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The main problem in the case is that the CEO, Mr. Rodriguez, did not uphold his duty of care to the shareholders. Agency theory holds that the management of a company is an agent of the shareholders and should undertake actions that support the improvement of shareholder wealth at the firm. There are several points where this did not take place. The company's strategy of being a low-cost provider may have worked initially but it eventually became apparent that the company was suffering a decline in sales. The response of Mr. Rodriguez was to leave the strategy unchanged. Worse, he undertook significant misconduct and failed to safeguard the interests of the shareholders by giving luxurious bonuses to the staff and using company funds to finance his high-flying lifestyle. His action to call for an increase in the revenues from the accounting department was illegal, and directly misleading, and…… [Read More]
Agency Theory and Executive Compensation
An Analysis of Agency Theory and Aligning Executive Stock Options with Corporate Objectives
According to Jensen and Meckling (1976), any medium- or large-sized firm today is not directly managed by its owners (the shareholders) but rather by "hired hands" that is, professional managers. Presumably, these professionals are capable and diligent agents of the owners, but these professionals' interests are not always the same as the shareholders' interests. Shareholders want their agents to maximize the value of the firm. The professional managers want to maximize their own welfare. They, for example, may want to create an organization with a great many employees as a way of wielding more power and getting more remuneration (there is a correlation between top executive pay and the size of the organization). This "agency problem" is addressed by modern firms in a variety of ways. Firms are often counseled to deal…… [Read More]
In extreme cases, managers might manipulate the price of stock to improve their own financial future, releasing falsely positive reports to net a gain, and then selling shares before the real truth about the company's poor financial health becomes known.
3. Finally what can be done to insure that we will have a greatly reduced probability of agency issues with the management of FF&F, Inc.
Linking pay to performance has been one popular way of remedying the problem of agency on an executive level. However, this is problematic to some degree, as outside factors can substantially impact short-term profitability. A bad manager might receive a bonus during times of economic boom, while a good manager instating needed reforms might oversee the company during a period of economic decline, or simply have to allow an initial loss to see a profit later on. Ensuring that managers are shareholders is another method…… [Read More]
agency theory in the light of management conflict with shareholders and issues pertaining to compensation packages for executives. It has 10 sources.
Management role as agency and their relationship with shareholders often result in conflict of interest where executive compensation is concerned. hile on the one hand management is keen on developing the company through its qualified CEOs, shareholders are more interested in their returns. As a result there exist problems of differential of interests where investment cash flows, financial management and reporting are concerned. These mechanisms are considered to be the lifeblood of an organization yet have often been subjected to agency issues.
According to Osborne and Rubinstein,  the game theory incorporates the spirit of trust between two decision makers. In a situation of agency problem propagation, the two entities involved in decision making mechanism are the stockholders and the managers. The level of agreement of sharing…… [Read More]
There are many questions about whether the deregulation of the airlines was a success or not. Some assert that it was a "great success" due to the lower fares that were realized by a lot of airline passengers. However, whether that is really true will be explored. There is also a question of whether there could be some downsides to airline deregulation. Finally, there will be an offering and explanation of the lessons that have or do exist as it relates to relaxing of regulations in other industries. hile deregulation can be a good thing, being too lenient and relaxed about regulations can lead to abuses and customers getting swindled or otherwise negatively impacted (Nicholson, and Snyder).
If there is one great lesson that was taught to the airlines themselves as well as broader industry when the airlines were deregulated, it was the concept of how marginal…… [Read More]
Business -- Annotated Bibliography
Drucker, P.E. (1994,). The theory of business. Harvard Business Review, September-October. Retrieved from http://www.mindz.com/images/Ronaldvandenhoff/file/the_theory_of_business_drucker.pdf
Credibility: Author Analysis
Peter Drucker was the Clarke Professor of Social Science and management at the Claremont Graduate School in Claremont, California. The university has named the Drucker Management Center in his honor. This article was the thirty-first article for Harvard Business Review. Business students across the globe know Drucker's seminal work in business theory as it plays a prominent role in business school curricula.
Credibility: Intended Audience
The intended audience for this article is executives in the C-suite -- particularly chief executive officers (CEOs). This article is a call to action pointed at business executive and directors who are equipped to influence business thought leadership.
Drucker cites many actual businesses in his argument for addressing the obsolescence of business theories.
