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In short, aggressive behavior can be seen as the result of socio-cultural forces; as norms become perceived by the developing child, their own interaction with the world around them will necessarily become typified by these perceived norms (Bond 2004). Thus, if aggression is a cultural norm -- or if an individual is exposed to violence in manners which lead them to perceive it as such -- it will likely produce violent behavior (Bond 2004). This is in some agreement with the cognitive approach to the problem, but the socio-cultural argument demands that aggressive behavior be dealt with on a cultural level if it is to be effectively diminished (and one could well argue that a culture that promotes aggressive behavior could not seriously attempt to eradicate it at the same time).
Neither perspective is, of course, incorrect, but at the same time both are incomplete. There are many other mechanisms…
Anderson, C. & Huesmann, R. (2003). "Human aggression: A social-cognitive view." The sage handbook of social psychology, Hogg, M. & Cooper, J., eds. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publishing.
Bond, M. (2004). "Culture and Aggression -- From Context to Coercion." Personality and social psychology review 8(1), pp. 62-78.
Dakota. (2009). "The cognitive perspective." Accessed 23 January 2010. http://dakota.fmpdata.net/PsychAI/PrintFiles/Cognitive.pdf
Adolescent Aggressive Behavior
Quantitative esearch Proposal: CBT and Psychopharmacological Treatments
For Children with Disordered Aggressive Behaviors
Quantitative esearch Proposal: CBT and Psychopharmacological Treatments
For Children with Disordered Aggressive Behaviors
Aggressive behavior and adolescents poses a significant threat to public safety and the peaceful functioning of families within a community. Treatment of this problem is an important issue for the adolescents, their families, and the communities in which they live. There are many reasons for aggressive behaviors in adolescents. This problem has received significant research attention in the past and as a result, many different treatment modalities have been developed. This qualitative research study explores various treatment modalities in their effectiveness in treating adolescent aggressive behavior.
Quantitative esearch Proposal: CBT and Psychopharmacological Treatments
For Children with Disordered Aggressive Behaviors
Table of Contents
Section 1: Problem Statement, Theoretical Framework, and esearch Questions
Alink, L.A., Mesman, J., van Zeijl, J., Stolk, M.N., Juffer, F., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J., van Ijsendoorn, M.H., & Koot, H.M. (2009). Maternal Sensitivity Moderates the Relation Between Negative Discipline and Aggression in Early Childhood. Social Development, 18(1): 99-120.
Creswell, J.W. (2009). The selection of a research design. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd Edition). Los Angeles: Sage.
Durlak, J.A., Fuhrman, T., & Lampman, C. (1991). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy for maladapting children: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110(2), 204-214. Doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.110.2.204.
Dummett, N. (2010). Cognitive -- behavioural therapy with children, young people and families: From individual to systemic therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 16: 23-36.
Acceptable forms of behavior need to be modeled and reinforced while unacceptable forms of behavior need not be supported. This all needs to be done before these acts and violent behaviors become imprinted as a part of normal behavior. Individuals are still going through hormonal and physical changes far into their twenties; neuronal connections are also still being developed during this time (Perry 2013). This means that if appropriate behavior isn't being modeled during this essential time period, then the individual does not biologically know what is right and what is wrong. Someone who has been exposed to aggression their entire lives may turn to violent media because it is all that they are familiar with (appaport 2004). This familiarity is therefore constantly reinforced by everything that they are exposed to thereafter. Therefore biological factors such as brain development, is another reason why media has a great influence on violent…
CBS News (2013, February 19) Sandy Hook shooter Adam Lanza blacked out game room, bedroom - CBS News. Breaking News Headlines: Business, Entertainment & World News - CBS News. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-505263_162-57570009/sandy-hook-shooter-adam-lanza-blacked-out-game-room-bedroom/
Crane, M. (2013, February 18). Kids' aggressive behavior tied to TV violence in studies | The Columbus Dispatch. The Columbus Dispatch | Central Ohio News, Sports, Arts & Classifieds. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2013/02/18/kids-aggressive-behavior-tied-to-tv-violence-in-studies.html
Perry, B. (2013). Aggression and Violence: The Neurobiology of Experience. Scholastic, Helping Children Around the World to Read and Learn | Scholastic.com. Retrieved February 20, 2013, from http://teacher.scholastic.com/professional/bruceperry/aggression_violence.htm
Rappaport, N. (2004). Recent research findings on aggressive and violent behavior in youth: Implications for clinical assessment and intervention. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35, 260-277.
However, it is very far from proving that porn access reduces rape. For instance, Net access has not reduced the homicide rate.
So, what is the function of Internet porn for young men in the critical age group of 15 to 19 years of age? Most of these young men today are likely to be living at home with their parents. Logically, it would be easier to collapse your browser in a hurry, delete the cookie files and delete the browsing history than it would be to stash the stack of Hustler Magazines. For this reason, the auxiliary evidence is rather consistent and dovetails with the hypothesis that Internet access reduces rape as the Net makes it easier to get access to porn.
e also must analyze the factor of violence. University of California professors Gordon Dahl and Stefano DellaVigna claim that the more violence is on the screen, the…
Landsburg, Steven E. (2006, October 30). How the Web prevents rape. Retrieved from http://www.slate.com/id/2152487 .
Ordeal. (2010, March 24). Retrieved from http://www.linda-
Russell, Dana. (n.d.). Pornography as violence against women. Retrieved from http://www.dianarussell.com/pornintro.html
exciting about video games is you don't just interact with the game physically -- you're not just moving your hand on a joystick, but you're asked to interact with the game psychologically and emotionally as well. You're not just watching the characters on screen; you're becoming those characters.
Nina Huntemann, Game Over
Violent Video Games: Do they Cause Violent Behavior?
Disasters such as school shootings in Colorado and in other academic institutions have prompted national and international concern over media that children watch and are involved in and the consequent result in their level of aggression (Ferguson, 2007). The majority of studies have focused on the impact of TV in producing aggression and a significant amount of studies have indeed noted an association. elatively few studies, however, have been conducted on video games and whether or not these stimulate inspired violence. Moreover results are mixed. Ferguson, (2007) conducted a meta-analysis…
Anderson, CA et al. (2010) Violent Video Game Effects on Aggression, Empathy, and Prosocial
Behavior in Eastern and Western Countries: A Meta-Analytic Review Psychological Bulletin 136, No. 2, 151 -- 173
Englehardt CL et al. (2011) This is your brain on violent video games: Neural desensitization to violence predicts increased aggression following violent video game exposure Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 47 (2011) 1033 -- 1036
Englehardt CL et l (2011) Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger. Aggressive Behavior, Vol. 37 Issue 6, p539-546
There are a number of theories of aggression, which is a serious issue for a significant percentage of the population. While some people are much more aggressive than others, the reasons why they have become this way and what can be done to help them have less aggression toward themselves and others is very important to consider. There are Drive Theories, along with the General Aggression Model (GAM) and the Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis that all have to be addressed in order to have a complete understanding of aggression and its many related issues. While it may be easier to simply tell the person to "get over it," that is really not the way to handle any kind of aggressive behavior. Depending on the particular, specific issue the person is facing, he or she may not be able to "get over" whatever the problem is.
The Drive Theories
The Drive Theories…
Anderson, C.A., Buckley, K.E., & Carnagey, N.L. (2008). Creating your own hostile environment: A laboratory examination of trait aggression and the violence escalation cycle. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 462-473.
Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). Human aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 27-51.
