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Air Cargo Security
Since the events of 911, airport security has been an important issue. The Transportation Security Administration (TSA)" is responsible for ensuring the security of all modes of transportation, including cargo placed aboard airplaines and particularly focuses on passenger-carrying planes" (TSA). The TSA is part of the Department of Homeland Security. According to the latest information available, the TSA employs 620 Cargo Transportation Security Inspectors who are exclusively dedicated to the oversight of air cargo. One hundred twenty of these are canine teams. The numbers of security inspectors and canine teams has increased significantly since 2006 (TSA).
Obviously, no one wants to see another tragedy. Terrorism continues to be a threat and security measures must try to keep pace with ever-changing strategies that terrorists try to employ. There has been much in the news about passenger screening, x-ray technology, and rights to privacy. Passengers do not present the…
Beesley, A. (2010). Call for tighter security on air cargo worldwide. Irish Times 11/6/2010.
Dutton, G. (2010). Industry braces for 100% air cargo screening. World Trade 23(5), pp.
Harris, D. (2010). Air cargo security. Good Morning America (ABC), 10/31/2010.
ir Cargo, Inc. only flew cargo from December, 1941 (when Pearl Harbor was attacked) through November, 1944. t that time, Siddiqi explains that individual airline companies authored their own freight services, and on page 2 the author of this article notes that in time the major passenger airlines began offering freight forwarding service and that pretty well eliminated the need for a whole fleet of airline companies that just forwarded freight (Siddiqi). Only Flying Tiger stayed aloft as a strictly air freight company until the 1980s when Federal Express entered the picture. More on FedEx later in this paper.
The Literature -- the History of ir Freight Transportation -- Berlin ir Lift
When the long, bloody war was over it was time for the winning llies to divide up the territory that once was Nazi Germany, the negotiated, agreed-upon divisions gave the llies (U.S., Britain, and France) the Western…
April 20, 2012, from http://www.centennialofflight.gov.
Wilde, Robert. (2005). Berlin Blockade / Berlin Airlift. About.com. Retrieved April 20, 2012,
From http://europeanhistory.about.com .
It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.
Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.
The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.
Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…
Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002
IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm
Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…
"Bilateral and Regulatory Issues Facing the Air Cargo Industry." (n.d.). Chapter 6. Retrieved
April 17, 2015, from http://www.aci-na.org/sites/default/files/chapter_6_-_bilateral_and_regulatory_issues.pdf
Elias, B. (2010, December 2). Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved April 17, 2015, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41515.pdf
"Evaluation of Screening of Air Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft." (2010, September).
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…
Airports Council International (2009) Airport preparedness guidelines for outbreaks of communicable disease. Available at: http://www.airports.org/aci/aci/file/ACI_Priorities/Health/Airport%20preparedness%20guidelines.pdf (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bouma, G.D. (2002) The research process. 4th edn. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Brigantic, R., Delp, W., Gadgil A., Kulesz, J., Lee, R., Malone, J.D. (2009) U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis. Available at: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7578-4W2M6SG1&_user=10843&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000000150&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10843&md5=44685b11dd53d74a8ef85a4f03e185f2 (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Bush, George W. (2003a). Homeland security presidential directive -- 5: Management of domestic incidents. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/02/20030228-9.html (Accessed: 28 November 2011)
Air Force Military Training 4
Aviation Tactical Force- to- Force Exercise
Military operations entails an interaction of multiple forces, hence sequencing their interaction during training is essential in promoting inter-service cooperation (Col Gopaul, 2017). Efficiency in training is determined by how well the training mirrors the battlefield. The sequencing of the battlefield is configured engaging in multi-service training exercises referred to as force- to- force exercise.
Force- to- force exercise training is a form of training that entails training with simulation equipment to realism to training as the training. Tactical force-to-force exercises essentially entail simulation and configuration of battlefield complexities to support basic training of pilots, mission commanders, and operators. The operation entails the interaction of technologies and forces with different operation experience (Kishore, 2017). The simulated exercises ensure warfighting competencies and swift execution and successful spectrum of operations as well as interforce relationship building (Col Gopaul, 2017). Force- to-…
Human Factor in Cargo Security
Is Human Factor important Cargo Security
Cargo security I one of the major issues handled with priority by Homeland security department in United States of America. It is regarded as a positional facilitator in terrorism activities. Another notable factor in implementing security measures for cargo was theft as a direct business cost for U.S. It is observed that businesses lost $15b to $30 billion as a loss to cargo theft in 2006. The research further states that personnel access, vehicles access, and proliferation of papers are one of the major causes of cargo theft. It is evident that certain factors have a direct influence on maintaining security for cargo. Technology, processes, procedures, systems, and all of the above human involvement are major issues in cargo security. It requires maintaining a high level of integrity for all these factors to reduce risk in cargo transportation.
Giermanski, J. (2011, June 01). Facing the realities and probabilities of enhancing supply chain security. The Maritime Executive, Retrieved from http://www.maritime-executive.com/article/facing-the-realities-and-probabilities-of-enhancing-supply-chain-security/
Giermanski, J. (2012). Global Supply Chain Security. USA: Rowman & Littlefield.
Iseby, J. (2008). 9/11 Comm Recommendations. USA: Nova Science Pub Incorporated.
Ivanov, D., & Sokolov, B.V. (2010). Adaptive supply chain management. London: Springer verlag.
September 11, a whole new range of advanced security equipment and protocols has been put in place. However, many of these systems and procedures remain inconsistent from airport to airport. One of the most critical ways of promoting faster passenger throughput without sacrificing the main goals of security is consistency and standardization among American airports, with an ultimate goal of working more tightly with global partners to create a consistent international travel security experience. If passengers know what to expect at each airport, the screening procedures can become more streamlined. Even if shifts in global threat alerts do often change the details in the procedures, passenger throughput does not need to be adversely affected if the overall protocols and goals remain the same. It may also be important to ensure that employees receive ample time and training in using any new equipment that is introduced, and that all equipment glitches…
Elias, B. (2007). Air cargo security. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved online: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL32022.pdf
McNeil, J.B. (2010). Air cargo security. Retrieved online: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/06/air-cargo-security-how-to-keep-americans-secure-without-harming-the-economy
Transportation Security Administration (2006). TSA issues new regulations to substantially strengthen air cargo security. Retrieved online: https://www.tsa.gov/news/releases/2006/05/17/tsa-issues-new-regulations-substantially-strengthen-air-cargo-security
United States Department of Homeland Security (2015). Cargo screening. Retrieved online: http://www.dhs.gov/cargo-screening
Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on December 12, 1985. Thesis: "The crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on 12 December 1985 was caused by terrorists." (Gander, Newfoundland) Research concludes that this flight carrying soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division actually crashed due to terrorists act. Five sources are used. MLA.
The Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 Flight December 12, 1985
It had been nearly two decades since an Arrow Airs DC-8 jet crashed just after taking off from a refueling stop in Gander, Newfoundland on December 12, 1985. The plane rose less than 1,000 ft., then crashed, tail first, into a small hill, disintegrating in flames about a half-mile from the end of the runway (Magnuson 22). It has been listed as the worst military air disaster, killing 248 American soldiers along with eight crew members. There is still much speculation as to the cause for the crash, although…
Cox, Matthew. "Decade Later, Crash Debated." Newsday. August 25, 1996; pp A16.
http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Newsday&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.newsday.com&[email protected]:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Matthew+Cox&title=Decade+Later%2C+Crash+Debated++&date=08%2D25%2D1996&query=The+Crash+of+Arrow+Airs+DC%2D8+Flight+December+12%2C+1985&maxdoc=6&idx=5. (accessed 09-26-2002).
Magnuson, Ed. "NATION: THE FALL OF THE SCREAMING EAGLES A charter-jet crash kills 248 members of a famed Airborne unit." Time. December 23, 1985; pp 22.
http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Time&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~pathfinder.com~S~time&[email protected]:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Ed+Magnuson%2E+Reported+by+Peter+Stoler%2FGander%2C+with+other+bureaus&title=NATION%3A+THE+FALL+OF+THE+SCREAMING+EAGLES+A+charter%2Djet+crash+kills+248+members+of+a+famed+Airborne+unit++&date=12%2D23%2D1985&query=gander+crash&maxdoc=8&idx=6. (accessed 09-26-2002).
