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Precious time (5 minutes 30 seconds) was, therefore, lost between the time the captain was informed about the fire and his decision to begin the emergency descent
At 1904:07, after the first officer returned from his first trip aft, Flight 797 was about 14 nmi northeast of Standiford Field, Louisville, Kentucky, at FL 330. Had the emergency been declared at this time and the descent started, the plane could have landed about 3 to 5 minutes earlier than it had landed at Cincinnati. Although it is not possible to determine whether the shortened flight time would have delayed or prevented the flash-fire, the decreased exposure time of the passengers to the toxic environment in the cabin would have enhanced their ability to escape after the cabin doors and over-wing exit windows were opened. Hence, it is reasonable to assume that the delayed decision to descend contributed to the severity of…
Aircraft Accident Report: Air Canada Flight 797." (1983). National Transport Safety Board. June 2, 1983. Retrieved on May 3, 2008 at http://amelia.db.erau.edu/reports/ntsb/aar/AAR86-02.pdf
Noland, D. (2007). "Ten Plane Crashes That Changed Aviation." Military.com. October 13, 2007. Retrieved on May 3, 2008 at http://www.military.com/NewsContent/0,13319,152543,00.html
Since the smoke was emitting from behind the panels in the lavatory, the CO2 probably did not reach the source of the fire.
It may be noted that he was not required to do so as per the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of Air Canada
Diagnosing the roles of the managers in the Air Canada Organization
Leadership style used by the managers of the Air Canada Company
Management theory used by the managers of the Air Canada Company
Communication skill of the Managers of the Air Canada Company
Discrepancy in the leadership style and situation prevailing in the organization
Management or leadership style
Organizational success depends largely on the abilities of the management team and the leadership style adopted by the managers of the organization. Leadership styles such as transactional, democratic, and transformational leaderships influence the realization of the stated organizational objectives. Above all, communication skills used by the management team determines the overall realization of the stated organizational objectives; hence, its success. Therefore, the following paper analyzes different management practices of the Air Canada with more emphasis on the role of the managers, communication skills, and leadership styles they use. Introduction…
Air Canada (2011). Audit of service delivery in English and French to Air Canada passengers: final report. Ottawa: Office of the Commissioner of Official Languages.
Clements, M.D. (2010). Building learning capability: enhancing the learning talent chain by connecting environments. Development and Learning in Organizations, 24(1), 7-9.
Trompenaars, F., & Woolliams, P. (2002). A New Framework for Managing Change across Cultures. Journal of Change Management, 3(4), 361-375.
Wilson, D.G. (2010). Building Bridges For Change: How Leaders Enable Collective Change In Organizations. Development and Learning in Organizations, 24(1), 21-23.
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Canada keep itself safe during the Cold War?
Canada played a unique role during the Cold War. As an immediate neighbor of the United States, but in relatively close physical proximity to the Soviet Union, Canada had legitimate reasons to fear that it would be physically involved if the hostilities between the United States and the Soviet Union ever erupted into an actual war. Because of its physical proximity to the United States and its basically capitalistic system, it would be fair to suggest that Canada was more ideologically aligned with the United States. However, it would be incorrect to suggest that Canada was a U.S. ally; Canada maintained relationships with communist countries China and Cuba throughout the Cold War and opposed the U.S.'s involvement in the Vietnam War. nstead, it is more appropriate to characterize Canada as opposing the spread of communism without wholeheartedly embracing some of the American…
In fact, these peacekeeping tendencies from the Cold War have helped Canada maintain a powerful position in the international community. Moreover, this role was not only diplomatic, but also backed by Canada's willingness to use elements of force during the Cold War. Though Canada did not lead the charge to become involved in wars, it played an important role in helping send forces once the United Nations had decided to become involved in these organizations. In fact, the theoretical role of any United Nations military forces was to keep the peace. Canada was actually the first country to propose that the United Nations maintain a peacekeeping military force. While this proposal was initially dismissed by the United Nations, during the Suez Crisis in 1956, the United Nations adopted the Canadian idea of a peacekeeping force. Moreover, during this time period, peacekeeping forces were actually peacekeeping forces, not aggressive military forces. They were literally used as a human shield between opposing parties. This worked in the Suez Crisis, leading to a cease-fire. Therefore, while peace in the Middle East was short-lived, it is critical to realize that Canada played a huge role in averting a major disaster.
Moreover, while Ronald Reagan is frequently given credit for ending the Cold War, it is important to realize that, without Canada, the dialogue between the United States and the Soviet Union may have been impossible. Yakovlev took a pre-premier Gorbachev on an agricultural tour of Canada, and began discussing the idea of loosening restrictions in the United States. Gorbachev's role in helping end the Cold War is well-known.
Canada's strategy for remaining safe during the Cold War was to use the United States for protection while trying not to alienate communist countries. This strategy proved very effective; Canada managed to avoid direct military involvement with either of the superpowers during the Cold War. However, it is important not to underestimate the long-term consequences of Canada's Cold War strategy. There is no longer a worldwide communist threat, and that is at least partially attributable to Canada's peacekeeping role during the Cold War. However, Canada's peacekeeping role in the Suez Crises may simply have delayed some of the tensions in the Middle East, and may have helped contribute to the modern global terrorist threat and continuing problems in that region. What these consequences make clear is that even a country trying to maintain some neutrality can have a tremendous long-term impact on international relations.
4-billion expansion after it was shut down in May by the province's environment ministry due to urine-like smells wafting in to neighbouring communities from the company's new technology." (Stephenson, 2006)
III. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY REVIEW
In the work of Ross McKitrick entitled: "Towards the Use of Emission Taxes in Canada" a paper presented to the Finance Committee Round Table on Green Taxes in Ottawa, Canada on May 31, 2001, it is stated that in the presentation of the paper covered are:."..three topics: the context (international and domestic) for environmental policy in Canada, the basic principles of pollution tax design, and the priority I would suggest for proceeding with this policy instrument." (McKitrick, 2001)
McKitrick states that "the theory of optimal environmental taxation was worked out by Agnar Sandmo in an article in the Swedish Journal of Economics in 1975. Some points that have emerged from Sandmo's work are the following:
Macdonald, Doug (1995) Green Taxation and Environmental Policies - Presented to the annual meeting of the Environmental Studies Association of Canada, June 4, 1995. Online available at http://www.utoronto.ca/env/papers/macdon/macdon1.htm .
Planning for Sustainability (2000) Global Problems: Local Solutions - Transport Canada; Sustainable Transportation: The Canadian Context. Online available at http://www.tc.gc.ca/programs/environment/sd/monograph/solutions.htm .
Paehlke, Robert (2000) Environmentalism in One Country: Canadian Environmental Policy in an Era of Globalization. Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 29, 2000.
CCME Task Force on Cleaner Vehicles, Engines and Fuels (2005) 1.2 Motor Vehicle Emissions and Air Quality. 21 Apr 2005. Online available at http://www.ec.gc.ca/cleanair-airpur/CAOL/OGEB/fuels/reports/ccme/ccme1_2_e.htm .
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…
1. Alpha nutrition Programs. Indoor Air-More Contaminated Than Outdoor Air?
2. Ammann, Harriet M. Is Indoor Mold Contamination a Threat to Health?
Office of Environmental Health Assessments, Washington State Department of Health
The world's stage is full of confusion and warfare as the unsettled circumstances in the Middle East resonate loud and strong across the Atlantic to Canada. The purpose of this essay deals with explaining the reasons why Stephen Harper, the Prime Minister of Canada should continue with the involvement with the conflict with ISIS as the Islamic terror group gains significant footholds in Iraq and other strategic locations in that region of the world. This essay will use three arguments to support this claim to demonstrate the need for involvement and Stephen Harper's decision on this matter will impact many events to come relating to this matter.