Dill, J.C., & Anderson, C.A. (1995). Effects of frustration justification on hostile aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 21: 359 -- 369.
Feenstra, J. (2013). Chapter 10: Aggression. Social psychology. San Diego: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Case Study:Jose School Social Worker
What type of group would suit Jose based on the information that is presented? For example, social/emotional/academic focused?
Jose has undergone treatment for over six years and while he was there, he managed to reduce his aggressive behavior incidences. However, there were still times when he would become aggressive to his peers and adults. This is a demonstration of a person who needs more emotional support than academic. The group should be emotionally focused, which will allow the group to address the emotional challenges and aggressive behavior being displayed by Jose. Even if Jose is placed in a normal classroom, he might be faced with challenges that would result in him losing his self-control and harming other students or teachers. Jose is developmentally disabled and while he might be smarter than the other students in the special education class, he still has not matured emotionally.…
Toseland, R. W., & Rivas, R. F. (2013). An Introduction to Group Work Practice: Pearson New International Edition (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education Limited.
Parents can team up with teachers and schools by asking for school conferences where they can address the issue of bullying, (Barreto). The parents can also keep a record of incidents of harassment and the ways in which the school handled these situations. They should also insist on the putting up of a bullying prevention committee if one is not already in place. In order for the committee to be effective, it needs to have representatives from administration, teachers, school mental health teams and parents.
2. Teachers should be encouraged to involve the students in creating rules for the classroom regarding bullying. They should have a serious talk with the bully and explain the unacceptability of the behavior as well as its negative consequences. Reports of bullying should not be left to deal with bullying on their own in the hope that the experience will make them stronger individuals, bullying…
Barreto, Steven. Bullying and Harassment Stop When Parents Help Break the Silence. 2005.
23 May, 2010
Batsche, G.M., & Knoff, H.M. "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools." School Psychology Review, 22.6 (1994): 165-174.
Humans Innately Aggressive?
Aggression is "an action…intended to harm someone in a verbal sense (sarcasm, insults, threats or playing out "nasty motives" -- and it can be a physical act, pushing, hitting, shooting at another person or otherwise aiming to do harm to someone (McCawley, 2001, p. 1). According to a definition from Shippenburg University aggression is any form of human behavior "…directed toward the goal of harming or injuring another living being who is motivated to avoid such harm." Still another definition of aggression (Buss) is found in an essay by Bushman and Anderson: Aggression is "…a response that delivers noxious stimuli to another organism" (Bushman, et al., 1998). But the question that has been asked through the years is -- are people aggressive innately or do people learn to be aggressive? This paper delves into the issue, presents both sides (through the literature), and offers a conclusion.
Hess, Nicole H., and Hagen, Edward H. (2005). Sex differences in indirect aggression/
Psychological evidence from young adults. Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 27,
McCawley, Sarah. (2001). The Nature of Aggression (or is it Nurture?). Bryn Mawr College.
Equally problematic is the reality that persons suffering from PAPD spend an inordinate amount of time thinking about how they've been wronged. This causes them emotional and physical distress, such as increased pain and anxiety, which may permeate from the leader through the workplace.
Most people have the capacity to acknowledge their feelings when they become angry and have the ability to self-regulate. Instead of speaking the first thoughts that pop their head they take the time to formulate a rational, constructive, and respectful response before speaking. Being straightforward is the most effective method to get through anger in a positive and swift manner. Individuals who suffer from PAPD often do not feel entitled to have strong emotions and are often incapable of dealing with them in a straightforward manner (Pagan, 2012).
For these reasons mitigating situations where the leader exhibits PAPD can be difficult. Certain things should be remembered…
Motamedi, K. (2006). Seven neuritic styles of management. Graziadio business review, Vol. 9, Issue 4. Pepperdine University. Retrieved Septmber 26, 2012, from http://gbr.pepperdine.edu/2010/08/seven-neurotic-styles-of-management/
Pagan, C.N. (2012, May). What kind of angry are you? Prevention, Vol. 64, Issue 5, 74-79. Retrieved Septmber 26, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=6&hid=24&sid=5fac09df-68e7-4b4d-aa99-42fd2d22ed66%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPWNvb2tpZSxpcCx1cmwsY3BpZCZjdXN0aWQ9czYyNDMzNDEmc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl#db=aph&an=74231882
Vuilleumier, P. & Huang, Y. (2009, June). Emotional attention: Uncovering the mechanisms of affective biasis in perception. Current directions in psychological science. Vol. 18, Issue 3, 148-152. Wiley-Blackwell. Retrieved September 26, 2012 from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?hid=17&sid=c36c1d17-1318-4eb1-b1e5-8650ab7abe5e%40sessionmgr13&vid=4
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…
Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.
Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…
Butterworth, F. (1998, July 26). Why the South's murder rate is so high. The New York Times on the Web. ( http://www.nytimes.com )
Capra. F. (1996). The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books.
Carlson, N.R. (1994). Physiology of behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Cohen, D., Nisbett, R.E., & Bowdle, B.F. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: an "experimental ethnography." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945-960.
Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD
Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.
Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Disgnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC APA.
Clark, Duncan. Vanyukov, Michael. Cornelius, Jack. (November, 2002). Childhood Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: 66, 136-138.
Crawford, Nicole. (February, 2003). ADHD: a women's issue. Monitor on Psychology, APA: Volume 34, No. 2, p. 28.
Hinshaw, S.P. (2003). Preadolescent girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
The learning atmosphere in schools have changed drastically over the years and the schools which were once considered safe are becoming sites of bullying, violence and anti-social activities, Presently the school administration and also the teachers are under tremendous pressure for ensuring a safe, disciplined and effective learning environment, enabling students to acquire academic and social skills that would equip them in academic achievement and assist them in the overall development of the students. This recent increase in the pressure is greatly due to the increasing incidences of violence in the schools and played up by the media and the challenges faced by the teachers in deciding the most appropriate disciplinary measures to set the problem student back on the learning path. This brings to light the changing profiles of teachers, from that of good academicians to that of a versatile educator-cum-counsellor-disciplinarian, capable of guiding his students through…
Gresham, F.M. (1998). Social skills training: Should we raze, remodel, or rebuild? Behavioral Disorders, 24, 19-25.
Grusec, J.E. (1982). The socialisation of altruism. In N. Eisenberg (ed), The Development of Prosocial behavior, 135-57.New York: Academic Press
Hartup, W.W. (1996) The company they keep: Friendships and their developmental significance. Child Development, 67, 1-13.
Horner, R.H. & Sugai, G. (2002). Overview of Positive Behavior Support. Paper presented at the 2002 Convention of the Council for Exceptional Children, New York.
Thus, the television shows, or their producers would have us think, do not actually promote violence and sexual promiscuity, they simply depict it as part of the reality of the particular people they chose to show on their programs.
The problem, however, comes with what such depictions teach those people for whom identity is yet to be determined - our youngest boys and girls. Before MTV's the Real orld, popular culture's images of boys and girls was managed through a scripted experience - a lens that showed only what the writers, directors, producers, and television executives wanted you to see. Therefore, shows gave people what other people thought they should and would like, and nothing else. hat reality shows have capitalized on is a hunger for the non-scripted, for the spontaneous, for the unpredictable. and, as society is still managed by people who were brought up by people who generally…
Adams, N.G. (2005, Spring). Growing Up Female. NWSA Journal, 206(6).
Clark, T. (2008, March 24). Let's Misbehave. Multichannel News, p. 14.
Mantilla, K. (2003, Aug-Sept). Boys Girls will be Boys. Off Our Backs, 48(8).