An example of the effectiveness of using this protocol can be seen at the El Al cargo terminal in angkok, Thailand during 2003. What happened was El Al security identified, an unauthorized man taking pictures of the cargo area. Once arrested by security personnel, it was determined that he was planning on launching surface to air missiles, against the airline. ("Thwarted Attack Against El Al Flight" 2003) What this shows, is that when you have specific designated areas, you can be able to identify those people who are at the cargo terminal, to cause damage / disruptions. This is because the designated areas, will force everyone who works there and is conducting business, to go through a particular set of structures / procedures. Anyone who is not following these policies would raise security concerns. At which point, the odds increase dramatically that this person will be stopped and questioned.
Recommended Security Guidelines for Airport Planning. (2006). TSA
Thwarted Attack Against El Al Flight. (2003). Retrieved July, 9, 2010 from All Business website: http://www.allbusiness.com/middle-east/israel/644547-1.html
Li, J. (2006). Cargo Security at the World's Busiest Airport. Retrieved July 9, 2010 from All Business website: http://www.asiansecurity.org/articles/2008/jun/03/cargo-security-worlds-busiest-airport/
The traditional bilateral air service agreements do have some restrictions that prevent foreign airlines to invest in foreign hubs, however, with the open skies agreements such restrictions do not exist and an airline will be able to fully exploit its investments in a foreign country thereby facilitating service between preferred cargo airports. The provision of such agreements also promote cargo services by guaranteeing access to customs facilities and processing, offering a range of ground-handling options, and availing surface transportation necessary for flights. Such provisions enable cargo carriers to efficiently monitor and control cargo from their point of departure to their final destination. This will enhance faster and safer delivery of cargo translating into value-added service to customers.
The benefits derived from the development in the international air transport is not limited to air services industry alone but spreads to cover several service providers, labor market, manufacturers, and the general economy…
Alford, E. And Champley, R. (2007). The impact of the 2007 U.S.-EU open skies air transport agreement. ITA Occasional Paper no. 07-001
Brueckner, J. And W.T. Whalen, (2000). "The Price Effects of International Airline Alliances,"
The Journal of Law and Economics: 43(2), 503-545
Hertel, T.W. (1997) Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and Applications. Cambridge University Press: New York
Honolulu International Airport (HNL) is one of the world's largest, oldest, and most beautiful airports.
As the principal aviation gateway of the city and county of Honolulu on Oahu in the State of Hawaii, HNL is also identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States. Total traffic now exceeds 21 million passengers a year and is rising (Honolulu International Airport, 2016).
Owned and operated by the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation, HNL covers 4,520 acres of fast and submerged land. The airport itself is larger than the major resort destination of Waikiki, which is located 10 miles to the south (Honolulu International Airport, 2016).
HNL has four active runways, including the 12,000-foot Reef Runway. When it was built, the Reef Runway was the world's first major runway built entirely offshore (Honolulu International Airport, 2016). The airport is served by 27 international and domestic carriers, two interisland…
The Miami International Airport terminal is stated to present "notable life safety challenges because of large occupant loads, presence of significant combustible loads, complex security restrictions, and less than ideal egress provisions from interior spaces." (Miami International Airport, 1998) The Life Safety Master Plan (LSMP) is stated to provide a summary of the fire safety surveys and studies conducted. The first line of defense is stated to be that of prevention of fire however, the facility's size and complexity makes a requirement that there is complete coverage "by automatic fire protection systems...in place in case prevention fails." (Miami International Airport, 1998 ) Also required in combination with highly reliable automatic protection systems are manual fire fighting capabilities of an enhanced nature.
Drug Trafficking Threats
The South Florida HIDTA reports that the Miami International Airport (MIA) is not only the busiest airport in the United States for international cargo but it…
Miami Passenger Traffic Positive in April, But Can the Recovery Survive Swine Flu? (2009) Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. 1 June 2009. Online available at: http://www.centreforaviation.com/news/2009/06/01/miami-passenger-traffic-positive-in-april-but-can-the-recovery-survive-swine-flu/page1
City of Miami Springs NW 36th Street Commercial Corridor Market Study (2003) The Metropolitan Center. May, 2003.
Dooley, Susan Warner (nd) Revenue Optimization Assessments: Tale of Three Airports. Columbus Regional Airport Authority. http://2007conference.airportrevenuenews.com/presentations/day1/SusanWarnerDooley.pdf
Life Safety Master Plan (1998) Miami International Airport. SEC Project No. 1897081-000 Vol. 1. No. 201. December 1998. Online available at: http://www.miami-airport.com/LSMP/Vol1/201.pdf
S. domestic carriers are at period in the industry's history when these factors are already beleaguered by downturns in the global economy, increasing competition from international carriers, and the aforementioned high costs of energy.
Chapter 2: The Impact of Open Skies Agreements on Domestic and International Carriers
Under an open skies agreement, both signatories to the agreement enjoy open access to international airline routes between the two countries as well as eliminating virtually all domestic restrictions on international carriers (Lick, 1998). In an effort to develop more closely integrated pricing and route schedules, signatories to these agreements typically also seek to gain immunity from national antitrust laws (Commercial aviation: Legacy airlines must further reduce costs to restore profitability, 2004). The U.S. Department of Transportation reviews these types of airline alliances from an antitrust perspective and refuses to approval an alliance without a reciprocal open skies agreement with the foreign airline's…
Baker, C. (2004, March 1). Air France-KLM approved; competition regulators in Brussels have approved Air France's takeover of KLM, deciding the consumer comes out of the deal as a net winner. Washington also says it will not oppose the deal. Airline Business, 9.
Bilotkach, V. (2002). Asymmetric regulation and airport dominance in international aviation:
Evidence from the London-New York market. Southern Economic Journal, 74(2), 505-
Doganis, R. (2002). Flying off course: The economics of international airlines. London:
In addition, there are also numerous vehicles that are required for running the airport facilities such as baggage transportation, fuels transportation and maintenance and upkeep of the runways and surrounding lands require trucks and utility vehicles. The airport has switched, wherever possible, to natural gas or electricity run vehicles.
There are, currently, 32 passenger airlines and 19 cargo airlines that use the Hartsfield-Jackson airport. The 2006 statistics as posted by the airport authorities on the official website offer the following details.
Passengers Cargo in Metro Tons
Freight/Express/Mail Aircraft Operations
Landings and Takeoffs
The airport is the largest employer in the State of Georgia, with a payroll of $2.4 billion. Approximately 56,000 individuals are employed by the airport either directly or through contracts agencies. It is estimated that the direct and indirect impact of the airport is $5.6 billion. In turn, "the annual, regional economic impact…
Diaz, M. (2007). "The International Airport Summit."
Retrieved February 26, 2008, at http://www.atlanta-airport.com/default.asp?url=http://www.atlanta-airport.com/sublevels/news_room/speech4.htm.
Factbook. (2002). "World FactBook 2002."
Retrieved February 26, 2008, at http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/wofact2002/fields/2053.html .
They compete with each other for business, seek to build both aviation and non-aviation revenue streams and they must also deal with enhanced security requirements. This places significant pressure on the airport sector. The response within the sector has been twofold. Some airports have become privatized, which allows major airport operators to utilize their expertise across a range of markets. The other solution is the development of public airports that serve as branches of their governments, attracting passengers and investment to the region. Both types of airports have strong, multifaceted strategic mandates and are among the vanguard of modern air transportation.
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent…
Babu, V., Batta, R. & Lin, L. (2004). Passenger grouping under constant threat probability in an airport security system. European Journal of Operational Research. Vol. 168 (2) 633-644.
