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Occasionally in depth maintenance or complex repairs on an airframe is required to maintain equipment in an operational status. Depot level repairs would include major alterations or refurbishing of an asset due to age or upgrade far beyond the capabilities of the organizational level requiring industrial facilities not available elsewhere. Special Depot Level Maintenance (SDLM) commonly performs overhaul operations on airframes in need of such attention.
Aircraft Maintenance Elements
The aircraft maintenance elements of AVIM (Aviation Intermediate Maintenance) and AVUM (Aviation Unit Maintenance) units are responsible for unit-level maintenance of aircraft that is beyond the capability or responsibility of the crew chief.
A. Scheduled Maintenance
To effectively perform its mission, the aircraft maintenance section must perform the following scheduled maintenance tasks:
Perform scheduled phase/periodic maintenance inspections assisted by the crew chief and aircraft component repair section personnel.
Comply with SOF or unit-level TBs requiring onetime or recurring inspections…… [Read More]
Duties of Aircraft Maintenance Personnel
Requirements to Become an Aircraft Maintenance Officer
Specialties in Aircraft Maintenance Career
Aircraft Maintenance (Air Force):
Air Force Reserve utilizes a huge range of aircraft such as bombers, remotely piloted aircraft, cargo carriers, and jet fighters. Since Air Force utilizes this variety of aircrafts with varying individual maintenance requirements, aircraft maintenance plays a crucial role in Air Force. The significant role of aircraft maintenance is evident in the fact that there are thousands of aircraft in the sky every day ("Aircraft Maintenance Officer" par, 1). Generally, aircraft maintenance personnel are mandated with the task of managing entire maintenance operations through the help of automated scheduling, labor utilization systems, and resource allocation ("Aircraft Maintenance" par, 2). These personnel play a vital role in ensuring the safety of the Air Force and integrity of their missions.
Duties of Aircraft Maintenance Personnel:
As part of their duties, aircraft…… [Read More]
Moreover, rather than abandoning and re-attempting the landing, the captain decided to continue the landing even with the unsafe landing guidelines. The accident would have been avoided if the flight crew labored together, followed procedures and abandoned the unsuccessful landing.
System Safety Management:
In order to avoid incidents in the global aviation industry, it's important for airlines to implement effective and efficient maintenance and safety practices other than the improper practices. These measures will help in lessening incidents that result from improper aircraft maintenance practices and human factors. For maintenance personnel in most of the developed aviation systems, time pressures are usually a factor in their work. However, it's still important for these personnel to attain high reliability and efficiency in their work and thus reducing the number of aircraft incidents. Various organizational procedures and practices for aircraft maintenance and safety have been established such as inspections and logbook recordings.…… [Read More]
ole of Communications in Aircraft Maintenance Management
The mainstay of every establishment is communication, and it is same with the aviation organization. In the absence of communication, the entire gamut of its inherent functions like aircraft servicing program, maintaining flight schedules and various other functions will come to a standstill. Despite this, proper attention is not being paid to the planning and executing communications set up within the flight department. Equipped with an excellent communication system, the department of aviation will be in constant readiness for all flights ranging from arranging flight schedules to maintaining to keeping a limousine at the arrival site. This sense of discipline renders the aviation department a precious and flawless procedure within the corporation strengthening its position as qualitative feature.
Presently, the most secured and fastest mode of journey is perceived through aeronautics. However, the occurrence of sporadic air disasters sometimes calls upon our confidence…… [Read More]
Examples include gyroscopic blind-flying instruments, which enabled flight even in low visibility conditions. At the same time, radio navigation and approach systems help pilots land safety even during low visibility. These instruments later developed to include radar technology in combination with radio. De-icing and anti-icing systems were also implemented in order to minimize the dangers of ace accretion. Weather radars were implemented in order to serve as a warning of poor weather conditions, and autopilots were implemented to automatically maintain the flight course and altitude of the craft..
Electronic and technological advances have also served airline safety well during the late twentieth century. In f1990, for example, an airliner was introduced with a new digital flight control system; the lack of necessity for a flight engineer on the deck was therefore eliminated, along with the cost involved as well as the danger of the human factor. Another new concept is…… [Read More]
There are many considerations that go into owning or renting an aircraft. The more people know about the industry and the aircraft they are interested in, the better off they will be. There are also many costs associated with ownership that some people are not aware of. These include both required inspections as and upgrades to comply with federal regulations as well as unforeseen costs when something breaks or is in need of repair. Potential owners, renters, and leasers should carefully consider all of the variables associated with an aircraft before they take the next step.
AOPA. (2010). "Time to buy, get the most from the ownership." AOPA Magazine. October 29,
AOPA. (2010). "AOPA Aircraft Insurance." etrieved October 28, 2010 from AOPA
Bowman, D. (2010). "About Aircraft." etrieved July 17, 2010 from E. How website:
Boyer, Phil. (1998). "eliable Flyer." AOPA Pilot. August 1998.…… [Read More]
Human Factors Leading to Aircraft Incidents at the Ground Level:
MILITAY VS. CIVILIAN.
Human factors that cause aircraft incidents at the ground level. Aircraft Mechanics:
Civilian vs. Military.
The objective of this study is to investigate human factors that cause the aircraft incidents at the ground level. A case of Aircraft Mechanics: Civilian vs. Military. The study uses experimental method to carry out the research. The paper generates hypothesis to compare human factors that lead to the civilian and military aircraft incidents at the ground level. The study presents the research findings in tables and graphs and the research findings show that human factors leading to the aircraft incidents at the ground level is higher in the military aircraft than the civilian aircraft.