Drucker presents four specifications for a valid…… [Read More]
Accounting Theories and usiness Decisions: The usiness World
Application of theories
Other cases of stakeholder theory application
Accounting theories and business decisions: The business world
There are many theories that explain the complexity of relationship between different groups of people directly and indirectly related to an organization. Two of the most comprehensive and most discussed theories are stakeholder theory and agency theory. oth the theories describe what the main purpose of each group is and how these groups ought to manage these relationships. In agency theory, it identified that agency relationship takes place when one or more than one principal, acting as owners, delegate their power to make decisions, to a person acting as their agent or steward. Thus, agency theory principally revolves around the relationship of principal and agent. While the principal delegates the authority or decision making power to agent (managers) to act in the best…… [Read More]
Military Management and the Agency Problem
Agency theory can be helpful for understanding any organizational conflict or behavior, and applies equally as well to the private and public sector. Applied to the military organization, agency theory "offers insight into how military strategies relate to political objectives," an important consideration (Petrina, 2005, p. v). When it is applied to the corporate world, agency theory also offers insight into how executive decisions are made and how executives can become corrupt when they possess significant power and separation from agents or shareholders. There are differences in corporate versus military governance and organizational culture, but those differences to do not cloud over the essential applicability of agency theory to both the private and public sector.
A traditional view of agency theory as it applies to military organizations is that "civilians set oversight measures to monitor the behavior of the military and the military responds…… [Read More]
While there are clearly circumstances where the civil society sector is at odds with the state, there are at least as many where the relationship is one of interdependence and mutual support…. The state has thus emerged in the modern era not as a displacer of nonprofit activity but as perhaps the major philanthropist… (Salamon & Anheier 1997, p. 63-64).
Calprig is an independent statewide student organization that works on issues such as environmental protection, consumer protection, hunger and homelessness. In essence, members of Calprig desire to build a better society through a plethora of volunteer activities. The group also provides students with the opportunity to practice their effective citizenship both on and off campus. This semester, the organization focused primarily on six campaigns: The Ocean and Plastic Ban is a short-term goal to ban plastic bags in Los Angeles California; Big Agriculture, although not a lot planned for…… [Read More]
Locke's Theory Of Punishment
John Locke was an English philosopher, who is undoubtedly the philosopher of modern times and the originator of concepts like self and identity, human nature and understanding, theory of mind and several other concepts regarding political philosophy and ethics. orn in 1632 and died in 1704, Locke is unanimously termed as the Father of Classical Liberalism since during the enlightenment era; he was amongst the most influential and widely followed scholars. Many of his works regarding liberalism and republicanism have been included into the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution, due to their authenticity and practicality in real terms.
Locke also performed as a government official who was authorized to collect information regarding to trade with the entire colonies. This experience allowed him to be in close contact with the political activities and eventually led him to write upon the authorization and legislation customs for the…… [Read More]
agency/organization in which you worked. Include information on the size of the organization (number of personnel, of what kinds) and the division of labor into units or departments. Obtain an organizational chart, or prepare one yourself, showing the formal structure of the organization.
The organization where I worked from April 24, 2012 to June 29, 2012 was U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). Created in 2003, it is the main investigative body of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security Investigation. It is a federal law enforcement agency whose main responsibility includes executing the immigration and custom laws of the United States to protect the country and to ensure the public security.
The detailed chart of the structure of the organization is attached in the Appendix A. ICE has a divisional organizational structure. It is headed by the Director who is appointed by the President of U.S. And approved by the…… [Read More]
Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…… [Read More]
International relations theory refers to the study of the theoretical perspective of international relations. It provides a framework which is conceptual upon which analysis of international relations is done. International relations theories can also act like pairs of colored sunglasses which only allows the person wearing it to see what’s relevant to the theory. There are three most prominent theories available - constructivism, liberalism and realism. International relations theories are divided into rationalist and reflectivist theories. Rationalist theories are those that focus on analysis that is principally of state level. Reflectivist theories incorporate the meanings of security in an expanded manner from post-colonial security, gender to class.
International relations theories have a big role in helping policy-makers produce solutions that are effective instead of being regarded as being too abstract. In policy organizations that are foreign, people are not selected by their theories’ quality but by their quality of…… [Read More]
S. involvement in World War II.
Is it possible to have a general theory of war?
Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…… [Read More]
Nursing: Theory and Nursing Practice Issues
Theory and Nursing Practice Issues: Nursing
The modern-day staff nurse faces a variety of challenges in the work environment. These include inadequate staffing, the authority gradient, and issues related to changing models of care. The nurse leader has a duty to aid staff nurses working under him in addressing the challenges posed by these, and other issues facing the nursing profession. Leadership theories provide effective guidelines by which nurse leaders can address issues inherent in the nursing profession. In so doing, they accord staff nurses adequate opportunities to make meaning out of their lives. Leadership theories such as the situational leadership theory, the transformational leadership theory, role theory, and path-goal theory provides crucial insights from which nurse leaders could draw reference when seeking solutions for problems facing subordinate staff nurses. This text explores how leadership theory can be applied to nursing practice issues, and…… [Read More]
Sexual assault is an assault which is of a sexual nature done on another person either of the same of different sex. It also includes any form of sexual act that is committed without the consent of the person. Although in most cases, sexual assault is done by a man on a woman but in some cases, it has been documented to also be done by several men, women or children on men and children also Openshaw et al., 1993()
In the U.S. alone, about 300,000 cases of rape of women are reported every year. Additionally, 3.7 million women are usually subjected to other forms of unwilling sexual activity. There are also another 80,000 children in America who are abused sexually every year. Estimates by help agencies say that about one in every six American women has experienced sexual assault or will experience sexual assault at least…… [Read More]
International Social Science eview, 85(1-2), 62-63.
