeconomic characteristics of the two populations, but this explanation can not…
Adsera, Alicia. "
Marital fertility and religion: recent changes in Spain,"
IZA Discussion Papers 1399, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). 2004.
Balasubramanian, K. "Hindu-Muslim differentials in fertility and population growth in India: role of proximate variables." Artha Vijnana 26 Sep. 1984: 189-216.
Religion is truly a lived experience. In today's volatile world, with world events hinging on various interpretations of religious texts perhaps more than in any other time in human history save, perhaps, during the Crusades, humanity is increasingly aware that religion is not a stoic object of study. Rather, it is a living breathing force in which we live and which inhabits us, whether we seek it or not.
Robert Orsi's edited work, "Gods of the City," provides vivid evidence of how and why religion is a lived experience. The best example of this, perhaps, lies in Karen McCarthy Brown's "Ecological Dissonance and Ritual Accommodation in Haitian Vodou." Here, Brown chronicle the unique religious subtexts and culture of Haitians living in New York.
Mama Lola, a Brooklyn Vodou priestess I have worked with for more than fifteen years, originally thought that her move away from Haiti would be a move…
This means that there must be some correlation between religion and politics. Indeed Keddie (2003) asserts that there is an aversion to the word secular and that most countries that try to embrace this idea are not content.
According to Carroll (2003) this inevitable link between religion and politics forces the question of whether or not the world would be better off without religion. The author asserts that misconceptions about religion have caused a great deal of turmoil and war. As such societies around the world might be better off if religion did not exist. However, te author also understands that to "ask such a question from within a religious tradition is like asking, ould the world be better off without desire ? (Carroll, 2003)
Throughout the article Carroll presents a rather dramatic analysis of the manner in which the relationship between religion and politics should be handled in society.…
Carroll J. (2003) Why Religion Still Matters Author(s): Source: Daedalus, Vol. 132, No. 3, on Secularism & Religion (Summer, 2003), pp. 9-13
Keddie N.R.(2003) Secularism & Its Discontents. Daedalus, Vol. 132, No. 3, on Secularism & Religion, pp. 14-30
Marty M.E. Our Religio-Secular World. (2003) Daedalus, Vol. 132, No. 3, on Secularism & Religion (Summer, 2003), pp. 42-48
Tosteson D.C. (2003) Unhealthy Beliefs: Religion & the Plague of War Author(s): Daedalus, Vol. 132, No. 3, on Secularism & Religion (Summer, 2003), pp. 80-82
My personality also plays a major role in my personal religious development. eligion may have been part of my identity when I was younger, but has since played a more minor role in how I present myself to the world. On the other hand, religion plays a more salient role in my metaphysical and cosmological beliefs. I appreciate the role of religion in helping human beings ask probing questions about the nature of the universe, the soul, and human consciousness. While I do not feel that religion has all the answers to such serious questions, I do like how religion attempts to address them. eligious traditions occasionally become the symbolic vehicles with which to contemplate mystical issues. For example, the holiday of Easter asks all Christians to ponder the meaning of life and death and the possibility of resurrection. A person does not have to be a Christian to appreciate…
Gottlieb, R. (1995). This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, and Environment. Routledge.
Robinson, B.A. (2005). Comparing U.S. religious beliefs with other "Christian" countries. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.religioustolerance.org/rel_comp.htm
Stone, D. (2009). One Nation Under God? Newsweek. Retrieved April 11, 2009 from http://www.newsweek.com/id/192915?from=rss
The Cuban community in South Florida has evolved customs and a culture all its own. Central to those customs and cultural expressions is religion. Whether Sephardic Jew or Catholic, the Cuban in South Florida is touched by religion in all aspects of his or her life. Family gatherings and community celebrations are often organized around religious events, holidays, or rituals. This is true for any religious community, but for this research I was most interested in penetrating one of South Florida's most mysterious and maligned religious tradition.
Of course, I am referring to Santeria. Since the first wave of Cuban exiles began to arrive in South Florida in the 1960s, Santeria became part of the local community. When dead chickens started to show up in greater numbers than before, a local ban was placed on the religion, which relies on animal sacrifice as a fundamental part of its rites.…
1997. Santeria from Africa to the New World: The Dead Sell Memories. Indiana University Press.
Brown, David H.
2003. Santeria Enthroned: Art, Ritual, and Innovation in an Afro-Cuban Religion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Religion in Tokyo in the 18th and Early 19th Centuries
Religion plays an important part in the lives of everyone. It is especially important in the various stages of life such as births, weddings, and funerals. It also plays an important role in the lives of many people on a daily basis. In Tokyo today, there are four major religions: Shinto, Buddhism, Christianity, and another group comprised of various new religions. Confucianism was another major religion at one time, but it had primarily died out by the Tokugawa period. Of these, Shinto is the religion most closely associated with the indigenous peoples of Japan. The others were introduced later. Among these are many cross influences and it is at times difficult to distinguish the roots of these new versions of religion in Tokyo. According to the University of Texas, Shinto and Buddhism are by far the most popular, both in…
Ask Asia. "Timeline of Japanese History. http://www.askasia.org/frclasrm/readings/t000013.htm . Accessed June 2002.
Japan-Zone.com. "Shinto. http://www.japan-zone.com/omnibus/shinto.shtml . Accessed June
Nelson, John. "Religion, History, and the State Japan Faculty." University of Texas, Austin
2002. http://inic.utexas.edu/asnic/countries/japan/religionhisndstate.html. Accessed June 2002.
(Szaflarski, M., Ritchey, P.N., Leonard, a., Mrus, J.M., Peterman, a. And Tsevat, J. )
Generally speaking, the researchers in the area of health psychology who focused their attention upon the argument under discussion agree that there is a positive connection which can be established between mental health (supported by spirituality) and physical health. However, it must be mentioned that in numerous studies, the religious and spiritual factors did not succeed in having a strongly relevant impact upon people's health.