Worldwide commercial aviation has suffered huge costs of damage from the ground-related incidents estimated to reach more than $4 Billion. On the other hand, Flight Safety…… [Read More]
[Gerhardus H. Koch] AFCPCO experts expect that the application of research knowledge in design and manufacturing phase of the aircraft production would reduce corrosion related maintenance expenditure by around 40% ($320 million). [Daniel E. ullock]
Corrosion Control by Coating
Using appropriate coating methods, galvanic corrosion of metal surfaces can be avoided. For example titanium surfaces are plated with cadmium and primed before they are attached to aluminum surfaces. The aluminum alloy surface is typically coated with corrosion inhibiting primers such as Skydrol-resistant epoxies. efore applying the coating the surface is anodized using phosphoric acid anodizer. [Gerhardus H. Koch] the most poplar method of corrosion prevention however is the use of chromate surface treatments of the aluminum structures. Using hexavalent-chromium compounds for surface coating is however an environmentally unsound practice as chromium is well-known as a highly toxic and carcinogenic agent. The U.S. air force has done extensive research to find…… [Read More]
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…… [Read More]
GE Aviation Division, Aircraft Engines
This paper discusses General Electric Corporation (GE), specifically the arm which focuses on the production of aircraft engines. Until 2005, the GE Aviation division (GEA) operated under the designation of General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE). We will analyze GEA from a product standpoint, as well as from a business operations standpoint. We will firstly discuss the beginnings of GE as a maker of aircraft engines. We will discuss some of the products GEA has built which have resulted in its leadership position as one of the world's best makers of aircraft engines. The product related discussion will conclude with a look into what the future may hold related to engine technology and projects that GEA will focus upon. Secondly, we will examine GEA's unique business human resource management model. Specifically, we will examine GE's leadership education organization and its belief in the practice of rotating…… [Read More]
Monitoring an Aircraft's eliability System:
In the civil aircraft industry, one of the most critical areas is the operational or dispatch reliability of an aircraft. For any airline, the reliability system of an aircraft is very important since its effectiveness lessens flights delays and cancellations. The effective working of this system to achieve its functions also results in greater operational efficiency, customer satisfaction and flexibility. Dispatch or operational reliability is defined as the percentage of scheduled flights that depart without any technical delay that exceeds 15 minutes or a flight cancellation. It's important for any airline to ensure that the reliability systems of its aircrafts are effective since this result in less costs and greater revenues for the airline. The reliability system of an aircraft is largely affected by both technical and non-technical factors with the technical ones resulting from the decisions made by designers. On the other hand, the…… [Read More]
The emergence of low cost carriers has marked a shift in the aircraft industry away from owning aircraft and towards leasing and subleasing of aircraft. National and legacy carriers have long struggled with profitability, and their business model is in part a reason for this. Low cost carriers have attempted to resolve the business issues of heavy debt burden and excess capacity by leasing aircraft rather than owning them. There are other advantages to aircraft leasing as well, including a reduction in maintenance costs. Aircraft leasing has become part of the low cost carrier business model. This paper will examine the issue of aircraft leasing, in particular with respect to the financial considerations. A conclusion will be drawn with respect to the leasing decision and whether or not it is recommended for airlines today.
Overview of the Industry
The aviation industry is one of the world's largest businesses,…… [Read More]
The pilot then asked for emergency vehicles to meet them on runway 36 as a precaution. No total emergency was declared. The flight was able to land safely on runway 36 and the pilot was able to complete a normal shutdown. Then the rudder cable was sent to the NTSB materials laboratory and they found that the wire rope portion of the cable was fractured inside the clevis fitting as the forward end of the cable. The strands of the wire rope had separated from each other by a distance of more than one foot from the cable end. At the same time, the separation between strands of the same cable were not so high and even when they were separated, the distance was much less. Then the broken ends were seen through a bench binocular microscope and that showed the wire fractures were aligned with each other and within…… [Read More]
Lider Aviation is a highly successful name in the aviation industry of Brazil. Within a short period of time this company has risen to great heights of success, as it started with only one aircraft and now has a fleet of over 8-0 aircrafts. Apart from that, the company is also engaged in other aviation related businesses including Helicopter Operations, Executive Chartering, Maintenance, Aircraft Sales and Ground Handling. Along with these five major business units, Lider is now also found engaged in insurance, flight simulation developing and pilot training fields.
The success of Lider Aviation is evident from the fact that it now operates from 20 airports in Brazil and has a strong and dedicated workforce of 1700 employees. The company considers itself a pioneer in the field of aircraft chartering and does so rightly because it indeed established the foundation for chartering in the country.
The company…… [Read More]
The following definitions may be helpful.
Category 1 APUs are installed where in-flight auxiliary power operation is necessary. Category 1 APUs are usually required for essential APU installations. These APUs have been shown to meet all of the test and analysis requirements of the Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) of TSO C77b, Appendix 1.
Category 2 APUs are installed where in-flight APU operation is not necessary (non-essential installations).
