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here is an increasing number of older people today, with the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1990 finding that the number of those older than 65 will probably double by 2030. Even now, twenty years later, this trend is continuing. he number of older people is growing. What I find both interesting and surprising is that ageism could still exist. I therefore think a book like this is of absolute importance to build a better society, which will provide everybody, regardless of age, gender, or race, with the opportunity to be as much as they can be and to contribute wherever they feel they are needed. Only in this way can Western society advance not only technologically, but also mentally, emotionally, and spiritually. It is about time that, as a society, we see that there is much to be gained from the wisdom of an older person.
These attitudes should involve education and critical thinking. The authors suggest that young people should be educated on the nature of ageism in themselves and others, as well as in how to develop mindful approaches towards others. This is one of the things that makes this book so important to education and sociology today. Indeed, educational programs that encourage critical thinking and non-prejudiced attitudes can usefully include this book. Ageism, although in many ways differing from other forms of prejudice, has just as little right to exist in a free and fair society as racism, sexism, and others. For this reason, researchers, academics, and indeed society in general should work together to eradicate all forms of prejudice, including ageism.
There is an increasing number of older people today, with the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 1990 finding that the number of those older than 65 will probably double by 2030. Even now, twenty years later, this trend is continuing. The number of older people is growing. What I find both interesting and surprising is that ageism could still exist. I therefore think a book like this is of absolute importance to build a better society, which will provide everybody, regardless of age, gender, or race, with the opportunity to be as much as they can be and to contribute wherever they feel they are needed. Only in this way can Western society advance not only technologically, but also mentally, emotionally, and spiritually. It is about time that, as a society, we see that there is much to be gained from the wisdom of an older person.
Age is a fact of life. Instead of being prejudiced against the process of ageing itself and against those who are older, we should focus on celebrating every stage of life for the benefits it could bring to ourselves and to those around us. Older people, for example, have a wealth of experience to contribute to society on both a personal, political and professional level. This is reason for celebration rather than fear.
An important point is that older people participate actively in learning and remembering. Although perceptual and motor decrements clearly may inhibit the ability of persons to adapt to psychosocial stress, they are not crucial in most situations. Even declines in speed of intellectual, cognitive, and problemsolving as determined largely from laboratory experiments or standardized tests, may not be so critical in adapting to real life situations where quality of response is much more important than speed or quantity.
Due to this stereotype there is often a bias against starting an older worker in a long-term developmental career path or even a short-term training program. Organizational gatekeepers for the amount of time in which the organization can profit from the investment is too short to warrant starting the process Finally, although the media often treat older individuals' sexuality with humor, there are many older people who keep healthy and fit, exercise,…
Bytheway, B., and Johnson, J. On defining ageism. Critical Social Policy, (1993). 29, 27-39.
Butler, R. Ageism: Another form of bigotry. The Gerontologist,(1969) 9, 243-246.
Featherstone, Mike and Wernick, Andrew Wernick Images of Aging: Cultural Representations of Later Life NY:Routledge, 1995
Frye, Marilyn the Politics of Reality Trumansburg, N.Y.,: The Crossing Press, 1983.
The Issue of Age in Cultural Diversity
Age is an important aspect of cultural diversity that often goes ignored. For that reason ageism is a particularly problematic issue. Racism and sexism are often reported on but prejudice against the elderly is not so commonly touched upon in society. For example, the current presidential candidate Joe Biden is often mocked on social media by people engaging in ageist behavior, attacking him for being senile and having dementia because he stutters or stumbles in his speech or train of thought while campaigning. What people do not realize is that they would likely not fare any better were they to hit the campaign trail and have to give numerous speeches. As Albom (2019) notes, “jabs at Joe Biden mask our growing ageism issue.” This paper will discuss the cultural factors regarding age, developmental theory models, relevant laws, other diversity issues, resources available…
The world consists of strong and weak both. And, naturally, the strong ones can use their authority however they like; often at the expense of the weak ones. Trauma is caused by undergoing a severe experience, which can totally shake up an individual. Different people respond to trauma in different ways; some get locked up in their silence, some get revengeful and defensive, while some wish to talk about it so that other people can know what they have been through. However individuals choose to deal with their trauma, it is bound to leave emotional scars that they often carry for very long; this can hinder their psychological, spiritual, and emotional development.
Diller (2014) states that trauma is an exceptional psychological experience that overwhelms the ordinary functioning of a human. Trauma does not just affect an individual alone; it also affects the people around him, because, trauma influences…
Diller, J. (2014). Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services. India: Cengage Learning.
Hatch, L.R. (2005). Gender and Ageism. Generations, 29, 19-24.
Mohan, T.N., Sartorio, J., Goldman, B., & Garcia, C.B. (2007) Poverty in America: born with a wooden spoon; welcome to poverty USA [Video tape]. (Available from Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences)
What is the nature of these service shortfalls and how do these service limitations potentially impact older adults' "quality of life" outcomes in both the short- and long-term?
1. Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms
2. Lack of elder population neglect prevention mechanisms
3. Lack of culturally relevant elderly care programs
4. Lack of enough physicians to take care of the elderly population
5. Lack of elderly-population empowerment programs
Lack of elderly population abuse prevention mechanisms
A review of literature indicates serious "gaps" in the mechanisms used in the prevention of elderly population abuse cases. Even though the Elder Abuse and Neglect Act clearly indicate that all suspected cases of abuse directed against the elderly population be reported, very little efforts exist at the establishment of hotlines to be used in reporting these cases. This means that very few cases of abuse are reported. This gap in the aging-related…
Administration on Aging (AoA). (2003). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.
Administration on Aging (AoA). (2005). A profile of older Americans. Washington, DC: Administration on Aging.
Gelfand, D.E. (2003). Aging and ethnicity: Knowledge & services. New York: Springer Publishing.
Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks: A Guide to Programs and Services. New York: Springer Publishing Co.
Adulthood and Death Issues
Introduction to Contemporary Issues about Aging and Death
One of the most important social benefits of modern society is the dramatic increase in life expectancy over the last century, particularly in the developed nations. At the turn of the 20th century, life expectancy was barely 60 years or age; less than a century before that, it was approximately 50 years of age (Henslin, 2005; Macionis, 2006). Today, people routinely live into their late 80 or 90s. This change is also associated with various related issues that rarely came up in prior eras of human history. Whereas individuals typically retired in their 50s a century ago (if they could afford to at all, that is), today it is not uncommon at all to continue working well into advanced age or even to begin second or third careers during what used to be considered "retirement age" (Henslin, 2005;…
Henslin, J.M. (2005). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston:
Allyn and Bacon.
Macionis, J.J. (2006). Sociology. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Schaefer, R.T. (2006). Racial and Ethnic Groups. New York: Harper Collins.
4. In one paragraphe, discuss your own attitudes toward aging and ageism.
All too often, the elderly in our society are not shown the value or care they deserve. Aging often leads to social isolation, economic insecurity, loss of a life-partner and a decline in physical capabilities. Quality of life in such instances can only be assured by a compassionate support system. An absence of such a system is a leading factor in one's vulnerability to ageism. Here, opportunities for quality of life become decidedly limited.
5. Identify and discuss health care disparities that you have read or heard about in the past 1-2 years in the news media.
Recent years have led to greater acknowledgement of terrible disparity in life quality for older adults as a function of socioeconomic differences. Financial resources are a top determinant of the way that older adults live in their final years.
Ebersole, P., Hess, P., Touhy, T.A., Jett, K., & Luggen, A.S. (2008). Toward healthy aging: Human needs and nursing response (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
adulthood death individual a culmination life span developmental process.
Death and dying is an intrinsic part of life, and the culmination of a life cycle that begins with conception. There are several various stages related to death and dying, such as preserving one's health and wellness, dealing with various facets of ageism, as well as examining cultural attitudes and varying viewpoints of the dying process from different points in history.
Health and Wellness
The primary way of mitigating the effects of aging on the body, mind and spirits of people is to actively promote an awareness of health and wellness. Quite simply, people must take care of their bodies. A key facet of doing so is to have a trusted physician and to go on regular checkups. In addition to keeping in contact with a doctor, individuals should make certain changes to their diet to reflect the varying needs…
Berger, K.S. (2008). The developing person through the life span (7th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.