Community support has proved to be a strong influencing factor (especially in the cases of people who had been diagnosed with HIV / AIDS). Under these circumstances we ought to consider spirituality in its broader sense as well, and not just the one closely connected with religion. Or we could simply consider religion and religious beliefs as an enhancer and supporter of spiritual practices which a lot of people with sensitive…
JAMA and Archives Journals (2007, April 10). "Most Physicians Believe That Religion Influences Patients' Health." ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 24, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/04/070409164931.htm
Medical News Today ( 2006, May 29). "Positive influences of religion and spirituality on blood pressure." MedicalNewsToday. Retrieved June 24, 2010 from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/44202.php
Savage, Allan. (2004, July- September). "The link between spirituality and health: holistic outcomes and religious practice in clinical health care." Quodibet Journal, Vol. 6, Number 3. Retrieved June 24, 2010 from http://www.quodlibet.net/articles/savage-spirituality.shtml
Szaflarski, M., Ritchey, P.N., Leonard, a., Mrus, J.M., Peterman, a. And Tsevat, J. (2005, August 12) "Modelling the effects of spirituality/religion on patients' perceptions of living with HIV / AIDS." Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA Online . Retrieved June 24, 2010 from http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p23047_index.html
The problem is that the admittedly beneficial aspects of organized religion (charity, moral guidance, etc.) are outweighed by the magnitude (and scope) of the corresponding harms that organized religion causes. Most importantly, the harms currently associated with religion are unnecessary because concepts such as benevolence, morality, and empathy could just as easily be taught without the religious dogma. Unfortunately, much of the good done by religion is cancelled out by the damage caused by the alienation and antagonism that typically exists as a function of fundamentally different (and mutually exclusive) religious beliefs. .
It would seem that most of the benefits of religion could be taught as part of the socialization process without a religious background. If human beings can learn to control their negative impulses and to derive motivation to be moral from learned religious values, they can learn all of the same values in a secular context…
Armstrong K. (1993). A History of God. London: Heinemann.
Einstein a. (1954). Ideas and Opinions. New York: Crown
Rooney a. (2006). Einstein: In His Own Words. New York: Random House.
Sagan C. (1997). Billions & Billions: Thoughts of Life and Death at the Brink of the Millennium. New York: Random House.
" The Constitution allows rites of worship and religious services and ceremonies. It protects people from being compelled to worship and participate in these religious rites against their will. It forbids the exploitative use of religion, religious feelings or things held sacred for personal or political influence. It insures that one can change his religion or belief by himself or as a group, privately or publicly. The Constitution has these guarantees to freedom of religion or worship. Yet, and at the same time, it obliges the state to provide Sunni Muslim religious education in the elementary and secondary schools. This was seen as contradicting the principles of a modern, secular state. It compelled Christian and Jewish children to receive a Sunni Muslim religious education and opposed the philosophies of liberalism, human rights and religious freedom. It particularly affected Syriac Christians on account of the Treaty of Lausanne, which did not…
Baldwin, Clint B. Thomas. Turkey. World Press Encyclopedia: Gale Res, 2002
Brown, Yasmin Alibhai. Turkey's Battle for Secularism is Ours, Too. The (London) Independent: Independent Newspapers UK Limited, May 7, 2007
Cherry, Matt. When a Muslim Nation Enhances Secularization. Humanist: American Humanist Association, May-June 2002
Oktem, Niyazi. Religion in Turkey. Brigham Young University Law Review: Reuben Clark Law School, 2002
5. -List the three major gods of modern Hinduism and give a brief description of each.
There are three major gods of modern Hinduism which are Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Brahma, who is called the Creator by Hindus, has always been a preeminent figure in Hinduism. Brahma is considered too otherworldly to be approached by humans. This explains a lack of devotion and temples by everyday Hindus to Brahma. Vishnu, on the other hand, has been worshipped throughout the ages as the Preserver of Life. Typically, Vishnu is depicted with four arms, symbolizing the god's all-embracing power. It is taught that Vishnu has experienced nine major rebirths. The tenth rebirth is expected to be a man carrying a flaming sword and mounted on a white horse who will punish the bad and reward the good and mark the establishment of a new age. Shiva, the Destroyer, and is displayed as…
Hopfe, Lewis H. & Woodward, Mark R. Religions of the World. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. 12th Edition. Print.
In contrast, there are some symbols of Christmas that remain strongly religious in connotation. Nativity scenes, certain carols that mentioned figures that are specifically Christian, and also gift-giving that is described as being for Christmas itself rather than just "for the holidays." In general, these things are frowned upon except when they occur exclusively among members of the Christian Community. Many find public displays of these sorts to be particularly offensive because public - and most especially government - endorsement of these things implies the favoring of one religion over another, or even appears as an attempt on the government's part to preach or dictate an individual faith. Non-Christian parents do not want their children to be forced to give presents for Christmas because Christmas is not their holiday. Members of various Protestant denominations may not like to see representations of the Birth of Jesus Christ because they do not…
Some of America's oldest cities had been newly infused with evangelical faith, and most primitive frontier areas were filled with tent revivals. From a more liberal perspective, Unitarianism had taken root in New England universities. ("Toqueville and Religion," (http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/religion/intro.html) This strain of American religious thought stressed the connections between self and nature, even to the entire exclusion of a religious doctrine, dogma, and community, almost to the breaking point. (Bickman, 2005)
Tocqueville's warnings about religion in America seem eerily predictive at times. His vision of an American religion of the self seems to summon up images of self-help books that dominate the best seller lists today. The stress upon the confessional in the second Great Awakening, where so long as the self was cleansed, America was cleansed, seems to suggest the modern fascination with 'telling all' on Oprah. The increasing stress upon religion or psychology as a way to improve…
Bickman, Martin. "An Overview of American Trancendentalism."2005/
Toqueville and Religion." University of Virginia. Crossroads. 2005
Darwinism has had a major effect on how people view the creation accounts of Genesis, believing the creation tales to be completely erroneous and based on nothing but myth and myth alone. Darwinism has planted the seed of the idea that humans are merely a by-product of chance. They are accidental and contingent parts of creation -- not the lords of the universe as the Bible would lead us to believe because we were created by greatness. Darwin's theory was not what religious people wanted to hear -- to hear that humans may not be the creation of God, but rather, something created out of happenstance or cause and effect, has led people to wonder if God really exists or if everything just comes down to science and thus makes God obsolete. If mankind is only on earth because of accident, then the idea of a higher purpose seems to…
Aristotle. Quotations Book. Web. 5 May 2011:
Barbour, Ian G. Religion and Science: Historical and Contemporary Issues. HarperOne; Rev Sub
edition, 1997. Print.