Both Category 1 and Category 2 APUs are acceptable for non-essential APU installations. Category 2 APUs are not required to meet all of the test and analysis requirements that Category 1 APUs are subjected to. (See TSO C77b, Appendix 1, for the detailed requirements). (Category 1 and Category 2 APU, 2005). (See Appendix a for another example of an APU)
History (may need something different for this part - raw research) significant early demonstration was of the first liquid-fueled, fuel cell APU on…… [Read More]
The oeing 747-300 model was designed to hold 600 passengers. ut the founder of America's Flight Safety foundation, Jerome Lederer, commented that evacuation of such numbers in the event of disaster would be troublesome. Sitting next to an emergency exit did not promise anything, as shown by this tragedy. Only a bare few escaped and only as fate had it. These were the musings of many when dead bodies were brought down by helicopters from Mount Osutaka in bright blankets (Magnuson, Aviation Safety Network, AAIC, C, C (. This disaster and others before and subsequent call for more responsive prevention measures to save lives in this era of massive global air travel.
The Safety Promotion Center was opened in 2006 to train employees and alert them to the importance of airline safety and personal responsibility for safety. The ultimate responsibility falls squarely on the shoulders of Japan Airlines…… [Read More]
Virgin Airlines -- Financial and Strategic Assessment
Virgin America has quickly established itself as one of the premier airlines operating throughout North America, generating $760M in Operating evenues as of the close of its latest fiscal period reporting a Net Loss of $19M and operating margin of -1.6%. As Virgin competes in a very price-driven and capital-intensive industry, their latest financial results the exceptionally high pressure on new entrants into commercial aviation. Their latest financial results are shown in Appendix A: Virgin America Consolidated Statement of Operations and Appendix B: Comparative Operating Statistics, both obtained from the company's website.
Analyzing their financial condition indicates just how challenging the launch and successful operation of an airline is. Their fuel costs increased 66.9% for the nine months between September 30, 2010 to September 30, 20112, and Aircraft Maintenance increased 51.5% in the same period. Both of these figures are shown…… [Read More]
This is important, because this flight school is larger and has a variety of programs to offer. If at some point, someone decides that want to study other forms of aviation, this school would be ideal at learning for much as possible. ("MVP Accomplishments," 2010)
Mc Air Aviation offers students the ability to complete most of the course work, through a self-study format. Where, students will complete the basic written curriculum and will then complete the in flight requirements with their certified instructors. At which point, the student can be able to receive their flight certification. This is important, because it provides other options in studying and obtaining certification, as those with busier schedule can be able to balance this kind of instruction with their lives. ("141 Self-Examining Authority," 2010)
Another option is to go through the Airline Career Pilot Program. Under this program, there is assistance for students who…… [Read More]
An airline is looking to introduce a new fleet of twin engined wide body aircraft into its fleet. Three different engine options are available and none is compatible with existing engine types in operation. Discuss the likely factors to be evaluated or taken into consideration and/or negotiated to ensure lowest ownership and operating costs over a ten-year period.
First of all, commercial engines are far cheaper, as analysis of Boeing 747 and Douglas DC-10 shows, than are acquisitions of military crafts such as the B-52 bomber and the turboprop C-130 ( The Boeing Company ). This should be encouraging news to the buyer.
Both direct and indirect operating costs should be taken into account when reaching a decision. The type of engine itself is one of the most important components. Here, should be considered costs that are associated with the size, speed and payload- range capability of the engine…… [Read More]
Business Plan for Airline Inventory System
This is a business plan for an outsourcing company creating and maintaining an airline inventory system for airline parts and maintenance. This is a valuable and necessary service for all airlines, both public and private, because the Federal Aviation Authority (FAA) requires maintenance and part inventories and records for all planes flying. These records help maintain the safety standard for the airline to FAA standards. The business will consist of a knowledgeable team of airline maintenance and IT personnel, who can develop a viable database, market the service, and maintain the parts and inventory systems for major to smaller airlines around the world.
The potential market for this type of outsourcing parts and maintenance business is growing everyday around the world. As more and more airlines begin to implement cost-cutting measures, the need for an outsourced inventory system is clear. As one Web Site,…… [Read More]
Atlanta International Airport is the busiest airport in the world, serving 80 million passengers and employing over 10,000 people. The Operations Director must ensure that all of the process, procedures and organizational structures enable the airport to be efficient, effective and always improving. This paper will discuss the Atlanta Airport in the context of its operations management success and will also work in an example from the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan as well.
Allen (2009) outlines the transformational model as a set of seven variables that need to be aligned for a business to be successful. The seven variables are environment, strategy, culture, core processes, systems, structure and results. The core processes at Atlanta International Airport include baggage handling, aircraft maintenance, air traffic control, security, designing passenger flow, passenger information systems, loading and unloading the aircraft and providing information and basic services.
For the customer, these activities should appear to…… [Read More]
egulations and requirements
The Federal Aviation Authority -- FAA passed the "Vision100 - Century of Aviation eauthorization Act," which among other regulations also allowed for the allocation of the AIP funds for the facilities like hangars and fuel farms. This is stated in the law that the secretary can pay the funds "apportioned to the airport sponsor under section 47114 (d) (3) (a) and if the Secretary determines that the sponsor has made adequate provision for financing airside needs of the airport." ("Airport Improvement Program," 2004) Therefore all planners and builders are required to submit a business plan. In the event where the promoter of the proposed airport is not requiring the genera fund, still considering these guidelines will help in determining the profitability and the types of facility and structures required. The foremost concern is to evaluate the need. The plan must show the demand envisaged for the facility.…… [Read More]
(2) Analyzing all accident data without regard to the type of airframe provides for an easy sampling and less potential bias toward fixed wing vs. rotary wing aircraft.