Halachmi, a. & Bouckaert, G. (1996). Organizational performance and measurement in the public sector. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
How has congressional agenda setting changed over time?
The agenda of the U.S. Congress has been closely aligned with its role as the legislative branch of the U.S. government. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1991), "The first Congress under the Constitution met on March 4, 1789 in the Federal Hall in New York City" (p. 301). Indeed, the creation of the U.S. Congress coincided with the adoption of the U.S. Constitution. In this regard, Black's (1991) adds that, the U.S. Congress was created pursuant to Article I, Section 1, of the Constitution, adopted by the Constitutional Convention on September 17, 1787 providing that "all legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and…… [Read More]
In psychology, personality can be described as the "the patterns of behavior, thought, and emotion unique to an individual, and the ways they interact to help or hinder the adjustment of a person to other people and situations" ("personality," 2013). Psychologists may make use of idiographic or nomothetic techniques in order to study personality of an individual. Many characteristics of human behavior can be examined while studying one's personality. To put in simple words, personality theories are utilized for organizing what is known, stimulating new research, and specifying a view of personality in a formal way (Kasschau, 1985). Psychoanalytic theory, person-centered theory and existential theory are three such theories which have been developed in the precedent century and cover a lot of information regarding the pathology, health/wellness, treatment and the weight or significance of early life.
Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
The Psychoanalytic Theory was put forwarded by Sigmund Freud…… [Read More]
These organizations have championed global labors standards prior to becoming an agency promoting UN's newly formed standards and policies.
Out of all the major facets of association, the rights of trade unions have continued to contribute to the growth of equality and liberty across the world. Recently, freedom experienced by trade unions is fundamental in the consolidation and the emergence of democracy in countries such as South Africa, Serbia, Philippines, Nigeria, Chile, and Poland. With the increasing force of great repression and risk, employees are seeking to arrange themselves in free trade associations. Free trade associations strive to expand democracy, overthrow dictatorship, and halt the economic oppression after organizing themselves. It is unsurprising that authoritarian states try to curb the formation of free trade associations. They often impose state dominated associations in controlling the workforce.
Currently, free associations are portraying a politically and economically anachronistic, something that belongs to the…… [Read More]
Schools of Criminology
Schools of Thought
Classical School introduction: This approach to criminology holds that basically, people will do things based on whether it is helpful to them and they will look after their own self-interest first. In other words, if a person is penniless and hungry, he will steal food because it is in his own self-interest to eat and stay alive, notwithstanding his crime
Classical School summary: In the 18th century philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that existing theories of crime (God or the devil determine what humans will do) were not relevant. They put forth the alternative idea that because humans have free will, they choose which behavior they will follow. Most humans respond to pleasure and pain, and if crime brings a person pleasure, that's what he will do; but being hungry can bring pain so a person will commit a crime to…… [Read More]
Forming a Partnership
ole of Agency Business Association
Agency refers to the capacity or ability of the agent to act on behalf of a business association or partnership. Agencies perform or execute numerous roles in relation to authority from the business association. The first notable role of the agency is ensuring effective and efficient contractual situations concerning the business association. Agency ensures that the contracts of the business associations are in line with the laws governing business organizations. Agency also promotes the interests of the business associations by marketing products and services of the entity. This indicates that agencies perform the role of marketing or promoting business activities thus conducting transactions on behalf of the business entity. Agency also identifies the problems facing the entity and act towards executing the solution (Mann & oberts, 2008).
The role of agency in business association focuses on contractual, noncontractual, and quasi-contractual with respect…… [Read More]
Life-span developmental theory offers a guideline for understanding human aging. Primarily, the theory provides explains the regular changes occurring to an individual to death. Theories of the aging process act as frameworks for aligning research findings and observations to deduce significant conclusions. The information is essential because it enhances sequencing in the lifespan hence providing chronological priority to earlier moments and events in an individual's life. Besides, life span theory can be identified as a synchronized integration of different age-based developmental specializations. Evidently, most people hold a perception of being actively engaged in shaping their future. They follow developmental stages that are intelligible in exploring and pursuing long-term goals. I have realized that the lifespan development theory is essential in my realization of timely goals in life as a social worker. In this study, I have elucidated the motivational theory of lifespan development and illustrated how I will incorporate it…… [Read More]
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…… [Read More]
This is in direct contrast to the efforts afforded by the leagues to try to reduce competitive advantage all around. One reason why the teams with larger media and crowd resources do well could be the fact that as more talented players are able to move into free agency, they seek higher and higher compensation and attention through larger media and crowd outlets (Grant, 1991). A very talented player may not want to play in a small town because there would theoretically be less exposure to media and fans, and as a marketable good or commodity, that player knows that his or her talent would not be compensated for as well as it could be in a larger town.