Nowadays more than 700 million people, when asked the question: "What religion do you observe," answer the Arabian word: Muslim -- a man that observes Islam.
The religious beliefs and religious origins of Islam go all the way back to the 7th century AD, the time when the religion was forming on the Arabian peninsula. Religion and experiencing of Islam for Muslim can be looked as on a special psychological condition of a man and observation of all laws and canons of Islam. The psychology of Islam develops from the very symbol of religion: "there is no god, except of Allah, and Mohammed is an ambassador of God."
Here the two main dogmas of Islamic psychology are observed:
There exists an eternal all-mighty and the only god- Allah;
Allah has chosen Mohammed, an Arabian from Mecca to be his prophet and ambassador, by the means of whom God interpreted…
Civil Society Organizations
1) International NGOs, or civil society organizations, play an important role in global governance. Some of these are transnational bodies, comprised of many different nations, that act on behalf of the global community. Many specifically become involved in troubled areas of the world, representing the global community in areas such as conflict resolution.
One of the most important contributions that civil society organizations make in terms of governance is that they bring critical issues to public debate. This public debate will subsequently apply pressure to governments and key decision makers to address the issues at play (R4D.org, 2017). Without these organizations, in many countries it is felt that there would be little transparency regarding the creation and implementation of budgets. CSOs essentially act at watchdogs for governments, providing governance that might not otherwise exist because of deficiencies in the government structure of certain countries.
There should be…
R4D.org (2017) The role of civil society organizations in supporting fiscal transparency in African countries. Results for Development. Retrieved November 6, 2017 from http://www.r4d.org/resources/role-civil-society-organizations-supporting-fiscal-transparency-african-countries/
Thussu, D. (2006). Contra-flow in global media. Media Asia. Vol. 33 (3-4) 123-129.
eligions of ome
Throughout history, religion has been having a major impact on the societies around the world. In the case of the omans, they had numerous religions that were practiced throughout the reign of the empire. To fully understand these ideas requires looking at the chapter titled Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome. This will be accomplished by summarizing the various points and discussing a broad theme from the chapter. Together, these different elements will provide the greatest insights as to how specific practices from other cultures affected various oman religions.
In Sol the Sun in the Art and eligions of ome, it is talking about the worship of the sun god name Sol. He was a mythological figure that was considered to have the most power among the various oman pagan gods. This is because the omans believed that the sun was a vital…
Sol in the Roman Empire, 1 -- 30.
Beard Mary. Religions of Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Goldhill Simon. Being Greek Under Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2006.
Mary Beard, Religions of Rome (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 167 -- 363.
Qualifications of the divine and the nature of supreme reality are core concepts of any religious tradition. Hinduism and Buddhism conceptualize the divine and the nature of reality in complementary yet distinct ways. Buddhism emerged from Hinduism, in a manner not wholly unlike the way Christianity emerged from Judaism. Therefore, there are several core similarities in the cosmologies and the conceptualizations of divine reality between these two faiths. Moreover, the religious practices and philosophies of Buddhism and Hinduism tend to be more similar than they are different. These similarities should not obscure the real and practical differences in the ways Hindus and Buddhists conceptualize and communicate matters related to the nature of the divine, and the nature of supreme reality. In particular, Buddhism avoids distinctions between a divine and a profane realm; there are no actual Buddhist deities or gods. Hinduism boasts a plethora of gods and goddesses, although…
Cline, Austin. "Hinduism: Origins, Beliefs, Practices, Holy Texts, Sacred Places." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/bookreviews/fr/Hinduism_2.htm
"Basics of Buddhism." Retrieved online: http://www.letusreason.org/Buddh1.htm
Freeman, Richard. Interview data received February 21, 2013.
The Heart Sutra. Translated by Kumarajiva and Pevahouse. Retrieved online: http://www4.bayarea.net/~mtlee/heart.txt
Both faiths ascribe to a heaven and a hell, belief in angels and the devil. Moreover, Islam and Christianity teach against crimes against humanity to include violence, gambling, adultery, lying, theft and murder. Both teach that children are to respect their parents and husbands and wives are to be respected. Both Islam and Christianity teach against same sex marriage, homosexuality, fornication, and vulgarism. Both teach of modesty in presentation to the rest of the world. Observation of societal laws is also important to believers in Islam and Christianity (Asad 60).
Islam and Christianity both believe in zakat or charity; extending one's self to those less fortunate. Both traditions teach fasting as a way of getting closer to God as well as enhancing each individual's God like qualities. Despite recent extremist practices by some Muslims, both Islam and Christianity are faiths based on a tradition of peace (Asad 103). Although…
Asad, Talal. Formations of the secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity.2003. Web.