(3) Not including ground accidents into the research will allow the research to focus only on aviation accidents.
(4) Limiting the research to a four-year period; 2003 to 2006 will provide an adequate sampling of the data and not constrain the research results.
The first assumption is that accident data to be used will be an adequate sample of class a through class C accidents within the USAREUR area of operations.
The second assumption is that ARMS inspection dates derived from official USAREUR Publications and historical data files will reflect actual dates of ARMS inspections.
The third assumption is that current ARMS inspections continue to incorporate comprehensive checklist used to evaluate resource management and assist…… [Read More]
Assess Supply Base
The supply base is a function of the airport capacity, specifically the terminal and lanes leased specifically for the use of Aer Lingus jet and air plane usage in addition to the actual supply of jets/planes and the parts used to effectively repair and operate each unit. The supply base is assessed by assessing the supply chain for the airline. The supply chain is a function of all vendors that provide supply to Aer Lingus to maintain operational performance.
Functional capacity is the ability of the supply base to utilize full operating capacity to maximize profit through the efficient use of supply to drive performance. However, the supply base assessment can also be a method to pass-through costs. According to Chandler (2009), "enaud recognizes that it's sometimes a matter of "sanding our folks out to suppliers to help them [avoid] costs." Mike Madsen couldn't agree…… [Read More]
Amalberti, ane & -Sarter, N.B. (eds.). (2000). Cognitive engineering in the aviation domain. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Bennis, W. & Biederman, P.W. (1997). Organizing genius: The secrets of creative collaboration. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Boeing. (1994). Maintenance error decision aid. In Amalberti & Sarter (2000).
Butzgy, M. (2003). LSET team to visit 23rd FG. Pope Air Force Base, N.C. Available: http://www.carolinaflyer.com/11Nov/111403/111403_13.shtml.
Clark, G.. (1990). Words of the Vietnam war: The slang, jargon, abbreviations, acronyms, nomenclature, nicknames, pseudonyms, slogans, specs, euphemisms, double-talk, chants, and names and places of the era of United States involvement in Vietnam. Jefferson: McFarland & Co.
Davis, W.A. (1993, October). Human factors in the global marketplace. Keynote address presented at the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, annual meeting, Seattle. In Amalberti & Sarter (2000).
Graeber, .C. (1996, May). The value of human factors awareness for airline management. Paper presented at the oyal Aeronautical Society conference…… [Read More]
As the value proposition that the company was based on, the attractiveness of flying when it is equal to or less than the cost of gasoline for the comparable trip has helped to create a unique niche for this airline. Their reliance on regional airports within 500 miles of each other has also contributed to the unique value proposition being realized for millions of customers a year.
Southwest Airlines Internal Analysis
SWA is well-known for its ability to keep costs down by concentrating on smaller, less expensive and less congested airports in conjunction with relying only on one type of aircraft, which is the Boeing 737. It has been well-documented that SWA achieves significant training and maintenance cost reductions as a result of relying on a single type of plane (Southwest Airlines Investor elations, 2009). Standardization on a specific type of jet has also enabled the company to streamline and…… [Read More]
What is the role of human factors in improving aviation safety?
Many personnel are involved in the operation and maintenance of airplanes. The aviation industry employs many people performing many different roles and tasks to keep aviation a safe mode of transportation for goods and services. Despite rules, procedures, and advanced technology to help keep passengers and crew safe, sometimes accidents still occur. It was found that more than 70% of commercial airplane accidents are caused by humans, rather than simply a failure of technology (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). This research supports the thesis that human factors are one of the most difficult, and the most important issues in aviation needed to increase aviation safety in the future.
Mechanical failure is cited as one of the more common reasons for aviation disasters (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). It is easy to shift the blame to a machine, rather than…… [Read More]
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…… [Read More]
43 in 2009. Yet current airframe and power plant mechanics are inclined to move to the computer and automotive sector for better work environment. Analysts advised the creation and use of informational recruiting tools to attract these potential workers. in-house training programs on long-term career growth and a sense of commitment to the company would be one form. Another could be employee-retention programs on leadership, technical, and management training courses. Other tools and strategies could be flexi-time, relocation benefits and an improved work environment. Recent mergers and consolidations within the industry are meant to retain employees and serve a wide range of customers. The technology-driven industry requires mechanics with the necessary technological competence in order to provide the wide range of services required by customers. A resourceful information management system could integrate e-business tools and advanced technology into standard business practices. This integration would bring about more efficient and cost-effective…… [Read More]
S. Navy has an excellent product mix as they are working to attract, recruit and retain key members of each position segment they have. The recruitment of the most highly skilled areas including nurses and physicians is the most pressing and requires the greatest level of consultation and one-on-one recruiting effort. The recruitment of Naval physicians is a critical need; it's clear from its position on the website and often there are face-to-face discussions and recruitment efforts on the part of the U.S. Navy to gain physicians directly into their branch of the service.
How is the product (good and/or service) of the organization you are auditing, currently distributed?