Farid, S., Farid, Hany. (no date). "A brief history of ancient Egyptian tombs." Csdartmouth.edu. Retrieved from http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/farid/Hany_Farid/Egypt_History.html
seasons of life" that are characteristic of Western societies. Name the rites of passage that mark the transitions from one period of life to the next.
Seasons of life: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Dying.
Rites of Passage: Puberty and struggling to gain independence and learn their own identies in the transition from Child to Adult (some religions have Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Communion); marriage, maintaining a family, and participating in all aspects of society in Maturity; Status as matriarch or patriarch and declining health mark the passage of Elder to Death.
Over half of all women over 65 are widows, whereas only 13.6% of men over age 65 are widowed. What factors account for these statistics?
Answer: As socialization takes over men become more aggressive, and more individualistic which results in higher rates of accidents, violence, suicide, and hazardous behaviors like smoking and drinking in excess leading…
While it is true that in many countries like Canada there has been a reduction in vulnerabilities such as poverty among the elderly, it is equally true that;
some 3.3 million seniors still live below the poverty line Good housing and proper medical care are often out of reach for the poor elderly -- or so expensive that little money is left over for other needs. Hundreds of thousands of elders go hungry every month. (Callahan, 1999, p. 74)
Poverty is however also a strong indicator of elderly vulnerability in Canada; where the lack of resources is also linked to safety and security issues. Many elderly people live alone and they become more vulnerable to abuse and attack if they so not have enough funds to afford adequate home security. As one Canadian resource notes; "Examples include safety devices that would reduce their chances of a fall or an alarm…
Abuse of the elderly. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2002/9241545615_chap5_eng.pdf
Ageism: Canadian Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://www.cnpea.ca/ageism.htm
Barer M. And Hertzman C. (1972) on Being Old and Sick: The Burden of Health Care for the Elderly in Canada and the United States. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 17(4), pp.763-782.
Brownell P., Welty a., Brennan M. Elder Abuse and Neglect. Retrieved February 10, 2009, at http://www.aging.state.ny.us/explore/project2015/artabuse.htm
Interview for the Analysis of Ageing
Mae was a first generation American aged 90. Mae was born on June 1927 in Bethlehem, PA. When Mae was a young girl, she moved to Queens. Married at the age of 18, Mae well-being and general health issues are normal with no major health problems despite the usual high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and stents that come along with old age.
The objective of this essay is to explore the experience of late adulthood and ageing using the case study of Mae. This study analyzes the interview questions to identify the health and social issues associated with old age.
Analysis of Interview Question
One of the problems associated with old age is health issues. However, findings from the interview with Mae reveal that Mae is still in a good health despite her age, and she does not have any major health issue. However,…
Also, since the survey is given by an outside agency and not the organization that the individual works for there is no worry on the participants part that anyone in his organization will have access to his responses. This reduces the fear of any possible retaliation if some of the responses are not favorable for the respondent's organization
Another reason why this method is appropriate is the reduction in peer pressure as touched on in the Ethical Considerations section of this paper. Participating in a survey via an instrument such as Survey Monkey, the individual can be assured that the responses provided are anonymous. In a survey conducted in interview form, there is a chance that the participant may not feel comfortable being completely honest because there will always be a trust factor. They don't really know the person interviewing them and there may not be enough of a comfort…
Babbie, Earl. The Practice of Social Research. (Eleventh Edition). California: Thomson-Wadsworth.
O'Reilly, Sally. (2006). More than able to pull their weight. Personnel Today, May 2, 2006, 25-26.
Webb, Wendy. (2009). Work is the new retirement. Training, 46(3), 44-45.
Whitney-Gibson, Jane, Jones, Preston J., Cella, Jennifer, Clark, Cory et al. (2010). Ageism and the baby boomers: Issues, challenges, and the TEAM approach. Contemporary Issues in Education Research, 3(1), 53-59.
Narrative Case Analysis: Older Adults Perception of Their Roles in Society Over Their Lifespan
Narrative Case Analysis
Many societies have been described as holding up a stereotypic and sometimes negative perception of older adults. With that said research to determine older Adults perception of their roles in society over their Lifespan, has not been explored that much in the research. Most of the research has been about grand parenting, role transitions and ageism. However, this study used qualitative research in the form of a single case study of a 75-year-old woman, who is a grandmother and housewife. The investigation led utilized an explanatory phenomenological method. This study was selected to determine the perceptions and lived experience of perception of their roles in society over their lifespan throughout U's life and discover if these experiences aided her in handling life surprises in old age. Emerging themes exposed were neglect to family,…
Black, J.S., & Porter, L.W. (1991). Managerial Behaviors and Job Performance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(1), 99+. etrieved March 27, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000126798
Business Case for Diversity. etrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.chubb.com/diversity/chubb4450.html
Clarke, .D. (2005, September). Workplace Bias Abounds: New Study Confirms the American Workplace Has Much Farther to Go to Achieve True Diversity. Black Enterprise, 36, 38. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011221717
Hicks, D.A. (2003). eligion and the Workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality, Leadership. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110647891
Madden, ussell SHATTEING THE GLASS CEILING. etrieved March 29,
2009, from http://home.earthlink.net/~rdmadden/webdocs/Shattering_the_Glass_Ceili.html
Mor Barak, M.E. (2000). The Inclusive Workplace: An Ecosystems Approach to Diversity Management. Social Work, 45(4), 339. etrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001074518
Stretch, J.J. (2006). Managing Diversity: Toward a…
Black, J.S., & Porter, L.W. (1991). Managerial Behaviors and Job Performance: A Successful Manager in Los Angeles May Not Succeed in Hong Kong. Journal of International Business Studies, 22(1), 99+. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000126798
Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved March 27, 2009, from http://www.chubb.com/diversity/chubb4450.html
Clarke, R.D. (2005, September). Workplace Bias Abounds: New Study Confirms the American Workplace Has Much Farther to Go to Achieve True Diversity. Black Enterprise, 36, 38. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011221717
Hicks, D.A. (2003). Religion and the Workplace: Pluralism, Spirituality, Leadership. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved March 29, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110647891
solid waste management in impoverished areas versus affluent areas by examining the social, economic, ethical, and political reasons for placement of landfills and other waste removal facilities in poorer neighborhoods. By exploring the background of specific social movements, the first section of the assignment will seek to explore why the government placed landfills in certain locations versus others. The essay will also seek to examine what caused the social movements. As well as why the issue evolved from placement of landfills in poorer neighborhoods to placement of landfills in minority-majority poorer neighborhoods.
The next section will seek to analyze which candidates would be best for a nonprofit. Candidate one is a business-savvy employee wishing to change things by dismissing all the older employees and hiring new ones. Candidate two is a college graduate with experience in the field. By looking at the various perspectives of public administration theory, this section…
Aston, R. (1999). The Legal, Engineering, Environmental and Social Perspectives of Surface Mining Law and Reclamation by Landfilling: Getting Maximum Yield from Surface Mines (p. 120). World Scientific.
Brownell, P. & Kelly, J. (2013). Ageism and mistreatment of older workers. Dordrecht: Springer.
Frederickson, G. (1994). Ethics and Public Administration. Routledge.
Hill, B. (2014). Environmental Justice (p. 103). Environmental Law Institute.
Elder Learning Service
By taking part in "Elder Learning Service," one can learn much from the experience. In fact, this is becoming a growing phenomenon both academically and within the community itself. All the research points to the positive impact of how much it empowers individuals into becoming better citizens by becoming self-aware of those that are in need. A service learning service was designed for high school students entitled, "Carrying on the Legacy of San Juan's Elders." Many conclusions arose as well as project outcomes for one to consider for any future project.
Service Learning: High School Students Engaged in their Community
The district in which I teach allowed me to do a service learning project with my high school students upon asking permission from the principal of the school. These were my goals when working with each of them. 1) Promote student and elderly intergenerational communication; 2) Improve…
Brown, L.H., & Roodin, P.A. (2001). Service-learning in gerontology: An out-of-classroom experience. Educational Gerontology, 27(1), 89-103.
Furco, A., & Root, S. (2010). Research demonstrates the value of service learning. Phi Delta
Kappan, 91(5), 16-20.