The basis for argument with ottenberg's presentation of competitive advantage mitigation lies in the basic economic theories that govern other markets. It is only logical that these theories be applied to…… [Read More]
(Olson, 1999) the feminist theory is when you are making the arguments that the social structure in place is unfair or targeting a particular group of people. The critical legal studies theory is when you are looking beyond the issues of civil liberties and are instead focused on if the action is effective in supporting particular rights. The moral theory is when you are arguing that the best way to interpret the law is based upon what is best for society using: case precedent, established legal principals and the law. Intellectual capitalism is when you are arguing that freedom of speech is the best way for the minority of having their voices heard. Where, you are using the different actions to justify that the government could be stifling this free speech, which is leading the activity in question. The over regulation theory is when the federal / state government will…… [Read More]
local police agencies at the local, agencies, local, state, and federal level organized to identify principal roles and functions of the police organization in the application of law.
Various Types of Police Agencies
Various levels and types of policing agencies exist including local, state, and federal policing agencies. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics in its Occupational Outlook Handbook: Police and Detectives (2010-11 Ed.) individuals who are qualified are those most likely to have favorable job option. Competition for State and Federal agency jobs in State and Federal agencies is great. (U.S. Department of Labor, 2010-11)
Uniformed police officers are reported to be those with responsibility for enforcement of general law through maintaining regular patrols and providing response to calls and spending a great deal of time completing paperwork and responding to calls for assistance. Urban police are active in what 'community policing' stated to be a practice "in…… [Read More]
State the administrative agency which controls the regulation. Explain why this agency and your proposed regulation interest you (briefly). ill this proposed regulation affect you or the business in which you are working? If so, how?
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) regulates interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable (FCC, 2011). Its job is to basically make sure that the organizations in these industries are severing the public with their activities. The air waves are radio frequency are really kind of a public good since no one can or should be able to own them. Therefore, in regards to radio frequencies, the FCC will distribute the frequencies or channels so that the quality can be maintained and there can be an equal manner in which these resources are divided. The proposed legislation deals with how societies and companies will access the internet in future and…… [Read More]
In reaction, diabetes research looks into pharmacological options and changes in lifestyle to contain the trend. Recent findings point to the need for healthcare professionals to empower diabetes sufferers to take recourse in self-management as the best option at the moment (Kumar).
The purposefulness of a plan and its implementation in assisting a client with diabetes helped fill in her self-care deficit (Kumar 2007). The interpersonal relationship between a nurse and her client minimizes the stress experienced by the latter and her family. This enables the client or patient and her family to act more responsibly in health matters. An assessment and plan of care may use Orem's client-related concepts -- of self-care, self-care agency, therapeutic self-care demand and self-care deficit --, the concepts of nursing agency and nursing system and the basic conditioning factors. Integrating these concepts into other theories on health promotion and family systems may guide effective…… [Read More]
As Nielsen and Lidstone (1998) note,
It is ironic that the public demands safety yet a number of cost-effective and feasible measures to mitigate disasters are not adopted by many... Such a failure of the public to adopt disaster mitigation measures has a long record in Australia
(Nielsen and Lidstone 1998)
This attitude is one of the reasons given for the greater emphasis on public education. In theoretical terms, the view is put forward that an educated public will be able to deal with emergencies and disasters more effectively and that this should form an integral part of emergency and disaster management and planning. This in turn has resulted in a "...renewal of focus, at both a national and global level, upon public education as a means to disaster mitigation" (Nielsen and Lidstone 1998). To this end the Federal Emergency Management Agency of the United States (FEMA) has collected data…… [Read More]
" Bhattacharya (1988). It is used to calculate the value of a company based on its total cash flow. (oss, 1988).
Bhattacharya (1998) states that this theory assumed that lower dividends will lead to reduced levels of new equity and this will bring about a balance between the debt and equity of a company. This is not ture for utilities companies and other monopolistic firms where new equities are rare.
For the "Current Examples" in our table, do we need to find specific company examples that exist today or have happened in the last 2-3 years? Or will it suffice to give a theoretical example of a measurement in a firm that fits the model.
For example, would this be OK.
Efficiency Theory Example
- Production returns based on shared, variable, and per unit costs divided by the total output of a factory in a given period of time.
Instructor…… [Read More]
Theories of Disaster Management
Natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and other disasters the world over have made it clear that disaster management plans and policies are of great importance to nations and populations attempting to attain any sense of security in the modern world. Despite the pressing nature of disaster management, however, there is not really a true consensus on what the most effective way to actual plan for and manage disasters is. Two overarching theories or frameworks that can be seen as in competition when it comes to disaster management are centralized planning and devolved management. As the following paragraphs will show, there are both pros and cons to each of these frameworks, however a unified approach is possible that can help achieve the best of both worlds in disaster management.