The U.S. Navy distributes it current set of recruitment offices throughout 26 American cities, which are accessible from the following Website: http://www.cnrc.navy.mil/.The focus of each of the 26 city sites is on tailoring the recruitment process to regionalized needs…… [Read More]
IAMAW Views on Safety
The response of the American people to the terrorists attacks of 9/11 was felt one of compassion and resolve. Almost all Americans were associated in one or other manner in assisting the Nation come out of the dangerous impacts and become strengthened. It was curious to witness the way some hurried into the burning building and saving lives of their fellow workers, friends and strangers. While many measures have been undertaken to safeguard the security of Americans and continuance of the way of life, the workers confront stringent security policies on the job and sometimes loss of civil rights. (Worksite Security: IAM Headquarters)
The International Association for Machinists and Aerospace Workers -- IAM& AW as well as other institutions are watchful of the legislation and presidential orders against possible violation of bargaining and civil rights. They found the workplace security to be more embarrassing to the…… [Read More]
Generic, Grand & Specific Strategies for Your Individual Project
A strategy is a statement that will be used to achieve long-term objectives. Strategy is about two things, deciding where you want your business to go, and deciding how to get there. For this study we will look generic strategy, grand and specific strategies and how they are likely to be applied to help the Sikorsky Support Services (SSSI) attain its long time objectives based on competitive advantage, the object of most corporate strategy.
SSSI is an organization that provides aircraft maintenance and manufacturing services support for global commercial and military organizations. It is a global leader in this field.
Porter, (1998) It is worthy to note that Generic strategies provide customers with what they want at a better price, or more effectively than others.) In this case, Sikorsky Support Services (SSSI), would rather choose whether it will compete on price,…… [Read More]
Army Structure; from 3-Brigade Division Units to Units of Action
At the Pentagon, briefings routinely begin with the old adage that
"the only thing constant today is change." Since the age of the Cold War, the United States Army has faced change at home and abroad, experiencing not only a massive transformation in technology and infrastructure, but also in the worldwide approach to warfare. As the end of front-line battles gave way to urban streets and insurgency, the Army transitioned its structural paradigm to mirror the rapidly shifting needs, abandoning the Three Brigade Division Units for Units of Action.
This organizational shift had roots in Capitol Hill politics and dissent internal to the Pentagon, but was a desperately needed restructuring to meet the needs presented by the Iraq War, vastly different than those experienced during the Cold War history. In the early 1950s, the Soviet forces overwhelmed many of the…… [Read More]
Importance of Being a Noncommissioned Officer
The basic assumption underlying these hypotheses is that attempts to influence others are instrumental acts whose occurrence is determined by the perceived probability of success in achieving some goal. Therefore influence attempts will occur if the inducer perceives a readiness of the recipient to accept his influence and if he believes that the induced behavior will, in fact, lead him to his goal. Three hypotheses were derived from these assumptions.
What is ordinarily called authority in a military organization combines two factors which should be distinguished. (a) The authority of an officer over his men includes coercive power, i.e., the ability to punish his subordinates for noncompliance with his orders. (b) It also includes a predisposition on the part of the subordinate willingly to accept the influence of the officer because he perceives it as legitimate (Schachter et al., 2008). Presumably coercive…… [Read More]
Mandatory Drug Testing
In certain professional occupations, mandatory drug testing is not only a good idea, it is very important to public safety. There are good arguments on both sides as to whether all professional athletes should be tested for drugs -- or whether high school athletes should be tested. And in the business world, one could argue that drug testing is an invasion of privacy, and unless an employee is acting irresponsibly and clearly is ineffective, there is no good reason to require regular (or even sporadic) drug testing. But this paper takes the position that employees in certain professions -- airline pilots, bus drivers and heavy equipment operators -- should accept that mandatory drug testing is part of the job. The public safety is vastly more important than concerns over personal privacy issues, hence, the need for mandatory drug testing.
The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Airline…… [Read More]
They may not be reassigned to perform work that is substantially different from their normal occupational responsibilities (OSHA, 2003).
Employers may not submit information about the employee that is intended to have damaging consequences on the employee's financial credit history, and employers may not engage in conduct or communications designed to "blackball" the employee from other employment, either within government or in connection with any private sector employment opportunities. Finally, employers may not engage in conduct intended (or reasonably perceived) as "intimidation." Intimidation is one of the most difficult types of non-compliance with activities protected under the Act, because it is subject to interpretation and because it is capable of being perpetrated without any written record. Likewise, many forms of conduct that are generally benign under ordinary (i.e. non-adversarial) circumstances at work only rise to the level of intimidation" in specific context (USLC, 2007).
efusal to Work:
Under certain (limited)…… [Read More]
The greater the functionality of the tag the higher the frequency required to communicate the contents of it, hence the spectrum of frequencies shown in Figure 3, Comparison of FID Frequencies.
Figure 3: Comparison of FID Frequencies
Sources: (Cheung, Chu, Du, 2009) (Wang, Wang, 2009)
The greater the frequency of a given set of tags the greater the flexibility and the more data they are often capable of storing, capturing as they move through supply chains, and reporting back via readers. The DoD pioneered the use of very high frequency-based FID tags on pallet containers as they were sent to the Persian Gulf for the Iraq war and for delivery to Afghanistan. Studies indicate that the ability to use the shipping container as a consumer good manufacturer would use a pallet and mix products in it to reflect the needs at the end of the supply chain yield significant OI…… [Read More]
Managing Diversity Matters
A Study on QANTAS
Women Representation at QANTAS
QANTAS' Focus on Diverse Needs of Customers
QANTAS Ideology Regarding Recruitment of Youth
Challenges Faced y QANTAS
In today's challenging global scenario where competition is rising every day, it is necessary for Multinational organizations to address the basic need of today's business world: diversity. Customers, employees, strategic alliances, competitors, industry norms etc.; they are all subject to changes every day. This is the reason why organizations must need to show adaptability to the change and address the diverse needs of all these stakeholders. Furthermore, while discussing MNCs, it is noticeable that one of the industries (with highest degree of diversity in its operations) is the aviation industry. Australia is one of the most culturally diverse in the world, according to a 2009 study by L. Leveson in the International Journal of Manpower. The study explored current attitudes to diversity…… [Read More]
Legacy Carrier Response:
Customer loyalty from years of traveling continues 10% of total traffic; not enough to propel the company into profitability.
