Al Qaeda Essays (Examples)

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Al QA'ida Trans-National Terrorist Network'

Words: 3610 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14718642

"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."

Jenkins 3)

This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.

Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.

There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of the former Soviet Union, Kashmir, the Philippines, and Bosnia; the forces of globalization that seemed threatening to all local cultures; and the continuing civil war in Afghanistan.

These initial members subsequently joined the ideological view of the "pan-Islamic Caliphate" throughout the world. Their ideology, simplistically stated, was to overthrow regimes…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuza, Zachary. "Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25.2 (2003): 169+. Questia. 1 July 2005 http://www.questia.com/.

AL QAEDA'S GRAND STRATEGY: SUPERPOWER BAITING. 2004. Accessed June 30, 2005.  http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/05/al_qaedas_grand.html 

AL-QAEDA: SOC. June 30, 2005. http://www.specialoperations.com/Terrorism/Terrorist_Groups/al_qaeda2.htm

Al Qa'ida: Terrorism Files. June 29, 2005. http://www.terrorismfiles.org/organisations/al_qaida.html
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Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi

Words: 1268 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5560053

Al Zarqawi

Who is Al-Zarqawi, and why is he today one of the world's most hated terrorists? What are his activities and why is he wanted by the various Intelligence Agencies not only of the U.S.A., but also of the world? Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi is today one of the world's most wanted terrorists, said to be capable of overshadowing even the 'Enemy Number 1', as he is referred to in the United States of America, Osama bin Laden, and whose value, for capture, offered by the U.S. State Department, is said to be at par with that of Osama bin Laden, that is, an astronomical amount of $25 million. However, Al-Zarqawi has not been put on the 'Most Wanted' list of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. This terrorist has been at times described as an 'Osama Associate', and also, at times, an individual who is capable of challenging even the leadership and the position of the Enemy Number 1, Osama bin Laden. (Who is Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi?)

There are some reports that state that Al-Zarqawi is an independent worker, and that he has absolutely no links to the terrorist organization that was responsible for the attacks…… [Read More]

References

Chossudovsky, Michel. Who is Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi? 11 June, 2004. Retrieved From

http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO405B.html Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Mackay, Neil. A Prince of Terror's Deadly Game, the Hostage Takers, Al-Zarqawi. The Sunday Herald. September, 2004. pp: 4-5

Piszkiewicz, Dennis. Terrorism's War with America: A History. Praeger, 2003. p 168.
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Execution of Al-Awaki The Obama Administration Has

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4368557

Execution of al-Awaki:

The Obama Administration has increased the use of killer drones in lieu of putting the country's boots on the ground. In one of the most debatable issues, the Obama Administration killed, Anwar al-Awaki, a suspected al-Qaeda member, in 2011. The suspected al-Qaeda member had been accused of being a significant organizer in various terrorist attacks, and was identified as one of the main al-Qaeda leaders. The controversy associated with this murder is attributed to whether the Obama Administration had the right to sanction the execution of the suspect without a court trial. This issue is further complicated with various set of factors that surround the case including the fact that al-Awaki was an American citizen before his death. As an American citizen, he was granted due process rights by the U.S. Constitution. According to the provisions of the due process, a suspect has the right to a trial before an unjust judge and jury and access to a lawyer. The main controversy surrounding the issue is that al-Awaki was not granted these rights before the Yemen attack that resulted in his death.

Obama's Authorization of the Execution of al-Awaki:

President Obama took an extraordinary step in authorizing…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Goldberg, Jonah. "Goldberg: Obama's Terrorist Dilemma," Los Angeles Times, April 4, 2013.

 http://articles.latimes.com/2011/oct/04/opinion/la-oe-goldberg-terrorists-20111004 

Gorman, Siobhan & Perez, Evan. "Obama Relents on Secret Drone Memo," The Wall Street

Journal, April 4, 2013. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324906004578288411143973612.html
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Hammond Exam on September 11 2001 Al