Centralized planning is a framework that, as the name implies, attempts to centralize authority and resource for…… [Read More]
CIA Introduction to Police Theory
The objective of this report is to introduce a plan, which will set out the priorities to ensure professional delivery of law enforcement services by law enforcement personnel with this particular police department. This plan will target several critical issues including professionalism and ethical behavior among law enforcement officers since it is critical to maintain integrity in the department and to gain and retain the respect and cooperation of the community in which these officers serve. In addition, prompt and efficient service delivery is a crucial issue for today's law enforcement.
Problems Associated with Service Delivery
It is noted by the International Association of Chiefs of Police that problems exist in today's law enforcement agencies relating to such as racial profiling, citizen complaints on intake investigation issues, as well as problems associated with early identification and intervention strategies. (1999) Finally, the IACP notes that there…… [Read More]
Homeland Security, NIMS, and ICS
Through initiatives designed to continually improve the procedures integral to the operations of state-level Homeland Security, the agency may review the fit between the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and Incident Command System (ICS) models and the desired outcomes of its own operations. These reviews can result in closer alignment across the three organizations, an objective with the potential to substantively increase overall cross-agency operational effectiveness. The key operational and procedural areas discussed in this review include common communication and information management systems, the management of resources, and multi-agency coordination. In the 10 years since NIMS was established, the country has experienced several natural disasters that have provided opportunity for refining the components of NIMS and ICS. This discussion provides insight into the benefits to be derived by state-level Homeland Security agencies from the NIMS and ICS models.
Nested Design and edundancy
A first point…… [Read More]
It may be most appropriate when there is a question of adding a new service or getting rid of a current service, but makes less sense for a department which is expected to continue in service.
Incremental budgeting is a part of the rolling forecast system. If there is a sudden spike in revenue, for example, it may make sense to do an incremental budget to take into account the new variable.
-down budgeting means that the CEO or CFO dictates how much money is present, and allocates it to each department. This has the benefit of control of expenditures, but the drawback that the department managers feel no responsibility to hew to a budget in which they had little or no input.
A s-up: This method starts at the department level and builds to an overall picture. While each department may want to have its needs fulfilled, there needs…… [Read More]
Complexity Theory in the Public Sector
The objective of this work is to examine complexity theory in the public sector. According to Paul Cairney in the work entitled "Complexity Theory in Public Policy" the term complexity "has relevance to a wide range of theories in public policy which describe the replacement of the simple "clubby days' of early post-war politics by complex relationships at multiple levels of government and among a huge politically active population." (2010, p.1) The focus on complexity, according to Cairney (2010) is "indirect and vague." (p.l) It is of the nature that indicates that there should be a shift in analysis "from individuals parts of a political system to the system as a whole; as a network of elements that interact and combine to produce systemic behavior that cannot be broken down into the actions of its constituent parts." (Cairney, 2010, p.1)
Defining Complexity Theory
Complexity…… [Read More]
The authors have gathered preliminary information by reviewing the literature and gathering information from organizations that have already implemented strategies to broaden fair and ethical trade marketing.
The authors seek to avoid "clean washing" the message of fair and ethical trade by using the affinity marketing strategy that they describe. However, it is possible that consumers at mission driven organizations will fail to recognize the value of the fair and ethical trade products they purchase if having a fun time out is their goal rather than supporting a cause. The way in which these items are marketed so as not to lose the social mission must be addressed. Another exploratory study surveying the consumers at such mission driven organizations would be useful.
Exploratory research generally precedes descriptive research. Descriptive data is not generated in studies that are exploratory such as this. The authors conducted a pilot study about how zoos…… [Read More]
QUESTION THREE: "Is inequality of social classes inevitable?" The conflict theory put forward by Ralf Dahrendorf begins with a discussion of Marxism and the fact that in industry, the conflict between classes - the capitalist and proletariat (worker) - the worker had a natural inclination to be in conflict with the capitalists who were the authority, the bosses. The same kind of conflict carried over into the political realm as well, sometimes violent. The problem was that there was no system whereby conflicts could be resolved. But Marx's analysis, Dahrendorf goes on, was tainted because of his obsession with proletarian revolution.
At this point in his essay, Dahrendorf, though rejecting Marx in that context, asserts that since there are "interest groups" and "quasi-groups" those must then be considered "classes." And if there are classes, it is then logical to assume there will be groups, and quasi-groups that will always have…… [Read More]
Theory guides practice. This is true of many things, but is especially true of nursing. While many processes, actions, and rules are involved in becoming a great nurse, understanding and applying theory must be the most important aspect. Nursing theory allows for one to examine concepts and then attempt practical application of these concepts when theories are tested. Evidence-based practice for example, is the wonderful lovechild of theory and application in that when theories are constructed, they are then tested, and if they work, are applied to standard practice via modification. This essay aims to provide a deeper synthesis of nursing theory by examining two important nursing theories: Orem's Self-care Theory and Watsons Nursing Theory. Additionally, one will see how nursing theory has evolved since its beginnings.