Getahun, Linde J. (2006) Reflections on service learning with the aged. Academic Exchange
ole Transitions Into Old Age
Centuries ago, growing old was uncommon and those able to transition into old age were revered by their community as teachers, tribal historians, and sources of wisdom (Nelson, 2005, p. 208-209). Growing old was therefore something to look forward to. In contemporary American society, however, transitioning into old age carries a number of negative connotations, including being useless and a burden on society. Once the perceived value was stripped from reaching old age, other pressing concerns began to dominate social attitudes toward elder citizens. Terror Management Theory (TMT) posits that social constructs help protect individuals from the indifference and chaos of the world we inhabit and among the most prominent examples is religion. Ageism likewise helps protect individuals from thoughts and feelings about their own mortality by distancing themselves from those inhabiting old age. If TMT accurately reflects attitudes toward old age in American society…
Armstrong, M.J. (2003). Is being a grandmother being old? Cross-ethnic perspectives from New Zealand. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 18, 185-202.
Atchley, R.C. (1989). A continuity theory of normal aging. Gerontologist, 29(2), 183-90.
Carr, D.C., & Kail, B.L. (2012). The influence of unpaid work on the transition out of full-time paid work. Gerontologist, 53(1), 92-101.
Dal Bianco, C., Trevisan, E., & Weber, G. (2015). "I want to break free." The role of working conditions on retirement expectations and decisions. European Journal of Aging, 12, 17-28.
Jordan has not been honored by naming any street or postal holidays. She was respected and recognized by her own milestones; as she designed modern Harlem with . Buckminster Fuller, had coffee with Malcolm X, received suggestive teachings from Toni Cade Bambara, acted with Angela Davis in a film, and authored an opera with John Adams and Peter Sellars. Irrespective of so much achievements there was no 'Day' named after June Jordan. She was the awarded author of about two dozen books, a great American poet known both for creativity and collections and was one of most critical activists and teachers who have not yet been recognized. This paper is a good testimony to know her better. (June Jordan- www.randomhouse.com)
Jordan is all-inclusive as a poet, essayist, reporter, dramatist, academician, cultural and political activist, however above all she is an inspirational teacher both in words and actions and is considered…
Brown, Kimberly N. (1999) "June Jordan (1936- )." Contemporary African-American Novelists: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook. Ed. Emmanuel S. Nelson. Westport, CT: Greenwood. pp: 233-37.
Busby, Margaret. "June Jordan" June 20, 2002. The Guardian. pp: A4-A5
Carpenter, Humphrey; Prichard, Mari. (1984) "Oxford Companion to Children's Literature" New York: Oxford University Press.
Jackson, Agnes Moreland. "June Jordan (b. 1936)" Retrieved from http://college.hmco.com/english/heath/syllabuild/iguide/jordan.html Accessed on 12 October, 2004
orkers Over 65
Today, many workers who hit retirement age are opting to keep working. Many factors contribute to this fact: economics, changes in retirement age, continuing need for personal achievement, and employers' need and desire to keep older workers on the job. In today's economy, many workers simply cannot afford to retire (Hawthorne, 2003). At the same time, the age for eligibility for Social Security retirement benefits will eventually climb from 62 to 67 with a substantial reduction in benefits for early retirees. This means that many older Americans will spend at least two to five years longer in the workforce or have to change their lifestyle. In addition, many older people simply want to keep working. The world faces a future in which a whole generation is healthy, wealthy and bored. Many will choose to keep working or will go back to work.
The number of workers over…
Armitage-Johnstone, (2002). Tony. Ageism: Look for those with a touch of gray. Call Center. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.call-centre-europe.com/html/49content/ageism.htm .
Block, Sandra. (November 28, 2002). Tax regulations frustrate many workers over age 70. USA Today.
Cohen, A. (January, 2002). Too Old to Work? New York Magazine.
Hawthorne, N. (2003). Two Trends Show Why Diversity Needs to Include Disability. Networks. Retrieved fro the Internet at http://www.esight.org/View.cfm?x=698.
.....inclusion-exclusion important in the workplace? What is the distinction between the inclusion-exclusion concept and organizational involvement?
The concept of inclusion-exclusion in the workplace takes into account the feeling of a person being a part of the organizational system with respect to the formal aspects such as making decision and gaining access to information as well as informal aspects such as coffee meetings (Mead et al., 2011). This concept is imperative to the workplace as one of the most important issues experienced by the diverse workforce in contemporary times is 'exclusion'. This is an actuality faced by several personnel and a view held by even more personnel that they are not deemed by the executive managers to be an integral part of the company. The distinction between the inclusion-exclusion concept, and organizational involvement is that the emphasis placed on organizational involvement is on organizational practices that nurture the development of policies…
Women with Mental IllnessPart 2: Context for PracticeThe inequalities experienced by women with mental illness have been shaped by forms of oppression, such as moral exclusion (social stigmatization and marginalization) and cultural imperialism (gendered norms that do not allow women to seek help for mental illness). Moral exclusion occurs when a person is made to feel inferior to or separate from others. This happens with women experiencing mental illness because society condemns them as weak and imperfect (Boysen & Logan, 2017). In general there is a stigma of seeking help for mental health because there is too little understanding about what mental illness is, its prevalence, and why it is important to view it with understanding (Lopez, Sanchez, Killian & Eghaneyan, 2018). For women there is the idea that if they have mental illness, they are not in control of themselves and may act out in a way that harms…
ReferencesAl-Rousan, T., Rubenstein, L., Sieleni, B., Deol, H., & Wallace, R. B. (2017). Inside the nations largest mental health institution: A prevalence study in a state prison system.BMC public health,17(1), 1-9.Boysen, G. A., & Logan, M. (2017). Gender and mental illness stigma: The relative impact of stereotypical masculinity and gender atypicality.Stigma and Health,2(2), 83.Kam, P. K. (2021). From the Strengths Perspective to an EmpowermentParticipationStrengths Model in Social Work Practice.The British Journal of Social Work.Lopez, V., Sanchez, K., Killian, M. O., & Eghaneyan, B. H. (2018). Depression screening and education: an examination of mental health literacy and stigma in a sample of Hispanic women.BMC Public Health,18(1), 1-8.Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation.Psychological Review,50(4), 370.Nyahunda, L. (2021). Social work empowerment model for mainstreaming the participation of rural women in the climate change discourse.Journal of Human Rights and Social Work, 1-10.Rowe, R., Andrews, E., Harris, P. R., Armitage, C. J., McKenna, F. P., & Norman, P. (2016). Identifying beliefs underlying pre-drivers intentions to take risks: An application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour.Accident Analysis & Prevention,89, 49-56.Shooshtari, S., Abedi, M. R., Bahrami, M., & Samouei, R. (2018). Empowerment of women and mental health improvement with a preventive approach.Journal of education and health promotion,7.Taylor, D., & Richards, D. (2019). Triple jeopardy: Complexities of racism, sexism, and ageism on the experiences of mental health stigma among young Canadian Black Women of Caribbean descent.Frontiers in Sociology,4, 43.Tseris, E. (2019). Social work and womens mental health: Does trauma theory provide a useful framework?.The British Journal of Social Work,49(3), 686-703.
S. were "proficient in reading and math," Pytel explains. These statistics "loudly states that students entering high school" are simply not prepared, Pytel goes on. Moreover, U.S. students do not fare well on the international educational stage. At a time when globalization has brought much closer linkage between cultures, economies, and countries, American school children are lagging behind. The justification for focusing on strategies to keep children interested in school -- and to help them succeed in school -- is to be found in the fact that U.S. students' average scores are very poor in comparison to other students internationally.
To wit, according to the 2003 data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) (in cooperation with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD), 15-year-old American students rank 24th out of 38 countries in science. U.S. students rank 12th of 38 countries in reading, and 26th of 38…
American School Counselor Association. (2010). Why Middle School Counselors. Retrieved January 20, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=231 .
Barlow, Sally H., Fuhriman, Addie J., and Burlingame, Gary M. (2004). The History of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy. In J.L. DeLucia-Waack (Ed), Handbook of Group
Counseling and Psychotherapy (pp. 4-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Effective diversity management, on the other hand, provides a means more than just the elimination of potential sources of revenue loss; it means actually increasing revenue through customer satisfaction that is known to generate increased patronage and brand loyalty (ussell-Whalling, 2008), especially in the restaurant services industry.
Organizational Dynamics and the ole of Managers in the etail Services Industry
The highly competitive nature of modern retail restaurant services makes traditional supervisory and management practices comparatively ineffective, especially in areas outside of direct operational dynamics. Traditional supervisor-subordinate relationships are sufficient to provide training in mechanical procedures and operations; they are comparatively ineffective at cultivating a commitment to becoming part of an organizational culture (George & Jones, 2008).