Games, Alex & Victoria Coren. Balderdash and Piffie. One Sandwich short of a dog's dinner. (2007): 143-144.
Goddard, Hugh. Christian-Muslim Relations: Yesterday, today and tomorrow. International Journal for the study of the Christian church, 3.2 (2003): 1-14.
Lowenthal, Kate. The psychology of religion: a short introduction. 2000. Web
Thus, Sam argues that although the world often seems unjust (and is filled with innumerable instances of evil), yet P. is solved through the belief that every condition (good, in this case) necessitates an equal and opposite condition (evil, as it were.) However, Gretchen counters by asking whether those who behave in an evil way are ever punished for their transgressions, and whether there is any motivation for people to not simply act in their own best interests, whether or not this involves behaving in an immoral manner. Sam's rejoinder appeals to the afterlife as the site in which the importance of morality becomes manifest: "But the doctrine of an afterlife, in whatever form, says that this isn't the whole story" (47). However, Sam disregards the fact that God is purported to pardon many sinners, which would ostensibly mean that he regularly pardons instances of injustice.
The dialogue between Sam…
Anselm. Proslogium. Trans. S.N. Deane. Internet History Sourcebook. Fordham University, Aug. 1998. 10 Sep. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anselm-intro.asp .
Aquinas, T. Summa of Theology. Trans. B.P. Copenhaver. Publisher Unknown, 2005.
Hopkins, J. A New Interpretation of Anselm's Monologion and Proslogion. Minneapolis: Arthur J. Banning Press, 1986.
Hume, D. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Unknown Publisher, 1779.
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
It is because of this that Hinduism has become as powerful now as it has ever been (Hopfe and oodward 77-113).
Among the most powerful religions of the world, comes Buddhism. Its great history is one that makes this spiritual belief one that has withstood time. Not only is its origination in one of the most populated countries of the world, but the powerful influence that it has had on other religions and on the political institutions from which some nations base their governments, it has become clear that Buddhism, just as Christianity and Islam have become, is a great powerful influence on the insurgence of political atmospheres, and extremists views (Hopfe and oodward 134-155).
Buddhism is most closely associated with peaceful teachings and non-violent approaches to everyday issues. Because of this great belief in that everything can be resolved through peaceful means, governments have chosen to also adapt…
Hopfe, Lewis M. & Woodward, Mark R. Religions of the World. 11th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.
" (Leviathan, Chapter 12).
This passage speaks directly to man's relationship with God in Hobbes' eyes. The idea that God exists pre-logic erupts into an understanding that faith and fate play such an integral role in Man's life. Whatever we may do to secure our happiness we may do, but fate and faith play a larger role than we would generally care to admit to be the case.
In general, Hobbes philosophy on religion does satisfy a lot of philosophic ends. It points at one true course (Christianity) and also obviates the need to justify religion in the face of logic and philosophy. As in, we do not need to logically defend Christ's birth, the stories of his life and the prophets, and subsequently the parable of his cruxifiction. In fact, we do not even need to defend logically the basic premises of religion or specifically Christianity.
Instead, we can…
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…
Religions and Development
It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.
The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…
Baha'i International. 1999. Values, Norms and Poverty: A Consultation on the World Development Report 2000. South Africa
Bohlin, Sue. 2000. A Short Look at Six World Religions. Texas, USA:
Probe Ministries International
Hilton, Ronald. 2001. Religion and Poverty. (accessed 16:03:03). http://www.standford.edu/group/wais/religion_relandpoverty42501.html
This time period also marked a great deal of expansion for different European nations. This expansion occurred through the conquering of certain territories.
Machiavelli believed that great leaders had to possess certain attributes. He asserted that a "leader needs an analytical attitude without a sense of shame or guilt. Political calculation is required to control, rather than be victimized by events (Deluga, 2001)." In other words, a Machiavellian leader believes that the end justifies the means. These individual tend to have extremely charismatic personalities and that power to persuade large populations of people that there actions are justified.
The Machiavellian Leaders chosen for the purpose of this discussion will be Elizabeth I, Peter the Great and . Queen Elizabeth I was loved by the people of England to the extent that she had completely loyal subjects. She used her leadership qualities to defeat Spain. In addition she was…
Deluga, R.J. (2001)American presidential Machiavellianism: Implications for charismatic leadership and rated performance. The Leadership Quarterly
Volume 12, Issue 3, Autumn 2001, Pages 339-363
Grell, O. P Bob Scribner. (2002) Tolerance and Intolerance in the European Reformation. Cambridge Press
King Phillip II. Retrieved February 22, from: http://www.elizabethan-era.org.uk/king-philip-ii-spain.htm
Tradition says that a dying person should be put on the floor in order for them to be closer to the earth. After the ailing person dies, the body is washed and prepared for funeral practices. Most Hindu people would rather have a Hindu priest pray and bless their recently departed relative.
4.In Hinduism, people that don't believe are not threatened to perish in hell as they are given another chance to recognize the religion as having great importance in one's life. From the Hindu point-of-view, hell is something experienced by people that have a bad Karma.
Hindu people believe that they've attained a level of happiness when they reach a perfect Karma and their mind and body are pure. Hinduism regards life as being complex process in which the soul undergoes several phases of reincarnation in order to reach a final phase where it is saved and reincarnation no…
1. Chopra, Anita. Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram. "HEALTH and HEALTH CARE of ASIAN INDIAN-American ELDERS." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from Stanford University Web site: http://www.stanford.edu/group/ethnoger/asianindian.html
2. Wendell, Thomas. "Wendell Thomas." Kessinger Publishing, 2003.
3. "Hindu American Foundation Denounces Temple Entry Ban on Harijans (Dalits) in Orissa." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from the Hindu American Foundation Web site: http://www.hinduamericanfoundation.org/media_press_release_jagannath_harijan.htm
4. "Hinduism." Retrieved April 8, 2009, from diehardindian Web site: http://www.diehardindian.com/demogrph/moredemo/hindu.htm
Race factored in creates a shift in the view which can be correctly applied to that which affects voting and as well globalization has created its' own impact on voting choices made by the American individual.
