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Public Health Issues
Everything in the world changes and does not remain the same forever. Human development is also full of different phases. The three major phases of human life is birth, adulthood and death. Among these three major phases, aging is the process that a person encounters after he crosses the boundaries of adulthood.
One very important thing about aging is that it is very subjective is nature. It is contingent to various external as well as internal features. For example, the culture a person is part of, the physical health of a person, the climate in which a person resides in, the kind of environment he or she lives in etc., play a vital part in accelerating or slowing down this process.
The actual definition of aging varies in different contexts. A generalized definition of aging can be as:
Aging, the process of growing old, is defined…
Burton, Dominick. "Definition of Aging" Aging Research. N.p., n. d. Web. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. .
Challem, Jack, and Rosemary Geonta Alfieri, M.A. User's Guide to Anti-Aging Nutrients: Discover How You Can Slow Down the aging process and increase energy. United States of America: Basic Health Publications, Inc., 2004. 2. eBook.
Posner, Richard A. Aging and Old Age. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995. 56. eBook.
"Proceedings of the Aging Americans: Impacts on Ecology and Environmental Quality Workshop." Proceedings of the Aging Americans: Impacts on Ecology and Environmental Quality Workshop. EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency, August 2004. Web. 10 Oct 2012. .
Aging, particularly the discrimination against the elderly, is inextricably linked with the field of sociology because it affects the way in which humans behave. Moreover, it is an important social issue because societal attitudes toward aging inform the construction of social institutions. The plight of the elderly is often overlooked in favor of other underrepresented groups, but an analysis of media, politics, and other social constructs reveals that there the elderly are segregated at an analogous level to other marginalized groups. This paper explores aging as it pertains to sociology, exploring the myriad ways in which the elderly are discriminated against and why the study of aging is an integral component to sociology.
As a field of inquiry, sociology is concerned with the construction of society and the analysis of the ways in which human behavior is shaped by society. On first glance, aging may not appear to constitute a…
Hamil-Luker, J. (2001). The prospects of age war: Inequality between (and within) age groups. Social Science Research, 30(3), 386-400.
Jensen, T., & Deller, S. (2007). Frontier issues in rural and regional development. The Review of Regional Studies, 37(3), 303-343.
Rozanova, J. (2006). Newspaper portrayals of health and illness among Canadian seniors: Who ages healthily and at what cost? International Journal of Aging and Later Life, 1(2), 11-139.
The social issue in which I am interested is how the aging of society will affect the way that we view the elderly. The idea here is that population growth via the baby boom created a generation that had the economic means -- by virtue of the ratio of working age people to elderly -- to remain at a distance from the elderly. The textbook describes how this generation (and later ones) have traditionally viewed getting older negatively. This generation pursued wealth, and because of the wealth generated it was able to either pay for caregivers for their parents as they become elderly, or that they had this covered through taxes. For example, many parents of baby boomers were in the war, so had coverage for much of their old age care as veterans. High tax receipts have also paid for generous entitlements for the elderly, as things like…
Aging and Retirement Reference Brochure
Baernholdt, M., Hinton, I., Yan, G., Rose, K., & Mattos, M. (2012). Factors associated with quality of life in older adults in the United States. Quality of Life Research, 21(3), 527-534. doi: 10.2307/41445078
Black, B.S., Johnston, D., Morrison, A., Rabins, P.V., Lyketsos, C.G., & Samus, Q.M. (2012). Quality of life of community-residing persons with dementia based on self-rated and caregiver-rated measures. Quality of Life Research, 21(8), 1379-1389. doi: 10.2307/41684673
Brett, C.E., Gow, A.J., Corley, J., Alison, P., Starr, J.M., & Deary, I.J. (2012). Psychosocial factors and health as determinants of quality of life in community-dwelling older adults. Quality of Life Research, 21(3), 505-516. doi: 10.2307/41445076
Cheung, C.-k., & Leung, K. (2010). Ways that Social Change Predicts Personal Quality of Life. Social Indicators Research, 96(3), 459-477. doi: 10.2307/40649330
Coverdill, J.E., Lopez, C.A., & Petrie, M.A. (2011). Race, Ethnicity and the Quality of Life in America, 1972-2008.…
As she points out, researcher Leonard Hayflick realizes the difference, and notes that ending aging and curing signs of aging are two very different issues. According to Hayflick, even if all causes of disease and signs of aging were cured, the human being could only extend life by 15 years or less. This is because, while signs of aging may be reduced by such products as elastin Skin evitalizer™, the aging process itself is not actually altered (McCarthy, 547). Hayflick states, "Aging is an inexorable process that begins at about the age of 30 in humans and continues indefinitely" (McCarthy, 547). Clearly, then, a reduction to wrinkles and an improvement in skin does not actually alter the aging process.
So, what is the selling point of products such as elastin Skin evitalizer™, which promise only a youthful appearance? McCarthy believes the issue is related to the drive not for long…
McCarthy, Susan. "On Immortality." Salon 30 March 2000: 544-551.
Relastin™." Relastin Skin Revitalizer™. 2006. Relastin Inc. 7 Dec 2006. http://www.relastin.com/Product.aspx?pid=1.
Unfortunately, this largely casts those who have passed retirement age as having little economic relevance and, by consequence, as having little cultural or social relevance.
Impact of Individual Differences:
This suggests that the United States has a permeating cultural ageism. Ageism is a prejudicial mode of thinking that presumes the elderly have little value to offer those around them. This is a disposition that leads to the abhorrent conditions in which many of our aging citizens must live out their final days. Indeed, there are few factors in one's individual aging experience that are more determinant than one's economic status. For those with fewer financial resources to address growing medical needs, for those who lack the funds to secure comfortable living conditions or for those who live in remote, rural or impoverished areas with little access to healthcare facilities, the decline of aging is almost certain to be intensified in…
Free, M.M. (2002). The Aging of America: Culture, Stress, and Sex. Baylor University Medical Center, 15(1), 74-76.
Aging and Periodontium
The aging process takes a toll on everybody's body eventually, whether it's from loss of memory or thinning of the hair, or reduced mobility and hearing. However, one particular occurrence as time progress onward is one's dental records, in particular, the periodontium. The periodontium affects an individual's dental and overall well being by undergoing physical, functional, nutritional, and medical modifications.
Such changes take place either in the regions of the periodontium or the byproduct of such altercations due to aging.
Physically, the periodontium is made up of various parts, which include the alveolar bone, cementum, gingiva, and the periodontal ligament. As time progresses, negative changes are seen in the aforementioned parts, which affect the individual him or herself. The features of aging found in tissues are desiccation, diminished reparative ability, reduced elasticity, and altered cell permeability. The alveolar bone may undergo osteoporosis, decreased vascularity, reduction in metabolic…
Gilmore, N., & Glickman, I. (1959). Some Age Changes in the Periodontium of the Albino Mouse . Journal of Dental Research, 38, 1195-1206.
Grossi, S., Zambon, J., Ho, A., Koch, G., Dunford, R., Machtei, E., et al. (1994). Assessment of Risk for Periodontal Disease. I. Risk Indicators for Attachment Loss. Journal of Periodontology, 65, 260-267.
Grossi, S., Genco, R., Machtei, E., Ho, A., Koch, G., Dunford, R., et al. (1995). Assessment of Risk for Periodontal Disease. II. Risk Indicators for Alveolar Bone Loss*. Journal of Periodontology, 66(1), 23-29.