Words: 2863 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58732893

Hammond Exam

On September 11, 2001, Al Qaeda attacked the heart of the American economy causing not only losses in terms of property and financial damage, but also widespread terror and fear which extended far beyond the borders of the United States of America affecting the world as a whole. Like any other nation, the foremost interest of the United States is national security[footnoteRef:1], which entails not only the security of the American people, but also the security of the American soil. Since American leadership has always looked towards a better future, the moral aim is to eliminate any such danger that exists in the 21st century, leading to a more peaceful, globalized near future[footnoteRef:2]. President Barrack Obama clearly stated in his speech that had there been no such risk, the troops deployed in Afghanistan would be ordered back home immediately. This objective of preserving national security, however, is aimed to be achieved without compromising on the ongoing objective of globalization through better economic and political relations with the rest of the world. [1: The United States of America National Security Strategy, May 2010, 8] [2: Ibid., 5]

Although national security has always been a priority, after the 2001 attacks…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dagne, Ted, Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace, August 31, 2011, 3-4

Testimony by Menkhaus, Ken, Horn of Africa: Current Conditions and U.S. Policy, Hearing before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health, June 17, 2010

International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), Afghanistan Commander Counterinsurgency Guidance, 1-4

Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, Report to Congress, March 2009, 1
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Korematsu Rasul Al Odah and

Words: 2073 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12802073

The Supreme Court found that the habeas corpus petition was filed improperly, and therefore the case was dismissed and all previous decisions in other courts overruled. The central issue regarding the power of the president was never decided.

Justice Stevens presented a dissent stating that the government failed to give proper notice for Padilla's transfer to military custody I South Carolina. The contention is that the habeas petition would have been filed properly if counsel had been informed in a timely manner. Justice Stevens' conclusion is that the habeas corpus should be treated as one filed two days earlier, because government has not followed the correct procedures in providing information to Padilla's counsel.

The response to the dissent is that hypothetical events cannot be used in exercising statutory jurisdiction on the basis of misconduct by government. The dissent further contended that the Court made exceptions to the rules pertaining to immediate custodian and district of confinement. The Court however responded that this was not the case, and that the Justice was unable to cite such cases.

Finally, the dissent contested that the circumstances of the case were exceptional, and that for this reason, the dismissal is an unacceptable outcome. The…… [Read More]

Sources

The Oyez Project, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2003/2003_03_6696/

(last visited Friday, February 8, 2008).

The Oyez Project, Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1949/1944/1944_22/

(last visited Friday, February 8, 2008).
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Top Al-Qai'da Leaders Living or

Words: 2514 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19576481



Richard Reid

Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting influenced by extremist groups. They took advantage of his vulnerable character and brainwashed him with their line of militant teachings. He is said to have come in association with Zacarias Moussaoui (one of the conspirators of the terrorist attacks on September 11) and Abu Hamza Al-Masri (one of the leaders…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.

Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009

Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"

"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
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Terrorism and Jihadist Networks

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3373061

Al Qaeda and Jihadist Networks

Al Qaeda and other Jihadist networks are a serious threat to other nations and groups of people who do not think in the same ways they do. Because of that, it is important that more is understood about them, so that they can be studied. That study will allow opinions to be drawn and decisions to be made that are based on the true danger they present and what can be done in order to mitigate that danger. From the standpoint of homeland security, Al Qaeda is the enemy. Knowing the enemy is one of the best ways to keep a country safe from harm.

Al Qaeda and Jihadist Networks

According to White (2014), there is a significant threat to homeland security from Al Qaeda and other Jihadist networks. Terrorists exist to inflict terror, often based on their belief systems and their opinions of those who do not hold to the same beliefs. Because that is the issue with networks such as Al Qaeda, and because there is no negotiating or reasoning with terrorist cells, it is important that homeland security work to understand what the terrorists are planning, who they are targeting, and when…… [Read More]

References

White, J.R. (2014). Terrorism and homeland security (8th. ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
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Issues of Terrorism

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42298553

terrorist groups; besides Al Queda and Al Jihad that possess both the motive and capability to implement a terrorist attack on the United States and decide which of these two groups pose a greater threat. Examine both the likelihood and potential impact. It will also assess the likelihood of another terrorist attack by the Al Queda and the Al Jihad terrorist groups. Identify and provide examples of the most likely targets in a future terrorist attack.