Background on Nursing Theory
Many say nursing is as old as humankind. If there was someone sick, there was someone willing to…… [Read More]
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…… [Read More]
The reason that the subject lends itself to natural resources or real estate is that there will be some information available in those areas, making the valuation less difficult than in innovative areas.
The pessimistic approach is characterized by the divest/shrink option. When a firm is divesting or shrinking it can first scale down, which means that it can "shrink or shut down a project part way through if new information changes the expected payoffs;" this option lends itself to capital intensive industries or industries dealing with financial services (Mauboussin, 1999). ather than shutting down a project, a company can also choose to switch down, which involves switching "to more cost-effective and flexible assets as new information is obtained," and might be used in smaller companies, where the wholesale shut-down of a project could end a business (Mauboussin, 1999). The scope-down option is the mirror image of the above-mentioned scope-up…… [Read More]
From the standpoint of the labor market, the lack of equity in the public system would continue to exist until the market force becomes united and demands a better protection of its rights. For now however, when the people fear the loss of their jobs and when the market place is saturated, the public employers are not pressured to implement equity. At the level of personal evaluation and job contributions, these are only able to reveal the cases of lack of equity through a comparative analysis of contributions, evaluations and compensations of several public sector employees. Individually however, a person who is inequitably rewarded will not be able to make a difference in the system.
In the hypothetical context of a perfect compensation system, several elements would sit at the basis of its evaluation. All these elements would be constructed on complex analyses of past trends, future estimations, equity theory…… [Read More]
For John Locke, government "…should be limited to securing the life and property of it citizens"; and government should allow freedom of religion and freedom of conscience. He was opposed to "hereditary monarchy" and supported human rights (especially in his more mature years).
As to how these political theories connect with environmental policy in the U.S.: first, the environmental policies in the U.S. are under attack by the Republicans in the House of Representatives. Their recent bill, H.R. 1, passed in February 2011, contained 19 anti-environmental riders that would "negatively affect air, water, and environmental quality," the Sustainable Energy & Environmental Coalition explained. The right wing in Congress wants to take power away from the Environmental Protection Agency as well. Hume would likely approve of the Tea Party and GOP as to their disavowal of global climate change; he would agree that the U.S. federal government is too big and…… [Read More]
Principles and Theories
Stark (2004) discussed the transformational elements present in the state of leadership in his article. This article attempted to strike a balance by understanding leadership as more of a state of mind than a state of action. Five major conclusions were highlighted in this reading. The first suggests that strong and positive organizations are direct reflections of the collective state of the workers of that organization. The next suggests that leadership is not related to power and is a state of being. The third conclusion the author discussed that the fundamental state of leadership is results driven. The fourth conclusion mandated that leaders need to experience deep and serious change to enter a state of fundamental leadership. The fifth conclusion suggested that change is contingent upon the leadership's ability to accept and engage in change.
Lawler & n Golden's (2003) article embraced the idea of…… [Read More]
'" (Moynihan, 1965)
Moynihan implies that the decreasing role of the black male is a central aspect to be addressed in resolving the matters of violence in the black communities. As a result, he proposes a series of social and political policies that would strengthen the role played by the black male in the family. These refer to better employment opportunities, wage increases or an improved social perception of the roles that fathers play within the family. The senator exemplifies by stating that the white families are mostly run by two parents and the presence and role of both mother and father foster the growth and development of a stable individual, who will not engage in criminal actions.
The report issued by Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan set the basis for years of controversy. Organized under the title the Negro Family: The Case for National Action, the findings were…… [Read More]
Nursing Theorist Grid Dorothea Oren Theory
Over the years, nursing theories have been used in defining the ways healthcare is delivered through the interaction of patients and nurses. This study presents a theoretical discussion of the self-care concept in relation to health care delivery among elderly patients. The self-care concept is popular as Self-Care Deficit Theory of Nursing by Orem. Orem's theory perceives individuals as self-care agents equipped with unique needs. The theory focuses on transactional analysis in enhancing rehabilitative roles of nursing and positively influencing self-care agency among individuals. This creates power component based on self-care behaviors. The theory was initially defined as the analysis of exchanges between people in their interactions and communications with one another. The focus also classifies, understands, predicts and alters human behavior among the well and sick individuals. The theory supports individuals treated as adults and has a higher likelihood of using Adult ego…… [Read More]
Public Safety Networks supported by information and communication technology infrastructure, are products of one or more characteristics of their member agencies, which aggregate to complicated network behavior thereby reducing public safety events. PSNs operate as CAS because they are made up of multiple agencies, acting on condition and in parallel with member agencies leading to continuous adaptation and evolution. PSNs are organized to tackle Public safety exercises, such as anti-terrorism, fire prevention, law enforcement, and medical emergency that are deemed as wicked problems.