Barnard, B. (2010). Global air cargo revenue grows 40%. The Journal of Commerce. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.joc.com/air-expedited/global-air-cargo-revenue-grows-40-percent
Cidell, J. (2004). Scales of airport expansion: Globalization, regionalization and local land use. Center for Transportation Studies. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.cts.umn.edu/pdf/CTS-04-01.pdf
Frost & Sullivan. (2010). 16th APSA International Conference Airport Security Market Overview. Retrieved November 8, 2010 from http://www.slideshare.net/tony.ridley/an-overview-of-the-airport-security-market
com.ph. 2010)." Overall this is in line with HKIA's official policy of functioning as a green and environmentally friendly airport. To quote HKIA's website Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) is fully committed to the 4s of waste management -- eduction, e-use, ecycling and esponsibility. Our waste management efforts include reusing and recycling around 12 tons of wastes every day (Hong Kong International Airport 2010)." In addition, HKIA has been participating in the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department's Wastewise program since 2003. Wastewise sets the city of Hong Kong's annual waste reduction and recycling targets. HKIA has received the Gold Wastewise Label annually from 2003 to 2007. In 2008 they received the Wastewise excellent class and recycle materials such as cardboard, paper, plastics, scrap metals, glass bottles, food waste, vehicle tires, spent lube oil, fluorescent lamps, rechargeable batteries, printer / fax cartridges as well as used cooking oil (Ibid).
AECOM. (2010). Hong Kong International Airport - Airport Master Plan 2030 Study,
Hong Kong. Available: http://www.aecom.com/Where+We+Are/Asia/Transportation/_carousel/Hong+Kong+International+Airport+-+Airport+Master+Plan+2030+Study,+Hong+Kong . Last accessed 25 Dec 2010.
Bloomberg. (2004). High Times for Hong Kong's Airport . Available:
http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/04_52/b3914061.htm . Last accessed 25 Dec 2010.
Business Market of Airlines
What is the Business Market of an Airline Industry?
Business market has been defined as a market that is characterized by fewer customers and larger transactions. Customization is the key and the usage of the product or service determines its value. Brand name means little to customers and there is no retailing. Also, selling is a complex process and the target of the sales pitch may not always be the end product's users (NarayanDas 2005).
This kind of market is different from customer markets and, service is the cornerstone of business markets. The products are customized to meet the needs of different customers in different geographical or operational regions. Also, every company operating in a business market strives to attain customer loyalty though the means by which they create and sustain it varies between industries.
With regards to the airline industry, business markets determine many aspects…
Hearing loss is very case specific because one person who has hearing loss or impairment may be able to hear certain sounds or be completely deaf.
Impairment entails something is not working as well as it should but there may still be some basic functioning. Hearing loss can go by many terms such as deaf, deafness, or hard of hearing. All could be one and the same situation but as pointed out, each individual is suffering from their own individual illness or situation and may or may not be comparable to any other hearing loss situation.
Although this report focuses on hearing loss as it is associated to military service, it is important to note that in the United States; approximately three of every thousand newborns are born with some type of hearing impairment thus making it one of the more common birth defects in our nation. This entails that…
Minter, Stephen G. (2002). "Does Your Hearing Conservation Program Measure Up? Once Described as "Sleep Aid Material," the Dry Topic of Hearing Conservation Metrics Draws Increased Interest as OSHA's STS Trigger Undergoes Review." Occupational Hazards, 3/1/2002.
Mosley, Gerry L. (2004). "National Guard and Reserve Unit Health Protections." Congressional Testimony, 3/30/2004.
PR Newswire (2003). "Compound Licensed by American BioHealth Group From U.S. Navy Shown to Protect Against Hearing Loss From Impulse Noise; - New Data Presented at Association for Research in Otolaryngology Meeting." PR Newswire Release, 3/3/2003.
Rabinowitz, Peter M. (2000). Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. American Family Physician, 5/1/2000,.
1. What happened to the two company’s stock price in 2004? Why did it rise? Did one company outpace another and if so why do you think that happened? How should we interpret any increases?
Mid-year 2004, China and the United States attained a revolutionary air-transportation covenant that increased the number of commercial cargo trips between the two nations four-fold. In addition, the agreement encompassed the permission for air-cargo hubs to be created in China and also sanctioned the right for commercial airlines to land at any accessible airport. Taking into consideration that United Parcel Service, Inc, together with FedEx Corporation were the sole all-cargo carriers at the time, it implied that they could expand their operations to the Chinese market. This major market prospect led to an increase in the stock price for the companies. However, it is imperative to note that one company did outperform another. In particular,…
John Jones, Business Executive
D.V. Crockett, entucky Cabinet for Economic Development
I understand there may be a possibility that you will be relocating your business in the next 12-18 months. I would like to introduce you to the great state of entucky, and offer my personal support in helping with your relocation decision. I am sure you've heard of our state, both its historical and economic importance to the nation. However, many people do not realie that from the moutains in the eastern part of the state o the fertile agricultural districts in the south, along with a number of developed and developing urban areas and business parks, when Daniel Boone called entucky a "second paradise," he was also speaking of the state in the 21st century!
There are several reasons to consider relocating to entucky: prime real estate at a low cost, business incentives, friendly…
Kentucky is extremely friendly for businesses of all sizes. Home of not one, but two major air cargo hubs, we rank third in the United States for total air cargo -- making it easy for you to ship or receive youe needed goods. Overall, Kentucky's industrial power is quite competitive, the 6th lowest in the United States and 22% lower than the national average. Further, the state has been recognized in Site Selection's Governor's Cup Award as one of the best in the nation for industry location and expansion as of 2012. Kentucky has a competitive tax structure, and is the 6th lowest cost in the nation for new corporate headquarters. Kentucky has a skilled and motivated workforce with educational partners that work closely with industry to train and develop specific skill sets. Kentucky is ideal for most businesses because our workforce combines a mix of southern charm with a proactive Midwestern work ethic.
Kentucky wants to be a strategic partner with both new and existing companies. We will so all we can to find an appropriate location in which your business can relocate, your employees can find affordable housing and good schools, and above all, a high environmental quality of life with a government that is dedicated to being a "can-do" state. We offer a number of support programs for innovation and entrepreneuship, are close enough to the eastern seaboard to provide strategic transportation alternatives, and have a central hub location for 34-states. Indeed, Kentucky has 19 Interstates, major rail networks, barge access on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, five commercial air-hubs and an ease of service related industries to support your transportation goals.
We pride ourselves in helping businesses like yours develop a personalized strategic plan to assist your relocation efforts. It would be our pleasure to meet with you in person, show you how our state can meet your needs, and tour a number of appropriate locations that may meet your needs. One of our friendly staff consultants will be phoning you within the next few weeks, but if I may be of assistance please call at 800.626.2930 or email at -- . We look forward to showing you why the Bluegrass State may be your next home.
Product: a complex of variable exclusive personal assistance services thus able to satisfy different and sophisticated customer needs; good quality of the product supported with several professional degrees, necessity to work out schedule of increasing personal professionalism by attending specific courses, trainings, seminar; establishment of easily recognizable brand name, at first your personal name, afterwards ability to create a little company and designing good marketing campaign;
Promotion: Advertising through the best ways to reach target group: visiting local Chamber of Commerce meeting, obtaining permission to place leaflets and brochures in target sports clubs, in corporate receptions, website, sending e-mail brochures to corporate workers, yellow pages posting, newspaper and magazine advertising; direct brochure delivery to posts in prestigious districts; necessity to obtain reference letters from all the clients to be able to use them in the future; being a public person by visiting many local event of potential interest.
Susan L. Golicic, Teresa M. McCarthy, J. Mentzer, (2003). Conducting a Market Opportunity Analysis for Air Cargo Operations, Transportation Journal, Summer.
Philip Kotler, Principles of Marketing, Prentice Hall Europe, UK, 1999. http://www.bls.gov/iag/wholeretailtrade.htm
economics problems from a broader perspective, we need to apply macroeconomic principles. These principles help in understanding collective problems that various industry or countries are encountering and the role government can play in this connection. The paper studies current economic problems in the Transportation sector and explains how levels of supply and demand affect the demand curve.