Mishellany-Dutour, A., Renaud, J., Peyron, M., Rimek, F., & Woda, A. (2008). Is the goal of mastication reached in young dentates, aged dentates and aged denture wearers? . British Journal of Nutrition, 99, 121-128.
These grants were to provide community planning and services and for training through research, development or training projects. Its 10 objectives were aligned with the major areas of federal programming. These were an adequate income in retirement according to the American standards of living; the best physical and mental health; suitable housing; full restorative care for those who would require institutional care; employment opportunities without discrimination; health, honor and dignity in retirement; pursuit of meaningful activity at the widest range; efficient community services; immediate benefit from reliable research knowledge; and freedom, independence and the free exercise of individual initiative. Title III of this Act provided grants for community planning, services and training. Amendments made in 1971 and 1974 provided the basis for establishing and operating a nationwide network, the Administration on Aging or AoA. The first implementation strategy of the AoA was to sponsor many small direct service programs nationwide.…
ACoA (2011) FY legislative priorities summary. Alaskan Commission on Aging.
Retrieved on February, 2012 from http://www.alaskaaging.org/legislative/Priorities.pdf
- (2008). FACES initiative. Retrieved on February 9, 2012 from http://www.alaskaaging.org/documents/posFACES.pdf
Baumhover, L.A. And Jones, J.D., eds (1977). "Federal Strategies in Implementing
Aging Process: Gains and Losses
The adult senior population in the United States is growing at an unprecedented rate. In fact, the general population in the country is aging and both public and private elderly care providers need to make adjustments in order to be able to serve this growing population. Furthermore, many government and private industries are affected by this growing population, due to their prevalence in virtually all markets, as they purchase a wider variety of goods and services than ever before. But before the government or private companies can implement concrete policy changes, they first need to understand what the needs of this aging population will be. To determine that, it is important to understand both the gains and losses associated with aging.
There are numerous advantages to aging for both the aging person and society as a whole. These benefits take many forms and…
To remedy this and other similar situations, ountain suggests open and honest communication, during which the adult child should be both firm, honest, and compassionate. It is important to understand the need of an elderly parent to remain an important part of the family, while also creating boundaries within which these feelings can be accommodated. Not doing this effectively can create bitterness, conflict, and an ultimate scar on the parent-child relationship. ountain (2013), however, maintains that effective communication will prevent such scarring.
The relationship between parents and adult children can also be affected by divorce or widowhood. The above-mentioned conflict, for example, can result when a woman who has taken care of her dying husband is left alone after his death. She may experience feelings not only of intense loneliness, but also a continued need to provide care. The most effective solution in such a case is to provide boundaries…
First, adult offspring with young children could feel overwhelmed by being in the middle of needing to provide care for both incapacitated parents and growing children. To avoid being negatively impacted by such major change, the author suggests an open channel of communication among parents and children before the care giving transition becomes necessary. Such communication should include factors like the type of care preferred, the financial situation of both parents and children, the potential medical needs of aging parents, and the role of siblings in the future care giving situation. Hefferman's bottom line is that both parents and children should accept physical age-related change as a natural part of life.
Malendez (2009) confirms that adult children need to assess their parents' needs on a continuous basis. The author emphasizes that the current social care situation is such that a myriad age-related needs can be met by means of professional services. Indeed, these can provide significant support for those adult children who do not have the time, expertise, or accommodations to assist their elderly parents. The author notes that such services can be as simple as help with showering or as involved as ensuring that doctor's visits occur on a regular basis, as necessary.
In conclusion, aging necessarily changes relationships. As the body and general ability to conduct one's own life and choices change, communication is essential in terms of maintaining healthy and effective relationships. This is essential, even as parents become less able to care for themselves, to recognize that the final memories can still be good ones.
Neither is any proper information available on the cost of treatment and care giving. In the absence of old age homes and nursing centers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there is lack of information on how to properly take care and handle those old aged people who are suffering from the Alzheimer's disease. Such patients who live with their families and relatives are unable to receive proper treatment and care because of the nature of the Alzheimer's disease. It becomes very difficult to understand the symptoms and the condition of a patient if one is not aware or does not have any prior knowledge about the Alzheimer's disease. This has been a common problem prevalent in the Saudi society for the patients suffering from the Alzheimer's.
Although, it has been quite late when it comes to a disease like the Alzheimer's, the Saudi government has taken notice and initiative…
Aboul-Enein, F. (2005). Facing the future: elder care in Saudi Arabia. Reflect Nurse Leadership., 31(1):24-6, 36.
Almalki, M., Fitgerald, G., & Clark, M. (2011 ). Health care system in Saudi Arabia: an overview. East Mediterr Health J, (10):784-93.
Central Intelligence Agency. (2013, February 21). The World Factbook. Retrieved from www.cia.gov: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sa.html
Hassan, J. (2002, January 6). KFSH plans survey on incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Retrieved from Arab News: http://www.arabnews.com/node/217463
Because of the aging baby boomer generation, a lower current birth rate, and advances in health care and medical technologies by 2020 as many as one-fourth of all Americans will be aged 60 or older. This astounding figure has huge implications for American social, political, and economic spheres. For example, the general population will be forced to confront it prejudices and biases against seniors. Currently, American culture glorifies youth to the extent that elderly people are treated poorly, neglected, and taken for granted. In many other cultures, older persons are deemed wiser due to their having accumulated life experience. In the United States, on the other hand, the senior population is often viewed with scorn, as symbols of lost beauty and impending death and decay. However, if twenty-five percent of all Americans are in the senior age bracket then it will be harder to practice biased behaviors. Similarly, an…
(Toro, 2008) Toro states that policy makers have only recently begun to recognize the needs of these youth after aging. Statistics show that in the area of employment: (1) most respondents had worked since leaving foster care; (2) on average respondents were unemployed only 48% of the time since leaving foster care; (3) the average monthly income when working equaled approximately $598. (Toro,
Education statistics show that: (1) 41% graduated high school; (2) 16% received a GED; and (3) 25% took at least one class beyond high school. (Toro, 2008) in terms of psychopathology findings show: (1) high levels on rief Symptom Inventory, even when compared to a low income sample; and (2) especially high means on Psychoticism and Paranoid Ideation (scores approximately double as compared to normal scores). (Toro, 2008)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
This work has clearly demonstrated that while there are many provisions for assisting youth aging out…
Gardener, Deseree (2008) Youth Aging Out of Foster Care: Identifying Strategies and Best Practices. 2007-2008 Presidential Initiative - a Publication of the Research Division of NACo's County Services Department February 2008. Online available at http://www.naco.org/Content/ContentGroups/Issue_Briefs/IB-YouthAgingoutofFoster-2008.pdf
Sherman, Rachel H. (2004) Serving Youth Aging Out of Foster Care. The Finance Project. Issue Note. Online available at http://www.financeproject.org/Publications/servingyouthagingoutIN.pdf
Toro, Paul a. (2008) Youth Aging Out of Foster Care and Homelessness in the U.S. And Other Developed Nations. Research Group on Homelessness & Poverty. Department of Psychology, Detroit, Michigan. Online available at http://cchps.columbia.edu/documents/Aging%20Out-grand%20rounds%203.27.08.pdf
Aging Out of Foster Care and the Options Available
How is this achieved? By focusing on what one has accomplished in life and taking pleasure in it: the knowledge that one has raised strong, smart children; that the life one has lived as been one full of meaningful relationships; that one has given something to society; and, that their life has had meaning because of all of these things. This is what Erikson called "generativity," (2009) though Peck focuses more on the things that one has achieved rather than focusing on things that one is achieving on an ongoing basis (2009).