A broad range of cross-agency intergovernmental collaborative initiatives employing inter-organizational systems encounter challenges associated with cost inefficiencies, performance as well as social fabrics in PSNs. This study is meant to offer considerations for Public Safety Network managers. It applies CAS systems theory to explain the changes in Public Safety Networks as they address the "wicked problems" they encounter on their daily operations.
Public Safety Networks as…… [Read More]
Dorothea Orem Nursing Theory
A theory is related concepts, and propositions used to guide a professional practice. Moreover, nursing theory serves as the interrelated concepts, predictive in nature, statement explanatory that assists in understanding the nursing phenomenon, which helps to explain and predict the nursing outcomes. Nursing theory is an organized body of knowledge used to explain the phenomena and supporting the nursing practice. Moreover, the nursing theory is defined as a set of definitions, concepts, assumptions, and relationships or propositions that are derived from the nursing model. However, the nursing theories consist of grand and middle-ranged theory. The middle ranged theory is the testable theory, limited in scope, limited in a variable, and used for the clinical research. More importantly, nursing theory serves as the body of knowledge that assists in carrying out the nursing research.
The objective of this study is to use the Dorothea Orem theory to…… [Read More]
working for a community mental health agency that serves male adolescents aged 14-16 who have received a diagnosis of conduct disorder. You have been asked by your director of clinical training to answer the following questions (choose only one): a) What family treatment modes have been found to be effective (best practices, evidence-based) for treating this population?
Submit an annotated bibliography with an entry for each of your resources. Include the references in proper APA format. Write a brief summary highlighting the theory, treatment, intervention, and research methodology discussed in each resource.
Authors conducted thorough review of existent studies on psychosocial conduct disorder and interventions in regards to children and adolescents. They also investigated oppositional defiant disorder. 82 experimental studies were evaluated using certain criteria created by the Clinical Psychology Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures. Authors concluded that the two most effective programs that met all…… [Read More]
Improving the United States Custom and Border Protection Agency
Alden, E. W. (2012). Immigration and Border Control. Cato Journal, 32(1), 37-46
Like Polner, in Coordinated Border Management: From Theory to Practice, the author of this particular article identifies the need to ensure that border security benefits the economy of the country. In so doing, he seeks ways of making "border security compatible with a sensible immigration system that strengthens the U.S. economy rather than weakens it." Unlike the other authors listed in tis text, Winter also gives a brief history of U.S. border patrol. This article will come in handy as I seek to highlight the consequences of the border security enforcement approaches in place currently. The article also outlines the various strategies that could be utilized in seeking to further enhance the flexibility as well as effectiveness of border security in the future. Its relevance cannot, therefore, be overstated.…… [Read More]
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…… [Read More]
(Combating Terrorism: FEMA Continues to Make Progress in Coordinating Preparedness and esponse: Participation in Interagency and Intra-agency Groups and Committees)
CIMS: The Office of Emergency Management --OEM who has been collaborating with NYPD & FDNY and other City agencies to develop the CIMS, the adoption of which was declared by Mayor Bloomberg in March, 2004. CIMS makes a uniform incident management structure for every City agency that is broadly based on the Incident Command System model. The setting up of CIMS ensures a system for management of emergencies with a universal understanding of terminologies and roles and responsibilities among all agencies. CIMS makes use of the combined lead agency/unified operations section. In case of the majority of the incidents where multiple agencies are needed to act on several emergency situations, a unified operations post is made. The core competencies of the primary agencies will establish command of authority for immediate…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice System; Theorist Perspective
Analysis of the Broken Window Theory
The broken window model is a brainchild of Wilson Kelling as he described it in his article way back in 1982. The article capitalizes on supposed essence of disorder such as a broken window in encouraging serious crime. Although there is no direct correlation between disorder and serious crime, it leads to a heightened level of fear that inspires one to withdraw from society. Consequently, the scenario leads to crime because informal social control is then reduced.
The police can intervene in such a scenario effectively. They can focus on less serious crime and disorder in communities that are not known for serious crime and effectively quash incidences of withdrawal and fear by residents. Encouraging informal social control among these communities can enhance the responsibilities of such communities in taking control of events in their neighborhood and forestalling crime.…… [Read More]
Leadership and otational Development Program for Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA)
Leadership development and rotational programs are crucial for building the potential, skills, and capabilities of new and existing employees. They provide employees with ongoing mentorship, in-depth experiences, as well as training across various functions within the organisation (Columbia University Centre for Career Education, 2016). Organisations rely on these programs to recruit and develop individuals for leadership responsibilities. This paper provides important guidelines for the design of a leadership development and rotational program for the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency (SAMA). The program is aimed at fresh graduates with less than two years working experience.
Designing the Program
The first step in designing the leadership development and rotational program is to define the objective of the program (Donnelly, 2016). It is indeed a critical step. The objective should resonate with the overall objective of the organisation. It should clearly…… [Read More]
counselors seeking to start a new counseling agency of their own. The deliberations here are anchored on the observations of an experienced counselor. The aim is to deliver outcomes based on holistic remediation percepts, and an attempt to address most, if not all, issues involved in treatment of drug addicts.