MACOECONOMICS AND TANSPOTATION SECTO
Macroeconomics deals with economy on a larger scale and studies the principles of economics as they pertain to the whole industry and not just one firm. This helps in understanding national economic problems of inflation, unemployment, slow GDP growth, lower productivity etc. Therefore it is important to apply macroeconomics principles when we want to study and understand the problems being encountered by any economic system. For example in these days of slow growth, we notice that United States economic problems can be better understood in the light of macroeconomics…
Definitions of Economics, http://www.cr1.dircon.co.uk/TB/1/1.1.1.htm
Justin Fox, What In The World Happened To Economics? Fortune, 03-15-1999, pp. 90
" (Qantas Airways Limited and Controlled Entities - Preliminary Final Report, 2008)
In July, 2008 Qantas reported that it intends to "eliminate 1,500 jobs world-wide and it shed plans to increase flying capacity as it continues to battle high jet-fuel costs." (the Wall Street Journal, 2008) in addition, the plans to hire 1,200 people have been canceled. Qantas will also be retiring 22 aircraft from its fleet and call centers in Arizona and London will be closed as well. (Thurlow and McFarland, 2008)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
Quantas Airways, Ltd. is the number one domestic airline industry in Australia and is a leader in the Asia-Pacific region. In fact, Quantas is among the ten largest airlines in the world and connects Australia in approximately 81 destinations and forty countries throughout the world. The company operates several regional airlines in the country of Australia and carries in excess of thirty million passengers…
Thurlow, R. And McFarland, L. (2008) Corporate News Qantas Plans to Cut Jobs, Scraps Capacity Increase. Wall Street Journal. 18 Jul 2008.
Qantas Airways Limited and Controlled Entities (2008) Preliminary Final Report. 20 June 2008. Online available at:
Qantas Airways Ltd. (2008) Financial Times. Online available at http://markets.ft.com/tearsheets/businessProfile.asp?s=QAN%3AASX
Another landmark case involved global giant British Petroleum (BP) in the largest fine in OSHA history. The case involved the explosion at a BP refinery in Texas that killed 15 people and injured 170 others. An OSHA press release notes, "This citation and penalty - nearly double the next largest fine in OSHA history - sends a strong message to all employers about the need to protect workers and to make health and safety a core value,' Solicitor of Labor Howard M. adzely stated" (Groover, 2005). The implications for human resource implementation are again clear. Without the proper training, the individuals in the plant did not operate some of the processing equipment effectively, and pressure built up in the unit that exploded. Part of the settlement required BP to "hire an expert to assess and report on communication within and between management, supervisors, and authorized employee representatives and non-management employees…
Editors. (2008). Breaking news: GINA becomes law May 2008. Retrieved from the Human Genome Project Web site: http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/legislat.shtml .
Groover, P. (2005). OSHA fines BP Products North America more than $21 million following Texas City explosion. Retrieved 26 March 2009 from the OSHA.gov Web site: http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document-p_table=NEWS_RELEASES&p_id=11589 .
Mitchell, B. (2007). U.S. Labor Department's OSHA announces workplace health violations against American Airlines at O'Hare International Airport. Retrieved 26 March 2009 from the Legal View Web site: http://mesothelioma.legalview.com/osha/570248/.
Transportation Security and Intrusiveness of Security Screenings
America's land, seaways, and air transportation systems are structured in such a manner that enhances efficiency and enables easy access, the two features that also at the same time make these transportation systems susceptible to attacks. The expenses and difficulty of protecting the entire transportation systems from attacks raises a critical issue for legislators and other policymakers in the government: in that how much money and effort should be utilized towards preventing attacks in the country compared to the alternative of pursuing and defeating terrorists wherever they are. While completely proofing the entire transportation sector from attacks is an almost impossible task, strategies can be formulated to significantly reduce the risk of attacks. The emphasis by policymakers should be put in coming up with the resources to build a prevention, protection, and rapid response system that can greatly reduce the likelihood and consequences…
Accardo, J., & Chaudhry, M. A. (2014). Radiation exposure and privacy concerns surrounding full-body scanners in airports. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 198-200.
Alberto, V., & Bogatz, D. (2015, November 10). Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening
System ("Capps Ii"): National Security V. Civil Liberties. Retrieved from maxwell.syr.edu: ww.maxwell.syr.edu/uploadedFiles/campbell/events/AlbertoBogatz.pdf
Bajoria, J. (2010, December 28). The Debate Over Airport Security. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/border-and-port-security/debate-over-airport-security/p23673
For the first 2010/2011 fiscal quarter ending Aug 31, FedEx Freight generated revenue of $1.26 billion, up 28% from last year's $982 million, but made a loss of $16 million -- down from an income of $2 million a year ago (2010, FedEx).
FedEx Corp. reported gross revenue of $9.46 billion in the quarter, up 18% from $8.01 billion the previous year; operating income of $628 million, a 99% increase from $315 million last year; and net income of $380 million, a gain of 110% from $181 million in 2009/10 (2010, FedEx).
On September 15, FedEx shares dropped by 3.4% on the news that profits in the quarter ending August 31 (the first quarter of fiscal 2011) had totaled $380 million. Although they had doubled relative to the immediately preceding quarter, this profit level was still seen as somewhat below market expectations (2010, Company Profiles).
According to Investor's…
A to Z. Of Management Concepts & Models (2005). Porter's generic strategies, p. 272-277. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Blois, K., Dibb, S. (2000). Market segmentation. Added Oxford Textbook of Marketing, p.380, sections 1-10. Retrieved from Business Source Premier database.
Boyle, M. (2008). UPS and FedEx Think Outside the Box. BusinessWeek, (4099), 064. Retrieved from Business Source Complete database.
Cambra-Fierro, J., Hart, S., & Polo-Redondo, Y. (2008, October 15). Environmental Respect: Ethics or Simply Business? A Study in the Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) Context. Journal of Business Ethics, 82(3), 645-656. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9583-1.
In some cases, reliability and the quality of service as well as the type of relationship that was involved between companies were of equal or even greater importance than cost. In the final analysis, it is reasonable to conclude that even when an optimum mix of these four supply chain elements is developed, the process is never truly completed but rather requires ongoing oversight from logistics managers to ensure that their supply chains are as efficient as possible.
Boyson, S., Harrington, L.H. & Corsi, T.M. (2004). In real time: Managing the new supply chain. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Carter, J.. & Ferrin, B.G. (1995). The impact of transportation costs on supply chain management. Journal of Business Logistics, 16(1), 189-190.
Chapman, K. & Ellinger, a.E. (2009). Constructing impact factors to measure the influence of supply chain management and logistics journals. Journal of Business Logistics, 30(2),
Mollenkopf, D., Closs, D., Twede,…
Boyson, S., Harrington, L.H. & Corsi, T.M. (2004). In real time: Managing the new supply chain. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Carter, J.R. & Ferrin, B.G. (1995). The impact of transportation costs on supply chain management. Journal of Business Logistics, 16(1), 189-190.
Chapman, K. & Ellinger, a.E. (2009). Constructing impact factors to measure the influence of supply chain management and logistics journals. Journal of Business Logistics, 30(2),
La Cosa Nostra
The name La Cosa Nostra aka LCN for short refers to a group of American (with Italian backgrounds) crime brotherhoods which have been in existence in America since the early '20s. This group has other named like the outfit, the mob, the office or simply the Italian Mafia. For over 75 years, specifically during the period of Prohibition and the early '90s, no criminal group held more power than the LCN. In fact, the name was a very popular representation of organized crime. Lately however, the LCN's operations have been greatly impaired by the law and its agencies and it now finds itself in a battle of supremacy with several other organized crime brotherhoods (Finckenauer, 2001).
Hierarchy and Structure
The system of hierarchy which the LCN works with is similar to the official structure used in several legitimate companies. The head of the hierarchy is the God-father…
Don, D. (2010, September 12). Structure of the New York Italian Mafia. Retrieved June 16, 2017, from http://www.fivefamiliesnyc.com/2010/09/structure-of-new-york-italian-mafia.html
Finckenauer, J. O. (2001). La cosa nostra in the United States. National Institute of Justice.
Lubasch, A. H. (2001, July 16). POLICE REPORT MOB INFILTRATION OF BUSINESSES. Retrieved June 16, 2017, from http://www.nytimes.com/1983/07/17/nyregion/police-report-mob-infiltration-of-businesses.html
It was an independent strategic interdiction campaign designed to disrupt the flow of Soviet supplies, as the North Vietnamese had few resources of their own at the time. Thus, although painted as an alliance between South Vietnam and America in the press, it was by and large an independent effort. "Operation Freedom Train began in April 1972 in response to the North Vietnamese Army's massive Easter Offensive invasion. Freedom Train consisted of U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine strikes against North Vietnamese targets. The operation was renamed Linebacker I in May 1972." (Phan, 2002) Again, in all of these missions, the United States armed forces dominated, the only variation being that the air force took temporary prominence over the usually dominant land conflict.