Moss, L. (2007, June 25). The Good Fight. Multichannel News, 28 (26), p. 20.
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.
Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.
. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
Violence in Media Contribute to Violent Behavior in Children?
In this day and age, the media is part and parcel of most people's lives in such a way that there is an interaction with media in different forms each day. People access media for many reasons, some of which are to gather information, to be entertained and in order to advance their education. In today's media, violence has become a common feature, raising fears of what the impact of this might be. This issue is prevalent all around the world today and has been accessed by people of all ages, races and religions. Questions have been raised as to the effect this violence has had and will have on the viewer (Hinkley, et al., 2014). Media can be accessed in various forms, including television, radios, films, games and the internet. All these mediums have a potential to affect people's lives,…
Bushman, B. J., Gollwitzer, M., & Cruz, C. (2015). There is broad consensus: Media researchers agree that violent media increase aggression in children, and pediatricians and parents concur. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 4, 200-214. doi:10.1037/ppm0000046.
Ferguson, C. J. (2015). Does Media Violence Predict Societal Violence? It Depends on What You Look at and When. Journal of Communication 65, E1 -- E22. doi:10.1111/jcom.12129
Ferguson, C. J., Olson, C. K., Kutner, L. A., & Warner, D. E. (2014). Violent video games, catharsis seeking, bullying, and delinquency: A multivariate analysis of effects. Crime & Delinquency, 60, 764-784. doi:10.1177/0011128710362201
Greitemeyer, T., & Mugge, D. O. (2014). Video games do affect social outcomes: a meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 40, 578-589. doi:10.1177/0146167213520459
Understanding why crime occurs requires an appreciation for the complexity of human behavior. Behavior is not determined by one factor, but rather influenced by a host of interrelated factors. Modern biological theories in criminology differ from previous theories in that they examine the entire range of biological characteristics, including those that result from genetic defects (those that are inherited) and those that are environmentally induced. In addition, theories developed since the 1980s do not suggest that biological characteristics directly cause crime. Instead, researchers argue that certain biological conditions increase the likelihood that an individual will engage in some antisocial behavior that can be defined as criminal (Fishbein, 1990). Modern theories increasingly focus on the interaction between biological characteristics and the social environment, rather than looking solely at the effects of biology.
his paper explores the research regarding genetic causes or pre-dispositions to criminal behavior and examines the evidence which…
Thornberry (1987) incorporates social learning theory, social bonding, cognitive theory, and social structure theories of criminal behavior to explain delinquency. Thornberry sees delinquency activities as changing over time. As youths enter adolescence, their bonds to their parents and social institutions are said to weaken. Peer groups become more important to them.
If these young people reside in socially disorganized environments, they are at high risk to have weak social bonds and peers who engage in deviance. Adolescents who are from more stable environments may engage in deviancy (they are, after all, adolescents), but their actions are better controlled by stronger social bonds and associations with peers who engage in more conventional behaviors.
Thornberry sees delinquent behaviors as influenced by age. As young people enter their late teens, the influence of peers gives way to perceptions of their roles in society. Thornberry
Genetic makeup also shapes the talents and interests of individuals (eaver, Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained, 2009). Genes help to determine what talents and interests an individual develops. At the same time, individuals tend to befriend others with the same talents and interests as a way to relate. Just the same as a football player will befriend other football players, a delinquent will befriend other delinquents as a way to relate to others. All research shows that genetic effects are more powerful in high-risk environments as opposed to low-risk environments (eaver, Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained, 2009). The effects of the delinquents will be more powerful in scope than the example of football players. High-risk environments, such as abuse and violence, drugs and alcohol, and poverty can enhance the effects of the genetic makeup.
iological factors combined with environmental factors play huge roles in the way individuals behave. Where the…
Beaver, K. (2009). Chapter 2: The Stability of Criminal and Anologous Behaviors. In K. Beaver, Biosocial criminology: A primer (pp. 16-34). Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co.
Beaver, K. (2009). Chapter 3: Gene-Environment Interplay Explained. In K. Beaver, Biosocial criminology: A primer (pp. 91-108). Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co.
Wright, J.T. (2008). Chapter 4: Genetics and Crime. In J.T. Wright, Criminals in the making: Criminality across the life course (pp. 55-70). Los Angelos: Sage.
Causes of Criminal Behavior
Although crimes have been committed since times immemorial, a systematic study of the causes of criminal behavior (or why crimes are committed) is a relatively recent phenomenon. Various theories have been put forward and numerous research studies have been conducted to better understand the criminal mind in order to prevent or reduce crime. It is, perhaps, a tribute to the complexity of the human brain that most of these theories remain just "theories" with little evidence to support definite and irrefutable patterns of criminal behavior. This is not to suggest that all theories of "criminology" are worthless -- most of them do provide useful insight into the criminal mind and at least partially explain the reasons why crimes are committed by certain individuals. In this paper we shall explore some of the theories of criminal behavior that have attempted to throw light on the causes of…
Bardsley, Marilyn. "David Berkowitz"-Son of Sam. Crime Library. 2003.
Courtroom Television Network Website. November 28, 2003 http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/berkowitz/berkowitz_6.html
Bell, Rachel. "Ted Bundy -- A Time of Change" Crime Library. 2003
Courtroom Television Network Website. Courtroom Television Network Website. 2003
Emily's Condition Using ABC Chart
ABC Analysis Chart
Child: Emily Observer: Lead educator in her classroom
Emily is playing alone with a doll. Janesta, who is 23 months old, walks over to Emily and takes the doll Emily was playing with.
Emily bites Janesta on the arm.
I swiftly pick up Emily and tell her, "We don't bite," and hold her in my lap for a few minutes. Then she runs to play with blocks.
Emily is trying to self-assert through expressing her frustration at Janesta's actions. She is using biting as the quickest and most effective means to protest since she does not have the necessary language skills ("Toddler Biting Behavior," n.d.).
September 27th 2015
Emily walks up to a boy in the class.
Emily bites the boy on the shoulder without any apparent provocation.
The assistant quickly picks Emily up…
"Responding to Your Child's Bite." (n.d.). The Center on the Social and Emotional Foundations for Early Learning. Retrieved from Vanderbilt University website: http://csefel.vanderbilt.edu/documents/biting-parenting_tool.pdf
Stephens, K. (2007). Biting Among Toddlers and Twos: Responses to Try. Retrieved from Eastern Florida State University website: http://www.easternflorida.edu/community-resources/child-development-centers/parent-resource-library/documents/biting-among-toddlers.pdf
"Toddler Biting Behavior." (n.d.). When Toddlers Bite. Retrieved from Citrus College website: http://www.citruscollege.edu/cdc/Documents/Child-Related%20Resources/General%20Development/When_Toddlers_Bite.pdf
For example, an upscale restaurant, mid-market clothing store, hardware store, and general store could all be sampled, and over the course of four days shoppers could be asked to respond to a survey at the check-out counter about their perceptions of the store and shopping experience. The data could then be analyzed demographically, in terms of consumer perceptions, and also precisely what the different shoppers bought on different days, as opposed to what they said they would buy. This would also allow repeated testing -- using the same four-day musical format over different periods of the year at different stores. The article's study takes the form of a posttest only study design: the independent variable of the music (or in the case of the control group, the lack thereof) is applied, and then subjects record their responses.