Growing older means that while we must accept our own mortality, we must also accept others' mortality as well. As we grow older, people die around us. While it is a natural process of life, it is not an easy one to deal with. Not only does it cause us to grieve for the people we have lost,…
Erber, J.T. (2009). Aging and older adulthood. Wiley-Blackwell; 2nd edition.
Stuart-Hamilton, I. (2006). The psychology of ageing: an introduction. Jessica Kingsley
Publishers; 4th edition.
Aging & Later Life Issues
As people age, life brings issues of economic, health, and functional concerns. Retirement for some may mean a life of freedom, but for most people, it presents a series of issues as social security payments are not enough to make ends meet. Medicare and Medicaid do not always pay all the costs that are needed for services, especially in home and community-based needs. And, living on social security, there are usually not enough funds to pay for a lot of insurance to help meet those needs. Functionality can become a problem, especially with illness, as the activities for daily living slowly deteriorate. There can also be problems of boredom and low self-worth learning to adjust from a work world to a retirement world. Many older people are forced to work as long as they are physical and mentally capable to meet basic needs.
Brune, K. (2011). Culture change in long-term care services: Eden-Greenhouse-Aging in the community. Educational Gerontology vol 37, doi: 10.1080/03601277.2011.570206, 506-525.
Chernof, B. (Spring 2011). The Three Speres of Aging in America: the Affordable Care Act takes on Long-Term-Care Reform for the 21st Century. Generations-Journal of the American Society of Aging,35(1), 45-49.
Eskildson, M. & . (2009). Nursing home care in the U.S.A. Geriatr Gerontol Int, vol 9, 1-6.
Hogan, P. (2011, Feb 28). It's Not Just Your Father's Longevity Anymore. Vital Speeches of the Day, pp. 184-187.
Aging and Decline in Cognitive Abilities
The video Successful Cognitive and Emotional Aging (2009) examines some of the behaviors that individuals can practice in order to facilitate mental well-being as one advances in age. Neuroplasticity is the capacity of the brain's ability to change in response to behavior and environment. The video suggests ten strategies for to promote successful cognitive and emotional aging. 1) Physical activity, regular aerobic exercise and strength building. 2) Nutrition, the intake of colorful fruits and vegetables as well as multivitamins combined with staying hydrated caloric restriction. 3) No smoking and the moderate consumption of alcohol. 4) Sleep well and treat sleep apnea. 5) Maintain a healthy skepticism concerning anti-aging supplements, products and procedures. 6) Keep cognitively active through work, lifelong learning, volunteering and novel and challenging leisure activities. 7) emain socially active by spending some time with people every day by joining a club, a…
Bjorklund, B.R. (2010). Journey of adulthood.7th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
"How to boost brain power." (2011). eMedExpert. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://www.emedexpert.com/tips/brain.shtml
Hurley, T. (2011). Cognitive activities for the elderly. lovetoknow. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://seniors.lovetoknow.com/Cognitive_Activities_for_the_Elderl
Jsete, D. (2009, December 17). Successful cognitive & emotional aging. [Video]. YouTube. University of California San Diego Medical Center. Retrieved May 19, 2012, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pzclZgF6OJQ
The demographic tide of Canada is becoming a nagging problem with a dwindling number of active workforce having to bear the increasing burden of quality universal healthcare. However, the problem is that the prospect of a slow growth in the labor market would only imply a slower growth of the general taxpayers and hence raising the tax is not a simple solution to managing the fiscal pressures. As the article indicates, in the absence of a Tax hike in this year's budget, the federal burden will continue to accrue and if no counter measures are undertaken by 2050, Canada's debts and deficits would equal the nation's GDP. The article suggests that a combination of increasing the GST, reducing government expenditure, and more importantly, other 'structural reforms' would be necessary to prevent the impending fiscal disaster. This is not a difficult prospect given the fact that Canada stands much better for…
1) Vancouver Sun, 'Aging Population will soon strain Federal Finances, Watchdog
Says', Feb 19th 2010, Accessed 25th February 2010, available online at, http://www2.canada.com/vancouversun/news/westcoastnews/story.html?id=02c089f9-7d20-4c4d-8623-7b25a2c99010
Aging Women and the Media
As the fabric of American culture has continued along the often ponderous path of progress during the last century, women have experienced perhaps the most significant changes to both their daily lives and their position within modern society. While females in this country, and aging women in particular, have traditionally been relegated to peripheral roles involving familial concerns, a succession of societal advancements since the 1960's has moved their status towards the eventual goal of gender equality. Professional positions once reserved only for men have increasingly been opened for ambitious women to attain, salaries have been balanced to shatter the proverbial glass ceiling, and women currently control many of the most powerful political offices in the nation. Although the significance of the strides made by women in modern American society cannot be understated, a fundamental component of this country has failed in its duty to…
Hant, M.A. (2007). Television's mature women: A changing media archetype: From bewitched to the sopranos UCLA Center for the Study of Women, Retrieved from http://repositories.cdlib.org/csw/07_Hant
However, despite the great motivation I have to personally develop myself, I am also considering the fact that in the years to come, I will change and probably become more field dependent that I am right now. But I believe that I will still remain to be internally-oriented, primarily because this is how I grew up and developed to be through the years. In addition, I do not believe in chances or luck as the ultimate determinants of one's life; rather, it is through the individual's perseverance and hard work that s/he gets what s/he wants or needs. However, I allow for the potential that I will be field-dependent, for I have always considered interacting with others as a healthy 'exercise' for self-development especially when one approaches old age. Moreover, I believe that as an aging individual, I would need more interaction in order to bring more meaning to my…
Such a life journey is not generally one that will encourage a great deal of compassion for younger women.
While there is a great deal of popular psychology and culture that argues that suffering makes us compassionate, this is very often not the case. A woman who has been subject to emotional, psychological, and often physical abuse throughout her earlier decades would have to be saintly indeed not to feel the urge to retaliate on the next generation. And so young brides in many cultures that value the importance of the elderly are often abused in many different ways by the older female members of their husband's families. A new bride may find herself beaten by a mother-in-law despite many hours a day of hard domestic work even as the bride struggles with the challenges of pregnancy and early motherhood.
The combination of tending to both older and younger generations…
The month of May was initiated by President John F. Kennedy as the month to honor the contributions of older Americans (Older pp). At that time roughly seventeen million living Americans had reached their 65th birthdays, today, approximately thirty-five million Americans, or one in eight, are 65 years old or older (Older pp). According to the United States Census Bureau, nineteen percent of men and ten percent of women over 65 years old are still working, and moreover, seventy-five percent of men and sixty-three percent of women over 55 years old are still employed (Older pp). Because so much has changed demographically since it originated, Older Americans Month has evolved into an opportunity to focus on the needs and concerns of the aging population (Older pp). Experts say that the coming decades will require companies to be knowledgeable concerning the needs of older workers (Older pp). Due to…
Jaworski, Barbara. "Aging workers, changing value: employers that want to benefit from aging workers' changing value will need to show they are committed to their ongoing development and respectful of their unique needs." The Journal of Employee Assistance; 3/1/2005; pp.
Wilson, Sara. "Coming of age: Americans are hitting 50 and finding they're anything but over the hill." Entrepreneur. August 2004
Lockwood, Nancy R. "The aging workforce: the reality of the impact of older workers and eldercare in the workplace." HRMagazine; 12/1/2003; pp.
Aging and Driving
Anstey, K.J. & Wood, J. (2011). Chronological age and age-related cognitive deficits are associated with an increase in multiple types of driving errors in late life. Neuropsychology 25(5): 613-621.
