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Air Pollution: A Testament to Human History
Air pollution is woven throughout the fabric of our modern life. A by-product of the manner in which we build our cities, air pollution is waste remaining from the ways we produce our goods, transport ourselves and our goods, and generate the energy to heat and light the places we live, play, and work.." (Davis, 1)
The most important natural resource on which humans depend is often overlooked. It is around us and inside of us; this vital resource is everywhere. It is vital to our survival, yet although it is almost omnipresent on earth, the supply is in danger. The air we breathe supplies us and all animals with oxygen, an essential element for the body to live. Air as we know it is almost completely composed of nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and inert gases. Unfortunately, the composition of air has been…… [Read More]
Air Pollution and Acid ain
Acid rain is now commonly perceived as a major environmental threat but the term is still relatively new and many are confused about its causes. While there are some other commonly cited reasons including natural sources, the main cause of acidity in rain is air pollution, which increases the composition of sulphur oxides and nitrogen oxides and thus lowering the pH level to less than 7. Air pollution is defined as "the introduction by humankind, directly or indirectly, of substances or energy into the environment resulting in deleterious effects of such a nature as to endanger human health, harm living resources and eco-systems, impair amenities or interfere with other legitimate uses of the environment." 
Acid rain can be called a new phenomenon since it basically emerged with industrialization. The hazardous fumes from factories were one of the main causes of air pollution and thus…… [Read More]
Air pollution remains one of the most urgent and serious problems facing the world today. esearch studies conducted in the past have clearly indicated that in addition to harming the environment, the effects of air pollution on human health are particularly adverse. In this text, I discuss air pollution, its causes, and effects. Further, I propose solutions that could be embraced to rein in the problem of air pollution.
Air Pollution: An Overview
Air pollution in the words of Miller (2005, pp.347) "is the presence of chemicals in the atmosphere in concentrations high enough to harm organisms and materials (such as metals and stone used in buildings and statues) and to alter climate." As the author further points out, the effects of air pollution could be serious or simply annoying. In the past, various measures have been taken across the world to decrease air pollutant emissions in an attempt to…… [Read More]
hereas the level of air pollution in Canada is smaller than the ones in other countries, it can still be considered to play an important role in the tourist industry. People generally come to the country thinking about fresh mountain air and no pollution. However, if one of those wanting to visit Canada would have came across the information that, in 2007 alone, air pollution in Toronto was responsible for 1,700 premature deaths and 6000 hospitalizations, the respective person would certainly have second thoughts regarding their travel destination.
hen concerning the impact of air pollution on Canada's agricultural sector, matters become even more complicated, as it is responsible for deficiencies in other divisions of the country's economy. Airborne pollutants such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide transform in acid rain when they are mixed with water vapor. Acid rain has a devastating effect on plants and on aquatic ecosystems, reducing…… [Read More]
The incinerators produce a cocktail of toxic chemicals that can cause cancer, heart disease, respiratory problems, immune system defect, increased allergies and birth defects" (3). Green Peace suggests sustainable waste management as an alternative to industrial incinerators.
The Sierra Club identifies coal burning power plants as major contributors to air pollution. "Out of the entire electric industry, coal-fired power plants contribute 96% of sulfur dioxide emissions, 93% of nitrogen oxide emissions, 88% of carbon dioxide emissions, and 99% of mercury emissions" (4). In addition, these coal-fired power plants contribute to acid rain, soot, smog, air toxins, and global warming.
The Sierra Club offers a number of energy saving recommendations as a means of conserving energy and reducing the emissions of coal fired power plants. Some of their recommendations include replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent bulbs, caulking and weather-strip doorways and windows, installing low-flow showerheads and faucets, keeping the…… [Read More]
In "Schwarzenegger slams GOP-led bills to block pollution rules," Geman (2011) addresses Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger's reaction to the recent potential threats to the Clean Air Act. Congress is "attacking" the Clean Air Act, according to Schwarzenegger, with "more than a dozen proposals in Congress to limit enforcement of our clean-air rules, create special-interest loopholes, and attempt to reverse scientific findings." According to the governor, the Clean Air Act has helped California improve its air quality and the health of its residents. Schwarzenegger quipped, "when he came to California in the late 1960s, poor air quality would cause his eyes to water, while the air quality is much better now thanks to the Clean Air Act… Today, I have tears in my eyes again, but for a very different reason. Some in Washington are threatening to pull the plug on this success," (Geman 2011). The Clean Air Act is…… [Read More]
Not surprisingly, Houston has experienced a growing problem with air pollution. According to Cherni, "In Houston, outdoor air conditions are usually very unpleasant. In addition to high temperatures and humidity, emissions from numerous cars and industry, and the heat produced by central cooling equipment, contribute to at times unbearable air quality. A report by the Houston Chronicle cited by Cherni reports that while Houston is ranked among the top ten wealthiest areas in the country in terms of personal income, the city has an inordinately high incidence of cancer mortality and infant, childhood and maternal mortality.