Regional route strategies focused more on price protection vs. price competition relative to competitors.
Threat of New Entry - This is the factor in the five forces analysis that illustrates the threat of new competitors entering the markets served by both discount and legacy carriers. Examples of this would be the low-cost jet taxi services based on Eclipse Aviation's smaller and more fuel-efficient jet.
Discount Carrier Response:
Competitiveness in routes on price and availability of flights challenges the entrance of low-price competitors.
Low-cost, highly verticalized air carriers tend to focus and excel on one specific geography, as Southwest does in the U.S. And Ryan Air, Berlin Air, and others do in Europe, and JetStar in Australia.
Legacy Carrier Response:
Battling new entrants by using aggressive pricing strategies only…… [Read More]
This is Because of the fact that customers plays an important role for the success of any organization .without the customers, the organizations cannot achieve their goals of making profit. This is however the aim of any business enterprise. Creating and raising awareness of the company's product in the target market is where sales originate this is also where marketing communications activities start the selling process.With todays numerous channels and avenues for content to reach prospective customers, the art and science of marketing communications has become progressively more important. egardless of the nature of service or the products that an organization offers, they have to ensure that customer satisfaction is achieved. This can only be achieved through effective communication between the organization and both the prospective and the current customers in a bid to achieve customer satisfaction and also to meet all the requirement of the customers, there is need…… [Read More]
hat is FedEx's strategy for success in the marketplace? Does the company rely primarily on a customer intimacy, operations excellence, or product leadership customer value proposition? hat evidence supports your conclusion?
FedEx's strategy in the market place combines customer intimacy, product leadership customer value proposition, and operational excellence. In our textbook, Noreen, Brewer, and Garrison describe how companies who have customer intimacy attract new and retain past customers by understanding and reacting to their needs better than their competition. Operational excellence is defined as providing faster services, conveniently, and at a lower price than their competition (Noreen, Brewer, & Garrison, 2008). Companies that pursue product leadership customer value proposition get their customers to select them due to delivering a higher quality service or product than their competition (Noreen, Brewer, & Garrison, 2008).
You can find the evidence of customer intimacy and operational excellence in the 10-K form that…… [Read More]
FedEx Express Airlines (Case Study)
In this case study, we will be looking at FedEx Express's hub airports. The airports will include Memphis International Airport (MEM) and Indianapolis International Airport. The focus will be mainly on capacity, traffic, and what is planned for the future of these airports.
FedEx Corporation is one of the largest companies in the courier industry. The company is renowned not just nationally in the United States, but internationally. FedEx Corporation belongs to the parcel service industry segment. The size of the industry segment is quite large in the sense that in the past fifteen years or so, consumers in America have spent beyond fifty billion dollars in shipping packages, parcels and also letters. Also referred to as Federal Express, the company is a big player in the segment and is positioned as one of the trailblazers in the industry segment (FedEx Corporation, 2014). The following…… [Read More]
Aircraft Flight Disturbance
Lessons Learned From September 26th O'Hare International Airport Incident
ecommendations to Avert Widespread Flight Disturbances
On September 26th, 2014, both O'Hare and Midway airports experienced a day-long disruption of operations that led to over 2,000 flights being cancelled and the entire nation affected by the disruption of operations. An employee with psychological problems intent on killing himself started a fire in the basement telecommunications room of the Aurora, Illinois control center, then attempted to slit his throat. After posting his suicide note on Facebook, relatives called 911 and both his life and the control center were saved. The fire damaged the most critical areas of the IT infrastructure for air traffic control for both the O'Hare and Midway airports, forcing air traffic control locations in adjacent states to take on one of the busiest areas of the country for air travel. The lack…… [Read More]
Egozi (2012) points out that Israeli ground crew systems in ATC and related to UAS operations are working together to create mutually beneficial solutions. Therefore, the FAA needs to take the cue from emerging technology sectors that can help guide the way to regulations related to integrating both hardware and software systems on the ground for both unmanned and manned vehicles. As the Joint Planning and Development Office (2011) points out, there has yet to emerge a standard interface design for use in any category or type of vehicle, let alone between ATC and UAS operators and pilots. This must change if UAS are to become not just more prolific but also safer and more integrated into mixed-use aircraft facilities. The Joint Planning and Development Office (2011) also suggests that there may be, especially in larger airports, a separate ground control and ATC area for unmanned aircraft. However, it is…… [Read More]
Aircraft Fleet Management
The fleet planning of an airline deals with the way airlines decide which type of aircraft to acquire and then utilize their aircraft on different routes. The main aim of fleet planning is usually to add value to the airlines operations by increasing efficiency. For example, operating a large wide bodied jet on a short route with only a few passengers would be highly inefficient, due to the higher overhead costs than a smaller, lighter jet. Likewise, if only smaller aircraft are available for the most popular route the airline may not be maximizing their potential to generate revenues and profit due to limited capacity (Clark, 2007). This demonstrates that fleet planning requires forward thinking and can be a strategic element of airlines ongoing operations.