In "Chronological age and age-related cognitive deficits…" Anstey & Wood (2011) outline the purpose of the research as being to foster greater understanding of the factors involved in driving skills that diminish with age. In particular, the authors are concerned with the cognitive factors that impact driving ability. The authors warn against blanket generalizations about seniors, many of whom retain their ability to drive safely well into old age. The gap in research the authors are filling is related to the specific cognitive changes that take place as a matter of the aging process, and how those changes impact seniors who regularly drive. According to the authors, their research has direct real-world application for the ergonomics of driving…
This paper explores concerns about aging in the modern-day. It also examines the psychological problems that older people face. The paper sheds light on the social networks and the families within which the aging people operate. There is a spirited effort to explore the therapies and programs that can effectively handle the psychological challenges that relate to aging. Finally, the current paper delves into finding out any other necessary research that should be done to provide a clear direction on handling the problems related to aging more easily.
There is no doubt that the elderly, especially those at the age of 60and above, make significant contributions to society. They work as volunteers and even as active workforce teams. Although most elderly people possess steady faculties, others suffer from mental health disorders such as substance abuse issues and neurological complications. They are also widely prone to health conditions such as…
Blieszner, R., Ogletree, A., & Adams, R. (2019). Friendship in later life: A research agenda. Innov Aging, 3(1). DOI: 10.1093/geroni/igz005
Gouveia, O., Matos, A., & Schouten, M. (2016). Social networks and quality of life of elderly persons: a review and critical analysis of literature. Rev Bras GeriatrGerontol, 19(6). https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-22562016019.160017
Gronning, K., Espnes, G., Nguyen, C., Rodrigues, A., Gregorio, M., Sousa, R. . ., & Andre, B. (2018). Psychological distress in elderly people is associated with diet, well-being, health status, social support, and physical functioning- a HUNT3 study. BMC Geriatr, 18(205). DOI: 10.1186/s12877-018-0891-3
Halaweh, H., Dahlin-Ivanoff, S., Svantesson, U., &Willen, C. (2018). Perspectives of older adults on aging well: A focus group study. Journal of Aging Research, 4.doi: 10.1155/2018/9858252
Hsin-Yen, Y., & Li-Jung, L. (2018). A systematic review of reminiscence therapy for older adults in Taiwan. Journal of Nursing Research, 26(2), 138-150. DOI: 10.1097/jnr.0000000000000233
Lautenschlager, N., Almeida, O., Flicker, L., &Janca, A. (2004). Can physical activity improve the mental health of older adults? Ann Gen Hosp Psychiatry, 3(12). DOI: 10.1186/1475-2832-3-12.
Leggett, A., & Zarit, S. (2014). Prevention of mental disorder in older adults: Recent innovations and future directions. Generations, 8(3), 45-52.
Lima, C., & Ivbijaro, G. (2013). Mental health and well-being of older people: opportunities and challenges. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 10(3), 125-127.
For this assignment, I visited the St. Alban’s memory care center. This organization’s mission is to provide cutting-edge memory care for seniors at different stages of cognitive impairment, from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease. Prior to visiting, I prepared for the interview by learning about the services available, as well as the mission, vision, and values of the organization. The values included the principles of compassionate care, respect for patient, dignity, progress, and valuing the community. Although the St. Alban’s memory care center is a day care center for adults, the parent organization also operates three senior living facilities in the area. I scheduled a meeting with the programming director, who was able to illustrate several aspects about how memory care works, how the organization receives funding, how clients can arrange for financial assistance, and how their programs change in accordance with new technologies and advancements in aging research.…
Can Aging be Reversed or Delayed?
Aging is a fact of nature. Everything ages and eventually dies. For people living today this is often a source of fear and anxiety because death, as Shakespeare pointed out, is the “undiscovered country from whose bourn no traveler returns”—in other words, the final point of life that so little is actually known about (Easwaran, 1996). People with faith in an afterlife tend to have less anxiety about death, but faith is not enjoyed by everyone (Alvarado, Templer, Bresler & Thomas-Dobson, 1995). Those who want to put off death as long as possible turn to de-aging techniques and strategies, hoping to delay the inevitable. This paper will discuss the reality of aging and address the assumptions that 1) Aging cannot be reversed; and 2) Aging can be delayed; however, the average person could not afford the cost of treatments to delay aging because one…
Future Directions for Positive Aging
1: To Do List
My to-do list for joining community of Serenbe starts with writing a big thank you to the world and to God for giving me this opportunity. I want to express my gratitude and joy, and doing so is a health way to get in touch with the positive energy that will be of so much use in Serenbe. I will post this message on social media so that all my friends and loved ones can see where I am and can communicate their own love and support back to me. It will also be a good way for me to introduce myself to my new friends in the community of Serenbe.
Second on my list is to start eating right! Diet is one of the most important aspects of positive aging because a healthy and nutritious diet can keep you going…
Some of the demographic data that could come in handy in the assessment of the need for hearing services in this case could comprise of occupation, age, and gender. With regard to gender, it should be noted that hearing loss happens to be less common in women – in comparison to men (Hull, 2013). On the other hand, age-related hearing loss is rather common. Thus, as an individual grows older, the more likely they are to have hearing impairment (Hull, 2013). Lastly, occupational noises also play a role in hearing loss. A good example in this case would be nightclub work.
In an attempt to evaluate the need for hearing services in the community, various approaches could be used in the analysis of data in this scenario. The approach recommended on this front is named-entity recognition (NER). This approach would be most valid because, as would be expected,…
They wanted to have single rooms and would prefer not to share the bathrooms basically for hygienic reasons. They would also prefer having enough space for their personal items and personalizing their own space. Most of them felt that the facilities were secure and safe. Findings of this research revealed that older people, despite poorer physical health, did better than younger adults psychologically about their well-being. The participants seemed to adjust satisfactorily to their changed environment and circumstances (Edwards).
As to the economic and financial aspects of aged care, further studies showed that the bundling of services would be the best, except for older people with dementia, specifically the ambulant and aggressive ones (Hogan 2005). Findings hinted at separating services for other aged care provisions. These findings confirmed that costs incurred by institutions varied widely, with smaller-scale operations with 30 beds or less as incurring the highest costs. Other studies…
Burns, Ailsa and Leonard, Rosemary. Chapters of Our Lives. Sex Roles: a Journal of Research: Plenum Publishing Corporation, March 2005
Cheek, Julienne. Improving Care Transitions of Older People. Quality in Ageing: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton) Ltd., December 2006
Edwards, Helen. Involving Older People in Research to Examine Quality of Life in Residential Aged Care. Quality in Ageing: Pavilion Publishing (Brighton). Ltd., December 1, 2003
Hogan, Warren P. Economic and Financial Aspects of Aged Care. Economic Papers: Economic Society of Australia, 2005
At some point, the burden on those still working to support those who have retired will become untenable. Solutions will have to be found, and those solutions will involve deciding who gets what, when, and how. This fiscal problem will require a forced distribution of wealth, something likely to upset most affected by it. Retirees will be outraged if they get less from Social Security than the generation before them did. Those still working won't be willing to contribute more to Social Security only to get less when they retire. The cost of health care has been spiraling upward for some years, and new and economical solutions will have to be found to meet the medical needs of the elderly.