Especially with respect to inexperienced, part-time, non-career, and seasonal employees, it is preferable for organizational leaders (Bennis, 2009) and managers (Lencioni, 2009) to develop a more personal connection to their staff members. In fact,…
Armenakis a, Field H, and Harris S. "Making Change Permanent: A Model for Institutionalizing Change Interventions." Research in Organizational Change and Development. Vol. 12, (1999). Stanford: JAI Press.
Bennis W. "Acting the Part of a Leader." Business Week; September 14, 2009.
George JM. And Jones GR. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
In a study of the prevalence of elder abuse in the United States, financial difficulties on the part of the abuser did appear to be an important risk factor (Krug, 2002, pp. 130-131).
elationship factors - in the early theoretical models, the level of stress of caregivers was seen as a risk factor that linked elder abuse with care of an elderly relative. While the accepted image of abuse depicts a dependent victim and an overstressed caregiver, there is growing evidence that neither of these factors properly accounts for cases of abuse. Although researchers do not deny the component of stress, they tend now to look at it in a wider context in which the quality of the overall relationship is a causal factor. Today, the belief is that stress may be a contributing factor in cases of abuse but does not by itself account for the entire phenomenon.
Brandl, Bonnie. (2000). Power and Control: Understanding Domestic Abuse in Later Life.
Generations. 24(2), p. 39-45.
Elder Abuse and Neglect. (2009). Retrieved February 11, 2010, from Helpguide.org Web site:
ver the past decade, 'culture' has become a common term used when thinking about and describing an organization's internal world, a way of differentiating one organization's personality from another. In fact, many researchers contend that an organization's culture socializes people (Stein, 1985) and that leadership styles are an integral part of the culture of an organization. A culture-specific perspective reflects the view that the occurrence and the effectiveness of certain leadership behaviors (as well as constructs) is likely to be unique to a given culture.
In contrast, leaders in the culture-universal position contend that certain leadership constructs are comparable across cultures and that many universal leadership behaviors do exist. nly recently, based on the review by Bass (House, 1998), has the leadership research community begun to realize that universal and culture-specific leadership behaviors and constructs are not mutually exclusive categories, but can rather coexist in a single culture at the…
On the other hand, transactional leaders work with the existing rules, norms and procedures of the organization's culture, and reward followers for positive work, and also work to maintain the existing culture (Bass, 1985). The transactional leaders base their decision-making and actions on existing norms, values, and procedures (Bass, 1985). Transactional leaders, on the other hand, can deter organizational success and leadership effectiveness (Bass, 1985).
Leadership style has received a great deal of attention from human resource development researchers (HRD) in the past years (Woodwall, 2000). Some studies will be focused on building a HRD knowledge base in countries where this is low or inexistent (Kuchinke, 1999), whereas others try to identify the compatibility between different leadership styles and the national cultural characteristics. Ardichvili and Kuchinke (2002) used Hofstede's cultural dimensions and the extensive theory developed by Bass and Avolio to determine the leadership styles that are more likely to be correlated to different cultural characteristics in former USSR countries, Germany and the United States.
The results suggested that leadership development based on national dimensions as described by Hofstede should be considered with caution because countries with similar cultural features and geographical proximity may display different leadership styles. Further
Estimated Age of Employee
equested Alternative Benefit epresentative -- Yes/No
equested Alternative Benefit epresentative -- Yes/No
Figure 1. Number of employees requesting alternative benefit representative.
The results of the experiment failed to demonstrate any significant or conclusive findings concerning the hypothesis that age would have an adverse effect on the perception of the credibility of the younger benefit representatives for a variety…
"Engage Employees as Consumers in Benefits Enrollment." (2007). Managing Benefits Plans,
Little, a.C. & Perrett, D.I. (2007). Using Composite Images to Assess Accuracy in Personality
Attribution to Faces. British Journal of Psychology, 98, 111-126.
Another expample, as Dahlin (2007) notes, WorldCom was in the heart of one of the largest accounting scandals in history. Add to this the Wal-Mart effect of business in general, with companies having to compete with Wal-Mart's low costs, made possible partially due to their low wages, failure to pay overtime, nonexistent benefits, and resistance to unionization, and a ripple effect has been cast on the waters, causing other companies to follow suit, in an effort to be competitive.
Changing Society Equals a Changing Demand for Corporate Social esponsibility:
Today's changing society has increased the demand for corporate social responsibility. The decades of ethical abuse, coupled with the recent financial soul shattering scandals, has called for businesses to renew their social contract with society (Basu & Palazzo, 2008). Society now demands that corporations take responsibility for their interactions with the world.
A generation ago, most people didn't think tobacco was…
Basu, K. & Palazzo, G. Jan 2008, "Corporate social responsibility: A process model of sensemaking," Academy of Management Review vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 122-136.
Daboub, a. & Calton, J. Dec 2002, "Stakeholder learning dialogues: How to preserve ethical responsibility in networks," Journal of Business Ethics vol. 41, no. 1/2, pp. 85-98.
Dahlin, L. 2007, "Where have all the ethics gone? Business ethics and corporate social responsibility through the years," Proceedings of the Northeast Business & Economics Association pp. 360-366.
Porter, M. & Kramer, M. Dec 2006, "Strategy & society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility," Harvard Business Review vol. 84, no. 12, pp. 78-92.
Pastoral Counseling Spiritual Exercises
A daily spiritual routine
It is often said that the most important part of life is just 'showing up.' 'Showing up' to one's spiritual life is a vital part of religious practice. When the worldly aspects of one's existence, such as jobs and children, draw one's focus away from spirituality, it is easy to think that there is not enough time to pray and reflect. However, it is during these difficult times that it is all the more important that one has a spiritual connection to od. Taking time in the morning before the cares of the day intrude to reflect with a clear mind can be a valuable and cleansing practice. Just as we take time to 'work out' in the morning, we must also take time to work out the kinks in our soul, and press our reset button before beginning the day. For…
Gard, & Sara W. Lazar. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging, 191 (1) 36-43.
Ferguson, Jane K., Eleanor W. Willemsen & MayLynn V. Castaneto. (2011). Centering prayer as a healing response to everyday stress: A psychological and spiritual process. Pastoral Psychology. 59 (3): 305-329.
Grefe, Dagmar. (2011). Combating ageism with narrative and intergroup contact: Possibilities of Intergenerational connections Pastoral Psychology, 60 (1). 99 -- 105.
In fact the aims of theosophy when it was founded was to "form the nucleus of a Universal Brotherhood of Humanity without distinction of race, creed, or color," and also "to promote the study of Aryan and other Eastern literature, religions, and sciences," and also "to investigate the hidden mysteries of nature." (Prothero 197). New Human Potential Movement members have written books but none have penned a book that is recognized as a sacred text or as a key piece of religious dogma.
As an eclectic faith, the New Human Potential Movement has a less rigid code of ethics than most other religions do. Like ceremonial magickal traditions, moral relativism and ambiguity is tolerated. However, there are a few beliefs that are cohesive enough for scholars to define the New Human Potential Movement as a religion rather than as a cult or a simple offshoot of New Ageism. One of…
Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In Religion, Science, and Magic: In Concert and Conflict. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.
Neusner, Jacob. "Introduction." In World Religions in America. 4th Edition. Westminster John Knox, 2009.
Prothero, Stephen. "From Spiritualism to Theosophy: 'Uplifting a Democratic Tradition." Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation
Vol. 3, No. 2 (Summer, 1993), pp. 197-216.
The major problem that exists in this scenario is a difference of opinion regarding the appropriate level of managerial control over employees' hours and work schedules, with Accord feeling that the need to repeatedly take time off in order to care for one's aging parents needs to be more carefully managed and controlled, while Munger (and others) feel that there should be a great deal of flexibility and employee determination when it comes to these issues. This centra problem has been clouded by accusations of ageism on one hand and a lack of principled work ethic or efficiency on the other, neither of which are elements that can be proven as motives for any of the individuals involved. These problems create a major opportunity for the clarification and codification of policies regarding time taken to care for ageing relatives and general efficiency and scheduling issues.