Command & Control of Air Assets
Cargo skips like Sky hawks manned with machine guns, cargo ships, and lightly armed planes designed to mark targets were all…
Humphrey, David C., "Tuesday Lunch at the Johnson White House: A Preliminary Assessment." Diplomatic History. Volume 8: Winter 1984.
Thies, Wallace J. (19800 When Governments Collide: Coercion and Diplomacy in the Vietnam Conflict, 1964-1968, Berkeley: University of California Press.
Phan, Quong. (2002) "An Analysis of Linebacker II Air Campaign: The Exceptional Application of U.S. Air Coercion Strategy." Lubbock, TX, Vietnam Center, Texas Tech University. Available online at 23 Jan 2005 at http://www.vietnam.ttu.edu/vietnamcenter/events/2002_Symposium/2002Papers_files/linebacker.htm
This training is designed to increase employees' safety awareness and to reduce the possibility of incidents related to hazardous materials. This training is deemed important in that, ."
A insufficient understanding of the rules is often a factor contributing to such incidents. For example, in 17 of 25 dangerous goods enforcement cases we reviewed involving businesses, FAA identified employees' lack of training as a contributing factor. (Undeclared Air shipments of Dangerous Goods and DOT's Enforcement)
It is significant that outreach programs also form an important part of the FAA's hazardous materials policy. This policy aims to"... prevent accidents and incidents related to hazardous materials by redoubling its outreach to industry and the community" (FAA Hazardous Materials Program).
This includes aspects such as the holding of news conferences by the FAA to convey the regulations and the importance of adhering to these regulations to various sectors of industry and…
Del Valle C. (1997) the HIGH COST of SAFETY., Business Week, 1/13/97,
FAA Hazardous Materials Program. Retrieved December 4, 2007, at http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsKey=4210
Larson R. Hazardous material top priority for FAA: Budget bolstered for more inspectors. The Washington Times: www.highbeam.com/Search.aspx?q=FAA+hazardous+cargo%20pubdate:%5b19960713;19960719%5dJuly 16, 1996. Retrieved December 4, 2007, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-56869537.html
PHSA: Part IV: Department of Transportation. Retrieved December 4, 2007, at http://hazmat.dot.gov/regs/rules/final/68fr/68fr-23831.htm
By the turn of the century, though, these low-costs carriers had become profitable or at least had significantly reduced their losses due in large part to concomitant increases by major carriers that were increasing their prices in response to decreasing yields and higher energy prices (Doganis 2001).
By and large, passenger traffic across the board increased significantly prior to September 11, 2001 and all signs indicated it was continue to increase for the foreseeable future. For example, according to Janda, Flouris and Oum (2005), global air passenger traffic increased from 1.573 trillion revenue-passenger-kilometers (RPK) in 1985 to 3.394 trillion in 2000, representing a 116% increase during this decade-and-a-half period, or an average annual compounded growth of 5.26%. Furthermore, between 1985 and 2000, air freight traffic grew at even faster rate than passenger traffic (Janda et al. 2005). These authors also emphasize airlines are directly affected by the larger economy in…
Network." 2010, October 7 Canada NewsWire Group. [online]. available:
Aviation Project - SpaceX
The current aerospace technologies being built and flown by the private commercial company known as SpaceX (from California) have a remarkable record of success thus far. The "Dragon," which is the cargo capsule built by SpaceX, put into orbit by the Falcon 9 launch rocket, delivered its second load of supplies to the International Space Station (ISS) on Sunday, March 3 (Segal, 2013). The SpaceX contract with NASA is for a total of twelve cargo missions to the ISS over the coming years; the first Dragon cargo ship was launched and delivered supplies to the International Space Station in October, 2012. The un-manned Dragon is designed to carry supplies to and from the ISS, and it is the first privately built commercial spacecraft to handle those chores -- or conduct any space-related activities per se. NASA contracted with SpaceX in 2008 after NASA had retired its…
Black, Charles. (2013). SpaceX tests its vertical takeoff and vertical landing rocket. SEN.
Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.sen.com .
Money, Stewart. (2012). Why SpaceX is setting the pace in the commercial space race. NBC
News. Retrieved March 18, 2013, from http://www.nbcnews.com .
The term 'cargo cult' refers to, …the activities of Polynesian islanders who, having experienced the bounty of the U.S. Air Force's presence during orld ar 2 and the sudden disappearance if their generous guests, maintained and built air strips and replicas of aircraft in the vain hope that the airmen might one day return."
There is a sense that the artist intended to refer in this work to the mundane life of the ordinary person in terms of the illusion of the cargo cult. In this sense the figures on the beach live a life of illusion, waiting for something that is false or which will not arrive. This adds another philosophical and existential dimension to the work which is also possibly a comment on the emptiness of modern life and the meaningless of the suburban and consumer lifestyle.
Many of the works succeed in presenting images in a…
Art Encyclopedia: Eric Fischl. 29 November, 2009.
Bednarik R. The Dampier Cargo Cult. 29 November, 2009.
Eric Fischl: Bio. 29 November, 2009.
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…
Advice on Impact of Reduction in Sulfur Content of Marine Fuels Marketed in the EU." (2002, January 1). European Commission Study C.1/01/2002.
Brewer, Stuart. (2005, March 15). "Marpol Annex VI sets sulphur test." DNV Germany. [Online]. Available: http://www.dnv.de/Publikationen/classification_news/class_news_1_2005/MarpolAnnexVIsetssulphurtest.asp.
Chasek, Pamela S. Earth Negotiations: Analyzing Thirty Years of Environmental Diplomacy. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.
Consultation Paper regarding the European Commission's proposal for a Directive amending Directive 1999/32/EC as regards the sulphur content of marine fuels. (2003, July). European Parliament.
Jones Act, VISA, and commercial military sealift
The impact of the following on transportation and logistics in the U.S.
The Jones Act
The Jones Act has gained much relevance to the U.S. domestic and national transportation and logistics than before. A close diagnosis of the industry reveals that the Act has served the interest of Americans because it provided set of sealift vessels, a knowledgeable and experienced workforce, and a base of shipbuilding industry, which is being used to protect the security of U.S. economy and military. Since its implementation, the U.S. navy has experienced a persistent shrink as it suffers from increased tear and wear leading to an increase in financial pressures as cheap foreign labor remains a challenge to the workforce. Therefore, it is evident that the Jones Act has made significant contributions to the U.S. national security (McCullough, 2010).
Cargo Preference Act of 1904
Since the Cargo…
McCullough, D.G. (2010). The path between the seas: The creation of the Panama Canal 1870-1914. New York.
Truver, S.C. & United States. (2007). Lifeline of the nation: The U.S. Merchant Marine in the 21st century. Greenbelt, Maryland: Gryphon Technologies and Bluewater Agency, Ltd.
United States (2009). MARAD: The annual report of the Maritime Administration for fiscal year. Washington, D.C: U.S. Dept. Of Commerce, Maritime Administration.
United Airline Multinational Ventures
United Airlines is an air transport company that operates in a number of countries around the globe undertaking passenger and goods transport services. The corporation's headquarters are in New York City with branches set up in major trade cities to provide ease in management and contact with clients. In the past five years the corporation has increased its fleet of aircrafts by twenty percent owing to the rising demand in air transport around the globe. The corporation practices decentralized management with policy guidelines to ensure uniformity and brand identification in its operations.
The corporations' initial flight route comprised of local weekly flights in the U.S. To major destinations around the state. As the demand for air travel increased the company increased its flight routes and frequency depending on demand. Opportunities for a global operation came around when major airline companies continued to…
, 2005). A second airplane design in the replacement program was the 747X, which would have provided better efficiency than the 747-400 with a longer plane body (Norris et al., 2005). Boeing couldn't generate much excitement around the 747X, but the Sonic Cruiser offered stronger appeal (Norris et al., 2005). Continental Airlines was a particularly interested customer, but the feedback from the airlines focused on operational costs (Norris et al., 2005). The attacks of September 11, 2001 (9/11) brought about long-lasting changes in the airlines industry and travel sector. To make matters worse for Boeing, the potential customers for the Sonic Cruiser were U.S. based airlines -- the very airlines that had been most negatively impacted by 9/11. The Sonic Cruiser was officially cancelled by Boeing on December 20, 2002 (Norris et al., 2005). Whether this is attributable to design flaws or simply the dramatically changed economy is not really…
In order to understand how production delays translated into delivery days, it is important to look at how production and delivery delays progressed throughout the course of the project. Therefore, this section is subdivided by years.