Solutions may require raising the retirement age, encouraging the elderly to continue working, providing less in retirement benefits, or raising taxes. These fundamental political changes will be necessary and may…
The gradual decrease in income, eventual dependency on other people and the government for financial resource, lack of activities to do, and the onset of physical and/or physical limitations as a result of aging are known causes of frustration, stress, and even depression among elderly people who have retired (Blekesaune and Solem, 2005, p. 80). In the case of Mrs. a, she has not experienced these negative feelings or emotions as she had been flexibly and intermittently engaging herself in house-, family- and community-related pursuits. However, she did admit that her husband's death had been a pivotal point in her life, when she felt that she, too, must be with her husband because, as far as she is concerned, she has already accomplished what she was supposed to do as a "wife, mother, and woman."
Interestingly, with Mrs. a, work and retirement is not the conventional kind of retirement one…
Bassuk, S. (2002). "Socioeconomic status and mortality among the elderly: findings from four U.S. communities." American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 155, No. 6.
Blekesaune, M. And P. Solem. (2005). "Working conditions and early retirement: a prospective study of retirement behavior." Research on Aging, Vol. 22.
Kilminski, a. (2007). "Cumulative index of health disorders as an indicator of the aging-associated processes in elderly." Mech. Ageing Development, Vol. 128, No. 3.
Maciejewski, P. (2007). "An empirical examination of the stage theory of grief." Journal of American Medical Association, Vol. 297, No. 7.
I interviewed Kay Shehorn, a 67-year-old woman who has been employed at the Hillside ehabilitation Care center for 42 years. Shehorn started working at Hillside ehab as a housekeeping supervisor. She worked her way up in the company to become an Administrative Assistant. My interview questions focused on Shehorn's plans for retirement. We discussed the financial aspects of aging, and the politics of aging as well. Because Shehorn is a "young" senior, her perspectives were instrumental in illuminating a possible path for me when I approach retirement age. I asked Shehorn if anyone had impacted her views on aging, such as an elder relative or role model. Shehorn said that she had always admired strong seniors who refused to be defined by their age. She mentioned being inspired by a woman who worked in an art gallery until her mid-90s, and also spoke of her grandmother who had literally…
New Theories -- Current theories relating to the study of environment and behavior are inadequate to answer the major questions of the study. One cannot separate the environment from humanity -- ecological and systems theories are holistic.
ystems theory - This theory is an interdisciplinary practice that describes systems that have numerous spokes, or interacting components. The basic laws of thermodynamics (i.e. temperature, energy and entropy) work better for closed systems. Open systems, like living things, show different patterns and tendencies.
Diffusion of innovation theory - . The theory holds that diffusion is a process in which innovation is communicated through certain levels or channels over time and mitigated by whether the decision is made freely and who makes the decision.
Human impact on the environment then -- changes the system -- it is an artifact and thus in design and technology operates on a different set of laws than…
Lawton, M., et.al., (1982). Aging and the Environment- Theoretical Approaches. New York:
3. Growth factors can induce apoptosis by binding to their respective receptors (TKs). When activated, TKs in turn activate the as, af, MEK, MAPK, MKK, EK, Fos, JNKs, and Jun pathway, which can lead to the induction of AF via gene upregulation. AF in turn suppresses mdm2, a suppressor of p53 activity. The resulting increase in p53 activity can induce Bax, Mt, and thus apoptosis.
4. Adenomatous familial polyposis is caused by a truncated APC protein, which results from inherited mutations in the APC gene (Segditsas and Tomlinson, 2006). However, the activity of the wild-type or normal APC allele is usually sufficient to maintain tumor suppressor activity. For this reason, and because the wild-type allele is often found to have acquired somatic mutations, it is assumed that both alleles must be mutated before tumors can form. The vast majority of mutations found in colorectal tumors have retained 0 to 3…
Libby, Peter, Ridker, Paul M., and Hansson, Goran K. (2011). Progress and challenges in translating the biology of atherosclerosis. Nature, 473, 317-325.
Segditsas, S. And Tomlinson, I. (2006). Colorectal cancer and genetic alterations in the Wnt pathway. Oncogene, 25, 7531-7537.
Minde, David P., Anvarian, Zeinab, Rudiger, Stefan G.D., and Maurice, Madelon M. (2011). Messing up disorder: How do missense mutations in the tumor suppressor protein APC lead to cancer? Molecular Cancer, 10, 1-9.
The result will be empirical based on relative individual factors. If both senior and junior workers have to be retrained every year, the senior worker may be the better investment after all. One depressing outcome of this competitive push to reduce retirement-benefit cost by offering short-term, part-time and outsourced employment rather than the traditional career, is an implied peak after which workers become less employable the more expertise they have, such that the slide to senility is marked by lower and lower status jobs, because they earn too much at what they're trained for. Competitive incentive to reduce payroll by getting rid of the highest earners complicates and is driven by the demographic anomoly of the Baby Boomers outnumbering GenX. Electricians and biologists would call this a feedback loop.
The difference may result in a new construct based on why or for whom one works. If work is something we…
The service provider should then be able to assess the specific needs of the elderly person and give advice about the best option for living facilities.
Becoming older and more frail often also means being the victim of not only increasing financial constraints, but also of various types of abuse. Elderly abuse is a concern that has increasingly come to the attention of authorities as an unfortunate by-product of an increasingly aging society. Abuse might be perpetrated by family members or professionals and could be the result of financial or emotional strain, work stress, or more severe conditions such as mental illness. The aging service provider has some particular duties and responsibilities when it comes to elder abuse.
One of these duties is reporting suspected cases of elder abuse. The Elder Abuse and Neglect Act (Illinois Department on Aging, 2012), for example, provides for the ability of any person to…
Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Minority Aging. Retrieved from: http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/minority_aging/Index.aspx
Illinois Aging Services (2008). Retrieved from: http://illinoisagingservices.org/
Illinois Department on Aging (2012). Elder Abuse Prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.state.il.us/aging/1abuselegal/abuselegal-main.htm
Niles-Yokum, K. And Wagner, D.L. (2011). The Aging Networks. (7th Ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
In society today, social norms and values mean that we must care for those who can no longer care for themselves, whether as a result of old age or as a result of some other condition or disability. This means that health care systems need to be set up in such a way that people can receive the care they need while also maintaining as much as possible of their dignity and autonomy. This has been one of the most important evolving viewpoints in eldercare. Concomitantly with an increasingly healthy and active older generation, however, new views have emerged, including remaining in the home environment for as long as possible before being committed into care. This ideal has been influenced not only because of the new dynamic, where older people are generally healthier for longer, but also by economic and technological factors.
Increasingly, assisted living has come to mean the…
It often means interventions opening the doors of our lives to strangers, healthcare providers, whose job it is to assist the elderly in achieving and maintaining the highest quality of life possible until the individual crosses from this existence into the mystery of the next one.