The advantage to the test is that there is no 'learning,' necessary to…
North, Adrian C. & David J. Hargreaves. (1998). The effect of music on atmosphere and purchase intentions in a cafeteria. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 28 (24):
Behavior of Concrete in ivers and Marine Areas
The marine atmosphere and also the river atmosphere are infamously harsh on man-made structures; furthermore, the materials employed for construction are seriously examined through these elements and how they would impact each other. Strengthened concrete is among the materials frequently employed for near shoreline, as well as off the shore, structures. These structures, whether submerged in or suspended within the marine or river area are susceptible to high amounts of chlorides, sulphates and magnesium -- all of which are hazardous to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, they are also exposed to high velocity of waves, the potentially harmful results of that are well recorded. This paper will indicate whether another method of strengthened concrete design, inside the limits from the codes, for marine as well as river structures may be more beneficial in the perspectives of engineering, construction, sturdiness and financial aspects. This…
Castro P., Rincon O.T. de and Pazini E.J., (2001), Interpretation of chloride profiles from concrete exposed to tropical marine environments, Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 529 -- 537. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants.
Choong K.Y. (2003), Durability performance of fifties years old concrete jetties in tropical marine environment, International Conference on Port and Maritime R&D and Technology, 97 -- 103, Singapore. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants
Costa A. And Appleton J. (2002), Case studies of concrete deterioration in marine environment in Portugal, Cement & Concrete Composites, 24, 169 -- 179.
Dehwah, H.A.F., Maslehuddin, M., and Austin, S.A. (2002). Effect of Cement Alkalinity on Pore Solution Chemistry and Chloride-Induced Reinforcement Corrosion, ACI Materials Journal, V.99, No.3, pp. 227-233. Taken from: Islam, M., Islam, S., Mondal, B.C. And Islam, M.R. (2010). Strength behavior of concrete using slag with cement in sea water environment. Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 38 (2): 129-140.
Nonetheless, despite Alex's impersonal and intimidating style of management, she has proven to be an effective motivator throughout all aspects of her role in the company, successfully spearheading the rebranding campaigns of two major skin care products while earning promotions along the way. In the 9:00PM section of the case study timeline, the reader is privy to a conversation between Alex's boss Sam Glass and his senior counterpart in the company, and their glowing appraisal of her managerial presence bodes well for her potential for future career success at Landon Care Products, Inc. When Sam Glass says "Alex makes waves, but that's the price you pay for having such a star," he is showing that executive management prioritizes performance and productivity over the personal feelings of low-level workers. By dismissing the concerns voiced by many of Alex's coworkers simply the waves made by star management material, Sam Glass shows that…
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…
Asfahl, C.R. (1999) Industrial safety and health management, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman.
Curtis, S.L., (1995) "Safety and total quality management," Professional Safety, Jan., pp.18-20
DiPadova, L.N., and Faerman, S.R. (1993). "Using the competing values framework to facilitate managerial understanding across levels of organizational hierarchy," Human Resource Management, 32(1), 143-174
Behavior therapy uses rewards or reinforcements to create positive behaviors in order to replace destructive behaviors. Desensitizing is an important part of this type of therapy, where the patient confronts something they have been unable to deal with, such as a fear or anxiety, and gradually learns to become desensitized to the problem, which eliminates the negative behavior (Editors, 2006).
Basically, both therapies give the patient ways to deal with problems in their lives. The basic different between the two therapies is how they address and handle these problems. Psychotherapy attempts to give the patient ideas and tools to help them master their problems and reactions to problems, while behavioral therapy attempts to fully eliminate unwanted behaviors by desensitizing and behavior modification.
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. etrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. etrieved…
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. Retrieved from the Anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com Web site: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/articles/conventional/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_techniques.php12 March 2007.
The teachers acknowledge that the other disruptive behaviors propagates the destruction of the school property therefore computer-based management results in the upstaging of the security of the school properties. This eminent vandalism is prominent in the cases where the students would like to have money selling the school properties.
The teachers separately attribute the poor morals of the students to inexperience and the ignorance of the students. Involving of computer-based programs in the student behavior management clears the doubt in the effectiveness of the management of the issues entailed. The perspective to the approach assists in the enhancement of the Developmental period of the basis of the Phase learner. They view the approach to increase the contact between the teacher and the student in the countering of the trends emergent in the process. They attribute the computer approach to the advancement in the mastery of the life skills for the…
Dziegielewski, S.F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in action. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
O'Donnell, a.M., Reeve, J., & Smith, J.K. (2011). Educational psychology: Reflection for action. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Spiegler, M.D., & Guevremont, D.C. (2010). Contemporary behavior therapy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Leaman, L. (2009). Managing very challenging behaviour. New York: Continuum
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)
Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co
Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
Parents Magazine (2008):
I am Toddler, Hear me Roar: Learning to Live With and Love Your Toddler"
The Terrible Twos: A Preview of the Teenage Years
Angry. Opinionated. Possessing a unique will and capabilities. Ready to explore the world, regardless of whether his or her parents think he or she is ready to do so. Although this description may seem to fit the profile of the typical adolescent, it is also a fair description of toddlers as well. Toddlerhood is the first major stage of childhood development when children are learning how to test their limits and stretch and grow as people by taking risks. As any parent knows, every toddler's favorite word is a decided 'no,' usually uttered in a very loud and declarative tone! Parents are often frustrated during this period of their child's development, as they strike a balance between encouraging the toddler's independence while still striving…
Co-Occurrence of Substance Use-Behaviors in Youth
Co-occurrence of Substance Use Behaviors in Youth
Author Biographies: Biographical information of the authors is not made available in the research bulletin. A search online indicates that Carl McCurley shares a passion for analyzing and improving outcomes for court-involved children, youth and families that he was able to apply in the Models for Change program at the National Center for Juvenile Justice. McCurley, Director Administrative Office of the Courts/Washington State Center for Court esearch (WSCC). McCurley joined the Administrative Office of the Courts in 2007As the newly hired WSCC director, he sought to broaden the Center's work, expanding beyond the customary focus of court operations to analyze the courts' impact on the lives of those they served.
Howard N. Snyder is considered to be the foremost expert on juvenile justice data, policy, and is now employed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics,…
Malgarini, M. (2005, November). Efficient sample design and weighting methodologies: Analysis of key issues and recommendations. [Paper presented at the Joint European Commission - OECD Workshop on International Development of Business and Consumer Tendency Surveys in Brussels on November 14 -- 15, 2005, for the Task Force on Harmonisation of Survey Operation and Technical Design}. Retrieved http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/12/37/35493506.pdf
Monitoring the Future. Retrieved http://monitoringthefuture.org/purpose.html
One of the crucial elements towards the realization of organizational success and profitability is creating a suitable working environment for all employees to thrive as they carry out their respective responsibilities. In essence, employees' contributions towards the achievement of established business goals/objectives is largely influenced by the nature of the working environment and working conditions. However, employees' behaviors also play a crucial role in determining their productivity in the workplace. Self-defeating behaviors in the workplace contributes to stress, which in turn affects employees' input to work processes and the overall profitability of an organization. This paper examines the management of stress brought by self-defeating behaviors in the workplace. The evaluation includes recommendations of suitable solutions to this issue based on organizational theory concepts and the concepts of organizational behavior.