One of the most obvious contradictions is that high levels of air pollution make Houston one of the most contaminated cities in the United States. As noted above, Houston is much like other major cities around the world that suffer from high levels of air pollution, but industrial emissions in the region have become…… [Read More]
The patient can monitor the patient for the signs of heart disease, and be aware of the fact that women may be more at risk, and have different symptoms than men. The nurse can make the patient aware of the signs of heart-related ailments caused by the environment. Of course, the patient's increased efficacy in such self-care will not change federal environmental regulations, nor improve the quality of the air in the city block where the patient lives. But the nurse can provide knowledge, and if the patient is unable to do so, improve the indoor air quality of the patient's immediate environment by adjusting ventilation systems to decrease the exposure emissions, and advise the patient to eliminate sources of asbestos, dust, and other toxins within the home. "In many cases, source control is also a more cost-efficient approach to protecting indoor air quality than increasing ventilation because increasing ventilation…… [Read More]
ability of pollution strategies to improve air quality. Many scientists believe the way to cleaner air is through limiting the use of automobiles to cut down on harmful emissions. Other experts believe new technologies can greatly reduce the emissions and clean up the air while still allowing Americans the autonomy of their automobiles. Some of these measures are too expensive for many people to afford, and this must be addressed.
Air pollution continues to be a problem of great concern in the United States, and around the world, and governments are continually struggling with balancing clean air with America's love of the automobile, one of the biggest air polluters on the planet. "The United States has achieved remarkable progress in reducing air pollution since the Clean Air Act was established in 1970" (Mangun and Henning 229), but we still have a long way to go in the battle…… [Read More]
Air Pollution, Climate Change, Ozone Depletion Should 3 papers. First 2 due 27 Mar 2012. Last 1 due 3 April 2012. This essay set parts: Prewriting Research, Rough Draft Workshop, Final Draft Presentation.
Air pollution is presently one of the most divisive issues, considering that it continues to occur in spite of the fact that numerous environmental scientists have tried to raise public awareness concerning the concept. Smog clouds are present above most major cities from around the world, but people have gradually learned to ignore them. It is basically as if they simply want to improve their condition with no regard to the consequences that their actions have on the environment. Carbon dioxide is one of the most important pollutants in the air, considering that it is mainly responsible for the fact that the planet is experiencing a warming process.
Pollution actually goes back to the period when man…… [Read More]
After all, Socrates emphasized that, "Every action has its pleasures and its price." As the date when peak oil occurs, likely around mid-century, alternatives to this continuing dependence on fossil fuel resources will require a Manhattan Project-level investment by the public and private sectors to avoid growing air pollution and its concomitant adverse impacts on human health and climate change, and some recommendations to this end are presented below.
Complex problems require complex solutions, and developing effective preventions to air pollution is no exception. Nevertheless, in a "follow-the-money" analysis, it is clear that the majority of the investments in administering and controlling air pollution to date have been worthwhile, but these investments have not translated into economic incentives for the poor. Even some modest reductions in the causes of air pollution over time, though, can have an enormous cumulative effect in preventing further pollution. Therefore, it is recommended…… [Read More]
Outdoor air pollution is a leading environmental cause of cancer deaths. It is not safe to breathe because is harmfully impacts the lungs and the body. Indeed, the International Agency for esearch on Cancer (IAC) under the World Health Organization (WHO) "has classified outdoor air pollution as a cancer-causing agent" (Simon, 2013). It is responsible for both lung and bladder cancer.
Particulate matter is also a carcinogen that the IAC has classified, and it can include anything from dust to chemicals to smoke. All of that contributes to air pollution -- whether smog, exhaust, fumes from factories, smoke, chemicals, dust, etc. Thus, the criteria for air pollution is anything that contaminates the air -- any particle that acts as a carcinogen (which is damaging to the lungs and cardiovascular system if inhaled) is a pollutant and causes air pollution. WHO (2013) notes that outdoor air pollution is not safe to…… [Read More]
The air that surrounds us is a mixture of 78% nitrogen; 21% oxygen; less than 1% of carbon dioxide, argon, and other gases; and varying amounts of water vapor. Any other particles, gases or unoriginal constituents hanging in the air which are not part of its original composition are called 'Pollutants' and this kind of air is called Polluted Air. Even inhaling small amounts of such air pollutants can have serious effects on one's health and leads to environmental problems.
e can see some air pollutants such as the reddish-brown haze in smog; however, other air pollutants, including some of the most dangerous, are invisible.
Air pollution can be natural or human-made. Air pollution occurs naturally during volcano eruptions, forest fires, or dust storms. This has been an occasional problem for humans. However, during the past hundred years, air pollution created by humans has become a major, persistent…… [Read More]
Air Pollution, Cars, Carbons and Looking Upstream for Solutions
Air pollution is a serious problem in the world but there are ways to deal with it. In other words, the situation is not hopeless. Yes, a large amount pollution comes from the burning of fossil fuels and emissions such as those from gas engine vehicles. And, true, automakers deliberately do not develop cars that get more than 50 mpg because of the incestuous relationship between the oil industry and the auto manufacturing industry -- both of which profit from more oil consumption, which means fewer gas miles (Naughton). But things don't have to be this way. In fact, there is enough technological innovation out there already just waiting for the right situation in which the so-called "wheel" can be re-invented -- and re-invented in such a way so that the earth is not detrimentally affected by its usage. As Rishi…… [Read More]
Controlling Air Pollution From Industrial Sources:
Air pollution is the most commonly used term to refer to the wide range of contaminants to the atmosphere that occur either through natural causes or through human activities. These contaminants to the atmosphere are in most cases identified as gases or particles with the most common sources being combustion processes. The growing range of emissions from industrial processes and combustion of industrial wastes is a result of the wide range of compounds that are utilized in the modern manufacturing processes ("Air and Water Pollution," n.d.). While the goals of controlling air pollutions are far from being achieved, air pollution control procedures have continued to be a significant part of civic administration.