The plan for 2007
The first flight was planned for the end of August in 2007 -- this was based on a presumed first flight of the 787 on July 8, 2007 (Boeing, 2007, Dreamliner). However by that time, many of the aircraft's major systems were still not installed, and many parts of the systems had been attached with non-aerospace fasteners that were considered temporary and needed to be replaced with flight fasteners. Instead of shortening the production process, the involvement of subcontractors was adding rework and reassembly processes (Boeing, 2007, Dreamliner). Subcontractors could not complete the work on time, necessary parts could not always be procured as they were needed, subassembly scheduling
S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). A third segment of this transcontinental route was established in 1920 and ran from Chicago to Omaha by way of Iowa City, with feeder lines to this primary route being provided from St. Louis and Minneapolis to Chicago (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993). The final transcontinental segment was established on September 8, 1920 and ran from Omaha to San Francisco by way of North Platte, Cheyenne, awlins, ock Springs, Salt Lake City, Elko, and eno (U.S. Postal Systems 1775-1993).
One of the more interesting aspects of this early transcontinental route was the need to remove all of the mail from airplanes at the end of the day and place it on trains for continuation of the service at night by trains since these early aircraft were unable to fly at night; despite this added contrast, though, the transcontinental route was truly a "Pony Express" of the era…
Boston, G. (2005, August 28). Historic site for aircraft; College Park Aviation Museum. The Washington Times, D04.
De Syon, G. (2004). Airlines and air mail: The Post Office and the birth of the commercial aviation industry. Air Power History, 51(1), 56/
Duke, J. & Torres, V. (2005). Multifactor productivity change in the air transportation industry: productivity increases in the U.S. airline industry -- the nation's primary intercity mass transportation system-have played a significant role in the industry's cost-containment efforts and its ability to accelerate growth. Monthly Labor Review, 128(3), 32-34.
Facts and figures about the Postal Service. (2008). U.S. Postal Service. [Online]. Available: http://www.usps.com/communications/newsroom/postalfacts.htm .
Description of Operations
Supply Chain Decisions
Etihad Airways is a United Arab Emirates-based business incorporated in 2003 and lead to a successful growth oriented organization within a short span of time. The business mission is to extend Middle Eastern and especially UAE's hospitality to its customer. The business envisions becoming one of the leading airlines in the world through customer service. The business is an airline company that operates its flights to and from Middle East and caters local as well as international destinations including United States, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The business offer passenger flights to its offered destinations (Etihad).
Description of Operations:
The business operations includes operating flights for consumer travel catering domestic and international destinations. The business not only operates passenger flights to the destinations but also offers cargo services as its second major category of…
Baier, Christian, Evi Hartmann, and Roger Moser. "Strategic alignment and purchasing efficacy: an exploratory analysis of their impact on financial performance." journal of supply chain Management 44.4 (2008): 36-52.
Etihad. "About us." Etihad Airways. Retrieved from http://www.etihad.com/en-pk/about-us/
Kleymann, Birgit, and Hannu Seristo. Managing strategic airline alliances. Ashgate publishing, 2004.
O'Connell, John Frankie, and George Williams, eds. Air Transport in the 21st Century: Key Strategic Developments. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
According to these airlines, the public can help by contacting their Congress people.
According to the airlines in question, there are in fact (or have been) regulations in place in order to discourage the phenomenon of uncontrolled speculation and manipulation in world markets. These have however been weakened or removed, resulting in the rapid rise of fuel prices today. The claim is in fact that rising demand and diminishing supply cannot account for the rise in oil prices that have been experienced over the last year.
Alexandra Marks (2008) also addresses the role of the Government in encouraging higher fuel prices. According to airline industry experts and analysts, Congress is not doing enough to curb speculation. If this is not done very soon, according to these experts, the aviation industry could face a collapse in the not very far future, that is in danger of crippling the economy of the…
AOPA ePublishing staff. AOPA working on future avgas. http://www.aopa.org/aircraft/articles/2008/080319avgas.html
Credeur, Mary Jane. (2008, July 9). Northwest Air to Cut 2,500 jobs to Blunt Fuel Costs. Bloomberg Press. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aQSwxib7vM3s&refer=us
Hegeman, Roxana. (2008, July 8). Soaring aviation fuel cots ground many pilots. Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/07/08/ap5194342.html
Lynch, Kerry. (2008, Mar. 24). AOPA, Greens Battle Over Lead in AvGas. Aviation Week. http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_channel.jsp?channel=busav&id=news/LEAD03248.xml
Southland Distribution and Electronic Shipment Tracking
Introduction to Supply Chain and Tracking Concerns at Southland Distribution
The cost reductions relative to wireless communication networks and increased efficiency in logistics and tracking within a shipping company are potentially enormous. Not only does tracking shipments make sense from a customer service standpoint, but the company actually saves money when shipments are tracked and sent to the proper destinations. Even within the current logistics system of a company, tracking shipments makes sense in order to solve delivery problems and issues. Many shipping companies use tracking programs and systems to help them stand out above other companies and services in a world where the economic recession has decreased the demand for shipping worldwide.
Southland Distribution is a company that does business through shipment of goods. The services it provides include multi-modal forms of transport as well as time-sensitive delivery of goods. Within a system…
Heaver, T.D. (2002). "The Evolving Roles of Shipping Lines in International Logistics."
International Journal of Maritime Economics, Vol.4, No. 3. pp. 210-230.
Holmstrom, Jan; Kajosaari, Risto; Framling, Kary and Erik Langius. (2009). "Roadmap to tracking-based business and intelligent products." Computers in Industry, Vol. 60, No. 3. pp. 229-233.
Karkkainen, Mikko; Ala-Risku, Timo and Kary Framling, (2004) "Efficient tracking for short-term multi-company networks," International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management. Vol. 34, No. 7. pp.545-564.
Environmental egulations in Public Transit
The negative effects of air pollution are that it can force illness on us. It can produce burning eyes and nose and an itchy, irritated throat, in addition to difficulty in breathing. The cause for certain diseases like cancer, birth defects, brain and nerve injury and long-standing wound to the lungs and breathing passages is found to be some chemicals in polluted air. Severe injury or even death can happen if some hazardous air pollutants are released by mistake. Air pollution affects environment. Air pollution also affects trees, lakes and animals. Air pollutants are contracting the shielding ozone layers above the Earth. This loss of ozone can lead to alterations in the environment in addition to more skin cancer and cataracts in people. By soiling buildings and other structures, air pollution spoils properties like home, offices, etc. Damages to stone-based structures like buildings, monuments and…
Background on Air Pollution. Retrieved from http://www.nsc.org/ehc/mobile/acback.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Background Sheet: The Clean Air Act. 4 November, 2000. Retrieved from http://www.deq.state.la.us/assistance/educate/readdat4.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
Clean Air Act. Retrieved from http://www.answers.com/topic/clean-air-act Accessed on 28 May 2005
Economic aspects of sustainable development in India. Retrieved from http://www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/india/eco.htm Accessed on 28 May 2005
However, with large nuclear weapons the majority of the harm is caused by the explosion itself and the harm caused by the radioactivity is peripheral, although obviously still potentially horrific.)
The damage caused by a dirty bomb would be twofold: There would be damage caused by the conventional parts of the bomb (in this case, the det cord) and damage caused by the radioactive elements. A dirty bomb's effects would be greater in terms of the conventional aspects of the weapon, and we are not given enough information in this scenario to determine the amount of energy that will result in an explosion of the detonation cord. There is no single standard for detonating cord, although given that we know that it has come from a mining company we can assume that it is some of the stronger -- or more explosive -- type. We also do not know how…
history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.
THE AIR LINE PILOTS ASSOCIATION
ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.
The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.
The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation
The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…
Air Line Pilots Association:
Exchange Rate Risk
There are a variety of methods that can be used to reduce foreign exchange risk. Companies have been known to use hedging and reciprocal trading deals in order to offset the risk of foreign currency rates. Hedging entails signing a forward contract with a bank that entitles the business to buy foreign currency at an exchange rate agreed upon on the day when the contract is signed. In this way, the risk of possible loss from future exchange rate fluctuations is reduced. This also means that there is no possibility to profit from favorable exchange rate changes.