ISIS is a Global Threat
The doomed attacks on 9/11 in America demonstrated the global reach of Islamist terror groups. The world's political, economic and social structure was transformed in many ways as a result of this attack, and the Western…
Hall, John. "The growing influence of ISIS now reaches Pakistan as Taliban leaders pledge allegiance to brutal jihadist group." UK Mail, 15 October 2014. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2793622/the-growing-influence-isis-reaches - pakistan-taliban-leaders-pledge-allegiance-brutal-jihadist-group.html
Kirkpatrick, David, "Attacks in West Raise New Fears Over ISIS Influence." The New York Times, 24 Oct 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/25/world/middleeast/string-of-attacks-in-west-raise - new-fears-over-isis-influence.html?_r=0
Marche, Stephen, " Canada, The Idea, Is In Pieces," Esquire, 22 Oct 2014. Retrieved from http://www.esquire.com/blogs/news/canada-in-pieces
Warmington, Joe, " Canada's ISIS fight extends beyond Fallujah." Toronto Sun 7 November 2014. Retrieved from http://www.torontosun.com/2014/11/07/canadas-isis-fight -extends-beyond-fallujah
The result was a put-off United States. ealizing this furthered the need for an outside alliance, talks of NATO resumed. At this point, Canada saw NATO as more than just a defense strategy in the face of Communism. Canada fought and won a battle in discussions to require all members of NATO to cooperate economically. Additionally, the NATO alliance assured that Canada would have a say in combined foreign policy and security. Even further, Canada would be able to deal with the United States on more of a multilateral level, which would help ease the disparity between the nations (Jockel, Sokolsky, 1996). ather than simply following America's lead in foreign affairs, Canada was determined to make decisions in the best interest of the Canadian people.
By 1949, the threat of Communism was in full swing. The Soviet Union had tested its first nuclear weapon, and the world took notice. Now…
Aronsen, L.R. (1997). American National Security and Economic Relations with Canada, 1945-1954. Westport: Praeger Publishers.
Canada. (2003). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from Encarta Online. Web site: http://au.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563379_7/Canada.html.
Canada and the UN. (2003). Canada and the United Nations. Retrieved November 17, 2004 from the Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Web site: http://www.un.int/canada/canadaandun.html .
Canada Department of National Defense. (May 1953). Canadian participation in the Korean War, Part I. Canadian Defense Report No. 62. Montreal: Canada Department of National Defense.
Alberta province of Canada is considered one of the strongest economies in North America, being culturally diverse as well as politically and environmentally stable. Its varied landscape, sunny climate and varied geography make it a most ideal locality and provide its people an excellent quality of life. Alberta is endowed with abundant natural resources, natural sceneries, and capable manpower that altogether make it the perfect place to live and work in. These outstanding features are collectively referred to as the Alberta advantage (Government of Alberta 2002). Its people are vibrant, resourceful and productive entrepreneurs, whose goods and services rank among the most excellent in the world. This level of excellence draws from the inherent pioneering spirit of the earliest settlers of the province. The present principal industries of the province are agriculture and related industries, forestry, telecommunications, oil and gas. Its oil and gas industry, which began in the late…
Brown, Jim. 2003: Canada's Chretien Downplays Kyoto Economic Impact. CNEWS. http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/Politics/2003/10/20/23/511-cp.html
CBCNews, 2002: Consumers Will Feel Pinch of Kyoto, Say Opponents. CBC. http://www/cbc/ca/stories/stories/2002/09/03/ab_kyoto020903
CTV News Staff. 2003:Three-quarters of Canadians Support Kyoto: Poll. CTV.ca. http://www/ctv/ca/servlit/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/10340/4051181_29423251/:hub=Canada
Government of Alberta. 2002: Canadians Divided on Kyoto Ratification. http://www.gov.ab.ca/home/index.cfm "Page=332.
It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.
Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.
The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.
Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…
Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002
IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm
Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
Cool nights and warm days are needed to make syrup and the earlier warmth reduces the length of spring and limits the snow pack that moderates the temperatures of the trees during the evening. Said one sugarmaker: "It used to be you never tapped before the first week of March. Now you have to be ready February 15" (Bazilchuk, 2000). But Quebec's displacement of Vermont may not last long, if Canadian temperatures continue to rise. Also, global warming could also disrupt critical aspects of the Canadian tourism industry, such as skiing and tourists who come to see Canada's cold-weather sports and activities like ice sculpting, dog sledding, and the traditional crafts of its native peoples.
Finally, Canadians may suffer a culture shock as a nation in the coming decades "as global warming forces radical lifestyle changes involving their homes, their appliances, their workplace and their means of transportation" (DeSouza, 2006).…
Bazilchuk, Nancy. "Warming may threaten Vermont maples."
The Burlington (Vt.) Free Press. 14 March 2000. 15 Mar 2007. http://www.nasw.org/users/nbazilchuk/Articles/gwmaples.htm
De Souza, Mike. "Global warming will bring major culture shock, task force warns."
Can West News Service. 2006. 15 Mar 2007. http://www.canada.com/topics/news/national/story.html?id=1a8ec5a7-8305-408d-b1b5-98394220ecd6&k=39008
By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…
Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:
S. no-fly list," n. d.)
Deregulation of Canadian airline industry has resulted in speedy consolidation, lack of consistent service, and high prices which is just the reverse of what the policy makers assured in 1987. Following the emergence of Air Canada as the sole national airline, Canadian travelers will possibly suffer more from excess booking. As against the primary markets, the regional markets encounter the double problem of falling quality of service standards and higher prices. For instance the analysis of costs, prices and profits recommend Air Canada's regular return air tickets from Thunder Bay, Ontario to Toronto could be lowered reduced by 75% in case they showed considerably efficient operating expenses. The fares for travel to far-off areas can be kept on the higher side as the operating airline usually enjoys a monopoly status. Apart from that, these higher than competitive prices subsidize the bigger regions and pose a…
An industry in crisis: safeguarding the viability of the Canadian Airline Industry" (n. d.) Retrieved 30 May, 2007 at http://cmte.parl.gc.ca/Content/HOC/committee/372/tran/reports/rp1032230/tranrp02/06-rap-e.htm
Canadian Airlines won't abandon U.S. no-fly list" (n. d.) Edmonton Journal. http://www.canada.com/edmontonjournal/news/story.html?id=9aee6618-f44d-403b-8e07-891b57e2edc4
Chapter 7: The Airline Industry" (n. d.) Retrieved 29 May, 2007 at http://www.reviewcta-examenltc.gc.ca/english/pages/final/ch7e.htm
Christopher, John; Dion, Joseph P. (2002, Nov 14) "The Canadian Airline Industry" Retrieved 30 May, 2007 at http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection-R/LoPBdP/CIR/892-e.htm
And many have got successful too in earning the market share. The emerging competition by new companies is a growing threat for the company and it should be tackled properly to avoid any future disturbances.
In order to further describe the competition Southwest Airlines is facing a Competitive Profile Matrix is designed. The following Competitive Profile Matrix tells about the tough competitors which are in a good position to have an edge over Southwest Airlines. It tells about the strengths and weaknesses of other competitors in contrast with Southwest Airlines.
Factors Weight Southwest Airlines United Airlines Delta Airlines Ratings Score
Score 1. Low fares.15 4.60 3.50 4.60 2. Customer Service.15 2.30 4.60 3.50 3. Employee Relations.15 4.60 3.50 3.50 4. Rate of Expansion.10 2.20. 4.50 4.50 5. Marketing.15 4.60 4.50 4.50 6. Finance Structure.15 4.40 4.40 4.40 7. Management Policies.15 4.60 4.60 2.20
EXTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATION MATRIX
Gittell, Jody Hoffer. The Southwest Airlines Way Using the Power of Relationships to Achieve High Performance. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.