The organization I work for has several divisions or department that are mandated with various responsibilities and tasks towards…
..in the same manner as their guests and if they operate with this type of beliefs they can ensure everyone gets a dose of the Disney magic." (Waltz, 2007)
V. DISNEY ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
Waltz (2007) states that the organizational culture of Disney is build upon: "...innovation, quality, community, storytelling, optimism, and decency because the foundation of the company was based on the very same culture we see today in the above mentioned beliefs of Walt Disney." The work of Arnie Witchel entitled: "A Model for Implementation of Organizational Development in the Human Resources Area" relates that: "A few years ago, Walt Disney World consciously decided to move its culture toward a paradigm of "Performance Excellence." This concept affected all human resource areas, with concentration on eight key actions that would affect the culture, including breaking down barriers, sharing information, risk taking, teamwork (Performance Excellence, 1994). This is an ongoing change…
Grant, Robert M. (nd) Euro-Disney: From Dream to Nightmare, 1987-94. Case Fourteen.
Suit, Douglas P. (2004) Magic for Sale. Workforce Management, September 2004, p. 35-40.
Waltz, Johnny (2007) the Magic of Disney's Organizational Behavior Concepts. 23 Sept 2007. Associated Content. Online available at http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/381660/the_magic_of_disneys_organizational.html?page=2
Witchel, Arnie (nd) a Model for Implementation of Organizational Development in the Human Resources Area - Organizational Development Model for Human Resources. Witchel & Associates. Online available at http://witchelandassociates.com/OD%20Model.htm
In here, the teens are seeking for adventure and experiment with different ideas. During this time, the adolescent battles over his own set of values vs. The set established by parents and other adult figures. They also begin to take on more control of educational and vocational pursuits and advantages. It is during this time that adolescents' self-dependence and a sense of responsibility become apparent, along with their quest to contribute to society and find their place in it.
With the way they respond to peer pressure, social demands and other factors that lead to irresponsible actions, teens should know their consequences. Excessive drinking, smoking and drugs can cause damage to vital organs including liver, lungs, heart and pancreas. It can also cause death, not only of the person who consumed such but of a third party as well. Drinking while driving may cause an accident or worse, even death…
Robert Sherman. (2003). Teenage Behavior Problems - Parental Interventions
Retrieved April 22, 2007. At http://www.character-education.us/interventions.htm
Teenage Risk-taking: Biological and Inevitable? (2007). Retrieved April 22, 2007 from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2007/04/070412115231.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Manipulation in Never Let Me Go
Manipulation is a relatively dark part of interpersonal relationships that occurs when the manipulator has certain motivations or inner uncertainties. It generally stems from a feeling of insecurity or other forms of unhappiness. The manipulation process is then used to overcome or overshadow these feelings. According to Handelamn (2009, p. 45), "manipulation is not exactly coercion or persuasion or deception." Instead, according to the author, it lies somewhere inbetween the three mentioned actions. This is why manipulation can occur in so many different forms and manifestations. uth's actions in Never Let me Go, for example, take a particularly aggressive aspect when she constantly bullies Kathy and Tommy to do what she wants. By the end of the novel, however, her actions clearly stem from a deep sense of uncertainty based upon the fact that she is a clone rather than a person in her…
Austin, E.J., Farrelly, D., Black, C, and Moore, H. (2007, Jan 26). Emotional Intelligence, Machiavellianism and emotional manipulation: Does EI have a dark side? Personality and Individual Differences. 43. Retrieved from: teamvdf.free.fr/TER%20M1/Emotional%20intelligence%20does%20EI%20have%20a%20dark%20side.pdf
Coxall, M. (2013). Human Manipulation: A Handbook. Spain: Cornelio Books.
Furtner, M.R., Rauthmann, J.F., and Sachse, P. (2011). The Self-Loving Self-Leader: An Examinaition of the Relationship between Self-Leadership and the Dark Triad. Social Behavior and Personality. 39(3). Retrieved from: researchgate.net
Handelman, S. (2009). Thought Manipulation: The Use and Abuse of Psychological Trickery. Santa Barbara, CA: Library of Congress.
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…
Bobo, J.H. (2000). Sociocultural Influences on Smoking and Drinking. Alcohol Research & Health, 225-234.
Cooper, T.K. (2003). A prospective evaluation of the relationships between smoking dosage and body mass index in an adolescent, biracial cohort. Addictive Behaviors, 501-512.
Falba, T. (2005). Health events and the smoking cessation of middle aged Americans. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, n.p.
Gies, C.B. (2007). Effect of an Inpatient Nurse-Directed Smoking Cessation Program. Western Journal of Nursing Research, n.p.
Hence, variables that occur outside of the classroom have an impact on the teacher's ability to institute positive behavior support (PBS). That makes it all the more vital that strategies are in place in the classroom designed to deal with all setting events, distant and recent, when possible.
Body of Paper -- Distant Setting Events & Antecedents
How do antecedents effect the behavior of students? Antecedents have a tendency to either pull individuals or push individuals into doing something, or feeling a certain way. Author Edward P. Sarafino points out that a stimulus serves as an antecedent; for example, children seeing other children rope jumping before class starts is a stimulus for an antecedent because it sets the table for behavior. The rope jumping is orderly, fun, and children have smiles when they to their rope jumping (Sarafino, 2010, 71).
Children learn through stimulus generalization, by responding to stimuli, and…
Baron, Grace M. (2006). Stress and Coping in Autism. New York: Oxford University Press.
Demchak, MaryAnn, and Greenfield, Robin G. (2003). Transition Portfolios for Students with Disabilities: How to Help Students, Teachers, and Families Handle New Settings. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Durand, Vincent Mark. (1990). Severe Behavior Problems: A Functional Communication
Training Approach. New York: Guilford Press.
Consumer Behavior for Marketing
Understanding Consumer Behavior
Understanding consumers' perceptions is critical to marketing and advertising. Consumers are increasingly selective with regard to the advertising that they pay attention to and mass marketing is fast losing its effectiveness and appeal. There is any number of strategies that marketers can employ to increase positive consumer perception of their brands. Several suggestions follow: (1) Engage in socially responsible investing in causes that can reasonably associated with the company or the brand: Examples of this strategy can be seen in programs that Starbucks has established to give back to domestic communities and to engage in foreign communities in need. Sale of Ethos water provides a portion of the revenue to be used for infrastructure changes to communities that do not have reliable sources of clean water. The ed program -- a collaborative effort which extended to other firms -- used a portion of…
Cherry K (2012) Classical vs. Operant Conditioning. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/classical-vs.-operant-conditioning.htm
Pavlov IP. (1927) Conditioned reflexes. London: Oxford University Press.
Skinner BF (1953) Science and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan.
The unethical research behavior discussed was conducted by yeth, and is symptomatic of the systemic issues that the pharmaceutical industry has with respect to research. The article details a case involving yeth that resulted in class action litigation. The ethical issue in this case is fraudulent research. The allegation is that yeth fabricated research by using "vendors to produce ghostwritten manuscripts and place them into medical journals." The research produced was therefore entirely fraudulent, but passed off in medical journals as legitimate research. The objective of placing this research in the journals was to legitimize the new drug that yeth was about launch, Prempro, a menopausal hormone therapy.