Controlling Air Pollution from Industrial Sources within EU:
Prior to the early nineties, the policy of the European Union concerning air pollution had seemed to be fragmented. The fragmented policy either included…… [Read More]
Urban Environmental Air Pollution
Urban Environmental Issue: Air Pollution and How to Combat It
Because of the significant level of urbanization in many parts of the country, the natural landscape has been changed. This has contributed to pollution of the ecosystem, much of which is magnified within the urban environment by the inability for the pollutants to readily and easily escape the population-dense areas in the same way they could in more open, accessible environments. When one compares environmental impact and population distribution, it is not difficult to see that there are serious concerns for the environment in areas where there are more people.
That is worth noting, because pollution of the environment, and specifically the air in that environment, is not just about the damage that can be done to the ecosystem. It is also about damage that occurs to the living things within that ecosystem -- including the…… [Read More]
Many Americans cities, however, are doing little to combat air pollution. There are many steps that can be taken to combat air pollution, and many cities are failing in this regard. There is underinvestment in transit, a focus on carbon-intensive power, and there are many cities that are designed in such a way that carbon pollution is a fact of life. Air quality can vary within an area, so sometimes there are cities that perform well in terms of air pollution that ultimately still might have local pollution issues – an overall good score can negate the motivation for civic officials to pay attention to local problems (Koetsier, 2018).
A lot of the inaction is also at higher levels of government. One example is that the EPA, even before it was utterly neutered by the orange White House resident, struggled to enact strong policies against air pollution. The…… [Read More]
Health Consequences of Air Pollution for Military and Emergency Workers
Database Validity and Originality
This paper proposes a study of some of the most significant long-term and short-term effects of air-pollution on two different sets of workers. The first of these is those were affected by localized and intense air pollution that was produced as a direct result of the Gulf War, pollution that was caused for the most part by the burning of Kuwaiti oil fields. The second group of workers is those who were affected by localized and intense air pollution (including airborne asbestos) during the rescue and clean-up efforts after the World Trade Center attracks.
Drawing on both the specific background of the war and the terrorist attack and the longer-term general studies of the effects of air pollution and the ways in which warfare and terrorism are both involved in environmental destruction, the proposal described below…… [Read More]
Air pollution is a significant problem for major urban areas in the modern world thanks to the dependency the burning of fossil fuels for energy. From carbon dioxide emissions released by cars in cities to pollution from coal burning power plants, cities from Los Angeles to Paris to London to Berlin to Beijing face enormous hurdles in addressing this problem—not the least being how to implement various business laws that will help to effectively curb pollution in these cities. This paper will discuss how different cities around the world combat air pollution and what business laws have been applied in their countries with respect to reducing air pollution.
The problem of air pollution is based on the fact that it is harmful both for the environment and for humans. As the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) under the guidance of the World Health Organization (WHO)…… [Read More]
Louisiana Air Pollution
Air pollution presents a serious environmental concern for Louisiana, the state that is already struggling to contain the damage caused by the rapid erosion and destruction of the coastal wetlands. Louisiana is one of the highly industrialized states in the nation and houses more than 25% of all the chemical plants in the U.S. The emissions from the numerous oil refineries, chemical industries and other production units have clearly contaminated the air quality. At least some of the chemical plants do not adhere to the emission standards. A case in point is the Exxon Mobil refineries in Chalmette.
Exxon Mobil poses grave environmental threat for the St. ernard Parish and the New Orleans area in Louisiana. The emission test samples conducted between April and August 2003 showed glaring violations (more than 41) of federal and state standards. [Louisiana ucket rigade] The company uses hydrofluoric acid (HF), one…… [Read More]
gather some information that will help identify the main characteristics of lobby groups. It is certain, for one thing, that they represent the interests of a certain category of voters, a certain part of the population and that they work to promote certain legislative acts in favor of the respective category they represent. This is done by presenting the appropriate information to the legislative body members and by attempting, by logical arguments, to persuade the necessity of adopting such a law. Unfortunately, the original way of action of lobby groups, as presented previously, was modified so as to include significant financial contributions to the political campaigns of the legislators, which may have also brought that the name of pressure groups.
As such, on one hand, lobbyists work by presenting information that they think will influence positively the voting procedure. On the other hand, "lobbyists work through relationships"
and, in order…… [Read More]
Smog is a form of air pollution. It is made up of a combination of smoke and fog. In the old days smog was mainly caused due to the burning of coal. The mixture of smoke and sulfur dioxide is what resulted in the formation of smog.However, the modern age smog does not originate from coal. Its main source is vehicular and industrials exhaust. The emissions are acted on by sunlight and a secondary pollutant is formed. The formed secondary pollutant then combines with the primary pollutant to form photochemical smog.