Campbell, David E. (2004). Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement. Political ehavior, 26 (2), 155-180.
Clawson, Rosalee a. And Clark, John a. (2003). The Attitudinal Structure of African
American Women Party Activists: The Impact of Race, Gender, and Religion. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 211-221.
Clinton and Giuliani Seen as Not Highly Religious; Romney's Religion Raises Concerns (2007) the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 6 Sept. 2007. Online available at: http://people-press.org/report/353/clinton-and-giuliani-seen-as-not-highly-religious-romneys-religion-raises-concerns
Kelly, Nathan J. And Kelly, Jana Morgan. (2005). Religion and Latino Partisanship in the United States. Political Research Quarterly, 58 (1), 87-95.
McClurg, Scott D. (2006). The Electoral Relevance of Political Talk: Examining
Disagreement and Expertise Effects in…
Campbell, David E. (2004). Acts of Faith: Churches and Political Engagement. Political Behavior, 26 (2), 155-180.
Clawson, Rosalee a. And Clark, John a. (2003). The Attitudinal Structure of African
American Women Party Activists: The Impact of Race, Gender, and Religion. Political Research Quarterly, 56(2), 211-221.
Clinton and Giuliani Seen as Not Highly Religious; Romney's Religion Raises Concerns (2007) the Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 6 Sept. 2007. Online available at: http://people-press.org/report/353/clinton-and-giuliani-seen-as-not-highly-religious-romneys-religion-raises-concerns
And maybe mass suicides are the old way's means of presenting their final argument. "Whether this is truly the case or not, suicides both individual and collective are only going to increase as frenetic technological changes tear apart tradition and destabilize cultures throughout the world."
Mass suicides are a form of protesting against the changing systems of beliefs; a means of escaping the unsatisfactory world around or pathways to heaven, conducted by weak and sometimes ill minds, led by a diabolic genius who has the capability of playing with others' minds. They exploit religious beliefs in order to make a less or more well founded statement.
And religious exploitation towards the advantage of an individual or group of individuals is not a procedure we are strange from. We should however bear in mind that we are beginning to demolish universal values. And after all, what will happen to…
Joost Abraham Maurits Meerloo, Suicide and Mass Suicide, 1962
Mass Suicides in Recent Years, CNN News, March, 1997, http://www.cnn.com/U.S./9703/27/suicide.list/index.html, last accessed on November 15, 2007
Mass Suicides Raise the Question: Why?, CNN News, March 1997, http://www.cnn.com/HEALTH/9703/27/nfm/suicide.psychology/index.html , last accessed on November 15, 2007
Mass Suicide, Holology Department of Research, http://www.holology.com/suicide.html, last accessed on November 15, 2007
. The Dao is the source of all power which embodies all beings and encompasses both the yin and the yang. Remarkable quiet and serene, the Dao is rarely detected by humans, but provides invulnerability to those who posses it. Dao philosophy calls for its followers to refrain from certain foods and sexual activity, and also separates the role of the state from the lives of its citizens.
The great philosopher Confucius, also known as Kong Fu-Xi, evolved his teachings out of Dao philosophies. Confucius, like estern philosopher Socrates, is known to modern man through the others attempting to preserve his teachings. He took Dao teachings and evolved them into an entirely different sect. Unlike Daoism and later the Shinto religion, he believed that men were the source of the secret life, rather than the cosmos. The Analects of Confucius are dialogues between his followers and he which best embodies…
Confucius. The Analects. Penguin Classics. New York. 1998.
Noss, David S. History of the World's Religions. Prentice Hall. 12th ed. 2008.
(40) The foundation of the story demonstrates the social pull of religion as a way of life, that is inclusive, despite its obvious contradictions to the modern world, belief systems and economy. In a sense the social desire to fit in and be seen as different are met by the acceptance of the church as a lifestyle. According to Durkheim, "Deep down, no religion is false.... Each in its own way is true, for each answers given conditions of human life."
Blend et al. 30)
Max eber also committed a great deal of his life and scholarship to the sociology of religion, affirming repeatedly that religion must exist to transform society into a moral society, rather than one that meets the conditions of the natural instincts of man, being amoral in the sense that they are often simply self serving, yet he also reiterated the importance of studying the ways…
Blend, Charles, et al. Emile Durkheim, 1858-1917: A Collection of Essays, with Translations and a Bibliography. Ed. Kurt H. Wolff. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 1960.
Sharlet, Jeff, "Through a Glass, Darkly: How the Christian Right is Reimagining U.S. History" 33-43.
Turner, Bryan S. Max Weber: From History to Modernity. London: Routledge, 1993.
Wood, Richard L. Introduction to Politics and Religion
eligion on Planet Earth
Based on careful observation of the beliefs and practices of people on earth, I can state that human beings are mostly religious people. There are five characteristics that define their religiosity. First, religious people function in groups. They share the same beliefs and perform the same activities as part of their religious activities. Within each group, there is a hierarchy of ranks and people but all people generally identify with the group as a whole.
The second religious characteristic of humans is faith. I have encountered people with different religions. But all of them have faith. Faith involves beliefs in a deity or deities and the existence of supernatural beings called angels and demons. Each religious group believes in it and the group generally agrees upon the fundamentals of faith. The fundamentals are believed to be sacred and are very important for the adherents. The fundamentals…
Johnstone, R.L. (2007) Religion in Society: A Sociology of Religion, 8th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Prentice Hall.