Task B1: Generic…
Blockbuster. (2011). Benefits. Accessed 7 May 2011. http://www.blockbuster.com/corporate/careers/benefits
Glass Door. (2011). Blockbuster reviews. Accessed 7 May 2011. http://www.glassdoor.com/Reviews/Blockbuster-Reviews-E101.htm
Home Depot. (2011). Life Events: Leave of Absence. Accessed 7 May 2011. http://corporate.homedepot.com/wps/portal/!ut/p/c0/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3gDdwNHH0tDU1M3g1APR0P3UHNjAwjQL8h2VAQA3nR_Pw!!/
Employers Group. (2011). Worker Fired for Alcohol Use Lacks FMLA, ADA Claims. Accessed 7 May 2011. http://www.employersgroup.com/Content.aspx?id=1303
Some feminists argue that all pornography is bad for women because it is degrading to women (Peterson, 1998). The "victims" need protection, they claim, which, ironically, they say comes in the form of laws restricting what women legally can and cannot do with their own bodies.
While it can be argued that pornography reinforces negative male attitudes towards women in society and it increases the incidence of sex crimes, these are unfair claims (Peterson, 1998). While men may bring deep-rooted attitdevelop negative attitudes towards women. Even if pornography were banned, negative attitudes towards women would not disappear. In addition, there is little evidence to suggest that widespread distribution and use of soft-core pornography increases numbers of sex crimes.
In addition, it is important to note that many men who support feminism and women's rights enjoy pornography (Peterson, 1998). In addition, many successful heterosexual couples in committed relationships use soft-core pornography…
Feigelman, Bill. Young, Jim. (2003). Sociology: Fourth Edition. Chapter 11: Race and Ethnicity.W.W. Norton.
Kent, Raymond. (2004). What is Social Work? The Occupational Outlook Handbook. Retrieved from the Internet at http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ocos060.htm .
Peterson, Patricia. (August 14, 1998). Pornography's legitimate place in society. Courier Mail.
Wikipedia. (2004). Feminism. Retrieved from the Internet at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feminism .
Reward motivates a particular action and discourages another and this observation appears to be applicable across all ages. Growing evidence, however, reveals that older adults could be less influenced by the consequences of their behavior than younger ones and suggests that reward has greater appeal to younger adults than to older adults. Related literature supported the view that older adults were less susceptible to motivation, such as financial gain, and that simple payoffs failed to elicit response from them (Sanford 1978 as qtd in Tripp). While young adults would be influenced by financial or social rewards, older people would prefer the acquisition of skill or learning.
The study was based on the responses of 31 younger adults and 31 older adults (Tripp 1999). The findings indicated that the reduced interest in reward was a direct consequence of the aging process (McCarthy 1991 as qtd in Tripp), and age-related changes in…
Chasteen, a.L. (1999).The Effect of Age-Related Stereotypes on Response Initiation and Execution. Journal of General Psychology: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2405/is_1_126/ai_54826718
Chatterie, P. (2001). Adolescence and Old Age. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare: Western Michigan University School of Social Work. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0CYZ/is_4_28/ai_83530634
Cherry, KE. (1999). Age-Related Differences in Spatial Memory. Journal of General Psychology: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3848/is_199906/ai_n8871495
Fingerman, KL. And Permutter, M.(1995). Future Time Perspective and Life Events Across Adulthood. Journal of General Psychology, Health and Fitness: Heldref Publications. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2405/is_n1_v122/ai_16999626
Many adult readers disagree with the portrayed unreality of Dahl's books because in life everything is not fair, and good does not always win. Even when the hero of the Witches is permanently turned into a mouse, the reader is assured by the main character that, "I honestly don't feel especially bad about it. I don't even feel angry. In fact, I feel rather good" This lack of remorse is typical of Dahl's stories.
Similarly, many do not like Dahl's concept that virtue and poverty go together, such as with Miss Honey, Matilda's adored teacher. Some find this objectionable because it is a view consistent with Marxist philosophy, not one that supports free market capitalism.
Further criticism arises from Dahl's portrayal of adults, which many believe has a negative impact on the young readers. Throughout his work, authoritarian adults are often the victims of horrible revenge. However, what some find…
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory
Charlie and the Great Glass Elevator
Diversity Issues for Lesbian, Homosexual and isexual People
The 21st Century has brought us new and greater understanding of issues surrounding diversity as it pertains to lesbian and bisexual issues. In the past it was assumed that homosexuality represented a deviant manifestation of some form of mental illness. It was not until the late 1950s (Hooker, 1957) that this idea began to be questioned as an absolute and the lifestyle brought into closer study. It is to be the purpose of this paper to review issues surrounding the homosexual, lesbian and bisexual lifestyle, to identify the general nature of the lifestyle as it exists today and to examine the state of diversity issues as they pertain to this group.
As previously mentioned, for many years homosexuality and lesbianism, as well as bisexuality were classified as mental illness. Evelyn Hooker (1957) was one of the first to do in depth…
Chan, C. (1992). Asian-American lesbians and gay men. In S. Dworkin and F. Gutierrez (Eds.), Counseling gay men and lesbians: Journey to the end of the rainbow (pp. 115-124). Alexandria, VA: American Association for Counseling and Development.
Chan, C. (1995). Issues of sexual identity in an ethnic minority: The case of Chinese-American lesbians, gay men, and bisexual people. In A. DiAugelli & C. Patterson (Eds.), Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities over the life span (pp. 87-101). New York: Oxford University Press.
Fox, R. (1996). Bisexuality in perspective: A review of theory and research. In B. Firestein (Ed.), Bisexuality: The psychology and politics of an invisible minority (pp. 3-50). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Frost, J. (1997). Group psychotherapy with the gay male: Treatment of choice. Group, 21(3), 267-285.
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…
Due to skills and abilities
4. Based on what you know and believe, would you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Racism in America is no longer a problem for Chinese-Americans.
Racism in America is no longer a problem for women and minorities
Many researchers have conducted studies on many aspects of m-commerce and the use of mobile technology by consumers. deuyter, Kleijnen, & Wetzels (2006) stated, "M-commerce has been heralded repeatedly as the new service frontier of the millennium. Present market reality, however, seems to be less optimistic, therefore, the current study explores the factors contributing to the adoption of mobile services in a context of wireless finance" (p. 206).
Organization of the Study
Chapter two will consist of the literature review of published works and research studies on the subject of mobile commerce. There are many points-of-view and definitions of m-commerce and this chapter will attempt to examine the data as it relates to what is also referred to wireless e-commerce.
Chapter three through chapter five will substantiate and provide the details of the research methodology utilized for collecting the data. The collected data will be used to answer the research…
Amin, H., Hamid, M., Lada, S. & Tanakinjal, G. (2006). Undergraduate attitudes and expectations for mobile banking [Electronic Version]. Journal of Internet Banking & Commerce, 11(3), 7-7.
Bhatti, T. (2007). Exploring factors influencing the adoption of mobile commerce [Electronic Version]. Journal of Internet Banking & Commerce, 12(3), 1-13.
Birch, D.G.W. (2007). Near-field is nearly here [Electronic Version]. Journal of Telecommunications Management, 1(1), 55-68.
Brown, L. (n.d.). Observational Field Research. Retrieved January 24, 2009 from, http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Brown/lauratp.htm
It is significant to note that this story was initially published during the 1970's, which was a period of relative rest and calm following the justifiable turbulence of the 1960's. Due to this publication date, this story does not reflect the current generation, but that of at least one before it. It is interesting to consider the fact that this story was not published prior to the 1970's because many of the notions and stereotypes it challenged were still too dominant during previous periods. As such, this book is able to deliver readers an unflinching perspective about what life is like for someone who is different, and teased as a result. Readers are able to ascertain just what exactly other people have to go through when they are teased. There are some touchingly poignant moments in this tale related to Oliver's differences that unequivocally reveal what life is like for…
dePaola, Tomie. Oliver Button is a Sissy. New York: Harcourt Books. 1979. Print.
Kennedy, Elizabeth. "Oliver Button is a Sissy: Overcoming Bullying." About.com. no date. Web. http://childrensbooks.about.com/od/picturebooks/fr/oliver.htm
Affirmative Action has been an issue of great debate and controversy since its establishment. Because of the very fact that such legislation was deemed needed is indicative of the mass inequality existing in a country that was formed on the basis of the individual liberties and justice. Affirmative Action is a legal and social response to help eliminate the historical and social inequities of minorities and women and America. The deployment of a social progress regime enforced by law reminds us as a society, how grossly impaired we are in upholding and actualizing the virtue that "all men (and women) are created equal." Critics of Affirmative Action are many; dismantling Affirmative Action is of continued debate. This paper will discuss why some criticize Affirmative Action and well as an advantage and a disadvantage of eliminating the legislation.