This type of smog forms when sunlight hits several types of pollutants that are in the air. The resulting combination of chemicals is inimical and is very dangerous. Photochemical smog is formed when there is a chemical reaction between sunlight, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) .This leads to the formation of airborne particles…… [Read More]
technological advancements, it seems that society has a long way to go before the masses acknowledge the benefits of adopting environmental attitudes. Governmental agencies are thus tasked with the mission to play more active roles in trying to stop or even reverse processes that have a negative effect on the environment. The problem with raising public awareness is the fact that the majority of people are already familiarized with the effects that pollution has on the environment. It is thus especially difficult to influence the masses to take up more attitudes that are not damaging for the environment.
One of the obvious things that the government would have to do in order to reduce the amount of pollutants affecting the environment is to introduce tougher regulations that make it mandatory for individuals to get actively involved in protecting the natural world. The fact that people are acquainted with laws limiting…… [Read More]
In "Nutrition and Disaster Preparedness: Focusing on Vulnerability, Building Capacities," Wright & Vesala-Husemann (2006) point out that the media over-emphasizes acute and sudden disasters, when chronic and "long-term" disasters can be far more devastating to human communities. Disasters that are chronic are less intense and therefore less newsworthy from a media perspective. Wright & Vesala-Husemann (2006) note that humanitarian aid is sometimes distributed poorly to communities in need because of the media bias. With regards to malnutrition, populations throughout Kenya warrant attention. The dramatic images fed to the public might garner sympathy, but bloated bellies and flies swarming infants are not the only symptoms of widespread malnutrition. Focusing overly much on the sensational images detracts from the vast majority of affected individuals.
Coping ability can be calculated via an analysis that takes into account the following three factors: vulnerability, hazards, and coping. Vulnerability refers to susceptibility to problems;…… [Read More]
Urban air pollution is one of the biggest environmental concerns for my community. And not just my community; air quality has seriously deteriorated in many cities around the globe over the last 60 or so years. The increasingly poor urban air quality has been largely caused by industrialization. Vehicles exhaust has also contributed to the poor air quality. In most urban areas, air pollution is a mixture of gas-phase and particle pollutants. Air pollution has serious negative effects on the quality of life especially in terms of health. In my community, the pollution sometimes gets so bad that it is visible. In other cities and mega cities around the world industrial smog is so bad it affects visibility on the road (Liu et al., 2016).
Ethical Dilemmas Concerning Urban Air Pollution
Accidently making things worse
One of the ethical dilemmas is the fear that in dealing with certain sources of…… [Read More]
Air We Breath
Contrary to the popular phrase "I'll go out for some fresh air," one might ask is the present air that we are breathing is still fresh? Or, has this phrase become irrelevant the present day world. Air pollution has been very evident ever since history entered industrial revolution. By the time we step our foot on our doorstep, the moment we open the doors of our car, the very first instance that we pull up the drapes and open our window, we are experiencing air pollution at its finest ....so to speak. Smoke billowing from a factory chimney, fly-ash generated by thermal power plants, and speeding cars causing dust to rise from the roads, smokes from cigarettes, and the list would go on and on. If there is a drawback when we speak of modern day technology it is the pollution it emits into the very air…… [Read More]
Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen. ut most of the pollution comes from the by-products of industrialization - fossil fuel combustion, transportation, transportation, power plant emissions and those from other industrial processes. The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U.S.A. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic.
Studies show that we now spend more than 90% of our lives inside buildings and other constructed environments. ecause of this, such structures - including homes and office buildings - are constructed with energy efficiency and comfort foremost in mind. The installation of central heating,…… [Read More]
Other aircrafts in the category of A380, produced in the last few years, included the A350, oeing 777, oeing 787 and the other 747's. GKN and other similarly-motivated companies have been focused on reducing harmful acoustic emissions of aircraft jet engines (Hilpern).
UK Prime Minister Tony lair endorsed the report made by economist Sir Nicholas Stern on October 30, 2006 about the global economy shrinking by 20% because of global warming (C News 2007). In his 700-page study, Stern said, however, that taking appropriate measures now would incur only 1% of the world's gross domestic product. Prime Minister lair used the scientific evidence on global warming from Stern's report to describe the phenomenon as "overwhelming" and its consequences as "disastrous." At about the same time, the United Nations released information on the rising volume of emissions of greenhouse gases, which would affect rich countries more. Among the most immediate responses…… [Read More]
Reduction of air pollution (PM 2.5) in Beijing, China
The environmental challenge of pollution has been at the top of the agenda in any conferences where the environmental conservation is the theme. There are various categories of pollution that are experienced and one of the major one, and sadly the fasted growing and dangerous, is air pollution. There are various cities that are considered worse off in terms of air pollution and Beijing, China happens to be one of the leading cities in air pollution.
Over the years, there has been a serious problem of air pollution within Beijing, with some levels going so high that the reach the 151-200 air quality index (AQI) such that the residents of these areas have to use masks (U.S. Department of State, 2014 Mission China: Beijing). The main sources of pollution within this city have been noted over time to be exhaust from…… [Read More]
Commuting for Clean Air
Commuter choice programs are noble efforts to reduce air pollution and they will certainly help to improve air quality. For example, one study of fifty-eight pilot projects in southern California concluded that financial incentives/disincentives are the most consistently effective and cost effective group of projects (Commuter Choice Primer). And, according to the Commuter Choice Primer, the Transit Cooperative Research oard studied fifty employers throughout the United States and found that employers that combined both enhanced alternatives such as vanpool provision with incentives or disincentives such as vanpool subsidies realized an average trip reduction of 24.5%. However, it's naive to believe that commuter choice programs are a total solution for curbing automobile use. Non-work travel, the ubiquity of automobiles in the United States, and the total amount of the problem that commuter choice programs can reasonably address are issues that require additional measures.