The larger issue is publication planning, described by Fugh-Berman (2010) as "the process by which pharmaceutical, biotech and medical device companies produce and release articles in medical journals and posters at meetings to establish key marketing messages." These companies use…
Fugh-Berman, A. (2010). The haunting of medical journals: How ghostwriting sold "HRT." PLOS Medicine. Vol. 7 (9) Retrieved October 31, 2012 from http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1000335
Capital Requirement and Risk ehavior
Arab African International ank
Midan ElSaray El Koubra, Garden City Caoro
The research will mainly dwell on the capital requirements and risk behavior of banks, more in particular the credit risk. The purpose of this research is to identify and analyze the relationship between capital requirements and the risk behavior of banks in Egypt
more in particular the Arab African International ank, which is the case study for this research. Secondly, the research will seek to investigate the impact of capital regulation on the banking behaviors and particularly on the levels of credit risk of banks operating in Egypt
The findings of the research show that there is negative relationship between capital requirement and banks' risk behavior; the findings also show there is empirical evidence to prove that capital regulations have a negative impact on credit risk of banks levels of credit risk of banks…
Aggarwal, R. And K. Jacques, (1998), a Simultaneous Equation Estimation of the Impact of Prompt Corrective Action on Bank Capital and Risk, New York, 12-23
Avery, R.B. And A.B. Berger, (1991), Risk-based capital and deposit insurance reform, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 847-874
Berger, A.N., Herring R.J. And Szego, G.P. (1995), the Role of Capital in Financial
Institutions, Journal of Banking and Finance pp 19, 393-430.
Name changes, surgery or even legal birth certificate changes on this subject are scrutinized, difficult to attain and never really expressly respected as legitimate proof of someone's sex or gender, once they have occurred. (117)
Denmark and Nielson, in their International handbook on Gender Roles characterize the U.S. As a multi-cultural nation that is demonstrative of social change with regard to gender roles and yet they go on to say that even though the rhetoric may have changed and opportunities may have opened for women in this traditionally gendered society, and that men are seen as being more responsible for traditionally female tasks the culture is still fixed in many ways with regard to gender roles.
However, throughout the history of the U.S.A., women have been faced with balancing their productive and reproductive work (Anderson, 1988). Regardless of their contributions, either professionally or domestically, the social position of women has…
Denmark, Florence L., and Karen a. Nielson. "31 United States of America." International Handbook on Gender Roles. Ed. Leonore Loeb Adler. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1993. 452-465.
Feldman, Lorelei "Biological and Sociocultural Views and Consequences of Gender Stereotyping" Retrieved, November 20, 2007 at http://www.unc.edu/~lorelei/sexroles.html
Garfinkle, Harold. Studies in Ethnomethodology. New York: Polity. 1991.
Spykerman, Sara "Gender Roles and Work: Recent Research" 1997, Retrieved November 20, 2007 at http://www.hope.edu/academic/psychology/335/webrep/genroles.html
Psychosocial background of these rapists is inclusive of physical as well as verbal abuse which can be from both or one of the parents. Abuse-based background is seen in more than 56% of the rapists in this category. More than 80% of the rapists belong to divorced households; most of these are adopted or have spent their childhood in foster care. elationships of these rapists with women in the past have failed or did not work based on which hostile feelings have developed against the opposite sex.
Background profiling on rapists has shown that these normally are raised in single parent households with increased issues. Additionally they grow up being physically as well as verbally abused facing sexual deviances. The children facing these conditions are the ones that clearly show tendencies towards sexual promiscuity. In the case of adults, it has been seen that they are married later in…
Girod, J.R. (2004). Profiling the Criminal Mind: Behavioral Science and Criminal Investigative Analysis. Iuniverse Inc.
Holmes, M.R., and Holmes, S. (2002). Profiling violent crimes: an investigative tool. Edition 3. Sage.
Innes, B. (2003). Profile of a criminal mind: how psychological profiling helps solve true crimes. Reader's Digest.
Jacobs, D. (2011). Analyzing Criminal Minds: Forensic Investigative Science for the 21st Century: Brain, behavior, and evolution. ABC-CLIO.
It is more concerned with understanding the way that ethnical ideas are presented, than judging those concepts within the construct of the society. However, when one looks at the history of any philosophical subject, it is important to note that differing concepts of philosophy often arise "out of" that very historical and cultural fabric of the time -- and then evolve so that they become more acceptable to future generations rather than contemporaneous ones. Individuals tend to justify unethical behavior based on these concepts; if the behavior results in what they perceive to be the best choice for everyone, or if they have self-interests and are able to find a reason for their action. A classic example is in the Victor Hugo book Les Miserables. The main character is imprisoned for stealing a loaf of bread for his starving sister and seven children. He is imprisoned for 19 years for…
This level of operations was reached in less than 50 years, making the rise of Walmart one of the truly sensational success stories of the 20th century. The research was also consistent in showing that the company's organizational culture that stresses cost savings at every opportunity to minimize operational costs and increase savings to customers has been responsible in large part for much of Walmart's success to date. Many organizations falter and fail when they lose the leadership of a charismatic individual such as Sam Walton, but the research made it clear that he imbued his retain chain of stores with his own philosophical views about what was important and made these views stick with an organizational culture that still reflects these values today. In the final analysis, Walmart has transformed the American landscape and it is in the process of transforming the global one as well and the day…
About us. (2010). Walmart Corporate. Retrieved from http://walmartstores.com/AboutUs/ .
Chen, H., Daughterty, P.J. & Landry, T.D. (2009). Supply chain process integration: a theoretical framework. Journal of Business Logistics, 30(2), 27-28.
Cocheo, S. (2003). Always aggressive, always Wal-Mart: What makes Wal-Mart keep coming back and back to financial services? ABA Banking Journal, 95(5), 29-30.
Foote, S. & Krishnamurthi, M. (2001). Forecasting using data warehousing model: Wal-mart's experience. The Journal of Business Forecasting Methods & Systems, 20(3), 13-14.
Organizational Behavior and Teamwork
Southwest Airlines, Inc. has become an example of notable success. One reason for its significant achievement is its application of Reinforcement Theory to its employees. These applications have resulted in a highly motivated workforce, which is intimately tied to Southwest's success among business leaders. Even so, not even Southwest can satisfy its employees' needs according to Maslow's Hierarchy; rather, Southwest can only give some raw materials for satisfying those needs.
Are Southwest Airlines Inc. leadership and policies fulfilling Maslow's Needs Theory stages?
Abraham Maslow's 5-stage needs theory, developed in the United States during the 1940's and 1950's (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010), includes the following stages: biological and physiological needs; safety needs; belongingness and love needs; esteem needs; and self-actualization (Chapman, Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2010). The most basic needs that are basic to survival and are at the bottom…
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/careers/career_opportunities.html
Coca-Cola Company. (2012). Sustainability. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www.thecoca-colacompany.com Web site: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/index.html
Erdogan, B., & Bauer, T. (2010). Organizational behavior. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from students.flatworldknowledge.com Web site: http://students.flatworldknowledge.com/bookhub/study/4?e=
IWon. (n.d.). Careers. Retrieved on October 24, 2012 from www1.iwon.com Web site: http://www1.iwon.com/home/careers/company_profile/0,15623,1310,00.html
Assessing Problematic Behavior
Assessing problematic behavior in children requires a careful assessment design. elying solely on subjective measurements is likely to skew the "results" to reflect the pre-observation biases or beliefs of the observer. This statement is not meant to imply that observers are in any way dishonest or lacking in integrity. ather, because children who are exhibiting problematic behaviors are likely to exhibit a number of behaviors in a short period of time and may well exhibit more than one behavior at a time. Without a clearly established method for identifying and calculating the presence of these behaviors, it is nearly impossible to create an accurate record of the behaviors given the overwhelming wealth of data that will be presented to the observer in the course of even of short and seemingly simple and straightforward observation.
The subject at hand, Kaya, has demonstrated a number of problematic…
Cale, S. et al. (2009). Context-Based Assessment and Intervention for Problem Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behavior Modification 3(6): 707-742.