When seeking to reduce possible future risks, it is vitally important that a company has an established foreign exchange policy, according to which it plans against risk. All the involved parties, including banks and partners, need to be included in strategies to hedge risks.
Open Cover Marine Cargo Policy
Griffin, Jim. "The Essential Element in Exchange Rate Risk Management." Global Markets Group, Union Bank, 2004. www.worldtrademag.com/CDA/ArticleInformation / features/BNP__Features__Item/0,3483,64179,00.html
Hudock, Brian. "How to Maximize Warehouse Space When Expansion Isn't an Option." Tompkins Associates, Inc., 2003. www.tompkinsinc.com/publications / competitive_edge/articles/05-04-MaximizeSpace.asp
Maugham, Stewart. "Foreign exchange hedging." 1 August, 2000. www.accaglobal.com/publications/studentaccountant/36968
The case is simple. Doug Champlin, a collector an owner of an airplane museum in Arizona, spent $130,000 to recover a sunken Navy BD-1 Devastator off the coast of Florida. The plane had been lost more than 50 years prior to the salvage effort, and as such, Champlin felt that the plane belonged to him. However, the 11th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that since Congress had not officially abandoned the plane, that it still belonged to the government, and had to be turned over to the Navy. Champlin felt that if he has to give the plane to the Navy, the least they can do is reimburse him his salvage expenses. This scenario raises a couple of questions.
First, whether or not the government should be subject to the same rules and regulations concerning property as civilians. The answer is no. Special rules must be applied given…
Adams v. Unione Mediterranea di Sicurta. 2000, Aug. 14. Admiralty and Maritime Law Guide. May 26, 2004 http://www.admiraltylawguide.com/circt/5thadams.html .
Bouckaert, Boudewijn. Original Assignment of Private Property. 1999. FindLaw.com May 26, 2004 http://encyclo.findlaw.com/1100book.pdf .
Countermeasures After 911
Without a doubt, September 11th changed a tremendous amount about how we live and about how safe (and unsafe) we feel. These attacks caused enormous changes and countermeasures regarding the way we travel and the way we interact with one another and the way in which we use technology. However, ever since the ten-year anniversary of 9/11 has come and gone, it begs to determine just how much we've changed in the way that we live, examining specific areas of technology, commerce and communication. Consider the following: "In spite of a doubling of the intelligence budget since 2001 to $80 billion, the creation or reorganizing of some 263 government organizations, and the formation of the $50 billion Department of Homeland Security, the government has largely fallen short, the new report notes. The report states that while some progress has been made, 'some major September 11 Commission…
Aclu.org. (2003, August 25). The Five Problems With CAPPS II. Retrieved from Aclu.org: https://www.aclu.org/national-security/five-problems-capps-ii
Alpha.org. (2011, Fall). Aviation Security. Retrieved from alpa.org: http://www.alpa.org/portals/alpa/pressroom/inthecockpit/ALPAIssueAnalysis_10YearsAfter9-11Attacks.pdf
Browne, D. (2009). Flying without Fear: Effective Strategies to Get You Where You Need to Go. New York: New Harbinger Publications.
Elias, B. (2009). Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global. New York: CRC Press.
At the same time, it will help to identify what issues will shape the future of air passenger transportation in Asia.
he introduction of LCCs in the North American and European markets started a trend that is beginning to unfold in Asia (with the birth of Asian-based LCCs). Part of this is in response to the increases in passenger traffic and the effects of globalization. However, there have been similar airlines in the past, which have tried and failed using the same kinds of business models. A good example of this can be seen by looking no further than, Oasis Hong Kong. his was a low cost carrier that attempted to enter the medium to long haul leisure / business travel market between Hong Kong and London Gatwick. he problem was that they were no match for the FSCs, which offered: more flights and greater flexibility. his is…
This information is useful, because it can highlight some of the different challenges facing the industry. Where, these different factors could affect the profitability of many carriers and the fares / services that they are providing to consumers. This can be used in conjunction with the results of the surveys; to see how the overall cost structure is having an impact upon both Thai Asia Air and Thai Airways. Once this takes place, it could provide a more complete picture, as to how these different challenges are affecting the industry and what could be the possible impact in the future.
Moreover, Gluckman (2007) discussed on the impact that Air Asia has had upon the industry. Where, their low costs and no frills have helped the company to be able to redefine the sector. The reason why is because Air Asia has a very low labor cost structure in comparison with the traditional airlines. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the fact that their labor costs typically account for 17% of the total operating expenses for the company. While the industry average is 30% to 40%, of the total operating expenses that normal airlines must pay. At the same time, the company will fly to airports that are less congested (which have lower landing fees) and they fly reconditioned aircraft. The results of these actions were that Air Asia would redefine the industry by showing how low cost structures, could allow an airline to be competitive. The problem is that the labor costs of Air Asia are some of the lowest in the world. When you compare this to other low costs carriers in markets such as North America or Europe, this is just of fraction of what the LCCs are paying. Over the course of time, as incomes continue to increase, the cost of labour will rise towards the industry average. This is significant, because it shows how Air Asia has identified ways that it can compete over the short to medium term. However, over the long-term is when the airline will face the possibility of having it business model go through severe challenges, as it will not be able to maintain these low costs indefinably.
This information is important, because it shows how Air Asia and many of the other LCCs are able to remain competitive. As their overall labour costs, are significantly lower than any
This is significant, because it is showing how the best pilots will use the various tools on the aircraft to gain a greater understanding of the situation. (Drury, 2008)
Types of UAVs
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (2010), discusses the different kinds of UAVs that the military has been using. The most notable include: the Pioneer, the Tactical UAV, Global Hawk, Predator and Dragon just to name a few. These different aircraft are significant, because they are highlighting some of the various kinds of surveillance purposes that this used for. ("Unmanned Aerial Vehicles," 2010)
As a result, the information from this source is helpful, because it identifies some of the different kinds of aircraft that are being used. When you put these elements together, they are highlighting how this could contribute to pilot error by: illustrating how they may not have the experience in conducting various kinds of surveillance missions. ("Unmanned Aerial…
How to Become an Army UAV Pilot. (2011). E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/how_5810859_become-army-uav-pilot.html
Security Industry. (2011). UPI. Retrieved from: http://www.upi.com/Business_News/Security-Industry/2011/02/24/Air-Force-cadets-get-UAV-pilot-training/UPI-14321298550588/
UAV Pilots Stay Clean. (2009). Dark Government. Retrieved from: http://www.darkgovernment.com/news/uav-pilots-stay-clean-and-disconnected/
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. (2010). FAS. Retrieved from: http://www.fas.org/irp/program/collect/uav.htm
oeing had utilized vast amounts of time, labor, energy, money and resources into the Apollo Program of the 1960's for the program finally to be cut to practically nothingness in the 1970's.
I. The Apollo Program:
Expenditures for the cost of the Apollo Program were in the total amount of $25.4 billion dollars. There were 11 manned Apollo flights, 381.7 kg of moon material was recovered during the course of the Apollo missions and although there are those who believe that the motivations for the Apollo missions were that of a "psycho-political" nature, the one gift that America and the world were given by the Apollo program was the realization of the reality of "how fragile the earth is."
At the time the Apollo program essentially caved in oeing also was losing hope in the production of commercial aircraft as they had placed their hopes on the 747 and the…
Bernstein, James (1993) Newsday: With New Fighter, Boeing Flies Solo 15 Nov (1993)
Mondout, Patrick (nd) Boeing 707
Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents 1993
Making it Fly: The Big Gamble the Seattle Times 1983 June 19 (Boeing Loses Millions of Dollars on Every New 757 it Sells) [Online] at http://www.seattletimes.nwsource.com/news/business/757/part01/
Their anticipated and desired results for their education, personal or practical, may vary widely in unpredictable ways. The attitudes towards educational processes may differ due to the greater and more diverse social and life experiences that color perceptions of classroom life, even more so than the raw educational materials used in the classroom. The teacher must balance addressing individual needs through conferences, personal contacts, and allowing for more independent research, yet also strive even harder to create a coherent class dynamic and unity between individuals with different schedules and belief structures. This may require greater management on a technical level as well as greater personal finesse than might be expected by an educator with experience only teaching undergraduates.