More City Pairs Await Southwest - Kelleher Says Opportunities Remain Using Airline's Formula." Aviation Week & Space Technology. 143. 6 (1995): 40.
A www.marketingmix.com.au / www.mcdonalds.com / www.bbc.co.uk
They compete with each other for business, seek to build both aviation and non-aviation revenue streams and they must also deal with enhanced security requirements. This places significant pressure on the airport sector. The response within the sector has been twofold. Some airports have become privatized, which allows major airport operators to utilize their expertise across a range of markets. The other solution is the development of public airports that serve as branches of their governments, attracting passengers and investment to the region. Both types of airports have strong, multifaceted strategic mandates and are among the vanguard of modern air transportation.
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent…
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent
Cidell, J. (2004). Scales of airport expansion: Globalization, regionalization and local land use. Center for Transportation Studies. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.cts.umn.edu/pdf/CTS-04-01.pdf
Frost & Sullivan. (2010). 16th APSA International Conference Airport Security Market Overview. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.slideshare.net/tony.ridley/an-overview-of-the-airport-security-market
Emirate Airline Analysis
What follows in this report is a review and summary of the customer services aspect of Emirates Airline. The firm in question has most certainly established a name for themselves and there is the common refrain about how adept they are. Even so, there are opportunities for them to get better and all firms should commit to a culture and mindset of continuous improvement, fettering out what problems what do exist and finding common sense solutions for dealing with the same. Regardless of what problems are found, there need to be evidence-based and realistic solutions put forth, and that shall be the goal of this report. While Emirates Airlines does a lot of things well when it comes to their customer services, they could do even better and strive to do so whenever possible.
Before getting into the minutia of what should change and why,…
Reduced overhead is good news for cash-conscious consumers, but bad news for hotel staff, although some former front desk employees may be promoted 'laterally' to other parts of a company.
However, subsequent IT security and maintenance demands may offset some of these cost savings. "Self-serve applications such as the Fairmont's kiosk are different from desk applications because they have to run 24/7. Once deployed, there are no ways to intervene. The kiosk can't be automatically restarted, so it needs to be a rock-solid, robust device" (Lombardi 2005). The security system must be constantly monitored for possible infringement: "The kiosks are sitting on a secure network, and we're also running EP security, a wireless encryption protocol. That's not 100 per cent bullet proof, so there's another server-based layer of security which authenticates transactions as well as providing another level of encryption" says the Fairmont (Lombardi 2009).
Kiosks can be tailored to…
Chakravorty, Jui. "Self-service hotel check-in to increase." Reuters. March 16, 2005.
November 23, 2003.
Lombardi, Rosie. "Fairmont enhances customer service with self-service kiosks.
ACARS stand for Aircraft Communication Addressing and Reporting System. This system allows aircrafts to communicate and report to the ground and vice-versa. It does so by transmitting data on VHF frequencies that can be received and decoded. It is a digital datasystem in VHF (Aviation). It makes it possible for aviation companies to "communicate" and track the planes of their fleet.
This system is being used by a lot of large aviation corporations and can be said to be the 'E-mail' for the planes. The plane's call sign is used as the address for the destination of the message. Before ACAR was developed, all the flight messages were voiced and that made things slow and painful. The development of ACAR by Aeronautical Radio Inc. made possible the routine-messages, about departure, arrival, cargo, fuel etc. To only take a short time to transmit.
The Aeronautical Radio, Inc. (ARINC) maintains a huge…
ACARS-Link, About ACARS http://www.grove.net/~acarslink/alabout.htm (Accessed May 30, 2002)
Flynn, Ed. Understanding ACARS. Copyright Fred Osterman and published by Universal radio Research, 6830 Americana Pkwy. Reynoldsburg, Ohio 43068, USA. ISBN 1-882123-36-0
Lord, R.J., W.P. Menzel, and L.E. Pecht, 1984: ACARS Wind Measurements: An Intercomparison with Radiosonde, Cloud Motion, and VAS Thermally-Derived Winds. J. Oceanic and Atmos. Tech., 1, 131-137.
Mamrosh, Richard D: http://acweb.fsl.noaa.gov/docs/mamrosh-ams-98 / (Accessed May 30, 2002)
Because passengers in those classes also receive larger seats, there is also some opportunity cost associated with those seats. There are simply fewer paying fares per square meter in those classes as a result of the larger seats. So to some extent, the price discrimination reflects both service and opportunity cost. However, the additional cost of serving these passengers is not as great as the differential in the ticket prices.
In addition, there is price discrimination in terms of when the ticket is purchased. Economy class and business class tickets cost more when purchased closer to the flight date. This reflects that buyers purchasing at the last minute are less likely to be price sensitive than buyers purchasing well in advance. Advance purchasers tend to be vacationers, who have a higher price elasticity of demand. Last minute purchasers tend to have low price elasticity of demand, as they need the…
McAfee, R. (2008). Price discrimination. Issues of Competition Law and Policy. Retrieved November 16, 2010 from http://www.mcafee.cc/Papers/PDF/ABAPriceDiscrimination.pdf
Pilots and Guns
Attention getter -- I am on a jet flying high above the Atlantic Ocean and the flight seems fine. Then, I hear a gunshot coming from the pilot's cabin. Instantly, the plane depressurizes and I suddenly wake up in a cold sweat. Wow, what a dream. Good thing no one is allowed to carry a gun on a plane. Wait, was it really a dream? This report tries to answer the question of whether airline pilots should be allowed to carry guns.
The thesis of the report can be stated in two ways:
Airline pilots have a responsibility to defend them selves, protect their passengers and maintain control of their airplane, but they should not be allowed to carry guns on flights
Since airline pilots have a responsibility to defend them selves, protect their passengers and maintain control of their airplane, they should be allowed to carry…
CANADA'S ABOIGINAL PEOPLE
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
Suicide amongst Canada's Aboriginal People
The aboriginal people of Canada have faced injustices perpetrated through colonization, cultural prejudice, and forced assimilation among many other social injustices. The perpetrators, who include the Canadian dominant population, did this without considering the aboriginal people's well-being. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce the social problems they faced, the aboriginal people taken part in habits such as alcoholism, violence, and suicide. The aboriginal youth remain the most affected, mainly because of the development of suicidal thoughts, which have driven them to commit suicide (Kirmayer, & Valaskakis, 2009). To make it worse, the aboriginal people are denied access to healthcare services, which has contributed to lack of identification of suicidal youths.
The social problems they face result to depression, and some of the people opt to take part in some life-threatening habits, for example, suicide (Lavelle & Poole,…
Baskin, C. (2011). Strong Helpers' Teachings: The Value of Indigenous Knowledge in the Helping Professions. Toronto, ON: Canadian Scholar's Press.
Blackstock, C. (2009). The Occasional Evil of Angels: Learning from the Experiences of Aboriginal Peoples and Social Work. First Peoples Child and Family Review, 4(1), 28-37.
Hart, M., Sinclair, R., & Bruyere, G. (2009). Wi-cihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada.
Halifax: Fernwood Pub.
The Leblanc alkali production processes were especially pernicious, but they followed along the lines of previous industrial processes. In other words, the first British environmental legislation was a response not so much to a qualitative change in industrial processes and their environmental impact but more to a quantitative increase in sources of pollution that had up to that point been (if only barely) tolerable.