Criticisms of Affirmative Action
The largest and most frequent criticism of Affirmative Action…
Arguments For and Against Affirmative Action - StateUniversity.com Blog. Online University Degree Search - U.S. University Directory - State Universities and College Rankings. Retrieved February 11, 2012, from http://www.stateuniversity.com/blog/permalink/Affirmative-Action-Arguments-For-and-Against.html
A. Whiteness. (n.d.). Myth: Affirmative Action is Justified Only Under a Perpetrator-Victim Model. autoredirect to main site. Retrieved February 11, 2012, from http://academic.udayton.edu/race/04needs/affirm15c.htm
THE ISSUE OF ACCIDENTAL FALLS
At some point, anyone who had learned how to walk has had the experience of falling down -- it is a universal experience for infants as they gain ambulatory ability. In hospitals, however, the accidental fall is the most reported type of patient safety incident, with elderly patient populations displaying a particular vulnerability (Oliver 2007, p.173). Approximately one-third of adults over the age of sixty-five will experience an accidental fall this year (CDC 2012, n.p.) Fischer (2005) offers some clarification as to how these incidents should be defined -- the simplest basic definition is "a sudden, uncontrolled, unintentional, downward displacement of the body to the ground or other object" (p822). This definition takes into account the unpredictable nature of the incident, and the fact that it frequently involves a certain loss of control on the part of the patient; it also reminds us that…
CDC (2012). Adult falls. Web. Accessed at: http:/ / www.cdc.gov/HomeandRecreationalSafety/Falls/adultfalls.htm
Currie, LM. (2006). Fall and injury prevention. Annual Review of Nursing Research. 24(1):39-74.
Fischer ID; Krauss MJ; Dunagan WC et al. (2005). Patterns and predictors of inpatient falls and fall-related injuries in a large academic hospital. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 26(10):822-7.
Grubel, F. (1959) Falls: A principal patient incident. Hosp Manage. 88:37-8.
Welty's story is the suaveness of an elderly woman. Often stereotyped as helpless, foolish, or dim-witted, the woman in Welty's tale makes us look beyond stereotypes to see the person underneath. The topic of this essay, therefore, is that externals -- in this case, elderliness -- can be misleading. People should learn to look beyond in order not to fall into the error of stereotyping.
The story starts off by describing the woman's plodding style, reminiscent of a religious pilgrimage (Saunders, 1992). We are brought into our customary ways of feeling impatience for the woman and of viewing her as someone who needs our help rather than as someone who can help herself. Welty, therefore, deliberately prolongs and elaborates on the description using character and setting as aids (Clugston, 2010; Pollack, 1997) to portray the woman.
Use of character for instance includes the following:
She wore a dark striped dress…
Welty, E. A Worn Path. The Atlantic Monthly | Feburary 1941
Clugston, R.W. (2010). Journey into literature. San Diego, California: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Pollack, H. (1997). Photographic convention and story composition: Eudora Welty's use of detail, plot, genre, and expectation from "A Worn Path" through "The Bride of the Innisfallen." South Central Review, 14(2), 15-34. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/
One issue at hand as it relates to counselor bias and how to avoid it is that not all racial, ethnic and other social traits are easily detectable. Not all disabilities, as another example, are not obvious to the naked eye. Even ethnic/national origin traits are not something that a person can simply observe. Black people, just as one example, could be born and raised in the United States but they could just as easily be from Britain or Haiti. White people can easily be from Europe, the United States, Canada, Australia or even parts of South America (Hays, 1996).
Where this detection can be an issue is that some patients do not readily or easily self-identify the traits that are related to the aggravating issues or conditions in their life. As such, the counselor must build a rapport with the client and make it clear that they have to…
The other main speed bump is that many people will manifest more than one factor at the same time. Two good examples of this would be a gay black man or an older Hispanic. Both of these examples are of people that could very well be facing more than one bias or other challenge relating to their sexual, social and racial traits. The problem inherent to such a happenstance is that there is probably a "weighting" as to what is more prominent and/or problematic. For example, the gay black man may be fine from a racial standpoint but may endure a lot of homophobia, or it could very well be the opposite or even both at once (Hays, 1996).
The author of this paper would generally agree with the main point of the report, but it is perhaps a bridge too far. The author does not minimize the fact that different races, ages, etc. mean different personality traits and belief structures but to carelessly assume things about people based on race is a very bad idea. If interpreted wrongly, this report would seem to condone or even encourage stereotyping in a very implicit way. The words about catering to a person's culture and identity is good enough, but counselors need to be careful about making brash or even obtuse assumptions about people based on racial traits, gender and so forth. Other than that, Ms. Hays offered a very good point to her paper and the research she offered seems to back her up. The report was easy to follow and there was a common-sense structure to the report. It was not too brief but it also was not too long either. This report was more deductive rather than inductive because Ms. Hays relied heavily on prior studies on the subject rather than making just her own observations and conclusions
Living Environment Options
Guide: Variables Having an Impact on the Options of Individuals with egard to Living Environments
Older adults require supportive and enabling environments. In addition to being safe and empowering, the said environments must also help in the elimination of ageism. It should be noted that in a way, the well-being of older adults is affected by their immediate living environments (Healy and Link, 2011). In this guide, a living environment will be used as a generic term indicating not only the physical place of residence but also the existing support networks in place.
Insurance and Financial esources
To begin with, it is important to note that insurance does have a significant impact on the choice of living environments. For instance, while some health insurance programs cover most of the costs incurred in an assisted living facility, some plans do not have such provisions. As Wallace (2007) points…
Cress, C.J. (2007). Handbook of Geriatric Care Management (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Healy, L.M. & Link, R.J. (2011). Handbook of International Social Work: Human Rights, Development, and the Global Profession. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, T.F. (Ed.). (1999). Handbook on Ethical Issues in Aging. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Rosenfeld, J.A. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of Women's Health (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
interview was to learn the life of Mr. Mike obinson, my 65-year-old retired neighbor from the town next to me, in Sudbury. I selected this person because it will allow me to understand some of the core issues related to aging. My interactions with Mike obinson before this interview were cordial and I believed that his example might shed light on some of the theories of aging we are covering in class. I believe that he is a good example of how aging theories can be applied to help people, because Mr. obinson is aging in a way that is healthy due to his strong social support system and positive attitude on life.
Within this report, I intend to learn about his life conditions as well suggest and inform ways to improve the person's life. After interviewing Mr. obinson on two different occasions, I gained some knowledge on how he…
Dowd, J.J. (1975). Aging as exchange. Journal of Gerontology 30(5): 584-594
Havighurst, R.J. (1961). Successful aging. The Gerontologist 1(1961): 8-13.
The Health Authority (2010).
Miller, S.M. & Barrow, G.M (2010). Aging, the Individual, and Society. Cengage.
Toulmin Model argument in response to one of the following prompts:
• What specific action(s) should Christians take regarding the environment and its preservation or restoration?
Active in 15 countries, "Target Earth" is a group of individuals, churches, college fellowship and various ministries that are Christian protectors for everything that God created. The group feeds the hungry, saves endangered animals, rebuilds forests, and serves as active voice for environmental concerns. The groups mission is "erving the Earth, erving the Poor," which defines their connection of Christianity to environmentalism as they see it (Target Earth.com).
The news media is full of warnings that deal with environmental issues of one kind or the other be it global warming, endangered species, extinction of the rain forest, pollution, nuclear accidents, and so forth. The Christian community seems to apply less attention to these issues than they do to others. It may be because we…
Beisner, E. Calvin. (1990) Prospects for Growth: a Biblical View of Population, Resources, and the Future. Westchester, Ill.: Crossway Books,.
DeWitt, Calvin B., Ed. (1991) The Environment and the Christian: What Can We Learn from the New Testament? Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House,.
Target Earth http://christianteens.about.com/gi/o.htm?zi=1/XJ&zTi=1&sdn=christianteens&cdn=religion&tm=294&f=20&tt=3&bt=0&bts=0&zu=http%3A//www.targetearth.org/
Yahoo Voices, Simple Steps to Help the Environment
status and class and how class uses words to prioritize themselves. The world as we perceive it -- or our reality -- is run according to symbols. It is symbols -- or words - that define that which is socially approved of and also symbols -- and words that peg individuals and groups in particular positions.