Some of the physical conditions that are associated with aging are Alzheimers disease, which while associated with aging can manifest onset well before what many people might view as 'elderly." It is perhaps because it afflicts people at earlier ages that Alzheimers is one of the physical problems associated with aging that receives a lot of attention, and, therefore, more funding than some others areas of health problems associated with aging. Alzheimers is often diagnosed as dementia, an irreversible or reversible condition depending on the specific cause. It is, however, difficult to diagnose and treat because it has numerous potential causes, all of which…
Aging Gracefully: Lifespan vs. Healthspan. (2006, February). USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 134, 1+. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015929981 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104804428
Ebersole, P., & Hess, P. (1998). Toward Healthy Aging: Human Needs and Nursing Response. St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104804433 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111738587
Mezey, M., Fulmer, T., & Abraham, I. (Eds.). (2006). Geriatric Nursing: Protocols for Best Practice. New York: Springer. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111738587 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27715236
Nussbaum, J.F. & Coupland, J. (Eds.). (1995). Handbook of Communication and Aging Research. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved February 1, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=27715236 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=104631054
Aging and the family-work link: A comparative analysis of two generations of Mexican women (1936-1938 and 1951-1953)" by Blanco and Pacheco can best be described as serviceable. The first sentence is not particularly 'catchy' and is somewhat awkward. "The implications of aging of the population in Mexico are complicated and in some respects, serious" (Blanco & Pacheco 2009: 143). However, the introduction does go on to explain specifically why dealing with Mexico's aging population is such a serious concern. The developing nation's pension system is in a crisis and covers only 30% of the nation's senior citizens; other forms of government support are inadequate and under-funded. The primary burden of eldercare falls upon women: women are considered to be the primary domestic caretakers of children and husbands; women must work to support their families working outside the home and now they increasingly have this additional burden of attending to the…
Blanco, M. & Pacheco, E. (2009). Aging and the family-work link: A comparative analysis of two generations of Mexican women (1936-1938 and 1951-1953). Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 40 (2): 143-166.
Typically a Japanese funeral follows the sequence: when someone dies, they are placed to rest in their homes. The corpse was placed with the head pointing the North, copying the deathbed of Gautama, and the head of the bed is well decorated. Then the previously mentioned encoffinment process. The first night after one's death is called the Tsuya; and it is for close family and friends to remember their beloved. In the morning, a cleansing meal is served called Okiyome. The funeral is thereafter carried out where the Jukai rite also known as receipt of commandments gives the dead an opportunity to receive the Buddhist commandments, automatically making the dead a disciple of the Buddha, and the dead person is accepted into Buddha hood.
After all this, the deceased embarks on the journey to the other world as the coffin is carried out of the house and burnt in a…
Kimura, R (1996).Death and dying in Japan. "Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal," Vol. 6, No.
4,The Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 374-378.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (2007).The Definition of Death
Suicide ates Among Geriatric Persons
The causes of death among the elderly are traditionally associated with the normal aging process or what would be called natural process, diseases associated with age and the debilitations it can cause. Yet, other factors also contribute to the cause of death an individual might succumb to, widowhood, retirement, forced relocation, and/or loneliness especially around the holidays. (Huyck Hoyer 1982) Still other studies are making it clear that murder and suicide rates are increasing dramatically among the elderly. (cf., Birren, Schaie, 1977) (Nussbaum, Pecchioni, obinson & Thompson, 2000, p. 294) Suicide was the eleventh leading cause of death among persons over the age of 65 in 1982. (iley, 1983, p. 144) Some strides have been made and between the years 1983 and 1998 suicide averaged as the fourteenth leading cause of death for persons over the age of 65, lower than the average for all…
Birren, J.E., & Schaie, K.W. (Eds.). (1977). Handbook of the psychology of aging. New York:
Van Nostrand Reinhold.
Coleman, P.G. (1995). 2 Facing the Challenges of Aging: Development, Coping, and Meaning in Life. In Handbook of Communication and Aging Research, Nussbaum, J.F., & Coupland, J. (Eds.) (pp. 39-68). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hudson, C.G., & Cox, A.J. (Eds.). (1991). Dimensions of State Mental Health Policy. New York: Praeger Publishers.
It is an unfortunate fact that Alice's self-perception and its reinforcement by social and media images of age and aging is hardly unique. Older people, and especially those in retirement and care communities, tend to be perceived as old, frail, and unable to continue any sort of contribution to society. This tends to hasten the aging process and, in cases like Alice's, perpetuates a vicious cycle in which aging becomes a curse rather than the blessing that she was first to those around her and then to her husband.
According to Holstein, Parks, and Waymack (2011, p. 11), one important component of care giving and retirement communities is respecting the autonomy of older individuals by providing them with meaningful choice. This means that older people in such communities should be provided with choices that match their remaining cognitive and physical abilities.
When applied to Alice's case, her residence in the…
Holstein, M.B., Parks, J.A., and Waymack, M.H. (2011). Ethics, Aging, and Society. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
" (Congressional udget Office Testimony, 2001) Complicating the problem is the fact that Social Security is not only a retirement program but in fact approximately 2/3 of Social Security beneficiaries are retired workers" with the remaining being disabled workers, survivors of deceased workers, and workers' spouses and minor children." (Congressional udget Office Testimony, 2001)
III. REMEDIES TO HELP ALLEVIATE IMPLICATIONS
There are various strategies that could be pursued by policymakers to assist in preparing for the aging population coming of retirement age and these are stated by the Congressional udget Office to include options such as: (1) paying down federal debt; (2) creating private retirement accounts; and (3) changing the benefits or revenues of the Social Security program. (Congressional udget Office Testimony, 2001) However, it is clear that each of these remedies contain both advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, in light of recent government spending the option of paying down the…
Testimony of Dan L. Crippen, Director: Social Security Challenges of an Aging Population (2001) Congressional Budget Office before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate. 10 Dec 2001. Online available at: http://www.cbo.gov/doc.cfm?index=3214&type=0
Bongaarts, John (2005) "Population aging and the rising cost of public pensions," Population and Development Review 30(1): 1 -- 23.
Aging is an inevitable process, but responses to the aging process vary from generation to generation, culture to culture, and person to person. Factors like gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic class have an impact on attitudes toward aging. Beliefs and attitudes toward aging and towards older people also vary. The status of elder adults in the family, community, and society also varies. It is important to understand the evolution of age-based social roles and attitudes towards aging because all people encounter seniors, care for seniors, and most likely become old too. Because the Baby Boomer generation is reaching senior age status, issues related to gerontology are becoming especially salient for the health care professional.
Unfortunately, there are several disturbing trends in how old people and aging are viewed. The status of elders is generally low, leading to problems in senior physical and mental health. Treatment of seniors varies widely, with some…
"Chapter One: The Field of Social Gerontology."
Aging can be defined as the buildup of damage in molecules, tissues, and cells throughout an individual's lifetime. As a result of this accumulation, the capacity of an organism to sustain homeostasis in stress situations is decreased and enhanced risk for many diseases emerges (Rodriguez-Rodero et al., 2011). The process of aging, which is commonly known as senescence, affects people in different ways because of its varying impact on different parts of the body and at varying rates (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman, 2016). Given these differences, the aging process is different between individuals as some seemingly age faster than others.
There are several factors that affect the aging process and contribute to the differences through which some people seem to age faster than others. One of the major factors that affect the aging process is cell aging, which entails DNA damage and telomeres. In this case, aging is a by-product of…
The workforce in America is rapidly aging. This rapidly aging workforce creates challengers for organizations that must manage an aging workforce. The purpose of this discussion is to explore the challenges of managing an aging workforce within any given organization. This topic is of particular interest because many older baby boomers are retiring while other are choosing to work well passed the retirement age and managers must devise ways to manage such a workforce.
Employers must understand the challenges that may arise, as an aging workforce becomes part of the fabric of the organization. If employers do not attempt to understand and implement solutions for managing an aging workforce their organizations will suffer greatly. Let us begin our discussion be explaining why the aging workforce is such an issue in the current workforce.
Description of the organization and problem
The organization that we will focus on during the…
Dohm, A. (2000). Gauging the Labor Force Effects of Retiring Baby-Boomers. Monthly Labor Review, 123(7), 17. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001200975
Doverspike, D., Taylor, M.A., Shultz, K.S., & Mckay, P.F. (2000). Responding to the Challenge of a Changing Workforce: Recruiting Nontraditional Demographic Groups. Public Personnel Management, 29(4), 445.