Different strategies may be adopted by airlines. Southwest Airlines, known as the first low cost carrier, adopted a strategy which saw…… [Read More]
However, recent spot checks suggest that many operators are unaware of the risk and therefore have not taken precautions to prevent dangerous concentrations of CO (NIOSH, 1984). This could prove to be fatal.
When employees are around aircraft it is important to practice the utmost safety, in order to ensure the safety of the ground crew, the people are on board of the aircraft, and all other employees involved in the handling of the flight line. Individuals must watch and listen for newly arriving or passing aircraft. If driving, employees must keep a proper distance from the aircraft and drive slowly, at 5 miles per hour only (AFOSH, 2003). Caution must also be taken with forklifts and k-loaders, as they must be lowered while aircraft is moving.
When working at night and around hazardous equipment, employees must utilize luminous wands, practice safe driving techniques, as those mentioned above, and use…… [Read More]
Their reputation suffered, although it did not seem to make a dent in their passenger traffic, something that indicates how complacent and compliant the American people have become. Most people did not even seem to care that Southwest had endangered them and only a few spoke out in blogs or in other areas when the news broke. Southwest has a serious responsibility to keep its passengers and crews safe, and they lost the trust of at least some people because of their callous disregard for safety. That is a huge moral responsibility, and Southwest has never really acknowledged their failure, which is an even larger ethical concern, it seems. In a statement before Congress, Southwest CEO Gary Kelly said, "Our compliance with certain specific Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness directives has been called into question. We have committed to a thorough review and to make any changes necessary to ensure…… [Read More]
Stimuli are the bases for cues, but a stimulus is not a cue by itself" (Weiner & Nagel, 1988, p. 239). Just as pilots need simulation devices to provide them with realistic cue which signal that they need to adjust the aircraft, the crew within the cabin of the commercial plane also need cues that they can respond to in training with actions that they are supposed to execute.
Cues need to be part of the crew member training programs. "Crewmember initial training must include instruction on general subjects as well as subjects pertaining to the airplane type to be operated. The subjects for whom crewmembers are to receive instruction must be applicable to their assigned duties. Initial training is based on equipment and crewmembers not qualified in an aircraft group should complete initial training on the aircraft in that group. Crewmember initial training programs should include drills and actual…… [Read More]
Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
The Boeing Company (n.d.). Human factors. etrieved online: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human_textonly.html
Hayhurst, K.J., Maddalon, J.M. Miner, P.S., DeWalt, M.P. & McCormick, G.F. (2006). Unmanned aircraft hazards and their implications for regulation. etrieved online: http://shemesh.larc.nasa.gov/people/jmm/5B1_201hayhu.pdf
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
NASA (2013). Unmanned Aircraft Systems Airspace Operations Challenge (UAS OC). etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/directorates/spacetech/centennial_challenges/uas/index.html
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, 2013). NOAA Unmanned aircraft systems program. etrieved online: http://uas.noaa.gov/
Tvaryanas, a.P., Thompson, W.T. & Constable, S.H. (2006). Human Factors in emotely Piloted Aircraft Operations: HFACS Analysis of 221 Mishaps Over 10 Years. Aerospace Medical Association. etrieved online: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/asma/asem/2006/00000077/00000007/art00008
United States Coast Guard (2013). Unmanned aircraft system. etrieved online: http://www.uscg.mil/acquisition/uas/… [Read More]
With regards to improving the prospects for the Gray Eagle, the United States Army must apply the core principles of CM to its operations. This entails a strategic decision-making training session, an improved technology interface that will facilitate ground and flight operations, and a thorough training module related to leadership development and communications. When FAA regulations are also integrated with Army safety regulations, the result will be an improved and safer UAS system.
Beckhusen, . (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. etrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm…… [Read More]
air traffic has continued to increase and it now constitutes a considerable proportion of the travelling public. The amount of long-hour flights has increased significantly. Based on the International Civil Aviation authority, air traffic can be anticipated to double amid till 2020. Airline travel, especially over longer distances, makes air travelers vulnerable to numerous facets that will impact their health and well-being. Particularly, the speed with which influenza spreads and mutates, via transportation routes, is the reason why the influenza pandemic is considered to be a huge threat to the human population. Pandemic is a term, which is used for a virus or microbe when it spreads over a large area, in severe cases even the whole world and large number of people start getting affecting by it (CDC, 2009).
In the past 300 years, there have been ten significant influenza pandemics outbreaks that have taken place in this world.…… [Read More]
The NAAP structural integrity program includes three tests including Widespread Fatigue Damage (WFD), Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) and DTA based airframe repair assessment. The supplemental inspection programs of the FAA ensure that commercial airlines fulfill the structural safety requirements. Any structural defects that are observed during the normal operation of an airplane or those that are revealed after an accident are issued as Airworthiness Directives (AD). The FAA periodically conducts certification reviews and aircrafts that report recurrent problems due to design issues will require compulsory design modifications. [FAA]
6. What is the purpose of flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders? How are they be used for accident-prevention purposes?