The aim of Christian faith is not to reject the truth of the universe or our individual characteristics, like some religions give, but to gratify our genuine yearnings. Christian faith gives an extremely reasonable contentment, as it encompasses the most ideal manner and justifies our encounter of the world and our own feelings of being. Christian belief accords importance to reason and, of course has a justification for reason. Among the other religions, Christian faith is the most sensible, and thus it can be proposed as the most advanced.
A question might be posed that if God has the supreme power as per Christianity, then what is the reason behind the Almighty unable to resolve the evils of the universe completely. Christianity considers that the Almighty was not behind the making of this world in this collapsing state of affairs or with immorality and pain. He made it entirely good…
In spite of the conflicts between the world's great monotheistic faiths, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share much in common. Each of these religions was born in the Middle East, and each of these religions values sacred texts as being important ways for human beings to receive the word and knowledge of God. As monotheistic religions, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam eschew idol worship or the worship of Gods that are not their own. At the same time, these religions have very similar concepts of God. The Gods of each of these four religions in omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent: a concept of God that actually originated with Zoroastrianism ("God, Zoroaster, and Immortals," n.d.). Zoroastrianism is the oldest of these four faiths, followed by Judaism. The followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are collectively referred to as "people of the Book" because all value the Hebrew Bible, which is known…
"Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an." Retrieved online: http://people.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/I_Transp/IO4_QuranBeliefs.html )
"God, Jesus, and the Saints." BBC Religions. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/beliefs/basics_1.shtml
"God, Zoroaster, and Immortals." BBC Religion. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian/beliefs/god.shtml#findoutmore
Huda. Allah (God) in Islam. Retrieved online: http://islam.about.com/od/godallah/a/god.htm
Religion has been a controversial, almost political matter since its invention. In fact, modern religion was considered as a form or means of civilization. This is clearly seen from many colonization stories where colonialists urged the natives to abandon their ways of worship and embrace the 'civilized ones'. Europe was one of the modern civilizations where it gave Christianity emerged. The clergy used to work closely with kings in passing of judgment and Popes crowned kings. The entire title of Europe being secular is ironic in a number of ways. Firstly, the article states that Europe does not place much attention to religion affecting public life. This is ironic because Europe itself used to execute civilians who did not conform to the ways of the church. Currently, we see a Europe with a diminishing trend in terms of religious practices. If such continues, the region is taking a direction of…
Pew Research Center. Secular Europe and Religious America: Implications for Transatlantic
Relations. Pew Research Center. Web. 2005. Accessed 19 February 2014
ith regard to strong network ties, religions like Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses will grow in communities with strong social connections that already exist. Thus, a few core members of the community become converted. Those core members are trusted in the community, and therefore community members are far more likely to embrace the faith through their trusted friends, neighbors, or family members than by total strangers. The growth of Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses may also have to do with deeper psychological issues in places where these sects have been growing. Just as consumer behavior is linked to psychological theories, including theories of personality, so too is behavior regarding choice of religion. Mormonism and Jehovah's itnesses both demand a strict adherence to a set of rules related to personal conduct and social behavior. Proselytizing actively is also considered part of one's religious duty and social contract.
Therefore, what Stark and Iannacoone say…
Lippy, Charles. Introducing American Religion. Routledge, 2009.
Religions of Rome
Long before the mythological figure of Romulus founded Rome, Rome was already being influenced by other religions, specifically the Greek religion when it was occupied by King Evander. King Evander was said, in common folklore, to have shown the escaping Trojan hero Aeneas the city, and the idea that Aeneas was a 'proto-founder' of Rome who brought his household gods to the city became a commonly-accepted part of the city's mythology. It was another great hero, Tarquin the Great, who laid the foundation for the city's temple to Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, three of the most important gods in the Roman pantheon. y the time of the deposition of Tarquin the Proud, the structure of the Roman religion had been established.[footnoteRef:1] Thus, one of the most striking characteristics of the early Roman religion was that, unlike other religions of many early civilizations, no single family or leader…
Beard, Mary, John North & Simon Price. Religions Of Rome: Volume 1-A History
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Religion and Mysticism
Two of the world's major religions, Islam and Christianity seem to be very different belief systems. hen comprising a mental picture of a practitioner of one and then the other, they seem to have very different characteristics. However, when examined more closely, it becomes evident that the two religions are based on some of the same principles of kindness towards others, inherent goodness, and most specifically some sort of supernatural or spectacular being that is stronger than anything on earth. Sufism is the branch of Islam which is most comparable with Christian Mysticism, both of which look to some sort of spiritual power that has more strength than mere mortals.
Sufism stems from the Islamic religion. Muhammad is considered the prophet of both sects and this is why the two are so often linked, however Sufism teaches that the spirituality can be combined with any religion. "No…
"Sufism: The Mystical Side of Islam." Islamic Studies in Christian Perspective. Print.
"Sufism -- What is it?" All About Religion. 2002. Print.