Bordeaux argues that the powerful elite have categorized substances, pegged certain values to them, made them correspond with particular symbols and then attached these symbols to certain class structures. These defining words are also grouped in terms of polarities and, so for instance, you have one item that may denote a positive sense whilst it's opposite condemns. These class structures also vary from generation to generation and from country to country. So for instance, a olls oyce is actually a vehicle as amongst any other, but the elite (a certain class) attached a certain…
Jean-Paul Sartre mythosandlogos.com/Sartre.html
Nursing Roles for the Elderly
Nursing professionals play a number of valuable and important roles for members of society. They act as reliable sources of information regarding health issues. They also act as educators and counselors to help patients adjust to changes in their health, treatment and lifestyle. Most importantly, nurses act as caregivers who look after the physical, psychological as well as emotional well-being of their patients. Some of these roles become more essential and pronounced for elderly patients because of their distinct needs as opposed to those experienced by other patient groups.
Nurses as Caregivers for the Elderly
The most important role of nursing professionals is that of a caregiver or care provider. Nurses provide care to patients at the hospital as well as at home in the capacity of private nurses. They help patients in the administering of medical treatment and in following the lifestyle changes recommended…
Aging & Health Technologies
Theoretical perspectives on aging seem to suggest that people are either almost completely controlled by the social and normative expectations of being elderly, or that they are motivated by their own cycles of goals, outcomes and expectations. The phenomenological perspective of aging is an example of the first of these viewpoints. The life-span developmental models the second.
This piece seeks to review these two theoretical perspectives in regard to the newly emerging issue of the influence of technology on the health of aging people. It seeks to look first at the theoretical understandings. Then I provide an assessment of how different types of articles on the topic. Some tend to favor one (the phenomenological perspective) in that they often assume that older people are a unified group that basically acts with technology only in regard to serious health and care considerations. Other scientific and advocacy materials,…
Brown, C. And Lowis, M. (2003). "Psychosocial development in the elderly: An investigation into Erikson's ninth stage." Journal of Aging Studies. Vol. 17. 415-426.
Heckhausen, J., Wrosch, C. And Schulz, R. (2010). "A motivational theory of life-span development." Psychological Review. Vol. 117, No. 1. 32-60. DOI: 10.1037/a0017668.
Hough, M.G. (n.d.). "Exploring elder consumers' interactions with information technology." Journal of Business & Economics Research, Vol. 2, No. 6.
Intel (2008). "Technology for an aging population: Intel's Global Research Initiative." Viewable at http://www.intel.com/Assets/PDF/general/health-318883001.pdf .
Thomas (1997) presents and interesting, but somewhat flawed, qualitative study of disablism as it applies to attitudes towards mothers or soon to be mothers with disabilities. Thomas draws on data from in-depth interviews with 17 disabled mothers or disabled to be mothers. She makes her presentation and describes the manifestation of disablism applied to these women in terms of three themes that she admittedly subjectively chose: (1) the struggles, both personal and those placed on them from others regarding the risk of giving birth to children that may suffer disabilities themselves due to the medications the mothers take or due to genetic deformities; (2) doubts from others about their being able to adequately parent their children given their disability (the good mother theme); and (3) the experience of receiving unwanted help and from others due to their disabilities (fueled by the perception of their being inadequate mothers). The problem here…
Bassey, M. (1981). Pedagogic research: on the relative merits of search for generalisation and study of single events. Oxford Review of Education, 7, 73-93.
Thomas, C. (1997). The baby and the bath water: Disabled women and motherhood in social context. Sociology of Health & Illness, 19 (5), 622-643.
Yin, R.K. (1994) Case study research: design and methods (2nd Edition). Thousand Oaks: Sage.
It is alleged that COSCO is not fair to female employees in promotional opportunities. Is this correct? Is this not correct? And why?
In the culture wars between retailers, Costco always seems to come out ahead of Wal-Mart and Sam's Club. No one boycotts Costco because of their labor practices or because they are unfair to manufacuters, but is this the end of the story? Some women have alleged that Costco, like Wal-Mart, is not fair to female employees and doesn't offer promotional opportunities to them. In fact, a class action suit has been filed which states that from 2002-2007 a "glass ceiling" existed at Costco that limited female employees' pay and promotions. he case is still awaiting adjudication by the courts. According to the text book, women make up nearly half of Costco's workforce, but only 13% of store managers are women. By way of explanation, the…
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was landmark legislation in the United States that outlaws major forms of discrimination against blacks and women. The law affected segregation, voting requirements, and segregation and discrimination in the workplace. Ten amendments, or Titles, have been added to the Act since 1964. Title VII is especially important for employment law as is prohibits discrimination by employers on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or pregnancy. What seems to be missing in this day and age are specific protections for gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered people. Perhaps an addition to the Civil Rights Act could be the catalyst for other legal changes, like the legalization of gay marriage. The Act could also be used to prevent discrimination in adoption and could be used to aid gay and lesbian parents in custody battles and other family matters that require legal intervention. Most relevant here is what the Civil Rights Act could provide in the way of employment law, preventing discrimination in the workplace.
Employment discrimination in the United States is usually adjudicated under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The text outlines several suits recently involving large Wall Street firms having to pay millions of dollars for being biased against women. The Act, however, is in no way complete and could use some significant improvements. Many states have enacted provisions for family leave legislation, but the federal level has not caught up. This would be a huge enhancement of the Civil Rights act and would extend protection to all U.S. employees. The Act could also be enhanced by providing for a national minimum wage that actually enables people to survive on minimum wage without living in poverty. The Act should also include provisions that protect gays and lesbians against employment discrimination and grant them other protections -- in the areas of housing, marriage, family law, etc. A new issue that could be covered by the act is ageism, since many Americans will have to work long into their 60s
Student Taining in Aged Cae
What Factos in Students Taining Enhance Retention
Post Placement in the Aged Cae Secto?
What Factos in Students Taining Enhance Retention
Post Placement in the Aged Cae Secto?
Thanks to medical eseach, bette povision of medical assistance and inceased lifestyle options, individuals ae living longe and in bette health than pevious geneations; howeve, the Austalian population continues to age, lagely due to deceasing bith ates and inceased life expectancy. Not supisingly, this will have an impact on the health cae system. Specifically, the aged cae secto of healthcae equies committed and competent wokes to meet wokplace needs. Unfotunately, Fagebeg & Ekman's (1997) study (as cited in Abbey et al., 2006) shows that the numbe of nusing gaduates willing to assume employment in the aged cae secto is alamingly low. Fo one o moe easons, it appeas that many students ae eithe unwilling to ente this…
references after a gerontology curriculum. Educational Gerontology. 21(3), 247-260.
Australian Department of Health and Ageing. (2002). Recruitment and Retention of Nurses in Residential Aged Care. Final Report. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing.
Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
De la Rue, M. (2003). Preventing ageism in nursing students: An action theory approach. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20(4), 8-14.
Fagerberg, I. & Ekman, S. (1997). First-year Swedish nursing students' experiences with elderly patients. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 19(2), 177-189.
Cohousing: A Model for Australia
The roots of cohousing can be traced in Denmark in the early 1960s, expanding independently and simultaneously in Holland and Sweden where it grew into an established housing model. This term is a direct translation of a Dutch word meaning living together. In the model of cohousing, residents of a community rent or own their own homes while at the same time, share the ownership of communal space and the common house that hosts community activities. The level at which members participate in activities is voluntary although the model encourages community participation. The different income resource enables household preservation and autonomy of privacy within the community (Cooper-Marcus, 2010).
In the cohousing model, common houses make the heart of the community and members share meals sometimes as a means of bringing the community together. The financial contribution of residents of at least fifteen percent of their…
Cooper-Marcus, C. (2010). Site Planning, Building Design and a Sense of Community: An Analysis of Six Cohousing Schemes in Denmark, Sweden, and The Netherlands. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research 17 (Summer 2000)
Durrett, C, (2005). Senior Cohousing: A Community Approach to Independent Living. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, California.
McCamant, K. & Charles, D. (1994). Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves, rev. ed. Ten Speed Press:Berkeley, California.
Aging is an inevitable process, but responses to the aging process vary from generation to generation, culture to culture, and person to person. Factors like gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic class have an impact on attitudes toward aging. Beliefs and attitudes toward aging and towards older people also vary. The status of elder adults in the family, community, and society also varies. It is important to understand the evolution of age-based social roles and attitudes towards aging because all people encounter seniors, care for seniors, and most likely become old too. Because the Baby Boomer generation is reaching senior age status, issues related to gerontology are becoming especially salient for the health care professional.