It seems two of the most dangerous terrorist organizations facing America today are Hezbollah and the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). These groups are particularly dangerous because they are well funded, and they consistently target the United States in their attacks. Perhaps most dangerous of these two is Hezbollah, also known as the Party of God, who are credited with numerous terrorist activities against Americans since the 1980s. These included kidnapping several Americans in the 1980s; the 1983 Beirut, Lebanon suicide bombings that killed more than 200 U.S. Marines at their barracks; the hijacking of TWA flight 847 in 1985; and many others that targeted Israelis. Hezbollah is a radical Shiite group dedicated to removing Israel from the Middle East, and they are notoriously anti-Israel…… [Read More]

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Islamic Philosophies on September 11

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14070700

Abdal-Hakim Murad, in his "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam," generally makes the point that violence against civilians and innocents is not in accordance with Islamic scholarship or tradition. According to Murad, it was a 19th century Iranian reformer called "the Bab" who "ignored the accumulated discussion of the centuries and wrote a Koranic commentary based on his own direct understanding of scripture." (Murad) Over time, Murad asserts that this led to many Muslim groups ignoring Islamic tradition and making their own pronouncements on what the Koran means. One of these groups were the Wahhabi Muslims of Saudi Arabia, who traditionally have been considered "heretics" by mainstream Islamic scholars, but with the influx of oil money in the 1960's, began to export this extreme view of Islam around the world. Because of their seeming ability to decide the meaning of the Koran, Muslims who follow this type of theology can be aroused to anger by their perceptions of the actions of the Americans and their Allies and "read their own frustrations into the text." (Murad) It also allows them to ignore Islamic tradition and seize direct control of political power, become the government, not just guiding it.

When…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Al Qaeda in its Own Words." (2008). ed. By Kepel, Gilles and Jean-Pierre Milelli. Cambridge Mass: Harvard UP. Print.

Murad, Abdal-Hakim. "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam." Islam For Today. Retrieved from www.islamfortoday.com

Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Indianapolis: American Trust, 1990. Print.
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Biggest Terror Group Threat

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28619776

Homeland Security

Over the last two decades or so, the nastiest and most active terrorist groups really have to be ISIS/ISIL and Al Qaeda. Although the former is much "younger" than the latter, they have certainly made up for lost time given what they are currently doing in the Middle East. Even so, the top question becomes which of those two groups is the most active and deadliest right now. Indeed, a case could be made for both in their own rights. Al Qaeda has had more staying power but ISIS is running roughshod over the Middle East much more so as of late than Al Qaeda has been doing anywhere. While Al Qaeda is certainly still a threat, ISIS is clearly the more clear and present danger right now.

Analysis

If this question were posed a mere ten to fifteen years ago, the answer would be Al Qaeda and it would not even be close. People might think that ISIS is a brand new thing but this is not true. Even if it was only by two years, ISIS existed a full two to three years before the 9/11 attacks in 2001. Indeed, ISIS was formed in 1999, albeit…… [Read More]

References

PBS. (2016). Bill Moyers Journal. Brief History of al Qaeda -- PBS. PBS.org. Retrieved 21 May

2016, from http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html

Yuhas, A. (2016). NATO Commander: ISIS 'Spreading like cancer' among refugees. The Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016

/mar/01/refugees-isis-nato-commander-terrorists
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Jemaah Islamiyah Tracing the Roots

Words: 3157 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97718047

Social dynamics, meanwhile, look into the prevalent perception of JI's society and the international viewpoint on radical Islamism. Lastly, the political dynamics centers on the viewpoints supporting and opposing JI activities, specifically its linkage with Al-Qaeda.

Religious dynamics

Explicated earlier is the ultimate goal of JI in establishing itself as an Islamic militant group: to create an Islam-centered social order, starting specifically in Indonesia. Jones' (2005) analysis of the history of JI as a terrorist organization delved deeply into the events surrounding its early establishment in Indonesia, and its later development as one of the Muslim groups who subsisted to jihad to promote this main objective.