Legislation Arising From Public Anger
At the center of the first British environmental legislation was the Leblanc process, an industrial process that produced of soda ash (which is chemically sodium carbonate) that came into use in the first decades of the 19th century. Named after its inventor, Nicolas Leblanc, it replaced an older process in which soda ash had been produced from wood ash. However, as the availability of wood ash declined (because of deforestation, a process that was occuring both in Great Britain and across…
Resources Act (WRA) of 1991. This act "establishes the duties of the Environment Agency (EA) on flood defence and other areas relating to water management and quality."
"The EA has discretionary powers to improve and maintain river conditions. This means that the EA is not obliged to construct or maintain such works. In practice, the EA will only proceed with schemes that are not only beneficial but cost-effective.
"The Act also grants the EA powers to issue flood warnings and regulate what can be discharged into rivers, estuaries, coastal waters, lakes and groundwaters."
Canadian law on flooding is similarly divided between common law and statutory law.
(Ward; Mohapatra; Mitchell, 2008)
The Great Lakes also contain large amounts of 'polychlorinated dibenzo-furans - PCDFs' and 'polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins -PCDDs' which are a result of the chlorine bleaching process of paper and pulp mills. In a nation wide study conducted for a period of 4 years on samples of fish and shellfish from various freshwater and marine water bodies in Canada, it was found that the fish from the Great Lakes were among the most contaminated samples. (Steinhart; Doyle; Food esearch Institute, Cochrane, 1995) the paper and pulp industry has also grown with the growth of the economy. However, contaminant discharge from this industry still continues despite the various environmental measures taken by the paper and pulp industry of Canada. This industry has also caused disturbance to the huge boreal landscape of Canada. Approximately 50% of Canada's fresh water is located in these boreal forests. Developmental activities have affected these…
Agioutantis, Zacharias. (2007) "Proceedings of the International Conference on Sustainable Development..." SDIMI.
Burton, Philip Joseph; National Research Council Canada; Adamowicz, WL. (2005)
Towards sustainable management of the boreal forest" NRC Research Press.
Carter-Whitney, Maureen; Duncan, Justin. et. al. (2008) "Balancing
One of the largest issues between the two nations is the issue of truck passage. In the past trucks carrying goods or cargo had enjoyed a cursory glance as they crossed into the other nation however, after the World Trade Towers came down border agents on both sides of the border began to investigate trucks with much more scrutiny than ever before.
Historic allies, Canada and the United States agreed following 9-11 to a plan for a "secure and smart border" both U.S. And Canadian officials said would protect against terrorist attacks while facilitating this vital stream of trade. Seventy percent of the trade with Canada is truck-borne, with a truck crossing the border every three seconds in a stream of 200,000 vehicles each day (Canada, 2002).
The essence of that agreement was that the United States and Canada would devise ways to identify regular, unthreatening traffic in people…
Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Accessed 10-22-06)
Danna, Anthony and Oscar H. Gandy 2002 All that glitters is not gold: Digging beneath the surface of data mining. Journal of Business Ethics 40: 373-386.
Ericson, Richard V. And Kevin Haggerty 1997 Policing the Risk Society. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Arborite Case Study
The need to increase profits and revenues has forced many establishments to evaluate and redefine the way they carry out strategies within the organization and the manner in which they deal with external factors affecting the company. The rationale being that an organization needs to constantly grow and evolve if it has to be competitive in a constantly changing market. Leaders and managers who head organizations should have the vision to realize the changes required and implement these changes in an appropriate and timely fashion.
Nutter of Arborite is faced with difficult choices. He has to decide among these choices in order to generate a positive return on assets from two manufacturing factories in Canada. There is a demand for the product -- high pressure laminates (HPL) in the market. There are three major companies that control the market. Arborite has 34% of the total Canadian market.…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
Chandler, A.D. (1962). Strategy and structure: chapters in the history of the industrial enterprise. Cambridge,: M.I.T. Press.
Compton, W.D. (1997). The management of world-class manufacturing enterprises W.D. Compton. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
upgrade to the F-18
The F-18 Phase Two Upgrade Program for oeing will cost $2.6 illion and the Aurora reconnaissance plane upgrades will cost $1 illion respectively per year for five years for the Part One budget. This will include high-frequency radios, new navigation and communications equipment ("Auditing the CF-18 IMP -- CF-18 Incremental Modernization Project," 2004). As the program upgrades will ultimately carry on until 2021 when the new F-35's come totally online, the Part Two budget will cover the second five-year span. The February inflation rate was set at 2.6% ("Canadian Inflation Rate Edges Lower In February" 2011). Certainly, this is at the low end of the spectrum, Conservatively speaking, the group feels that the program should include a 4% per anum calculation for the rate of inflation which would translate into 104,000,000 CAD for the F-18 upgrades and 40,000,000 CAD per year to allow for in the…
"Auditing the CF-18 IMP -- CF-18 Incremental Modernization Project." December,
2004. http://www.casr.ca/id-cf18-oag1.htm (accessed March 21, 2011).
"Canadian Dollar Currency Exchange Forecast."
2011. http://www.forecasts.org/cdollar.htm (accessed March 21, 2011).
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…
Boeing. (1993). Accident Prevention Strategies. Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents
World Wide Operations 1982-1991. Retrieved 11 Nov, 2004 from http://www.hf.faa.gov / Portal/HFTimeline.aspx
Boeing. (1994). Field test of the MEDA process. Retrieved 17 Dec, 2004 from William L.
Environmental Case Study (Alberta's Oil Sands)
Alberta's Oil Sands represents one of the international environmental problems facing Canada and close to seventy countries across the globe. Albert's Oil Sands proves to be a new course of political conflict within the setting of Canada and at the international level. Oil Sands development is responsible for rapid economic growth of Alberta. This creates ethical or moral dilemma because there is a massive risk in association with the development of Oil Sands within the province. Oil Sands contribute towards ecological harm thus having a negative impact on the living conditions of the individuals in the province and the entire planet. This ethical dilemma leads to mobilization processes by environmental entities to help alleviate the situation. This is because some prominent political outfits such as Peter Lougheed recognize that the rate of the development of the oil sands in Alberta is not socially or…
Brown, Jordan. "The Pembina Institute: Balancing Environmental Policy with Oil Sands Development in an Industry-Oriented Economy." Undercurrent 6.2 (2009): 7-16. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
Dunbar, R.B. Existing and Proposed Canadian Commercial Oil Sands Projects. Calgary: Strategy West, April 2008. Available at:
Fairley, Peter. "Alberta's Oil Sands Heat Up." Technology Review 114.6 (2011): 52. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 31 July 2012.
Pasqualetti, Martin J. "The Alberta Oil Sands From Both Sides Of The Border." Geographical Review 99.2 (2009): 248-267. Academic Search Complete. Web. 31 July 2012.
The traditional bilateral air service agreements do have some restrictions that prevent foreign airlines to invest in foreign hubs, however, with the open skies agreements such restrictions do not exist and an airline will be able to fully exploit its investments in a foreign country thereby facilitating service between preferred cargo airports. The provision of such agreements also promote cargo services by guaranteeing access to customs facilities and processing, offering a range of ground-handling options, and availing surface transportation necessary for flights. Such provisions enable cargo carriers to efficiently monitor and control cargo from their point of departure to their final destination. This will enhance faster and safer delivery of cargo translating into value-added service to customers.