Health and Safety Issues in an Aging Workforce, 2001. AARP Public Policy Institute Retrieved June 24, 2004, at http://research.aarp.org/econ/ib49_health.pdf
Aging in the Bucket List and Cocoon
Aging and its natural consequence -- death -- are subjects that raise diverse emotions among persons involved in these processes. Some embrace these pivotal moments in life, some attempt to avoid them. The two films The Bucket List and Cocoon give examples of how different people deal with the issue of aging and death. This paper will examine these films from the perspective of the characters' physical and mental health, their family and social issues, their economic status and social service usage, and cultural diversity issues.
The Bucket List is a 2007 comedy-drama about two strangers who meet in a hospital: Carter is an African-American blue-collar worker, a family man and an amateur historian but a mechanic by trade; Edward is a white, billionaire health care tycoon, who is estranged from his daughter. Forced to share a room in the hospital, the two…
Howard, R. Director. (1985). Cocoon. LA: 20th Century Fox.
Morgan, L., Kunkel, S. (2011). Aging, Society and the Life Course. NY: Springer.
Reiner, R. Director. (2007). The Bucket List. LA: Warner Bros.
Van Hoof, J., Kort, H., Van Waarde, H., Blom, M. (2010). Environmental interventions and the design of homes for older adults with dementia: an overview. American Journal of Alzheimers Disease and Other Dementia, 25(3): 202-32.
Mechanisms of Aging
Mechanism of Aging
Aging is a syndrome that occurs as a result of changes that are progressive, deleterious, universal and therefore, irreversible. This aging damage occurs to the cells, molecules that forms the cells, and to the entire organ. The aging process is most commonly associated with old age diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, cancer, heart disease and Alzheimer's disease among others; this is because such diseases are associated with degenerative effects experienced by the cells. Scientist have over the years substituted the word "aging" with "senescence" since aging means that when time elapses so does deterioration takes place which is false especially during the early developmental stage Mackenzie, Bussiere and Tinsley ( 21)
Various researches are being conducted to establish the mechanisms of aging, and as part of these research, experiments have been carried out on various living organism so as to shade more light on…
Comfort, Alex. "Biological Aspects of Senescence." Biological Reviews 29.3 (1954): 284-329. Print.
Mackenzie, Danielle K., Luc F. Bussiere, and Matthew C. Tinsley. "Senescence of the Cellular Immune Response in Drosophila Melanogaster." Experimental Gerontology 46.11 (2011): 853-59. Print.
Nigam, Anjana. "Senescence (Ageing) @ 2011." Indian Journal of Dermatology 56.6 (2011): 615-21. Print.
Social Construction of Aging in Nursing Homes
Aging is socially constructed. Using the perspective of symbolic-interactionism, it is possible to show the precise processes whereby the social construction of aging takes place inside specific institutional contexts, like the American nursing home. The American nursing home offers insight into the culturally constrained concept of aging, for attitudes towards aging bodies and aging as a philosophical concept are informed by cultural milieu, worldview, and value construction. Biological aging is not social aging. The positive aging movement and the harmonious aging movement offer counterpoints to traditionally antagonistic and negative views of aging. Especially as the population of the United States and other industrialized nations shifts towards the older end of the age spectrum, it becomes important to reconsider the biological, psychological, and social processes and functions of aging.
The nursing home offers the opportunity to examine aging from a multidisciplinary perspective, while using…
Bengtson, V.L. & Deliema, M. (2016). Theories of aging and social gerontology. In Gerontology: Changes, Challenges, and Solutions. ABC-CLIO.
Featherstone, M. & Hepworth, M. (1995). Images of positive aging. In Images of Aging. Taylor & Francis.
Gergen, K.J. & Gergen, M.M. (2000). The new aging. Social Structures and Aging. New York: Springer. Retrieved online: http://www.swarthmore.edu/sites/default/files/assets/documents/kenneth-gergen/The_New_Aging.pdf
Katz, S. (2005). Cultural Aging. Canadian Journal of Sociology Online, Jan-Feb 2006. Retrieved online: http://www.cjsonline.ca/pdf/culturalaging.pdf
Furthermore, as Baltes makes clear, there are some events that are generally going to impact people at various stages in their lives. For example, an East European Jew who survived World War II would probably have a historical influence that changed other age-expectations, which could impact other longevity factors. Time in a concentration camp, which would be normative for the Jewish cohort in that place and time period, would also likely impact the age of marriage, parenthood, and other culturally normative behaviors that might impact health and longevity in one's old age. While that might seem to be a dramatic example, the reality is that most generations are going to have cohorts impacted by at least one event of similar magnitude. For the practitioner working with geriatric clients, knowing the historical events that are most likely to have impacted the client and how those are likely to interact with the…
Anstey, K., Stankov, L., & Lord, S. (1993). Primary aging, secondary aging, and intelligence.
Psychology of Aging, 8(4), 562-70.
Bee, H.L., & Bjorklund, B. (2010). Journey of adulthood, 7th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ:
Efforts to Achieve Healthy Aging
Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSA.
Abstract: Longevity is a blessing as long as good health is not lost. However, the tendency to have a decline on normal physiological activities is inevitable because of the natural processes of degeneration at all levels: molecular, cellular and organic. Hence, the elderly people frequently suffer from cardiovascular problems and skeletal deteriorations that gradually develop to disabilities. Awareness of factors leading to unhealthy aging has led to the formation of different professional groups that aim at the maintenance of health of aging community. The approach tends to be target orientated for the European and US groups, aiming at hormonal replacements and detoxification. In contrast, the oriental groups have been keeping their traditional belief of prevention and internal balance, using nutritional arrangements and non-strenuous exercise as means of maintaining health.
Keywords: chinese medicine,…
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Anti-Aging Medicine? Include Abstract eferences scholarly
This is a review of the article titled "Is There an Antiaging Medicine?" which was written by obert N. Butler, Michael Fossel, S. Mitchell Harman, Christopher B. Heward, S. Jay Olshansky, Thomas T. Perls, David J. othman, Sheila M. othman, Huber . Warner, Michael D. West, and Woodring E. Wright. The article was published in the volume 57A, issue no. 9 of the Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences in the year 2002 from pages B333-B338. The journal is published by the Gerontological Society of America.
Anti-aging medicine refers to any form of intervention that is given to delay the development of pathology that depends on the person's age and any other changes that are related to age that are not necessarily diseases. All what are there is false claims and bogus remedies which are not known to work. Slowing down the process of aging…
Butler, R.N., Fossel, M., Harman, S.M., Heward, C.B., Olshansky, S.J., Perls, T.T., . . . Wright, W.E. (2002). Is There an Antiaging Medicine? Journal of Gerontology: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, 57A (9), B333 -- B338.
Weindruch, R., & Walford, R.L. (1988). The Retardation of Aging and Disease by Dietary Restriction. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
Cellular Function and Aging
Tumor Suppression Protein 53 and Effects on Cellular Function and Aging
The concept of aging has many intrinsic and extrinsic factors that act as markers on an individual organism. Ignoring mortality associated with external environmental factors, very few organisms can be said to have cellular immortality with no decrease in cellular function or repeat division in normal diploid cells. Cellular senescence is a normal process that halts cellular division after a set of cycles of replication. Senescent cells can remain completely functional but lose the programmed process of replication. The normal pathway for senescent cells is either aging with metabolic pathways continuing for the cell or programmed cell death which is known as apoptosis that occurs when cellular function changes, a specific lifetime is reached for the cell or the cell is damaged. The multicellular cnidarians known as a Hydra has been shown to have a…
Cappisi, J. (2005) Senescent cells, tumor suppression and organisimal aging: good citizens, bad neighbors. Cell 120 1-10.