Focusing on work travel…… [Read More]
urban area of Tampa, Florida, and serves as an instrumental case study of how an urban locale can address problems of environmental health and safety. Specifically, this study assesses the failures and successes of Tampa to regulate and reduce water, air and waste pollution through various programs. Through quantitative analysis of city managers' statistics and survey of the population (random sampling), findings indicate that positive steps have been taken through initiatives like S.W.E.E.P. and the attention given to Tampa's estuaries and water sources so as to maintain healthy ecosystems. However, air pollution has yet to be addressed, as the state has eliminated its vehicle emissions testing. Coal-burning power plants like Big Bend also contribute to air pollution and a discussion of the beneficial impact of wind power is provided as a recommendation for addressing this issue.
Environmental Health and Safety Case Study: Tampa, Florida
Urban areas in the U.S.…… [Read More]
Multiple forms of pollution are quickly becoming a focal point of concern for many societies concerned with both human and natural environments. One of the primary difficulties with controlling pollution is that it frequently comes from many sources and possesses the power to contaminate numerous aspects of life. Additionally, companies and corporations are often very resistive to implementing pollution controls, as they can have substantial costs associated with them. Ordinary citizens, as well, tend to resist actions that potentially could help the environment simply because they are time consuming or conflict with other aims. Nevertheless, as the population of the earth grows and Americans continue to utilize an ever increasing amount of the world's resources and energy, pollution is reaching levels that threaten lives and the traditional functioning of society.
One form of pollution that has received increased attention in recent years has been noise pollution. Usually, the problem is…… [Read More]
While global warming is still hotly debated global pollution is already a fact. An environmentally sustainable development plan is the need of the hour.
1) University of East Anglia (2009, November 17). 'Fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions up by 29% since 2000.' ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 9, 2009, from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/11/091117133504.htm
2) NGC, 'Acid Rain', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from,, http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/acid-rain-overview.html
3) WHO, (2006), 'Indoor air pollution. 4000 deaths a day must no longer be ignored', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/84/7/editorial30706html/en/index.html
4) lacksmith Institute, (2009) 'Pollution Facts, Retrieved December 9, 2009, from, 'http://www.worstpolluted.org/pollution-facts-2009.html
5) U.S. PIRG Education Fund, (Jan 2005), 'Pollution on the Rise: Local Trends in Power Plant Pollution', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/0kExFsxeEE6g_YLDhOxTAA/Pollution_On_The_Rise.pdf
6) NASA, 'NASA Satellite Measure Pollution from East Asia to North America', retrieved Dec 9th 2009, from, http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/pollution_measure.html
7) EEA Report, (2008) 'Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends and Production in Europe 2008', retrieved Dec 9th…… [Read More]
More than 90% of California's population which is estimated to be 33 million residing in areas having bad air quality? The CAB in concert with the local air pollution control districts are in the process of regulating fresh and existing sources of pollution with the aim to control emissions. The Enforcement Division -- ED of the Board has included more and more serious responsibilities in every area of the State inspecting heavy duty vehicles, smoke emissions. Besides, it prevents school buses running on diesel from idling for too long a period very close to the tender lungs of children.
The CAB Enforcement Program during 1997 speaks of its illustrious achievement. These are (i) Closure of citations in 3442 cases (ii) Total penalties collected is $29,850,475 (iii) 3253 cases of mobile source / citations closed for more than $8.7M. (iv) 50 diesel fleet cases terminated for more than $3.1M. (v) 12…… [Read More]
.." For example, during the Vietnam War the United States "sprayed 3640 km2 of South Vietnam's cropland with herbicides, using a total estimated amount of 55 million kg. The stated rationale was to deny the enemy sources of food and means of cover. This widespread use of chemicals to destroy farmland, forest and water sources is unprecedented, and the environmental consequences are still relatively unexplored. International teams have been granted access for field assessments only in the last few years." (Learning, 2000)
The work of Lindon, Jernelov, and Egerup (2004) entitled: "The Environmental Impacts of the Gulf War 1991" relates that the oil fires in Kuwait" emitted pollutants that potentially could affect the health and well-being of the people in the region. Most of the substances emitted from the burning wells can potentially cause adverse effects, which vary according to concentration and duration of exposure." In fact the concentrations of…… [Read More]
Emissions from a new car purchased today are 90% less polluting than a new vehicle purchased in 1970. The Act has been reformed to include a provision that in 2004, all new passenger vehicles, including SUVs, minivans, vans and pick-up trucks, must meet even more stringent tailpipe emission standards. "This marks the first time that light-duty trucks, including SUVs, pickups, and minivans are subject to the same national pollution standards as cars." A common criticism of the Act was that because it had different standards for larger vehicles, a critical component of vehicle-related pollution was being ignored.
One of EPA's earliest accomplishments was the elimination of lead from gasoline. The use of lead-based gasoline had effects beyond that of air quality. "Elevated levels of lead can damage organs and the brain and nervous system, and affect the heart and blood. Adverse health effects range from behavior disorders and anemia…… [Read More]
Computers are being used in applications that gauge the pollution in the air and water and other areas of the earth environment. These applications are useful in determining the source of the pollution and in assisting in informing researchers what might be done to reduce such pollution.