Jihad is an important concept in the lives of JI members, for this became the manner in which it succeeded in increasing its membership and strengthening its network of Muslim militant groups, both locally and internationally. Among the initial contacts that JI had in establishing itself as the "locus of jihad" in Asia were Singapore and Malaysia. The decision to recruit members within these countries was motivated by a geo-political strategy: by expanding its territory of influence from Indonesia to Malaysia and Singapore, JI is gradually strengthening its hold on Asian Muslim countries, wherein…… [Read More]

Bibliography

9/11." (2006). Foreign Policy, Issue 156.

Chehab, Z. (2006). "Al-Qaeda: Still a step ahead." New Statesman, Vol. 135, Issue 4799.

Jones, S. (2005). "The changing nature of Jemaah Islamiyah." Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 59, Issue 2.

Kaplan, D. (2003). "The shadow over the summit." U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 135, Issue 13.
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Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37164865

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Nuclear terrorism or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were labeled as the single most serious threat to the national security of the United States of America by President George W. Bush. When President Barack Obama came into office, he had the same sentiments about the growing terrorism in the Middle East. Our leaders and security experts see terrorist having access to WMD as nightmares when they sleep. The Japanese group Aum Shrinrikyo, Al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Lashkar al Tayyib and Jemmah Islamiya are few of the terrorist groups who have been known to gain access to chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 5) Terrorist groups are present to spread terrorism all over the world as the name suggests. However, many would argue that these viscous people are only going to scare the world and not use any of them. However, seeing their statements and actions, it is very likely that the terrorist groups cold go onto use weapons of mass destruction. If not weapons that already known of, groups like al Qaeda could use some other forms of weapons which will cause the same scale casualties wherever used.

In 1998, al Qaeda leader, Osama…… [Read More]

References

Cordesman, Anthony H. 2002. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger

Long, Jerry M. 2008. Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. USAF Academy, Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies

Mowatt-Larssen. 2010. Al Qaeda Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat: Hype or Reality? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School

O'Neil, Andrew. 2003. Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction: how serious is the threat? Australian Journal of International Affairs 57:99 -- 112.
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Terrorist Organizations

Words: 6350 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80361872

Terrorist Organizations and the Media

Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.

Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda to fight the United States, were discovered. Videotapes kept coming and going, each time stirring the people of the world. Laden was not found, but there was a war in Afghanistan to fight the terrorism raised (so to say) by Laden's group and others. Recently there has been a war…… [Read More]

References

Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) a.k.a. Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ano.htm.[7 September 2003].

Abu Nidal, Terrorist Organizations. (2000). FORSNET. Available at http://www.teror.gen.tr/english/organisations/abunidal.html.[7 September 2003].

Ahmed, E. (2003. April). Defining Extremism. The Voice.

Al-Qa'ida (The Base), Qa'idat al-Jihad, Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Christians, Usama bin Laden Network. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm.[7 September 2003].
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Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism Counterterrorism

Words: 740 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95863290

Specifically, individuals responsible for tenant selection, approval, and relations (particularly in newly developed areas) must be apprised of the operational patterns used by al-Qaeda operatives so that they will recognize behavior consistent with potential terrorist activities in the realm of property rental and use.

Travel Procedures and Transportation Security:

The al-Qaeda Training Manual includes considerable attention to the operational use of public transportation for travel and surveillance activities. Specifically, BM-40, Item #2 requires al-Qaeda operatives to use secondary rather than primary entrance and exit stations because they are less subject to electronic monitoring and law enforcement patrols. Similarly, BM-40, Item #5 instructs al-Qaeda operatives to separate themselves from their baggage by storing it in a different passenger compartment from that in which they ride. Both elements are consistent with later-published studies, such as by the New York City Police Department (NYPD) Intelligence Division (2007).