The benefits derived from the development in the international air transport is not limited to air services industry alone but spreads to cover several service providers, labor market, manufacturers, and the general economy…
Alford, E. And Champley, R. (2007). The impact of the 2007 U.S.-EU open skies air transport agreement. ITA Occasional Paper no. 07-001
Brueckner, J. And W.T. Whalen, (2000). "The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances,"
The Journal of Law and Economics: 43(2), 503-545
Hertel, T.W. (1997) Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and Applications. Cambridge University Press: New York
Dawson College shooting occurred on September 13, 2006 at Dawson College located in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was reported that the shooter was Kimveer Gill and he shot a total of nineteen people. Out of a total of nineteen people, one person died whereas others were injured. Out of the injuries, a total of eight students were critical and six of the people required surgery. Subsequent to the shootings, the shooter shot him in the head and committed suicide. It was reported that the gunman also had a bullet in the arm which was due to the police when the person was shot. (CBS) The victims that were hurt were treated at the Montreal General Hospital when the shooting occurred.
Pathway to Violence explained.
Before we get in the details of how the shooting unfolded, it is crucial to explain the path to violence as presented by Calhoun and Weston…
Buncombe, A. (2006) College Gunman Revealed Obsession with Columbine Killings on Internet . The Independent (London, England), [online] September 15. Available at: http://www.questia.com/library/1P2-2057765/college-gunman-revealed-obsession-with-columbine-killings [Accessed: 8th January 2013].
Canada.com (2012) Who Was Kimveer Gill? (Part 2). [online] Available at: http://www.canada.com/montrealgazette/story.html?id=d1933b65-8a0c-454f-bff0-9e072f8918b5 [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
Cbc.ca (2006) Montreal gunman called himself 'angel of death' - Canada - CBC News. [online] Available at: http://www.cbc.ca /news/canada/story/2006/09/14/gunman-shooting.html [Accessed: 8 Jan 2013].
Cbc.ca (2006) Montreal gunman killed himself: autopsy - Canada - CBC News. [online] Available at:
These climatic changes in turn impact negatively on the economy and the people within the region. There is need hence for the environmental protection for sustainable development. Though there have been significant measures like the formulation of the Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (AWPPA) which was geared towards protection of the marine environment especially tackling pollution and shipping safety laws to be in place (Justice Laws Website, 2013), there is still more that Canada can do to ensure a sustainable economic growth of this region.
Canada must therefore resort to ecosystem-based management system within the Artic region. There is need to ensure an approach that will take into account the co-management of the species in the Artic region that may cross the international borders like the polar bear and the Arctic birds. The collaborative approach to the ecosystem should also include the Arctic research and science ventures conducted in collaborative…
Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, (2013). Canada's Arctic Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.international.gc.ca/arctic-arctique/arctic_policy-canada-politique_arctique.aspx?lang=eng
Geopolitics in the High North, (2013). Statement on Canada's Arctic policy. Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://www.geopoliticsnorth.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=138:statement.
Justice Laws Website, (2013). Arctic Waters Pollution Prevention Act (R.S.C., 1985, c. A-12). Retrieved August 10, 2013 from http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/A-12/
Driving hile Impaired in Canada
Tough new laws have been enacted in Canada in response to the problem of driving while impaired. In this case "impaired" means driving while intoxicated on alcohol -- being over the limit on blood alcohol (driving under the influence, DUI / driving while intoxicated, DI) -- or on drugs. This paper describes the issue, reviews the relevant legislation and laws, reviews the history of laws pertaining to impaired driving sanctions, and offers analysis of the contemporary legal situations regarding impaired driving laws in Canada.
hat is Impaired Driving?
The Ministry of Transportation in Ontario defines impaired driving as driving "while you ability is affected by alcohol or drugs… a deadly combination" (www.mto.gov.on.ca). The fact is that one drink can reduce a driver's ability to concentrate on the road and the traffic. Even one drink can affect a driver's reaction time, the MTO explains. The MTO…
Addario, Frank. (2008). Nasty Criminal Law Will Achieve Nothing for Public Safety.
Criminal Lawyer's Association. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.criminallawyers.ca .
Bill C-2. (2007). An Act to amend the Criminal Code and to Make Consequential Amendments
To Other Acts. Parliament of Canada. Virtual Library. Retrieved Oct. 1, 2011, from http://www.parl.gc.ca .
2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market
Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries
Crisis in the United States
Crisis in Canada
Crisis in ussia
Crisis in European markets
Crisis in Asian markets
Effects by other related crisis events
In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.
The automobile industry is a very important part…
Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.
Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.
Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.
Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
The case of former colonel ussell Williams offers insight into the psychology of criminal behavior. Williams's confession interview was released to the public and aired on The Fifth Estate, offering criminologists, sociologists, psychologists, and law enforcement officials unique access to the mind of a criminal. Analysts interviewed for The Fifth Estate documentary note that Williams presents a conundrum for psychologists and criminologists, as his reactions to the police interview did not fit any previously known profile, such as that of a psychopath. Williams exhibits traits that resemble psychopathic behavior, in accordance with individual trait theory. For instance, he meticulously recorded his crimes and kept the photographic and video imagery as souvenir mementos.
Yet Williams also denies his right to an attorney, permits a foot imprint of his incriminating boots, and also states in the interview that he "was hoping" that he would not have raped or killed again had…
Globalization has become a ubiquitously word in the last few decades. Much of the globalization trend is driven by the fact that many organizations operate internationally and supply chains have become sophisticated, complex, and spans the entire globe. Globalization trends are starting to become more widespread and ever easier to implement due to advancement in information technology. Globalization and its effects have paved the way for increased free trade agreements and comparative advantages in various goods between different countries and nations. As a result of globalization, markets attempt to proactively create a level of homogenization and standardization of resources and labor. However, globalization and standardization are ill-equipped to handle all goods and services that are desired by the public.
Some industries, such as healthcare and education, are not easily fit into a standardized model. Such industries require flexibility to adapt to specific challenges that may only apply…
Chandrakant, S. (2003). Public Health and Preventive Medicine in Canada. Saunders.
Collier, R. (2010). Different Routes to Regionalization. Canadian Medical Association, 330-331.
Dash, P., Llewellyn, C., & Richardson, B. (2009, July). Developing a regional health system strategy. Retrieved from McKinnsey & Company: http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/health_systems_and_services/developing_a_regional_health_system_strategy
Department of Health and Community Services. (N.d.). Services in your Region. Retrieved from Department of Health and Community Services: http://www.health.gov.nl.ca/health/findhealthservices/in_your_community.html
Economics of Production and esource Management: Assessment of the Environmental Impact Associated with Human Waste Fertilizer in Agricultural Production
The objective of this study is to conduct an assessment of the environmental impact associated with human waste fertilizer in agricultural production. National Geographic News reporter Tasha Eichenseher reported that 200 million farmers in developing countries are making use of raw sewage due to water shortages and rising costs of fertilizer to irrigate and fertilize approximately 49 million acres of cropland. It is reported by Eichenseher (2008) that this practice "carries serious health risks for many" however, it is reported that the dangers of the use of human waste fertilizer are "eclipsed by the social and economic gains for poor urban farmers and consumers who need affordable food." (Eichenseher, 2008)
The 200 million farmers reported to be using this type of fertilizer are those in sub-Saharan Africa and Latin…
Eichenseher, Tasha (2008) Human Waste Used by 200 Million Farmers, Study Says. 21 Aug 2008. National Geographic News. Retrieved from: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2008/08/080821-human-waste.html
Environmental Fact Sheet (1998) Waste-Derived Fertilizers. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from:
Franceys, Pickford & Reed (1992) Franceys, R., Pickford, J. And Reed, R., A Guide to the Development of On-site Sanitation, WHO, Geneva, 1992. Pickford, John., Low-cost Sanitation: A survey of practical experience, IT Publications, London, 1995. WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH AT LONDON AND LOUGHBOROUGH (WELL) is a resource centre funded by the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID) to promote environmental health and well-being in developing and transitional countries. It is managed by the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (LSHTM) and the Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University.