Zuck, John. "What is Christian Mysticism?" Wild Things. 2008. Print.
here is a rather complex juxtaposition between the ideals of the founding of the United States and the presumption of religious conversion. he historical and sociological paradigm of religion in America actually spans the great migration of tribes from Asia over the Alaskan land bridge and evolved into various Native American cultures and the European contact between the early 1600s and even into the 20th century. Most of the Amerindian cultures worshiped a naturalistic religion that focused on harmony with nature, a group of Gods that represented spirits of parts of nature, and ways to explain all the natural phenomenon (weather, birth, death, etc.) that are common to human cultures. Religion was more all-encompassing and an approach to explain the universe. Since everything within the universe was part of the natural order, and therefore sacred, these cultures tended to revere all that was in nature and placed humans as…
This conundrum was not adequately addressed during the Constitutional Convention, and it was not until Thomas Jefferson became President that the issue became publically important. In 1802, for instance, members of the Danbury Baptist Association wrote to Jefferson with concerns about the Constitutional requirement for freedom of religion. Jefferson replied, assuring the coalition that there freedoms would be protected and cherished. He noted his previous work from 1777-79 under the Virginia Statute for religious freedom: "Whereas, Almighty God hath created the mind free… That even the forcing him to support [a state religion] or that teacher of his own religious persuasion is depriving him of the comfortable liberty of giving his contributions…That our civil rights have no dependence on our religious opinions any more than our opinions in physics or geometry…yet we are free to declare… the natural rights of mankind" Lippy). This, in essence, formed the basis of the notion that the State cannot make a law establishing a religion or force individual citizens to follow anything other than what they deem appropriate for their own individual belief and need.
Lippy, C. Introducing American Religion. New York: Routledge, 2009.
While art is certainly a part of culture, other cultural gifts to history mark religion as a positive force. Without the music, ceremony, poetry, and holy books of Muslim, Hindu, and Christian texts, the world would be without significant Beauty. In their own ways, each of these traditions shaped the cultures that would come after them in significant theological, intellectual, and cultural ways. Burhan writes that Islamic influence in the world has included charity, justice, and unity. Wade writes that even as Christianity is often vilified as a blight to mankind, it made great contributions to science, freedom, ethics and morality, medicine, etc. In conclusion, the ancient history of Eurasia would not have been the same without religion. While religious wars are certainly an important part of history, religion's contributions in the areas of art and culture suggest the positive role religion played in the shaping of contemporary society.
Burhan, R. "Islam's Contribution and Influence on the World." Institute of Islam and Arabic Studies.n.d. 26 July 2009.
The question should also be specific enough that there would not be a large number of sub-questions that would have to be answered first or that might alter the value of the central question. At the same time, if the question were too narrow, then the researcher might find that it ruled out other possibilities that might emerge. The question also must generate data that tests the hypothesis, and a simple yes or no answer would be too simple for a good research question. The question cannot be such that it raises a question that cannot be quantified, for then the data would not lead to a useful answer or one that would be testable by others. The question must also be formulated so that it is clear to other researchers who may want to test the hypothesis as well or replicate the original research, and the question must be…
Eliade, Mircea. Myth and Reality (Religious Traditions of the World).
Waveland Press; Reprint edition, 1998.
McGrath, Alister E. Science & Religion: An Introduction. New York: Blackwell Publishers, 1998.
There was no time to allow better preparation of the bread. They had to move out of Egypt in before Pharaoh could realize. The bitter herbs symbolized the bitter life experienced in Egypt. They remained as captives of slavery for many years, and a moment of redemption approached. In the book of Exodus, one sympathizes with the Jews that served life of slavery without freedom.
However, one feels delighted because of the happy conclusion when the Jews attain freedom and redemption. Passover offers a bonding moment that brings together everyone that shares the Jewish customs. The home and most Jewish families celebrate the holy days such as the New Year in Jewish calendar and the Day of Atonement. They celebrate these holy days at night of the eve of the holy day and families prepare meals before performing the synagogue service. They serve the meals with apples and honey which…
Heehs, Peter, ed. 2002. Indian Religions: A Historical Reader of Spiritual Expression and Experience. New York.
Online Conference on Socially Engaged Buddhism. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, April 2000, available online at http: / / jbe.gold.ac.uk.
Queen, Christopher, Charles Prebish and Damien Keown. 2003. Action Dharma: New Studies in Engaged Buddhism. London: Routledge Curzon.
Religion of the Spirits
In responding to adherents of the Religion of the Spirits, one might expect very different statements by St. Thomas Aquinas and the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. Indeed, these two personalities are opposite ends of the religious scale, with the former believing without any doubt that God exists and Catholicism is the true religion, and the latter being a believer in nihilism, physical life as the only existence that can reasonably be expected, and the non-existence of God. One similarity between Aquinas and Nietzsche is that they both believe unshakably in their respective viewpoints. There is therefore not much likelihood that the Religion of the Spirits will be able to convince either of their "truth."
If believers in the Religion of the Spirits were therefore to try and convince Thomas Aquinas of the truth of their religion, I believe he would in turn explain to them that there…
Religion & Life Cycle
Different religious visions, different life cycles: The religious experience according to Rosenstock-Huessey and the Medicine Rite
Religion has always been the binding force that enabled humanity to create meaning in their lives and maintain unity among them. As a way of expressing spiritual reality, religion is instrumental in providing humanity a way of converting into concrete form (i.e., rituals and religious symbols) the different emotions associated to one's belief in a religion. Perhaps one of the most important functions that religion has for humanity is that it is able to depict humanity as the most important creature that the Supreme Being (or God) had created in the universe. That in our attempt to give meaning and purpose in life, we humans subsist to religion in order to validate that we, indeed, matter the most to God above anything else. This spiritual reality, despite its selfish nature,…
eligion or Science?
Since the enaissance, there has been a vocal debate between religion and science. Galileo was imprisoned and sanctioned because of his views of the universe, the sun, and the way planets moved. As science progressed, this debate became even more heated. However, in the late 20th century, there has also been a mitigating discussion about the way that religion and science can actual coexist as explanations of the universe. In fact, as physicists look into the wondrous world of smaller and smaller particles, they find that the laws we through governed the universe do not really fit in with the abstract dimensions of time, space, quarks, and the study of the basic attributes of matter and the universe (Schroeder, 2010, p.xi ). On some level, the debate between science and religion is based on the notion of reason (the scientific method) versus faith. eason implies what can…
Russell, C 2002, 'The Conflict of Science and Religion,' in G. Ferngren, ed., Science
And Religion: Some Historical Perspectives, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins
Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
Without an understanding of the Arian crisis, it is difficult to understand why later theological debates ensued and tore apart people who essentially believe in the same basic religion. Some Christians might take for granted that Christ is divine, whereas others view Jesus more as a human messenger of God. The Romans were debating this very issue several thousand years ago.