Flight data recorders and cockpit voice recorders are very useful tools that can be used to understand the events that lead to the accident. Familiarly known as the 'black boxes' these units are helpful for aircraft investigators in reconstructing the disaster.…… [Read More]
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…… [Read More]
Determining Issues With the Expansion of Business
Quality assurance and compliance are significant factors in starting and sustaining a successful business. Without these aspects, a business may experience internal or external risks that might negatively affect the business' future (Thareja, 2007). As one of Western Australia's current growing small airline companies, the company is considering an increase in fleet plans to include five turbo prop aircraft that will be used to reach major west coast city airports and remote mining sites. As the company intends on regular public transport and charter operations, as well as for activities and maintenance to be internal when possible, issues in key personnel, training, facilities, aerodrome, documentation, applicable regulations, and risk management will need to be properly and thoroughly addressed. The purpose of this brief is to inform readers as to the main issues in each of these areas.
Large and small…… [Read More]
TALPA Vice Chairman Mete Dane established flight TK 1951's method to Schiphol and talked about the motive why it had abruptly lost altitude that had been pointed to wake turbulence.
Researcher's Argument and Conclusion
In conclusion, the researcher believes that the reason of the crash was because there was an issue with the design of the plane. The researcher supports his argument by using the investigation from the Dutch. The Dutch Safety Board investigation confirmed its initial results that a faulty altimeter played a very important position in the crash. The altimeter is what recorded the plane's altitude having it below sea level when it started its final decline from 2,000 feet (610 meters), which in sequence produced the plane's autopilot to decrease the control to an idle way too soon.
The plane was on a remarkably sharp method and should have been slowing down in the first place, which…… [Read More]
As a result, in such conditions, the flight control systems commands the engines to increase thrust without pilot intervention and with an accuracy that no pilot could achieve.
Human Factors Considerations
The F/a-18D Hornet that slammed into a residential neighborhood in San Diego last December came from the first family of fighter jets with full fly-by-wire technology, where a flight control computer gathers data from on-board sensors to control flaps and other control surfaces that were mechanically driven on planes decades ago. ut for all their high-tech appeal, do fly-by-wire systems distance pilots from the feel and behavior of their airplanes to the point that crashes become more likely (Milstein)?
In aviation, human factors is dedicated to better understanding how humans can most safely and efficiently be integrated with the technology. That understanding is then translated into design, training, policies, or procedures to help humans perform better (Human Factors).…… [Read More]
Flight Training is a popular career choice that keeps fluctuating in scope due to the position of the economy, and is today viewed to have better prospects due to an apparent brightening up of the outlook. The career of a pilot is that of a highly trained professional who are involved in flying airplanes and helicopters which carry out many tasks. Most of the pilots are airline pilots, copilots or flight engineers and they are mostly involved in the transportation of people and cargo, but a small section of roughly 1 in 5 pilots who have commercial licenses are involved in unusual tasks like the dusting of crops, spreading seeds in the process of reforestation, testing aircraft, undertaking special flights for passengers and cargoes to unusual destinations, overseeing large scale firefighting efforts, chasing criminals, supervising traffic, and in the rescue and evacuation of severely injured individuals.
The profession suffered deeply…… [Read More]
And many have got successful too in earning the market share. The emerging competition by new companies is a growing threat for the company and it should be tackled properly to avoid any future disturbances.
In order to further describe the competition Southwest Airlines is facing a Competitive Profile Matrix is designed. The following Competitive Profile Matrix tells about the tough competitors which are in a good position to have an edge over Southwest Airlines. It tells about the strengths and weaknesses of other competitors in contrast with Southwest Airlines.
Factors Weight Southwest Airlines United Airlines Delta Airlines Ratings Score
Score 1. Low fares.15 4.60 3.50 4.60 2. Customer Service.15 2.30 4.60 3.50 3. Employee Relations.15 4.60 3.50 3.50 4. Rate of Expansion.10 2.20. 4.50 4.50 5. Marketing.15 4.60 4.50 4.50 6. Finance Structure.15 4.40 4.40 4.40 7. Management Policies.15 4.60 4.60 2.20
EXTERNAL FACTOR EVALUATION MATRIX
The external…… [Read More]
unways and Taxiways
Airplane runways and taxiways are perhaps the most integral part for the proper use of airplanes as the condition of the runways and taxiways directly impacts the performance of the airplanes (Ashford et al., 1997). The aim of this paper is to consider all factors involved in the appropriate planning for runways and taxiways of an airport that is primarily designed to handle the largest aircraft types in operation operated on long haul routes.
Structure of the paper
The paper will begin with a brief introduction of the runways and taxiways as they are used today followed by a discussion of the appropriate runways/taxiways capacity and configuration necessary for an airport that is primarily designed to handle the largest aircraft types in operation operated on long haul routes. The paper will also focus on the necessary pricing strategies that will be required for the airport in accordance…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is imperative for Gulfstream to ensure that every plane they intend to produce is produced. Failure to do so could mean that the company is not profitable that year. Repeated failures of this type could put Gulfstream out of business.
Additionally, Gulfstream's production schedule does not allow for simultaneous production. Therefore a delay in one aircraft equates to a delay in every subsequent aircraft. Thus, delays represent an opportunity cost because of lost capacity. Such delays also result is customer dissatisfaction, which Gulfstream would then have to address. Gulfstream is positioned as a high-end product, and that reputation demands that they deliver high-end results.
The result of all of this is that Gulfstream faces substantial costs in the event of any delay in their logistics network. After all, each aircraft costs millions of dollars, more than enough to pay for the costs of Gulfstream's supply chain management.
Moreover,…… [Read More]