Coppe, J.P. Patil, C.K. Rodier, F. Sun, Y. Munoz, D.P. Goldstein, J. Nelson, P.S. Desprez, P. Campisi, J. (2008) Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor. PLOS Biology, 6-12, 2853-2868
Faragher, R.G. (2000) Cell senescence and human aging: where's the link? Biochemical Society Transactions 28 221-226.
Kirkwood, T.B. Austad, S.N. (2000) Why do we age? Nature 408. 233-238.
This means that society as a whole needs to consider both aspects of the problem. It would be wrong to simply consider problems associated with an aging population in the context of a young population that experiences little to no change. The number of young people is smaller today than it has been in the past and the government needs to invest fewer finances in providing for this community. This is not going to solve the overall problem, but it is nonetheless an important concept when discussing with regard to how an aging population is going to affect the world as a whole and young people in particular. "Reductions in expenditures for the youngest and middle age groups will not result from robbing resources from the young to care for the old. Instead, these reductions reflect the fact that these age groups represent a smaller portion of the population than…
Morgan, L.A. & Kinkel, S.R. (2006). Aging, Society, and the Life Course. Springer Publishing Company
Siedle, E.T. "The Greatest Retirement Crisis In American History," Retrieved May 11, 2014, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/edwardsiedle/2013/03/20/the-greatest-retirement-crisis-in-american-history/
Tran, M. "UN report calls for action to fulfil potential of ageing global population," Retrieved May 11, 2014, from http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2012/oct/01/un-report-action-need-ageing-population
Uhlenberg, P. (2009). International Handbook of Population Aging. Springer "Coping with an ageing population in the UK," retrieved May 11, 2014, from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/population/managing_population_rev6.shtml
aging gracefully. There are eight references used for this paper.
Introduction number of people are obsessed with fighting the affects of aging on the skin and finding ways to age gracefully. It is important to look at methods such as antioxidants, wrinkle fighters and nutritional supplements, as well as aging and tissue/muscle loss and interventions for slowing the aging process in order to gain a better understanding of treatments available.
Free radicals are "highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in normal and pathological processes, and are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging (http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/cgi-bin/omd?query=free+radicals)."
One of the main defenses against free radicals is the proper use of antioxidants.
Researchers theorize that an "increase in some antioxidants - especially those applied to the skin - helps protect…
Aging changes in organs - tissue - cells. (accessed 15 July 2004). http://www.umm.edu/ency/article/004012.htm ).
Facenda, Vanessa L. Mass merchants face up to higher end skincare: improved formulations and higher quality products are attracting consumers to mass and drug for facial care needs. Retail Merchandiser. (2004): 01 January.
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Hilton, Lisette. Intrinsic-extrinsic aging link: antioxidants applied to skin could prevent cell damage. Dermatology Times. (2002): 01 November.
Biological, Psychosocial, & Developmental Theories of Aging
Biological, Psychosocial, and Developmental Theories of Aging
Aging is a manifestation of events that occur over a span of time. This is not a uniform process, individuals' age differently, and there are major differences between normal, optimal, and pathological aging. As one ages the balance between gains and losses, such as becoming more intelligent and becoming less healthy, is thought to become less positive.
Biological Theories of Aging
Biological theories of aging classify aging as genetic (heredity) and non-genetic (wear and tear). Most believe that several mechanisms are operating at the same time to cause aging and there is probably not a single cause of death, but many causes. Current thinking includes 1) the vital substance theory -- we are all born with a certain amount of substance and as it is consumed we age and die, 2) the genetic mutation theory…
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Older Americans Act (OAA) was first passed in 1965, alongside Medicare and Medicaid. Whereas Medicare and Medicaid offered extended insurance benefits through the federal government, the OAA established "the foundation for a system of services and supports that enables millions of older adults in this country to continue to live independently as they age," ("The Older Americans Act: Aging Well Since 1965," (The Older Americans Act: Aging Well Since 1965," n.d.). Along with its federal provisions, the OAA freed up grant money for the states to develop " community planning and social services, research and development projects, and training personnel in the field of aging," (The Older Americans Act: Aging Well Since 1965," n.d.). Basically, the OAA created an actual infrastructure to support America's aging population.
The OAA is currently comprised of seven titles:
• Title I: Declaration of Objectives
• Title II: Administration on Aging (Aoa)
• Title III:…
Sociocultural Differences in Perspectives on Aging
The Hindu Indian cultural perspective on aging is that life is part of a great cycle in which life, death and rebirth are norms. The Hindu culture believes that if a person is good in his or her life, he or she will be reborn as something better in the next life and that if he or she is not so good, the outcome will be the opposite -- the next life will be something worse (Metcalfe, Metcalfe, 2012). This is the idea of reincarnation that is a major belief in the Hindu culture. Because believers want a better life after they die, they are mindful to be respectful to others in this life -- and this applies to the way in which the treat their elders. Aging is not really viewed as a lamentable process, but rather as a natural step towards the…
Significantly, the authors promote an accepting and acknowledging attitude towards the negative aspects of aging, as well as an understanding that it does not have to be a solely negative experience. It provides practical principles for the ability to successfully cope with the negative processes by means of a positive focus and attitude.
What I like most about the book is its positive consideration of what it could mean to become older. At the same time, it also provides a balanced view. The authors do not claim to have found a fountain of eternal youth, nor do they attempt to whitewash the misery that age could bring. Instead, they acknowledge these realities while also providing very sound advice on what to do to be able to cope with such factors.
The book is written on a very intellectual level, approaching the topic by means of a theoretical framework before its…
The theory describes stages as patterns of behavior which are typical for a certain development period and it leads to a different pattern that is more advanced and more unusual Olson & Byron, 1942()
The organismic meta-theory is represented by Erikson's theory of personality which illustrates an important feature of the development in an organismic viewpoint. At each stage of development, there is the resolution of a particular crisis which is a turning point and which serves as a healthy balance between the opposing traits of the particular stage of development. The resolution of this crisis leads to the development of a virtue which is a good thing. If the crisis goes unresolved, the person struggles with the crisis and this impedes the healthy development of the individual Hoogendyk & ichardson, 1980()
The organismic view is associated with the structural or qualitative changes. It states that a person is different…
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Keys to Successful Ageing
The concept of ageing has undergone considerable change in the past decade or so (Garnett, 2004, p. 3). The literature reviewed on successful ageing focused on three key components: (1) avoiding disease; (2) remaining engaged with life through meaningful work, activities, and relationships, and (3) maintaining high cognitive and physical function (Tsao Foundation (2004); Garnett; Balandin (Sep. 2004); Keys to vital ageing (2004)). As more and more people are beginning to realize, as the general population ages, ageing also has many positive factors, such as learned resilience and survival in the face of adversity, which may serve one well during the ageing process itself (Garnett, p. 3). ecommendations from the Institution on Ageing include: eating a balanced diet; exercising regularly; getting regular check-ups; not smoking; maintaining personal contacts, and maintaining a positive attitude about oneself and about life by doing what makes one feel happy, satisfied,…
Balandin, S. Searching for successful ageing. The Courier. Retrieved Dec. 18, 2004 from http:www.thecourier.co.uk/output/2004/09/02/newsstory6289222t0.asp.
Garnett, C. Keys to successful ageing. HealthPlus. Retrieved Dec. 17, 2004 from http://
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