Eskensberger (2001) on the subject of "Action Theory" provides some interesting supporting evidence to address the difficulties posed by a mixed classroom of old and young learners, or adult learners of diverse…
Oceans have, since long in history, been known as a means of transportation. However, in contrast to a couple of decades ago, ships today transport goods more than they do people. The emergence of intercontinental air travel made air transport relatively cheaper and perhaps more preferable to sea travel over long distances. As a result, sea travel today is largely limited to recreational cruises and shorter trips such as ferry services.
As globalization increased, markets became more open to trade; as a result, demand levels escalated, and so and did shipping volumes. The international trade growth rate was consistently reported to be twice that of aggregate economic activity between 1950 and 2000 (Clark, 2002). Between 2000 and 2001, for instance, world trade grew at an average annual rate of 5.4%, while economic activity, measured by global GDP, only grew at annual average of 3%. This trend has seen global…
Clark, R.P. (2002). Global Awareness: Thinking Systematically around the World. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.
Hofstra University. (2014). The Geography of Transport Systems. Hofstra University Library. Retrieved 1 April 2014 from http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans/eng/ch3en/conc3en/benefits_containerization.html
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…
Work, Energy, And Momentum
Work out the following problems. Be sure to show your work in detail. See the " uploaded file for examples of how the problems should be solved.
A freight elevator has a mass of 3,000 kg, including cargo. The elevator motor raises the load 50 m in 30 s. How much work is done by the motor? What is its power?
W= 3000kg *9.8m/s2*50m
What is the KE (in J) of a 2650 lb Honda Civic traveling at 100 mph?
Conversions from English to metric m=2650lb * 1kg/2.2 lb m=1204.55kg
100 mph * 1 hr/3600 sec * 1609.344 m/mi= 44.7 m/s
KE= 1/2 * 1204.55kg * (44.7m/s2)
KE= 1,203,399.7 J
A standard baseball weights 145 g. If it is thrown vertically with an initial velocity of 50 mph, what is its potential energy change at…
Nave, C. (2010a). Momentum. Retrieved 2 August, 2010, from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mom.html#mom
Nave, C. (2010b). Work, energy, and power. Retrieved 2 August 2010 from http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/work.html#wep
Zobel E. (2010a). The Physics Department: Mechanics and Energy. retrieved 12 Nov 2010, from http://zonalandeducation.com/mstm/physics/mechanics/energy/energy.html
Zobel E. (2010b). The Physics Department: Mechanics and Momentum. retrieved 12 Nov 2010 from http://zonalandeducation.com/mstm/physics/mechanics/momentum/momentum.html
Therefore, Trains are best for freight traveling long distances where loading and unloading efficiency and times are less of a concern. For shorter distances, rail travel is less efficient unless it is incorporated into the transportation network that serves passengers in gridlocked parts of town. In these instances, people can efficiently use light rail as a form of mass transit, and this mode of transport makes sense.
Each mode of transport has its pros and cons, and there is often much overlap between these pros and cons for each mode. The situation in New Jersey calls for a very definitive answer in transport management, and for a high level of understanding relative to cargo and passenger demands and the supply of transport vehicles.
This is a written paper APA style
Provide a two-page response for each of the following questions. Defend your answers with the appropriate citations. (Note: You may…
Rodrigue, Jean-Paull; Comtois, Claude; and Brian Slack. (2009). The Geography of Transport Systems, Second Edition. New York: Routledge.
World Port Source. (2010). "The Port of Callao." World Port Source Homepage.
Accessed via internet on August 11, 2010. .
Airline Performance eview and Analysis
TKL Air Lines will be an American Airline that will be operating in the multiple routes across North America in the United States, Canada and Mexico. TKL will provide the cargo and passenger services serving more than 30 destinations. The company will also be serving up to 10 million customers yearly, and more than 1,500 customers for the daily flight. TKL's major activities will include inbound logics, operations, outbound logistics, services, marketing and sales. Our company will focus on the underserved and unserved routes to the meet the needs of the unmet market demands. We will be serving the niche market where the market demand is generally unmet to meet the key traffic demand on some key seasonal, regional and variable routes. Moreover, we will integrate the latest information and electronic technologies to enhance maximum efficiency as well as cutting the marketing and operating costs.…
Zucchi, K. (2015). How to Value Airline Stocks. Investopedia.
nature of work, training requirements, qualifications, procedures, employment rate and earning rate as well as merits and demerits of the service occupation of flight attendants. The orks Cited three sources in MLA format.
Service Occupation: Flight Attendants
Since air transportation industry has been in the process of development and is well on the path to persistent positive change, matchless success and constant prosperity, it is not only the increase in mobility of global population that is evident but this ever-flourishing industry has also created innumerable job opportunities. This is because, the nature of this industry encompasses various activities (Career Guide to Industries, Air Transportation). On the same account, primary airlines "provide transportation for passengers and cargo, and airports, provide the many ground support services required by aircraft, passengers, and cargo. Air taxi companies and commuter airlines also provide commercial transportation, such as passenger and cargo service, often to and from…
Career Guide to Industries: Air transportation. Retrieved May 13, 2002 at http://www.umsl.edu/services/govdocs/ooh20002001/533.html
Author not available, Service Occupations: Flight Attendants., Occupational Outlook Handbook, 01-01-1998
Author not available, 1993 Handbook on Women Workers-Trends and Issues [Part 28 of 41]., Contemporary Women's Issues Database, 01-01-1994, pp. 185-90.
Seaports Vulnerability to Submersible Vessels
All countries of the world are struggling hard to provide peace to its residents and masses. After all the efforts and struggle, countries are still not completely safe from the dangerous attacks on the borders including dry ports and seaports. In America, it is a severe issue to understand how to secure and protect the seaports of the country. The topic of discussion is also related to the protection of seaports of the country from different types of attacks such as nuclear attacks and submersible vessels (Jaffee and Russell 1997).
It is very important to understand all the seaports security issues and then suggest roadmap for protection policies development as well as its implementation immediately. There are three large seaports in America such as Los Angeles, Long Beach, and Oakland. These are the largest seaports of America and these ports are most vulnerable to…
Chalk, Peter, Bruce Hoffman, Robert T. Reville, and Anna-Britt Kasupski. Trends in Terrorism: Threats to the United States and the254 Future of the Terrorism Risk Insurance Act. Santa Monica, California: The RAND Corporation MG-393-CTRMP, 2005.
Crist, Phillipe. Security in Maritime Transport: Risk Factors and Economic Impact. Paris: Maritime Transport Committee, Directorate for Science, Technology and Industry Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2003.
Flanagan, William. "CSI Operations and Overview," presentation to Fifth International Conference on Export Controls. Public, Hungary: Budapest, 2003.
Flynn, Stephen E. "America the Vulnerable,. Public, Washington D.C: " Foreign Affairs Department," 2002.
Flight Training is a popular career choice that keeps fluctuating in scope due to the position of the economy, and is today viewed to have better prospects due to an apparent brightening up of the outlook. The career of a pilot is that of a highly trained professional who are involved in flying airplanes and helicopters which carry out many tasks. Most of the pilots are airline pilots, copilots or flight engineers and they are mostly involved in the transportation of people and cargo, but a small section of roughly 1 in 5 pilots who have commercial licenses are involved in unusual tasks like the dusting of crops, spreading seeds in the process of reforestation, testing aircraft, undertaking special flights for passengers and cargoes to unusual destinations, overseeing large scale firefighting efforts, chasing criminals, supervising traffic, and in the rescue and evacuation of severely injured individuals.
The profession suffered deeply…
Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers" U.S. Department of Labor; Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos107.htm . Accessed on 03/23/2004
Crisis Response and 9-11: What We Have Learned" Retrieved at http://www.dpw.state.pa.us/omhsas/CASSPNews/MAR/omhCassp0302_CrisisResponse.asp. Accessed on 03/23/2004
Dougherty, Jon. "FAA most responsible for 9-11?" (July 24, 2003) Retrieved at http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=33718Accessed on 03/23/2004
FAA proposes complex and costly flight simulator regulations" Retrieved at http://www.aopa.org/whatsnew/regulatory/regfsd.html . Accessed on 03/23/2004