Protections Against Improper Police Behavior
Ladies and Gentlemen,
It is important to note that in seeking to detect and prevent crime as well as when it comes to the apprehension of lawbreakers, you need to be mindful of the various protections accorded to the citizens of this country against improper police behavior.
To begin with, you need to be aware of the various protections the Federal Constitution accords the citizens of this country against any police behavior regarded improper. A good example of the said protections can be found in the Fourth Amendment. The Fourth Amendment according to Travis III (2011) "protects the homes, papers, and possessions of the citizenry from unreasonable searches." Towards that end, in addition to being judicially suctioned, any warrant should be supported by what is referred to as probable cause.
Further, still on the protections accorded to citizens by the constitution against improper police behavior,…
Bumgarner, J.B. (2004). Profiling and Criminal Justice in America: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.
Champion, D.J. (2001). Police Misconduct in America: A Reference Handbook. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.
Travis III, L.F. (2011). Introduction to Criminal Justice (7th ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier.
Brand Equity and Customer Purchasing Behavior
Taking into account the numerous modifications witnessed in the marketing milieu- viz. The accessibility to plethora of knowledge through various electronic devices, the emergence of modern methods of buying, the ability of the companies to use technology to target consumer more specifically, getting a feel of customer tendencies is still more difficult. Purchasing activities is the sequence of choice and actions of individuals occupied in procuring and consuming the same. An enterprise must evaluate its purchasing activities. Purchaser's responses to the marketing technique of the enterprise put an enormous influence on the achievement of the enterprise. The marketing perception highlights that an enterprise must build up a unique blend of marketing initiatives that makes the customers happy, and hence the urgency to evaluate the substance, the place, the time and the purchasing pattern of consumers and by way of addressing this, marketing personnel can…
Aaker, David A. 1996. "Measuring Brand Equity across Products and Markets" California Management Review. Volume: 16; No; 2; pp: 43-47
AMR Research Report. 2004. "POS Data: The Beginning of DDSN for Consumer Products Manufacturers" February.
Anderson, J.C; Cleveland, G; Schroeder, R. 1989. "Operations Strategy: A Literature Review" Journal of Operations Management. Volume: 8; No: 1; pp: 56-64
Baker, M. 2000. Marketing Management and Strategy" Macmillan Business.
The elder is expected to have learned from the previous elder, developed more knowledge and expertise, and is now passing this on to the workers that are employed. This ostensibly a function of the cultural fabric within the framework of Mexican societal mores that establishes the knowledge transfer relationship.
Therefore, business operations in Mexico, as a Mexican workforce is to be hired, are a direct reflection of these cultural mores within the rigid chain-of-command. Similar to a banking operation, the role of the employee is subject to protocol and oversight by the manager. The manager is not an embodiment of the 'chain-of-command'. In fact, Mexican office environments appear to be autonomous and horizontal rather than vertical in control.
The use of hierarchy would be to establish the rapport necessary to engage the Mexican market. Therefore, client engagements will be hierarchical with the manager-employee relationship expressing the chain-of-command as the functional…
Geert-Hofstede (2011).Mexico & Germany. http://www.geert-hofstede.com
Kwintessential (2011). Mexico & Germany. www.kwintessential.co.uk
Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada. (2011) Mexico & Germany. www.tradecommissioner.gc.ca/
In its Pavilion dm1-3101ea laptop, Hp has used the latest technology to make this product the most innovative, fastest, and the most liked electronic gadget in the market (Dixons 2011). To stay competitive, HP has to keep on introducing the latest models of its Pavilion laptops so that no other competitor can snatch its market share.
Social factors such as education, income levels, preferences, and other cultural factors influence demand patterns in the different regions and therefore affect how a company operates in different regions. The education and income level of consumers affect the perception of brand of different laptop manufacturers (Oliver 1999). The prices of laptop must be ascertained considering the income levels and other social factors affecting the purchase decisions of the consumers. HP has to keep in mind all these factors in order to attract the most potential customers from the target market (Farley 1964).…
Clemons, E., 2000, the decoupling of value creation from revenue: A strategic analysis of the markets for pure information goods. Information Technology & Management, 4(2), 259-287.
Conolly, A., 2010, winning health promotion strategies, Leeds: Human Kinetics
Dean, J., & Tam, P., 2005, the laptop trial. U.S.: The Wall Street Journal.
Dixons, 2011, HP Pavilion dm1-3101ea Refurbished 11.6" Laptop -- Silver, Available from [Accessed November 27th, 2011]
Consumer Behavior -- Country of Origin Factors
The newcomer to marketing reality might suppose that consumers tend to be influenced by country of origin competitive advantage when it comes to buying particular luxury goods; in fact, our contemporary penchant for the very latest in gimmicks, as well as the current demand for swiftness of operation, disproves that theory. This is not to deny Marieke de Mooij's insistence that, if one realizes that people are different, then extensions reinforce those differences. Cultural values have been at the root of consumer behavior in the past, and in some domains, they remain so -- but not in all (p. 1).
esults of Experimental esearch
Students in my course, "Writing for the Markets of Tomorrow" at the university, had their preconceived notions turned upside down by a recent survey they took based on the shopping trends of tourists to Nassau Square in…
Anonymous. "The Global Wine Industry." Marketplace. (2010). Web site:
Cho Lee, MW, Jeannie. (2009). "Asian and European palates: Language of Tastes." Web site: http://www.decanter.com/people-and-places/wine
De Mooij, Marieke. (2010). Consumer Behavior and Culture, a Handbook for Marketers and Researchers. New York: Sage Publications, Inc.
Parenting Styles and their Effect on Children Behavior
Different Parenting Styles
This research paper is based on Baumrind's theory of parenting and covers the impact and consequences of different parenting styles on children's development extensively. Four parenting styles named authoritarian, authoritative, permissive, and uninvolved are discussed in detail. This paper also discusses parenting style of Canada, Japan and China in contrast with Baumrind's theory of parenting. All the impacts and influences on parenting style are deeply studied and discussed.
Early years of learning in a child's life is believed to make a significant difference in the way they develop and go on to learn throughout their lives (Kim, 1999). Developmental psychologists have been making research about the role played by parents and its impact on child development. However, developing a cause-and-effect link between parents behavior and brought up and its impact on child behavior and attitude is a relatively tough…
Golombok, S. (2000). Parenting: What Really Counts? new york: Routledge.
Kim, M. (1999). Parental Involvement, Family Processes, and Parenting Styles of First Generation Korean parents on early childhood education. New York: Umi.
Nevid, J.S. (2009). Psychology: Concepts and Applications. New York: wadsworth.
Pressley, M., & McCormick, C.B. (2007). Child And Adolescent Development for Educators. New York: Guilford Publications.
Leadership ehavior for Effective Decision Making
Effective decision making in the competitive business environment is closely linked with leadership skills. Managing change in existing organizations can often be extremely difficult, as it requires changing the organizational culture, the very roots that bind its members. This paper analyses the characteristics of a successful leader, illustrated with a practical example. Contrary to popular understanding, there is no unique style of leadership for all situations and the leader needs to be flexible and change his approach depending on case to case basis. The analysis takes into account the various theories on leadership - behavioral, contingency and transformational and evaluates the response of the leader to various situations in a typical organization operating in a fiercely competitive environment.