Shopping in small, Mom -- and Pop stores here is more an activity to pasture for you daily staff of life. These are spots to pasture psyches, for society, for support." (Ibid)
V. LONDERVILLE - a SYNTHESIS of the RESEARCH
The work of Jane Londerville entitled: "Retail Services in Rural Towns: Measuring the Impact of Changes in Retail Environment" relates the fact that retail structure is undergoing rapid change in "both urban and rural settings." (2000) the big box store format has a strategy of construction on land that is cheaper and orders larger quantities of products while employing fewer workers in order to "make greater margins on their sales." (Londerville, 2000) the work of Stone (1995) is related in the work of Londerville. Stone (1995) measured the impact of several categories of retail sales in communities in Iowa that have had a Wal-Mart constructed as compared to those who…
Bennett, Ben (2003) Big Box Battle: Guelph's Citizens Favour Community Values and Smaller Developments, but They are Up Against Powerful Forces. Alternatives Journal. 22 Jun 2003. Online available at http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/summary_0199-3139860_ITM
Guanajuato: The Death of Heritage (2007) Journal a Day: Travel 28 July 2007. Online available at http://www.journal-a-day.com/Travel/392019-guanajuato-the-death-of-heritage.html .
Londerville, Jane (2000) Retail Services in Rural Towns: Measuring the Impact of Changes in the Retail Environment. The Cutting Edge 2000. Consumer Studies - University of Guelph. Ontario Canada. Online available at http://www.rics.org/NR/rdonlyres/4B293EFC-AE4C-41DE-96E1-ADB63ACD19C9/0/retail_services_in_rural_towns_20000101.pdf
Guelph Community Survey (2006) Final Report 18 July 2006. Online available at http://guelph.ca/uploads/Council_and_Committees/Growth-Management/Guelph-Community-Survey-Final-Report.pdf
Environmental egulations in Public Transit
The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…
Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Clean Air Act. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act Accessed on 28 May 2005
Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Surveillance System for an Environmental Health Concern
Environmental health is an important concern for health care providers because it comprises the areas of human health that are impacted by external factors, such as chemical agents, biological agents, physical environment and so on. Issues that fall under environmental health are air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, chemical spills, and other areas (Laroque, 2009). Because of the risk of these areas negatively impacting human health, there is a need to monitor environmental health areas. One major area of environmental health that desperately needs surveillance is the quality of the air in urban areas near major airports. As Schlenker and Walker (2015) point out, airports are responsible for some of the highest concentrations of air pollution in the nation. An as West et al. (2016) show, air pollution is the cause of millions of premature deaths all over the earth. Thus, there is…
The purpose of the bowl is to catch the chaff as the coffee begins to roast. In addition some coffee beans may shoot out of the popper and the bowl will catch those beans (Romanoff). It is important that the person doing the roasting does not touch any of the beans that come out of the chute during roasting as they are likely to get burned; coffee beans hold a great deal of heat.
The article further explains that once the machine is on and roasting has begun, the author points out that the individual doing the roasting may need to tilt the popper backwards to stop the beans form falling out of the popper and the hot air moves the beans around (Romanoff). The need to tilt the machine is dependent on the depth of the machine that is used.
It will take about 3 minutes before the beans…
Clarence-Smith, William Gervase, and Steven Topik, eds. The Global Coffee Economy in Africa, Asia and Latin America, 1500-1989. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Davids, Kenneth Home coffee Roasting: Romance and Revival. McMillan, 2003.
Hudson, Mark, and Ian Hudson. "Justice, Sustainability, and the Fair Trade Movement: A Case Study of Coffee Production in Chiapas." Social Justice 31.3 (2004): 130+.
Pendell, Dale. "Shaky Grounds: The Pharmacology of Coffee." Whole Earth Summer 2002: 32+.
history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.
THE AIR LINE PILOTS ASSOCIATION
ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.
The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.
The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation
The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…
Air Line Pilots Association:
Superiority of the anadian Government over that of the United States Regarding Access to the Media by Political Parties
The media, with its diverse modes of mass communication, plays a pivotal role in electoral campaigns both in anada and the United States. andidates for political office thoroughly understand the infinite potential in utilizing the media for their campaign platforms. With just one brief thirty-second advertisement during a commercial break either on the radio or on television, a candidate instantaneously speaks to millions of attentive listeners and/or viewers. By launching a national communications campaign, a political nominee essentially creates the most efficient and mesmerizing tool in his electoral arsenal.
Though the media has admittedly proven to be an invaluable tool in bridging the gap between a candidate and his constituency, there are a myriad of ethical issues that constrict a candidate from utilizing this resource to it's fullest potential. The main…
Center for Governmental Studies. "Grading State Disclosure 2003: Campaign Disclosure Laws. http://www.campaigndisclosure.org/gradingstate/lawfindings.html
Alliance for Better Campaigns. "All Politics is Local; But you wouldn't Know it by Watching TV. http://www.bettercampaigns/org/reports/display.php?ReportID=12.
September 11th shocked and enraged many people, in the United States and around the world. With that shock came a cry for change, a tightening of the open and free society in which we live. September 11th was an unprecedented occurrence, leaving many people personally affected and still others traumatized by the severity of the events and the seemingly senseless act against civilians. "What happened on September 11 is unparalleled by anything we have ever known. The attacks killed more than 5,000 people, injured tens of thousands more, and caused economic hardship and grief to hundreds of thousands more. From the New York attacks alone, more than 10,000 people lost a parent." (O'Brien, 2001, pg. 425)
This research work will attempt to analyze the real circumstances of change in the border between the U.S. And Canada since September 11th. It will answer several questions associated with the potential or real…
Akram, S.M. (2002). The aftermath of September 11, 2001: The targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. 61-87.
Cornelius, W.A. (2001). Death at the Border: Efficacy and Unintended consequences of U.S. Immigration Control Policy. Population and Development Review, 27(4), 661-680.
Dozier, D. (1998). Employee communications at Kerr-McGee in the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing. Public Relations Quarterly, 43(2), 13-17.
Dunn, T.J. (2001). Border militarization via drug and immigration enforcement: Human rights implications. Social Justice, 28(2), 7-18.
Mold Spore Trapping
Current Scientific Knowledge
People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.
Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.
Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…
Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.
Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.
CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.
CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
Public International Law
Memorandum for preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
President XI Jinping of China
Preparation for next year's negotiations for the Conference of the Parties (COP)
Climate Change - Carbon Emissions
Climate change poses one of the most difficult questions to the world today. Cities continue to be the main contributors of this challenge. Most of the greenhouse gases are produced by industries, motorized conveyance, domestic fuel, and disposal of waste and are centered in and around cities. The IEA (International Energy Agency) foresees almost three fourths of the carbon emissions coming from urban centers by 2030. It then becomes imperative for the cities to take cognizance of the fact and react to lessen the effect. Creating an inventory of the carbon footprint would then be the logical first step in the process of addressing the issue of climate change effectively. In…
Alvarez RA, Pacala SW, Winebrake JJ, Chameides WL, Hamburg SP. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure. (2012), ProcNatlAcadSci USA.
Hansen, James, et al. "Assessing "Dangerous Climate Change": Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People Future Generations and Nature." PLOS One (2013). Review.
Heinberg R, Fridley D. The end of cheap coal. Nature, 468(7322): 2010, 367 -- 369. DOI: 10.1038/468367a.