Both provisions provide valuable insight capable of assisting counterterrorism efforts with respect to identifying potential al-Qaeda operatives in transit on public transportation systems. More particularly, BM-40, Item #2 requires the inclusion of electronic surveillance and monitoring equipment at secondary stations, preferably in less conspicuous forms than those used in primary transportation stations. The implication of BM-40,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Al Qaeda Training Manual (2000). Retrieved January 24, 2009, at  http://www.thetulsan.com/manual.html 

NYPD. (2007). Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat. Retrieved January 24, 2009 at http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/public_information/NYPD_Report-Radicalization_in_the_West.pdf
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Terrorist Groups Since September 11th

Words: 1230 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88549947



Abu Nidal Organization:

The Abu Nidal Organization is also known by several other names, such as: Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, or Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. It is an international terrorist organization that was founded by Sabri al-Banna, otherwise known as Abu Nidal. The organization split from PLO in 1974 and is made up of various functional committees. These include: political, military and financial committees. Founder Abu Nidal died in Baghdad in November 2002 and it is now unclear who the new leader of the organization is ("Abu Nidal," 2004).

The Abu Nidal Organization has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries and has killed or injured nearly 1,000 people in those attacks. Primary targets include the United States, United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and a variety of Arab countries. They were responsible for the attacks on the Rome and Vienna airports in December of 1985, the Neve Shalom synagogue in Istanbul, and the Pan Am Flight 73 hijacking in Karachi, in September of 1986. They have not staged a major attack against Western targets since the late 1980s ("Abu Nidal," 2004).

Abu Nidal has a few hundred members with limited overseas support.…… [Read More]

References

Abu Nidal Organization. (June 2004). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://library.nps.navy.mil/home/tgp/abu.htm.

Al Qaeda. (10 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Qaeda.

Hizballah. (16 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hizballah.

Pike, J. (3 Nov. 2004). Al-Qa'ida (The Base). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm.
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Terrorist Phenomenon Has Changed the

Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32361163

Regardless, the image of the United States was shaken by the success of the Al Qaeda.

From a security point-of-view, the existence of Al Qaeda triggered more vigilance among the security environment in the sense that it attracted the attention on the phenomenon of terrorism as a global threat that needs to be treated at the global level through mechanisms that in 2001 were not set in place. Therefore, a reconsideration of homeland security strategies was necessary. This in turn however affected all levels of the society, from increased security at the level of the president to the increased airport controls throughout the country and abroad. These tightened rules of security attracted scrutiny at the level of the ordinary people and accusations of infringing privacy were even articulated. Even so, the fight against terrorism has become, after 9/11 one of the primordial subjects on the agenda of world leaders.

Reference list

Buzan, B. (1991). People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Lynne Rienner Pub

Huntington, S. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.

PBS. (2010) Bill Moyers Journal: Brief history of…… [Read More]

Reference list

Buzan, B. (1991). People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Lynne Rienner Pub

Huntington, S. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.

PBS. (2010) Bill Moyers Journal: Brief history of Al Qaeda. Online at  http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html 

Reuters. (2009). Analyst's view: Al Qaeda's strengths and weaknesses. Online at http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/06/19/us-security-qaeda-strength-weakness-sb-idUSTRE55I22Z20090619
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Drones Are They a National

Words: 3362 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 630814

As mentioned earlier, innocent men women and even children have become victim of these strikes. It was believed that in between 2004 and 2009, there have been a total of 344 strikes done. This number of strikes was under President Bush. Following that, under President Obama's presidency there were a total of 292 air strikes till 2012. It is quite obvious that the numbers have increased after President Obama came into power. This number of air strikes is not what it really is. The numbers have been cut down not only by the government of the United States but also the Pakistani government as well. The government under President Musharaff wished to hide many of the actual strikes that happened. (Priest, 2005) They mentioned it either as Pakistani military operations, accidental explosions or car bombs. A person on Musharaff's side reported saying that the President thought it would be less damaging to say that the Pakistani government caused the damage rather than saying that America caused the damage.

Drone Attack on June 10th 2006

A Drone attack was carried out on June 10th, 2006 on a worker's bunkhouse in a mining camp near the mountains of Datta Khel. There were…… [Read More]

References

Aljazeera.com (2013). U.S. legal argument for drone strikes revealed. [online] Retrieved from:  http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2013/02/20132517311796860.html  [Accessed: 18 Mar 2013].