Air Pollution Emission
One such application in computing pollution is described in the work of Emad, Sayed, and Kassem (nd)[footnoteef:1] who report that smoke is one common source of air pollution. Specifically stated is that the "rising process of smoke depends on atmospheric ambient, meteorological conditions, emission parameters, such as the atmospheric stratification, initial emission momentum and temperature, wind direction and speed as well as turbulent behaviors, and so on." (Emad, Sayed, and Kassem, nd, p.1) The smoke dilution process and scope are of great interest to environmentalists since regional air quality is affected critically by dispersion of pollutants. eported as…… [Read More]
Despite the fact that the Clean Air Act has obviously evolved over the years to allow more government intervention and increased technological innovation, however, improvements can still be made. For example, the Clean Air Act of 1990 does not make mention of the contribution homes make to the problem. The World Wide Fund for Nature, however, suggests that simple daily living changes can greatly benefit the environment. Indoor air pollution, and smoking, which are harmful to the environment and others' health, is also not addressed.
In conclusion, the environment and air pollution are vital parts of an industrialized society. The clean Air Act attempted to address these problems through several versions. The earlier versions of the act suggest an attempt to solve the problem of air pollution, although the Clean Air Act of 1990 suggests a definite improvement, allowing for alternative fuels and technology. Still, more can be done to…… [Read More]
China's Health Indicators
China has gone through impressive economic development over the past few years, and has experienced a big reduction in poverty along with other positive achievements. Due to improvement in living conditions, nutrition, and healthcare, there have been " ... declines in infant mortality and deaths from infectious diseases," according to The New England Journal of Medicine (He, 2005). But there have also been negatives associated with urbanization and industrialization -- in particular China's stubborn air pollution and its negative impacts on health -- that have increased the risk of " ... chronic disease, including vascular disease and cancer" (He, 1125). This paper reviews the health indicators for China along with other pertinent data and information relating to the well-being of the Chinese people.
China's Demographics and Data on Health Issues
The population of China (based on 2013 data from the orld Health Organization -- HO) is approximately…… [Read More]
Skies 2003, etc.
Clear Skies 2003/Clean Air Act of 1990
The issue of clean air has been around probably since the first caveman objected to the smoke from a neighbor's fire. During the Industrial Revolution in England, numerous contemporary novels make reference to the condition of the air in major cities, fouled by the new growth of smokestacks. So, despite having been an issue for public discussion and legislative activity -- followed by the usual rounds of legal tests in the courts -- the issue of clean air officially floated into view in the U.S. only during the term of Richard Nixon. During the administrations of both Jimmy Carter and George Bush, clean air legislation was strengthened, and in 1990, the inclusive Clean Air Act (CAA) became law. (Browner 1997)
At times, the CAA has been touted as the embodiment of a bipartisan desire to protect all Americans form the…… [Read More]
This method makes effective use of ability of metals to float on surfaces of leachates on their own. Due to the high proven efficiency of this method, it is widely used for removal of heavy metals such as iron and humic acid from leachates in many parts of the world.
emoval of Plastic from Municipal Waste
Plastic is a non-biodegradable waste that has low recycling margin. Unfortunately, plastic is widely used in everyday products is heavily present in the municipal waste. The environmental threat posed by the presence of plastic in municipal waste is another major issue. Major plastic types that are commonly found in UK municipal waste include PET, high density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, low density polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, and other plastics such as melamine. Major source of these types of plastic are fizzy drink bottles, bottles of detergents and washing liquids, plastic plates cups and spoons, bin bags,…… [Read More]
Bahrain's National Action Charter, the Bahrain Economic Vision 2030, and the National Strategic Master Plan 2030 all promote sustainable economic development. A number of formal governmental and private sector organizations help to inform actual strategies for improving Bahrain's environmental assessments. The key issues the Kingdom of Bahrain faces in the early 21st century include water access, air pollution, urban development, rising sea levels, the pollution of the ocean by the petrochemical industries, and ineffective waste management.
Until 1925, Bahrain relied on freshwater springs. By the 1980s, almost all of those freshwater sources had ceased flowing, and now the Kingdom relies on "non-conventional sources of water," namely desalination (Bahrain Economic Development Board, 2017). Bahrain has four desalination plants. Still, Bahrain has a terrible water consumption ratio and is ranked as the second most wasteful water user in the world, measured in water per square centimeter of land (Bahrain Economic Development…… [Read More]
Systems Thinking Applied to Sustainability Challenges
"SYSTEMS THINKING IS CRITICAL IN DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS TO SUSTAINAILITY CHALLENGES"
POLLUTION IN THE OCEANS
"Systems Thinking is Critical in Developing Solutions to Sustainability Challenges"
Pollution in the Oceans
Ocean pollution is an issue for both society and individuals. Such complex issues exhibit some commonality, including being nonlinear, being heterogeneous, interdependent and self organized. It follows, therefore, that the issues require well thought-out and equally complex solutions. Venturing on pursuing causes without structured frameworks is a waste of time.