International Energy Agency. 2010 Key world energy statistics, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.iea.org / textbase/nppdf/free/2010/key stats 2010.pdf
other intangible assets such as patents and management strength. Finally, those future earnings are discounted to arrive at a net present value. Interbrand discounts against current interest rates and also against the brand's overall risk profile to factor in brand strength. Considerations include market leadership, stability, and global reach -- or the ability to cross both geographic and cultural borders. The final result values the brand as a financial asset. BusinessWeek and Interbrand believe this figure comes closest to representing a brand's true economic worth. (Business Week, Aug, 2007 (http://www.businessweek.com/pdfs/2007/0732_globalbrands.pdf)
Among the top 100 brands the U.S. has the largest representation with a full 52 brands on the list. This is comparable to no other nation. The U.S. also boast the highest rankings in high tech brands, producing electronic support systems, like software and PCs and/or support functions for them, as well as food and beverage provider brands, while Japan…
BP Statistical Review of World Energy, 2008, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:
Business Week, Aug, 2007, retrieved 8, 15, 2008:
Prenegotiation Memorandum (pm)
Re: Tamarack, MN and Twin Lakes Mining Company
Twin Lakes Mining Company
The Twin Lakes Mining Company (hereafter known as 'company') makes significant contribution to Tamarack, Minnesota - employing 21% of the residents, providing 33% of the total real estate tax base - and is considered an integral entity to the town's longevity. The city needs Twin Lakes to maintain the current standard of living the residents enjoy.
The City of Tamarack
The city operates on a zero deficit per annum decree. Twin Lakes Mining Company has directly caused some of the need for improvements concerning water quality, air quality, and effluvia and pollution management. The city also relies upon the heavy property taxation to provide economic, culture, and recreation services to the community. Twin Lakes Mining Company does not need the City of Tamarack (hereafter known as 'city') to continue operations in…
The following definitions may be helpful.
Category 1 APUs are installed where in-flight auxiliary power operation is necessary. Category 1 APUs are usually required for essential APU installations. These APUs have been shown to meet all of the test and analysis requirements of the Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) of TSO C77b, Appendix 1.
Category 2 APUs are installed where in-flight APU operation is not necessary (non-essential installations).
Both Category 1 and Category 2 APUs are acceptable for non-essential APU installations. Category 2 APUs are not required to meet all of the test and analysis requirements that Category 1 APUs are subjected to. (See TSO C77b, Appendix 1, for the detailed requirements). (Category 1 and Category 2 APU, 2005). (See Appendix a for another example of an APU)
History (may need something different for this part - raw research) significant early demonstration was of the first liquid-fueled, fuel cell APU on…
Canadian Inventor Develops Airplane Auxiliary Power Unit Passive Cooling System. U.S. Fed News Service, Including U.S. State News. HT Media Ltd. 2008. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
Mock Client Interview & Analysis
Dialogue between the social work counselor & Amal:
Social Work Counsellor: Good morning, Amal. How are you today?
Amal: (Gets up); says, 'I don't wanna be here. I'm normal, everyone else isn't'
Social Work Counsellor: Oh? Now why do you say that?
Amal: (Walks to the window & looks out); 'Because they're all against me. I don't fit in. I don't belong.
Social Work Counsellor: Please tell me more Amal. You can tell me anything.
Amal: The other kids are slow. They don't think, and only obey the teacher. I like to be active there isn't enough time for gym or recess like my old school. I'm bored there.
Social Work Counsellor: Have you told you teacher about your feelings, Amal?
Amal: No not like how I told you. The teacher doesn't ask me anything. I don't think the teacher likes me. The other kids…
A Social Approach to Counseling in Challenging Contexts. Negotiation, Chapter 6
A Social Approach to Counseling in Challenging Contexts. Ethics & Power, Chapter 7
Carey, M., et.al. (2009). The Absent But Implicit: A May to Support Therapeutic
Enquiry. Family Process. 48 (3): 319-32.
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Natural overburden includes silty clay, silty peat, and silty sand (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2). Overburden is generally thin, averaging 3 meters in most areas, but can go up to 9 meters at times (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2). Native soils primarily reside in areas of low topography.
This topography allows for constant movement and shifting of overburden. Rainy seasons create excessive water flows, which travel down slopes to the low-lying areas and into the waterways. These areas of low topography are of particular concern, as they tend to accumulate deposits of contaminants.
Groundwater and surface water in the area are altered by man-made structures placed by the mining company. ater travels through the area by means of the overburden and the bedrock. In the area of the main mine, water flows primarily through bedrock (CH2MHILL, p. 3-2).Groundwater flows in a generally southeasterly direction. ater flows towards the major waterways such as the Moira…
British Columbia Ministry of Environment. Arsenic in Groundwater. February 2007. www.env.gov.bc.ca/wsd/plan_protect_sustain/groundwater/library/ground_fact_sheets/pdfs/as (020715)_fin3.pdf
CH2MHill. Deloro Mine Site Cleanup. Mine Area Rehabilitation Alternatives. Final Report. Ontario Ministry of the Environment. 2003. http://www.ene.gov.on.ca/envision/techdocs/4915e.pdf .
McAndrew, B. Ministry kept town in dark over arsenic, group says. Tuesday 11 June 1999 the Toronto Star, http://www.e-b-i.net/ebi/Deloro/articles/del990611.html
US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Arsenic in Drinking Water. 2006. http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic/index.html
Some of the reasons why Hyundai relocated to Alabama State of the U.S.A. include the failure that she suffered in Korea. With the influx of cheap imported cars and the violent nature of the labor unions in Korea, the company had started to suffer serious decline in profits; this necessitated the move to look for other alternatives of operation. This landed the company in the U.S. As the revolution of the manufacturing companies and industries in the country (Carmel & Tjia, 2005). This is the place that provided the utmost and best labor regulations for the company. Another significant factor is the state government's incentive package. The incentive was very attractive to Hyundai as they could abate tax if they relocated there. This was a massive boost to the process of adaptation and profit realization. Moreover, the company was offered a site for setting their operations and a good access…
Lansbury, R.D., So?, C., Kwo-n, S., & Hyo-ndae Chonghap Sangsa (Korea). (2007). The global
Korean motor industry: The Hyundai Motor Company's global strategy. London:
Motherson sumi systems limited: 2009 company profile edition 2: Chapter 6 SWOT analysis.
Flight crew resource management is the science of training flight crews to interact and communicate in a highly authoritarian environment while at the same time making use of the intelligence and professional resources of all the members of a flight crew. In the cockpit, the captain is in unquestionable control of the airplane because he is ultimately responsible for all aspects of the flight, including hardware, equipment and personnel on board. However, Each member of the crew can make important contributions, especially during in flight crises, and their input can be thwarted because of the highly authoritarian command culture. This paper examines the issues of fright crew resource management, and seeks to expand the definition of crew resource management to include personal communication style in order to further facilitate professional, accurate and open communication between the flight staff and commander.
According to Wilson (2001) aviation accidents and mishaps…
Alkov, R.A. (1991). U.S. Navy aircrew coordination training -- A progress report. In R.S. Jensen (Ed.), Proceedings of the 6th international Symposium on Aviation Psychology (pp. 368-371). Columbus: Ohio State University.
Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, W., Jr., & Traver, H. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.
Baker, D.P., Prince, C., Shrestha, L., Oser, R., & Salas, E. (1993). Aviation computer games for crew resource management training. international Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3, 143-156.
Butler, R.E. (1993). LOFT: Full mission simulation as crew resource management training. In E.L. Wiener, B.G., Kanki, & R.L. Helmreich (Eds.), Cockpit resource management (pp. 231-259). San Diego, CA: Academic.