Second, the story of Arius and Athanasius shows that Christianity was not founded by Jesus Christ. Christianity was founded by those who came after Jesus. Christianity was also formed over time, and as the result of crises as bloody and violent as the one that Rubenstein describes in When Jesus Became God. Jesus set in motion a chain of events that would lead to the formation of a new religion, even though Jesus himself might only have been trying to reform Judaism. Jesus may have preached of a new…
Pilgrimage is a central element in religion. Ancient polytheistic religions like those in Greece and Rome used pilgrimage at certain times of year, often creating massive festivals. hile many pilgrimages have a social dimension, others can be profoundly personal and mystical too. Pilgrimage is inherently difficult, and the travails of the journey are part of the process. It is necessary to undertake pilgrimage as a rite of passage. This is especially true in Islam, in which hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca, is one of the Five Pillars. There are several elements of religious pilgrimage, including the personal, political, and the spiritual.
Motivations for pilgrimage range from a need to prove one's spiritual strength and merit to a need to conform to the dictums of society. In some cases, the pilgrimage serves as an act of communion, prayer, or meditation. Buddhist approaches to pilgrimage, such as those described in Journey…
From the Diary of Ennin, 838-847.
From Journey to the West, or The Monkey-King, 17th century.
Modern Portrait of Xuanzang.
From Naser-e Khosraw, Book of Travels.
I agreed with Paul's perspective that the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual and cannot be fully understood by the human mind. I also believe that following death, Christians will not experience a physical rebirth, but expect to live an immortal, spiritual life in heaven. Paul's perspective encourages rebirth as a spiritual phenomenon. I think this belief closely ties with the second view of the resurrection, which is the resurrection occurred only in the imagination or faith of those closest to Jesus. Paul believes the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual, and liberates Christians from death by promising an immortal life in the likeness of Jesus. I feel there is a strong psychological element to this belief that can be explained as faith and the hope for death to not be the end of existence. Paul's point-of-view explains death is not an ending, but the beginning of immortal life. I agree with…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 169-179. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 139-152. Print.
Religion the Gospel of Matthew
There are a number of similarities between Helmut Koester's article, The Gospel of Matthew: Jesus as the New Moses, and that of Marilyn Moses, also entitled The Gospel of Moses. Both of these works examine the reason and purpose that the book of Matthew was written, and explore the impact upon the immediate surrounding community of Christianity. However, in order to best summarize these works, it is necessary to do so individually, in order to gain the best understanding of these articles.
Koester's article primarily focuses on the book of Matthew's portrayal of Jesus as being directly descended from Abraham and aligned with traditional Israeli law. This is a particularly important aspect of the Koester's article (and the book of Matthew), because it verifies the fact that Jesus's teachings and works are directly in accordance with the Israeli tradition which preceded his existence, and which…
Like Khan, Huxley focused on the sensations of the person (himself) having the mystical experience. During his experience, Huxley felt he had no impairment in his mind or gaze, an intensity of vision without an outer and imposed substance to induce the hallucination, and had a sense that his impetus of motion or will was impaired into a state of stasis (a direct contrast with Khan's focus on the ability of music to provide motion to parallel the nature of the divine). Above all, Huxley called his sense of harmony through visual means mystical because his visual experience eliminated any sense of division inner/outer divide in perception. As he looked at the flower, and Huxley felt he was becoming the flower.
This stands in direct contrast to Kepler's schema of harmony, which is dependant upon perceptions of distinction from outside, as an observer perceives defined opposites. Kepler's definition of harmony…
Religion, in whichever form of it, has over the centuries been upheld by various groups as the ultimate guide to good living, harmonious coexistence and the sole source of spiritual nourishment. Virtually all religions uphold their beliefs as the truest path to a purpose driven life and a fulfilling existence on earth and even beyond. The religious writing have situations, case scenarios and story of individuals that are geared towards teaching the readers the purpose for which they are alive and how to overcome various challenges like the religious sages did in the various writings from varying religions. Being that the religious writings define our livelihood and are our spiritual guide, there is the interaction between the spiritual and the physical. The physical body is deemed complete once it is given that functional purpose by the spiritual aspects of religion.
However, the flip side to it is that the same…
Religion does not necessarily need to be considered to be something spiritual, as it can also teach people in relation to moral values and about how they can distinguish between good and bad.
A modern school system needs to be fair towards everyone and this can only be made possible by school authorities allowing children to express themselves without restraint. Parents should have the right to decide what their children will learn in school. Religion is generally beneficial for opening people's minds and for preparing them to behave properly in the contemporary society.
1. lanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Perry lanzer's article presents readers with solid arguments regarding to why the teaching of religion in schools must not be regarded as something immoral. Also, the paper brings support to religion and reveals the reasons for which it…
Glanzer, Perry. (1998). "Religion in Public Schools: In Search of Fairness." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 80.
Wright, Elliot a. (1999). "Religion in American Education." Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 81.
Brewster, Karin L. & Cooksey, Elizabeth C. & Guilkey, David K. & Rindfuss, Ronald R. (1998). "The Changing Impact of Religion on the Sexual and Contraceptive Behavior of Adolescent Women in the United States." Journal of Marriage and Family, Vol. 60, No. 2.
However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.
It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…
Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.
Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/balfour.htm
Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.