'Systems thinking' provide a new model for solving complex problems that afflict society; including pollution issues. In the system, biology interacts with social, cultural and manmade environmental elements in permutations and combinations that continue to evolve, discontinuously. The causes of pollution (Anon., n.d.) arise at various levels. They also interact at these varying levels. Organizations and individual entities are important at any given level. There is…… [Read More]
The hospitality industry has undergone significant evolution and with the globalization and technological advancements, there is stiff competition towards each entrepreneur ensuring that they are the best in the region where they are located. This then calls for the highest standards of every provisions and services that they provide, from the amenities of accommodation to the very rarely though of things like air breathed within the rooms.
It is quite important that one is able to enjoy staying whenever or wherever in a place that is comfortable and with fresh air within is not congested. This is especially true when one goes on a vacation; he will consider looking for a place that has some peace and quiet and just relax. Since naturally the temperature would seem to vary in different seasons; sometimes it is extremely hot or otherwise, air conditioning equipment is very useful in maintaining a balance…… [Read More]
There might be a tendency for social interactions to center around traveling between locations in a convoy, much like groups of motorcycle riders do today. Neighborhood airstrips might strengthen communities by giving many residents reason to come to a common area. There might also be a harmful effect due to people being less inclined to spend time in their own neighborhoods.
My personal life would not be greatly affected by the availability of a $50,000 aircraft. I do not have $50,000 to spend on a vehicle, nor do most people I know. The people I do know who could afford such an aircraft have little use for one, so I would probably have little more interaction with personal aircraft than I currently do with small planes. Assuming I did own a personal aircraft, it would make it practical for me to seek out business opportunities in towns that are currently…… [Read More]
Riding a bike to work or school immediately reduces the carbon footprint that otherwise would be left from the exhaust of your car. Taking a bus, a trolley, carpooling or walking -- any of these modes of transportation is being "green" instead of contributing to pollution and to global climate change. it's true that every mile you drive your car, you produce exhaust waste, and so over a year's time of driving your car to work or school, you are adding thousands of pounds of pollutants to the air that every one breathes.
When shopping for groceries, use a cotton bag or other reusable shopping bag rather than letting the checker fill plastic bags with your purchases. Plastic bags (it is well-known) find their way onto the sidewalks, roadways, in fields and in waterways, and they cause injuries and death to wildlife, and so it is always a good way…… [Read More]
clarion call for the people and leaders of El Paso to better focus (or at least start focusing) on the subject of soil erosion, water runoff and sedimentary issues relating the land and material around the roads and bridges of our town. While some may treat this subject as relatively or completely unimportant, this could not be further from the truth. As shown by what can happen with things like flash floods, landslides and so forth, the proper management of waste and rain water runoff is very important and should be handled in an evidence-based way rather than a cobbling together of a budget line item here and there. While a lot of the calls for more infrastructure funding and better infrastructure management are over the top, this is not one of those messages and not one of those subjects that should be easily dismissed or set aside.
The…… [Read More]
Environmental Genetic Factors That Influence Health in Le oy, New York, 2011, a mysterious medical
The relationship between an environmental agent and a health problem discussed within this document is the effect of air pollution on asthma. This effect is certainly a noxious one, as certain air pollutions have been known to cause asthma in those who did not previously have this condition, exacerbate it in those that did, and induce asthma attacks. In researching this relationship it is necessary to provide a brief overview of both asthma and air pollution. It is also prudent to discuss some of the more salient health disparities that emerge within a population that is related to aspects of genetics or environment.
Asthma is the constriction of the respiratory system with mucus. It is a serious cause of childhood morbidity (Islam et al., 2007, p. 957). Symptoms of asthma include difficulty breathing and coughing,…… [Read More]
Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines
Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction…… [Read More]
Because transportation infrastructure and services are important components of the urban system, they need to be sustainable and contribute to economic growth rather than harm the people that rely on them for their livelihoods. According to Asri and Hidayat (2005), "The expansion of social and economic activities has resulted in rising pollution and environmental degradation following the economic crisis in Jakarta Metropolitan area where environmental regulations were largely disregarded" (p. 1792). Taken together, these issues represent a growing public health threat that requires informed solutions, and these issues are discussed further below at they relate to the aims and objectives of the study.
Aims and Objectives
This research has an aim and several objectives. The aim of this research is to find out how the pollution levels occurred in several main roads in Jakarta and explore some strategies to reduce carbon pollution levels by using some schemes and scenarios. These…… [Read More]
Surveillance System for an Environmental Health Concern
Environmental health is an important concern for health care providers because it comprises the areas of human health that are impacted by external factors, such as chemical agents, biological agents, physical environment and so on. Issues that fall under environmental health are air pollution, water pollution, pesticides, chemical spills, and other areas (Laroque, 2009). Because of the risk of these areas negatively impacting human health, there is a need to monitor environmental health areas. One major area of environmental health that desperately needs surveillance is the quality of the air in urban areas near major airports. As Schlenker and Walker (2015) point out, airports are responsible for some of the highest concentrations of air pollution in the nation. An as West et al. (2016) show, air pollution is the cause of millions of premature deaths all over the earth. Thus, there is…… [Read More]
" (2007) Recommendations of this report include those as follows:
China should learn from the successes and failure of the U.S. And other developed countries in reducing the influence of energy use on air quality;
Continued dialogue and information exchange among U.S. And Chinese scientists and policy-makers should be promoted through professional organization, government support programs, and the National Academies in both countries to promote joint development of energy and pollution control strategies." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs, 2007)
Other findings of this report include the fact that "an important lesson learned is that air pollution damage imposes major economic costs, through premature mortality, increased sickness and lost productivity, as well as in decreased crops yields and economic impacts." (Committee on Energy Futures and Air Pollution in Urban China and the United State, Policy and Global Affairs,…… [Read More]
At the time, the industry sought to examine both oil pollution in general and ocean dumping as well as land-based sources of ocean pollution. According to ang, "More significant was the rapid technological development in the design of large-sized oil tankers which required constant rule changes. By 1973 it was evident that the 1954 convention provisions were inadequate or outdated, and by then the likelihood of the 1954 convention coming into force was rather doubtful" (334).