, 2000, p. 686). Virtually all swine CAFOs must cope with a significant amount of waste materials on-site that have been linked with serious odors and contain antimicrobials, nutrients, organics, and pathogenic microbes (Cole et al., 2000). For instance, raw swine manure can contain as much as 100 million fecal coliform bacteria per gram (Crane, Moore & Gismer, 1983). Futhermore, it has been estimated that 100 million lions tons of feces and urine are produced annually by the 60 million hogs raised in the United States (Meadows, 1995). According to Cole et al. (2000), the detection of specific exposures and diseases in the communities surrounding swine CAFOs has presented a challenge for the industry and healthcare officials alike because of the additional complexities of environmental dispersion of agents and human exposure pathways. In addition, the susceptibility of community residents to contaminants and pathogens may be substantially different from that of…
Buttel, F.H. (1992). Environmentalism: Origins, Processes, and Implications for Rural Social Change. Rural Sociology, 57(1), 1-27.
Cole, D., Todd, L., & Wing, S. (2000). Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations and Public Health: A Review of Occupational and Community Health Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(8), 685.
Crane, S.R., Moore, J. a, Grismer, M.E., & Miner J.R. (1983). Bacterial pollution from agricultural sources: a review. Trans ASAE 26:858 -- 866 in Cole, Todd & Wing (2000), p. 687.
Edward, B. & Ladd, a.E. (2002). Corporate Swine and Capitalist Pigs: A Decade of Environmental Injustice and Protest in North Carolina. Social Justice, 29(3), 26.
2.6. Sources Consulted
The list of the works assessed throughout the research of this topic is revealed in the eferences section at the end of the report. As a final statement however, it has to be recognized that the previous lines only make up for the proposal and the actual research will be more comprehensive and will even include more sources, as required by the development of the research operations.
Arabe, K.C., Green Packaging is Growing, Thomas Net, http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/2002/10/green_packaging.html last accessed on September 22, 2009
Dyer, D., Dalzell, F., Olegario, ., ising Tide: Lessons from 165 Years of Brand Building at Procter & Gamble, Harvard Business Press, 2004
Freeze, a.., the Environmental Pendulum: A Quest for the Truth about Toxic Chemicals, Human Health, and Environmental Protection, University of California Press, 2000
Jedlicka, W., Packaging Sustainability: Tools, Systems and Strategies for Innovative Package Design, John Wiley and Sons, 2008
Arabe, K.C., Green Packaging is Growing, Thomas Net, http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/archives/2002/10/green_packaging.html last accessed on September 22, 2009
Dyer, D., Dalzell, F., Olegario, R., Rising Tide: Lessons from 165 Years of Brand Building at Procter & Gamble, Harvard Business Press, 2004
Freeze, a.R., the Environmental Pendulum: A Quest for the Truth about Toxic Chemicals, Human Health, and Environmental Protection, University of California Press, 2000
Jedlicka, W., Packaging Sustainability: Tools, Systems and Strategies for Innovative Package Design, John Wiley and Sons, 2008
The concepts of "green houses," and "green jobs" are more and more utilized in everyday's conversation and the media has already made people aware of some of the benefits of using alternative sources of energy such as solar energy. The short and medium term benefits lie not only in the relatively short period of depreciation of such an investment, but also in an increase in the quality of life of those depending no longer on a source that is pollutant as well as not renewable. I will also appeal to the advantages provided by this alternate source of energy in terms of international politics and economies. Using the immense potential of alternative energy resources our country provides us, we could become less dependent on foreign oil, thus less influenced by the foreign politics and fluctuations in the oil prices on the international market.
United States Environmental Protection Agency. Climate Change.…
Victor. D.G. The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming. Princeton University Press, 2001. viii
Victor. D.G. The Collapse of the Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming. Princeton University Press, 2001. viii
Commercial aviation, therefore, warrants the highest attention to risk management, precisely by virtue of the obvious risks to life and limb first, and devastating financial consequences of materialized risks associated with commercial aviation operations.
Designing and implementing a comprehensive risk management program entails specific components to identify potential risks, evaluate their likelihood of occurrence, the magnitude of harm associated with them, and the interrelationship of their statistical likelihood and extent of potential harm they represent. Program implementation is, in many ways, merely the first step in a long-term comprehensive safety strategy for effective and economical risk mitigation, precisely because the complexities of risk management in commercial aviation.
Consequently, post-implementation procedural monitoring and regular follow-up are necessary to ensure proper redress of any operational oversights and inadequacies, especially those that come to light only retrospectively after initial program implementation. In this regard, statutory requirements are merely the first level of risk…
Accessed October 27, 2007, at http://www.faa.gov/library/manuals/aviation/risk_management/
U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (2005).
Aviation Safety Center. Risk Management; Accessed October 27, 2007, at: http://www.fs.fed.us/fire/av_safety/risk_mgt/index.html
Correspondingly, it's cooler than normal in the Southeast and Southwest United States Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). Because the upper westerly winds are more vertical, the tropical North Atlantic has fewer hurricanes, while the eastern tropical North Pacific has more Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
Sometimes, after ENSO's warm phase, ENSO's opposite, cold phase La Nina) occurs Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). This periodic every three to five years) phase has winter temperatures that are warmer than normal in the Southeast, and cooler than normal in the Northwest Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project, 1998). ENSO's cold phase is currently happening, and expected to continue into 2012 Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005). As a result, the Mississippi can continue to expect record droughts, while most of the South can expect more snowstorms Climate Prediction Center Internet Team, 2005).
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011)
In the last twenty…
(2007). Observations: Surface and Atmospheric Climate Change. In K. Trenberth, P. Jones, P. Ambenje, R. Bojariu, D. Easterling, A. Klein Tank, et al., S. Solomon, & M.M.D. Qin (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom; New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project. (1998). What is an El Nino? Retrieved December 1, 2011, from El Nino Theme Page: http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/elnino/el-nino-story.html
Yeh, S.-W., Kug, J.-S., Dewitte, B., Kwon, M.-H., Kirtman, B.P., & Jin, F.-F. (2009). El Nino in a changing climate. Nature, 511-514.
life we are always faced with situations where the rights on one individual overlap those of another, causing a legal conflict that is often decided upon in the court of law. In many cases, these are private rights, but we are sometimes in a situation when the rights delimitation is imposed by the government, as is the case with the tobacco industry and smoking regulations and delimitations.
The problem with smoking in public places bares much resemblance in Canada, Europe or the United States. The right of smoking individuals to smoke in public places was gradually and constantly diminished to the degree that nowadays smoking in restaurants, offices or any closed locations. The movement against smoking in public places seems to have started in Canada in the early 1990s, when the City of Toronto emitted a series of by-laws, referred to as The Workplace Smoking y-law. This law "requires all…
1. H. Demsetz, "Toward a Theory of Property Rights," American Economic Review, Vol.57 (May, 1967).
2. R.Coase, "The Problem of Social Cost," Journal of Law and Economics, Vol.3 (October 1960).
3. Impact of Workplace Smoking Restriction - Compliance Issues. On the Internet at http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hecs-sesc/tobacco/facts/workplace/part3_compliance.html
Impact of Workplace Smoking Restriction - Compliance Issues. On the Internet at
Economic entities can be influenced by the area they are located in, with the entities positioned in the vicinity of economic blocks like NAFTA or the European Union being advantaged and thus more likely to engage in trade. People in North America and those in Western Europe are advantaged because of their position, meaning that the trade business they get involved in is normally more intense in comparison to the trade performed by economic entities that reside further away from economic blocks.
Security has always been a crucial matter when it came to freight transportation. However, this topic has not been given special attention until the 9/11 events, which marked the beginning of great changes in transportation policies. It previously seemed perfectly normal to check freights for illegal substances, undocumented immigrants, and piracy. Even with that, the World Trade Center events brought forward a new set of security concerns. The…