Unfortunately, there are several disturbing trends in how old people and aging are viewed. The status of elders is generally low, leading to problems in senior physical and mental health. Treatment of seniors varies widely, with some…
"Chapter One: The Field of Social Gerontology."
media and companies argue for or against the causes and treatments of baldness those that are bald must learn to accept themselves despite societies harsh perceptions of them. This is not an easy task in a society that measures so much by the idea of physical perfection as it is seen on billboards, in movies, and on the pages of magazines. Those who suffer from hair loss must not only deal with the fact that they are losing something but they must also deal with how they are perceived in all aspects of our society.
Everyday a company or members of the media are conducting surveys and studies on various hair treatment solutions and how people perceive bald men. Study after study show that bald men are perceived as being weaker, less likable, and over all not as good as someone who has hair. Many believe that worrying about hair…
Within this section of Chapter One, a historical perspective of NHS will be provided. This discussion will identify problem areas that have emerged in relation to NHS with an attempt made to address the manner in which such problems have historically influenced reform efforts.
With the passage and associated provisions of the NHS Act of 1946, NHS was implemented in the UK in 1948. The NHS Act of 1946 served as the means by which a pattern of health service finance and provision was established in the UK following World War II (Baggot, 1998). According to Baggot, on the basis of the Act, the principle of collective responsibility by the state for the establishment of a comprehensive health service system was introduced, allowing for the planned use of services by the entire population at no cost. It was also intended that equality of access to services would be…
Baggott, R. (1998). Health and Health Care in Britain. London, Macmillan,
Barlow, M. (1998). The Fight of My Life. Toronto: Harper Collins
BMA Central Consultants and Specialists Committee (1990). Guidance on Clinical
Directorates London: BMA.
Nursing Theorist Grid Dorothea Oren Theory
Over the years, nursing theories have been used in defining the ways healthcare is delivered through the interaction of patients and nurses. This study presents a theoretical discussion of the self-care concept in relation to health care delivery among elderly patients. The self-care concept is popular as Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing by Orem. Orem's theory perceives individuals as self-care agents equipped with unique needs. The theory focuses on transactional analysis in enhancing rehabilitative roles of nursing and positively influencing self-care agency among individuals. This creates power component based on self-care behaviors. The theory was initially defined as the analysis of exchanges between people in their interactions and communications with one another. The focus also classifies, understands, predicts and alters human behavior among the well and sick individuals. The theory supports individuals treated as adults and has a higher likelihood of using Adult ego…
Butts, J.B., Rich, K. (2012). Nursing Ethics: Across the Curriculum and Into Practice. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Finfgeld- Connet, D (2008). Qualitative Convergence Of Three Nursing Concepts: Art Of Nursing, Presence And Caring. Journal of Advanced Nursing 63(5): 527-534.
Ranheim, A., (2010). Caring And Its Ethical Aspects -- An Empirical, Philosophical Dialog On Caring. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well- being. 4(2) p 78-85.
Ranheim. A., Karner, A., Arman, M., Rehnsfeldt, A & Bertero, C. (2010). Embodied reflection in practice- 'Touching the core of Caring'. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 16. p 241-247.
Strategic Goals & Objectives
During its existence over three quarters of a century, the SSA has survived, evolved and changed. However, the technological and fiscal challenges of today and the near future require that the Social Security Administration bend and shape itself even more. Those challenges include some budget situations that are fairly bleak, a large amount of fraud and abuse of the program and the technological changes required as mentioned in the introduction for this strategic report. While the basic model of Social Security is criticized, that model itself does not need to be changed. ather, it just needs some adjustments that will be controversial and unpopular to many people.
As mentioned in the introduction, there are three main challenges to Social Security and its future. However, there are those and several others that need to be taken seriously. Those challenges, in total, are as follows:
The SSA needs…
Davis, Sara. 'Ageism In America'. msnbc.com. N.p., 2004. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
Seitz, Dan. 'Microsoft Has Decided To Finally Get Rid Of Internet Explorer'. UPROXX. N.p., 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
Storm, Darlene. 'List Of Hacked Government Agencies Grows: State Department, White House, NOAA & USPS'. Computerworld. N.p., 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
Correlation is where there is a relationship between two variables. An example would be that there is a relationship between baseball season and an increase in beer consumption. This may be true, but baseball seasons is also summer, so it is unclear whether baseball is legitimately a causal factor in the increase in beer consumption. Causation is when there is a causal relationship between the two variables. Causation means that one variable is the cause of the change in the other. This is harder to demonstrate. But for example, high temperatures can be found to have a causal relationship with air conditioner use.
Critical sociology is a technique based on the idea that intellectual analysis or interpretation of works can be conducted, so in other words studying in a more structured way. It is basically bringing a more dogmatic approach to the study of certain sociological elements. Structural functionality…
Ethical esponsibility of Corporate America
Many organizations strive to increase their profit margins by doing everything possible (including unethical practices) to increase their revenues. Nevertheless, the past three decades have seen some organizations embracing CS (Corporate Social responsibility). This idea has become significantly important to almost every organization that seeks to increase revenues. Corporate social responsibility is also referred to as community responsibility, stewardship, corporate sustainability, corporate responsibility, accountability and corporate ethics among others. In essence, CS enable organizations to bring in people and the environment into their decisions, strategies and plans (Anyango Ooko, 2014).
In this paper, the use of the term corporate social responsibility will mean a set of actions by enterprises that are geared towards meeting the legal, ethical, economic, and discretional responsibilities that the stakeholders expect them to fulfill. They should undertake the economic obligations of producing profits, and meeting the consumption requirements of the people;…
AnyangoOoko, G. (2014). The environmental factors that influence implementation of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in an organization. Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(12): 95-102.
Castka, P., Bamber, C., Sharp, J. (2005). Implementing Effective Corporate Social Responsibility and Corporate Governance: A Framework. UK: British Standards Institution.
Daft, R. L., & Marcic, D. (2006). Understanding management. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western.
Pearce, J., Doh, J. (2005). The high impact of collaborative social initiatives. MIT Sloan Management Review, 46(3): 30-38.
CADWAE: Case Study
Did CADWAE have genuine BFOQs (Bona Fide Occupational Job Qualifications) in its ad?
Do not forget to review the company's slogan as given in the above facts.
Be sure to discuss Petunia's point-of-view as well as CADWAE's position and defenses.
Use legal authority to support your position as well.
In general, it is illegal to discriminate against a job applicant based upon characteristics pertaining to "race, religion, gender, national origin, age or other protected status" ("BFOQ," 2015). However, in certain limited circumstances, if an employer can demonstrate that "no member of the group" he or she is discriminating against could perform the job, he or she may do so, under an exception known as Bona Fide Occupational Job Qualifications ("BFOQ," 2015). For example, airlines may have mandatory retirement ages for pilots because of safety concerns; religious institutions may favor candidates of a particular religion; and modeling and…
Moseley v. V Secret Catalogue, Inc. (2002). Retrieved from:
Mote, S. (2014). Trademark considerations in choosing a business name. KC Sourcelink.
Retrieved from: http://www.kcsourcelink.com/blog/blog/2014/03/31/trademark-considerations-in-choosing-a-business-name
Homosexuality in the Workplace
There is likely a combination of factors that is causing Nichole to have difficulty communicating with her co-worker that is homosexual. The most prominent of these pertains to the fact that it is obvious that Nichole does not view this coworker as just that, a simple coworker. Instead, she views this coworker in terms of his or sexuality. The reality of this perception of Nichole's is that it is likely rooted in some fundamental, long-term causes. For instance, it is possible that she is a practicing member of a religious denomination that ascribes to the notion that there is some general incorrectness of even perversion in homosexual tendencies. Additionally, Nichole could have had some negative sexual experience in her own life that pertained to homosexuality that gives her an aversion to those of this persuasion. Finally, it is also possible that Nichole simply believes that homosexuality…
Kateri Hernandez, T. (2010). Employment discrimination in the ethnically diverse workplace. Judges Journal. 33-47. Retrieved from http://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1013&context=faculty_scholarship
The Wall Street Journal. (2015). How to increase workplace diversity. http://guides.wsj.com Retrieved from