The new protocol ultimately entered into force in January 1978. The 1973 version of MARPOL was comprised of 20 articles concerning general obligations under the convention (e.g., prohibition of violation of requirements, rules for ship inspection, enforcement, reporting on incidents involving harmful substances, and most importantly, five technical annexes or regulations on 1) oil pollution; 2) control of noxious liquid substances in bulk; 3) harmful substances carried by sea in package forms or in…… [Read More]
Blondeau, P., Tiffonnet, a.L., Damian, a., Amiri, O., and Molina, J.L. (2003). Assessment of contaminant diffusivities in building materials from porosimetry tests. Indoor Air, 13(3), 310-318.
Daisey, J.M., Angell, W.J., and Apte, M.G. (2003). Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information. Indoor Air, 13(1), 53-64.
Fink a. (1998). Conducting research literature reviews: From paper to the Internet . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Overmeire, M.V., Verbrandt, F.J.. & Jonckheere, .E. (1999) Noise Pollution: Causes, effects and control. In Environmental Management in Practice: Compartments, Stressors, and Sectors. Volume: 2, eds. Nath, B. Hens, L. Compton, P. & Devuyst, D. London: outledge.
Palfrey, J. (1994) Community child health: An action plan for today. Westport, CT: Praeger
Pope, C.A., Thun, M.J., Namboodiri, M.M., Dockery, D.W., Evans, J.S., Speizer, F.E., and Heath, C.W. (1995). Particulate air pollution as a predictor of mortality in a prospective study of…… [Read More]
poor air quality in major cities in China has increasingly been viewed as a serious health threat -- and an economic problem as well -- over the past few years. The major culprit for this persistent pollution has been identified as coal-fired power plants, but auto emissions and factories are also contributors to this environmental problem. It has gotten so bad in Beijing, China, that on Tuesday December 8, Chinese leaders triggered a "red alert" closing schools, suspending factories, and keeping one-half of the vehicles off the streets (Mader, 2015). hat are the health-related issues brought on by this hazardous smog in China? This question will be addressed in this paper.
China's Air Pollution Kills up to 500,000 People Each Year
According to Chen Zhu, the former Chinese Health Minister -- who is a professor of medicine and a leading molecular biologist in China -- the terrible smog that envelops…… [Read More]
4-billion expansion after it was shut down in May by the province's environment ministry due to urine-like smells wafting in to neighbouring communities from the company's new technology." (Stephenson, 2006)
III. ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY REVIEW
In the work of Ross McKitrick entitled: "Towards the Use of Emission Taxes in Canada" a paper presented to the Finance Committee Round Table on Green Taxes in Ottawa, Canada on May 31, 2001, it is stated that in the presentation of the paper covered are:."..three topics: the context (international and domestic) for environmental policy in Canada, the basic principles of pollution tax design, and the priority I would suggest for proceeding with this policy instrument." (McKitrick, 2001)
McKitrick states that "the theory of optimal environmental taxation was worked out by Agnar Sandmo in an article in the Swedish Journal of Economics in 1975. Some points that have emerged from Sandmo's work are the following:
There…… [Read More]
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…… [Read More]
Lichens are commonly used as ecological signs or bio-indicators. If atmosphere is extremely contaminated with sulphur dioxide there could be no lichens existing, just eco-friendly algae might be identified. When the atmosphere is clear, shrubby, hairy as well as, leafy; lichens turn out to be plentiful. A small number of lichen varieties can put up with extremely high degrees of air pollution and therefore are generally seen on pavements, wall surfaces and also tree-bark in city locations. By far the most delicate lichens happen to be shrubby and leafy whilst the most resistant lichens are crusty in looks (Showman, 68; Nash and Gries, 1-29). A lichen area design might be noticed in big cities and towns or close to commercial buildings which matches the average degrees of sulphur dioxide encountered.
The resistant lichens are helpful bioindicators for atmosphere air pollution, particularly sulfur dioxide contamination, given that…… [Read More]
promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.
Fuel efficient cars
Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.
Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.
Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)
The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…… [Read More]
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Module 05 Question 01: explain the rationale behind the federal government's approach to regulatory containments in food.
The federal government's approach in relation to the regulation of the containments in food, aims at protecting the consumers on food insecurity through elimination of food pathogens. It is the role of the government to enhance the health system and conditions of its citizens through adoption and implementation of various rules and regulations in relation to the containments in food. The food supply of the United States integrates multi-faceted production system and delivery components. Some of the critical or essential components of this system include production, processing, preparing, packaging, labelling, distribution, and consumption of the food components (Fortin, 2011).
There is a risk in relation to the concept of each stage of the food supply system in the context of the United States. This makes it ideal for…… [Read More]