From the analysis, it is observed that the leader exhibited varying leadership styles and behavior to address and resolve various issues. The leader is found to…
Bennis, W. (1994) 'Visionary Leadership', in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) - 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.32-34
Gardner, H. (2001) 'Leading Minds' (ed) Manrik, J - 'Writers on Leadership', London: Penguin, pp. 73-76
Hampden-Turner, C. (1994) 'Charting the Corporate Mind' in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.110-114
Jacobson, R. (2000) 'Leading for a Change: How to master the Five Challenges faced by every leader', MA: Butterwoth-Heinmann, pp.135-138
Given that she actually has more experience with the specific problems the joint venture is encountering and the general fields in whci they are working, this attitude on the part of the Koreans is especially damaging to the cause and goals of the project.
The most essential action to be taken in order to resolve this situation is to remove Jack Kim from his position, possibly with a sideways transfer if necessary for him and Korean Conglomerate Inc. To save face according to cultural customs. His unwillingness to work with Ellen Moore is made more difficult by the American insistence on leadership through nothing but qualification, which is simply not a major part of the Korean business culture, but replacing Moore will likely not solve the issue as Kim will still be resentful of an American leading the way on a venture in his country. In fact, granting Ellen Moore…
Another dependent variable is whether the gestures or expressions from the other driver are polite and accommodating or angry and defiant.
Experimental Design and Expected Outcome
The experimenter will identify an exit lane from a highway where one exit lane requires drivers to merge from multiple lanes. To reduce other variables, the experimenter will use the same exit on the same highway for all trials in the experiment. The experimenter will not merge until almost reaching the point where the exit lane actually branches off the main highway near the point where a painted "island" absolutely requires a merge. The experimenter will be holding a piece of paper in one hand and gesturing apologetically and in a shoulder shrug with raised hands so as to create the impression that he is unfamiliar with the area and did not mean to cut into the lane to be rude or to take…
The insurance industry generally recognizes that male drivers pose a greater risk to their investments than do female drivers, and charge higher rates accordingly. While their findings are generally based on proprietary actuarial data, there have also been a number of studies about the role that gender plays in driving habits. Lonczak, Neighbors and Donovan (2007) designed a study to "examine the putative risk factors of driving anger, traffic citations and traffic-related injuries as a function of gender." The authors studied the issue measuring a number of different contributing factors including "sensation seeking, stressful events, negative affect, tobacco use and drinking behavior." The exit ramp merge portion of my study (hypothesis #2) will be conducted during rush hour when the merge can be conducted at relatively low speeds, as a necessary safety requirement. This portion of the experiment will therefore be subject to the "stressful event" criteria that Lonczak et al. studied.
Their study found that while men "reported more traffic citations and injuries (they) did not differ from women in reported driving anger." This makes an interesting point about the study that I have designed. The Lonczak study was based on self-reported survey data, while I have designed an experiential study. The difference between anger and citations between genders hints that there might be perception difference
Personality is defined as individual stable and unique pattern of thinking, acting, reacting and feeling towards social environment. Some people prioritize harmony in social relationships while some people are interested in dominance and power. On the other hand, some people are imaginative and possess unconventional ideas. These traits affect the individual, work related and interpersonal behaviors within an organization. In other words, personality is a set of distinctive personal feature and characteristics that include competencies, attitudes, emotions, and interests. (Gordon, 2001).
Team dynamics are unforeseen forces operating between groups or people. Typically, team dynamics strongly influence the method a team behaves performs or reacts. Team dynamics are created based on the personalities of the team, and working relationship with people. Typically, the team dynamics is an effective tool that can be used to tap skills of different group of people. Increasing number of organizations has identified that individual personality differences…
Barrett, R.D. (2013). Dynamics of Interagency Teams. Military Review.93(2): 53-61.
Grant, A. Gino, F. And Hofman, D.A. (2013). The Hidden Advantages of Quiet Bosses. Harvard Business Review.
Handa, M.H. And Aastha, G. (2014).Employee Engagement: Does Individual Personality Matter. Journal of Management Research. 14(1): 57-67.
Lee, S.K. (2006). Investigation of team Dynamics and Group Performances in the Product Engineering Process. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.
DSH is also often called parasuicide,…
Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.
Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.
Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.
Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
Organizational Culture of Your Company
The best organizational structure that can be developed is the project organizational structure. It combines the concepts of the line, line organizational and functional authority structures. Consequently, authority is distributed, enabling vertical control and coordination. It also gives room for dependent and interdependent activities. The direction of workflow under this structure depends on the abilities and talents of staff, influenced by where they are placed in the structure. Once a project is completed, specialists can go back to their respective departments where they can begin new projects. It is also advantageous because if used well, the structure can also accommodate a matrix organization when a company has grown (de Witte, & Van Muijen, 2000).
The structure is best for our company because it works brilliantly for new companies. Additionally, it allows for specialists placed differently in the company structure to achieve specific results.…
De Witte, K. & Van Muijen, J. (2000). Organizational Culture. New York: Psychology Press
Hellriegel, D. & Slocum, J. W. (2008). Organizational Behavior. New York: Cengage Learning
Mawhinney, T. C. (2013). Organizational Culture, Rule-Governed Behavior and Organizational Behavior Management: Theoretical Foundations and Implications for Research and Practice. New York: Routledge
Self and Social Psychology
Social psychology is a relatively new field of study in modern science. Its focus is on the identity of the "Self" -- the sense of individuality: the component parts that make up who one "is" and the meaning of the "whole" Self. This paper acts as a referenced for individuals unfamiliar with the general principles of social psychology. It aims to provide the reader with a basic overview of the field and to define key principles often used by social psychologists.
Discovering the Self
Self-Concept, Awareness, and Self-Schemas
Discovering the Self in social psychology can seem as simple as posing the question, "Who am I?" (Myers, 2010, p. 13). But answering the question is where the discovery of Self really begins. One's sense of identity, sense of self, sense of gender, race, categorical social grouping all factor into the answer. "Who am I?" raises the issue…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., Akert, R. (2012). Social Psychology. NY: Pearson.
Hewitt, J.P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University
Jung, C. (1921). Psychological Types. Zurich: Rascher Verlag.
The focus of this proposal is to use the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test whether the video games influence behavior. There has been a general public concern on the risk factor of video games on the youth's behavior especially children under 18 years of age. Science Daily (2013) shows that video games are the risk factors to aggression and criminal behavior. Despite this assertion, there still a paucity of valid and reliable academic research on the risk factors of video games on behavior. This proposal attempts to fill the gap by using ANOVA to test whether the video games influence behavior.
Do video games influence the aggressive or criminal behavior?
ANOVA is an appropriate statistical test for the proposal because it will be used to test for a significant difference of two means. Using the ANOVA for the proposal, the researcher will be able to produce valid…
Jackson, S.L. (2012). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Office of the Surgeon General. (2001).Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. USA.
Science Daily (2013). Violent Video Games Are a Risk Factor for Criminal Behavior and Aggression, New Evidence Shows. Science News.
In other words, if the study is inordinately time-consuming for the purpose of doing something non-academic or otherwise beneficial, is it responsible research to ask young people to participate?
External validity concerns "whether results from experiments in one setting (time and place) will be obtained in other settings" (Maxfield and Babbie 122). One external concern is the use of a middle-class suburban neighborhood. If this study was done in an upper-class neighborhood, a rural neighborhood, an urban neighborhood, or a low-income neighborhood, the results might vary greatly. In terms of internal validity, the causality of aggressive video games for aggressive behavior might be difficult to prove given all the other stimuli that can potentially cause aggression in children (including violence in other media like music, television, and film, violent or aggressive living circumstances which may not be disclosed to the researcher, etc.).
If boys are found to be…
Maxfield, Michael G., and Earl R. Babbie. Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009.