OPENING A COUNSELING AGENCY
Type of Agency / Population and of Issues Specializing
esearch studies have provided us with the latest definition of addiction. The research included 80 experts drawn from across the U.S. expanse. The American Society of Addiction led the efforts in this research. The society states that addiction is not only an issue with people's behavior regarding the use or abuse of substances, sex, or gambling. The society states that addiction is ideally a brain dysfunction. Addiction has also been defined as a behavior that occurs as a result of involvement in PA or substance use without…… [Read More]
What makes the question and the topic even more interesting is the high connection and interconnectivity between the major parts of the problem, referred to as "the relations among multiple phenomena" by Davis. As such, a large number of variables occur; and they must all be kept in mind while finding the most suitable solution. These variables could include past problems solved by the company, the lessons learnt and the mistakes made; future opportunities; market trends and characteristics; financial possibilities of Oxbridge and particular needs and demands from the audience. And correlating all these features makes the question and the problem even more interesting.
The problems they encounter in China represent another reason which makes the issue interesting from the stand point of the article written by Murray Davis. In this order of ideas, a problem is foremost interesting when "complicating social factors" intervene. And the social factors are given…… [Read More]
Queuing Theory and Wait Times
Queuing, otherwise known as waiting in line, is something that most people feel they know how to do, yet struggle with in practice. Efficient queuing is critical for businesses. For airlines and other businesses which provide time-dependent services, queuing is necessary to ensure efficiency. For the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), queuing is also a matter of safety. To ensure all passengers are appropriately screened, the TSA must ensure that flyers are able to wait in an orderly line and receive appropriate direction. Yet when people are forced to wait in line, they are often angry and agitated. This is especially true in situations such as an airport in which passengers may be worried about missing flights or have gotten up very early in the morning, endured a hectic commute, or face other pressures regarding their flight. Waiting in line is yet another inconvenience.
The fact…… [Read More]
It is difficult to summarize psychodynamic theory without a brief discussion of Freud. Sigmund Freud is the father of psychoanalysis, the father of psychodynamic theory, and in effect the father of modern psychotherapy. Freud's notions retain quite a bit of popularity, especially his ideas that things are not what they seem on the surface. Because of his understanding of the mind and behavior, Freud considered that overt behaviors were not always self-explanatory (or perhaps "not often explanatory" would be the better term). Instead, these overt or manifest behaviors represent some hidden motive. Sigmund Freud was trained as a neurologist and specialized in the treatment of nervous disorders. His early training involved using hypnosis with the French neurologist Jean Charcot in the treatment of hysteria, the presentation of baffling physical symptoms (mostly in young women) that appeared to have no physical origin (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). Freud also partnered…… [Read More]
Nursing theories are used for describing; developing, disseminating and they use present day knowledge in nursing. There are various nursing theories that are used by nurses as a guide to their day-to-day practice in nursing. This paper will look give views on theory-driven and evidence based of tow nursing theories.
One of these theories is the self-care theory by Dorothea Orem. The major concept in this theory is an art through which the nursing practitioner gives assistance that is specialized to individuals with disabilities that makes more than ordinary assistance necessary for meeting the needs for self-care. Self-care requirements are actions that are directed towards providing self-care presented in three categories; universal self-care requisites, development self-care requisites and health deviation self-care requisites.
There are various assumptions that were made in this theory such as people have to be self-reliant and responsible when it comes to their own care as well…… [Read More]
Individual Education Plan
In education it is important to understand the pedagogy and historical philosophical perspectives on educational theories to fully understand the educational plan in a comprehensive fashion. Understanding this element of an education plan can provide insights to education that can have practical consequences on implementation. This analysis will provide a background into three of such theories -- behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. Furthermore, it will discuss how these theories may or may not be consistent with each of the thirteen disability categories under the IDEA and what challenges and obstacles may be present relative to these perspectives and an individual student's circumstances. It will further provide insights into how these theories may be relevant to different stakeholder involvement strategies in the individual education plan (IEP) for students. Finally, it will discuss how these learning theories can influence the style of instruction in the IEP.
Behaviorism is a…… [Read More]
Madeleine Leineger's Cultural Care Theory
Theories are made of interrelated ideas that systematically give a systematic view about a certain phenomenon (an event or fact that is observable) that can, then, be predicted, and explained. Theories entail definitions, concepts, propositionspropositions, and models. Theories are created on the basis of assumptions. There are two ways in which theories are derived; inductive and deductive reasoning. The theory of nursing is meant to describe, explainexplain, and predict the nursing phenomenon.
It should give the bases of the nursing practice a strong foundation, thereby assisting in further creation of knowledge and show the future direction that for nursing should take. Theory is of great significance as it guides us in our decisions of what we already know as well as what we ought to know. Theory describes the nursing practice, hence giving us the foundation of nursing. The merits of a definite theory body…… [Read More]