Bergen, P. (2012). A dangerous new world of drones. CNN News, [online] October 8th. Retrieved from: http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/01/opinion/bergen-world-of-drones [Accessed: 16th March 2013].

Bowcott, O. (2010). UN to examine UK and U.S. drone strikes. theguardian, [online] January 24th. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jan/24/un-examine-uk-afghanistan-drone-strikes [Accessed: 18th March 2013].

Drew, C. (2010). Drones Are Playing a Growing Role in Afghanistan . The New York Times, [online] February 19th. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/20/world/asia/20drones.html?_r=0 [Accessed: 18th March 2013].
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Profiling a Leader of a Non-State World Leader

Words: 3540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61156231

Profiling Nasir al-Wahishi

The author of this research proposal deigns to cover two basic research questions and issues within this report. First is the general subject of political profiling of current or possible future political leaders and the second is the more specific focus on the case of a man by the name of Nasir al-Wahishi. That particular man is the current proclaimed leader of al-Qaida in the Arab Peninsula, often referred to as AQAP for short. The research problem to be address in this proposal and, by extension, the approved study is the vexing nature of profiling political leaders, what they are capable of, how they control and motivate the people they proselytize to, how to predict who people will glom onto and who will be ignored and so forth. There is also the question of how to deal with "stateless" regimes and groups that exist. Some of these groups are recognized and more established (e.g. Palestinians) while others are terrorist and/or otherwise disparate in nature. Examples of the latter would include the current ISIS/Levant group, Al-Qaeda, the Taliban since their forcible eviction from Afghanistan in the years after 9/11 and a few others. To be specific about what…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Altemeyer, Bob. 'Highly Dominating, Highly Authoritarian Personalities'. The Journal of Social Psychology 144, no. 4 (2004): 421-448.

Andeweg, Rudy B., and Steef B. Van Den Berg. 'Linking Birth Order To Political

Leadership: The Impact Of Parents Or Sibling Interaction?'. Political Psychology

24, no. 3 (2003): 605-623.
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International Terrorism the Text Offers

Words: 1634 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59122102

S. commercial airliners; a 1995 plan to kill President Bill Clinton on a visit to the Philippines; and a 1994 plot to kill Pope John Paul II during a visit to Manila.

5. As you consider everything you have learned about international terrorism, in your opinion what are the most important facts or elements of the material that can be instructive for American foreign policy or counterterrorism efforts? Is there anything you have learned or have come to believe (about threats, opportunities, etc.) through this course which you sense is not taken seriously enough or even considered by government officials? What would characterize your approach to terrorism if you were in a position to advise the President or other high-ranking government officials?

The main threat is not to let up on Al-Qaeda, so it cannot set up a base and plot more attacks.

While on the run, they are not allowed to set back and concentrate on bombing U.S. And other Western facilities. The main concern for us is the borders and how easily people are getting across them. We must take all threats seriously and pursue bin-Laden to the end of the Earth.

He will never give up or…… [Read More]

References

Anti-Defamation League. (2010). Osama bin Laden. Retrieved on April 14, 2010 from http://www.adl.org/terrorism_america/bin_L.asp

Council on Foreign Relations. (2009). Bankgrounder: Hamas. Retrieved on April 14, 2010 from http://www.cfr.org/publication/8968/

Council on Foreign Relations. (2009). Bankgrounder: Hezbollah. Retrieved on April 14, 2010

from http://www.cfr.org/publication/9155/
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Status and Power -- Terrorism

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 942366

In that regard, one of the most dramatic uses of this tactic enabled the Bush administration to obtain congressional authority to initiate a war against Iraq based on what were later proven to be deliberate falsehoods (BBC/Curtis, 2004).

Ironically, the fictional and manipulative elevation of al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden to such levels of importance in the ideological war against the West may have actually played a substantial role in increasing the importance, the influence, and the ability of each to attract more followers (BBC/Curtis, 2004). The U.S.-led war in Afghanistan also seems to have undermined the effort against al-Qaeda by helping to transform what had been an isolated civil war in that country into a region supporting bin Laden today (BBC/Curtis, 2004).

Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya

Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya was originally an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood; it was the largest militant group in Egypt and once hoped to overthrow the Egyptian secular government to replace it with a religious Islamic state (Keats/CDI, 2002). Like the radical Taliban in Afghanistan, the Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya believes in building an orthodox Muslim state through violent "jihad." Their spiritual leader is Sheikh Omar Abdel al-Rahman, "the blind cleric" currently in federal prison serving a life sentence…… [Read More]

References

CIA. (1998). President's Daily Briefing -- "Bin Laden Preparing to Hijack U.S. Aircraft

and other Attacks" (December 4, 1998). Retrieved May 20, 2010 from:

http://www.foia.cia.gov/browse_docs_full.asp

Curtis a. (2004). BBC Documentary -- the Power of Nightmares: Part 3: The Shadows
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Terrorism a Profile of a

Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55569205

Establishing better relations with Jordan and Saudi Arabia, where the core leaders of the terrorist organizations were reared, as well as attempting to target the nations where the terrorist threats to the West are based, is another vital 'leg' of the current anti-terrorist aspect of the larger 'war' on terror. Even establishing pro-peace and tolerance websites for Muslims, rather than allowing young Muslims to be attracted to militant websites that promote terror could be a positive strategy that the governments of the West could embark upon with community leaders.

Other anti-terrorism tactics consist of conducting litigation against terrorist actors, or supporters of terrorism, such as the current formal trial of Saddam Hussein, conducted according to the protocols of international law. Providing adequate protection for civilians working, living, or traveling in terrorist prone areas, such as Iraq, and ensuring that public places and areas that would be attractive to terrorists are adequately protected is another vital strategy. (Armond, 1997) Although there is no one solution to apprehending Zarqawi, at very least his potential reach can be curtailed, and his influence mitigated, through the use of effective anti-terrorist as well as counter-terrorist practices.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Armond, Paul. "Rock, Paper, Scissors: Counter-terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and Terrorism." 1997. Accessed 25 Aug 2005. http://nwcitizen.com/publicgood/reports/rockpaperscissors / 'Iraqi Insurgency." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/iraq_insurgency.htm

'Jamaat al-Tawhid wa'l-Jihad / Unity and Jihad Group Tanzim Qa'idat Al-Jihad in Bilad al-Rafidayn (Organization of Jihad's Base in the Country of the Two Rivers)." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/zarqawi.htm

Mendenhall, Preston. "Alleged British Bombings Masterminds U.S. ties." Newsweek. 20 July 2005. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8647113/

"Text from Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi Letter." Global Security.org. 2003. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/2004/02/040212-al-zarqawi.htm
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Homeland Security and Emergency Management

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46569250

Longest War

Homeland Security & Emergency Management

M6A1: Book Review

Bergen, Peter. (2011). The longest war: The enduring conflict between America and al-Qaeda.

New York: Free Press.

As its title suggests, Peter Bergen's book, The longest war: The enduring conflict between America and al-Qaeda, is a chronicle of a war that defies the traditional conventions and definitions of warfare. The war of terror has no clear beginning and no clear end and has challenged many of the assumptions of how warfare is viewed and waged within the United States. It is a long war, an unending war, and even though the book was written before the killing of Osama bin Laden, the orchestrator of the attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, the war will continue to rage on so long as there are state and non-state enemies willing to attack the U.S. using the mechanisms of terrorism. The United States has never been the same since the attacks on one hand yet on the other hand critical deficits still exist in terms of its ability to acquire knowledge about organizations that pose a threat to its national security.

Bergen, a journalist, is intimately familiar with the breadth and…… [Read More]

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U S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001

Words: 3011 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86839720

U.S. Approach to Terrorism

U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001

The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.

President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11

After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore in order to counter that threat, he commanded invasion of U.S. military forces in Iraq. Although it was not confirmed from a reliable source that Iraq had WMD. It was also assumed by Bush government that Iraq would use such weapon against United States. He firmly believed that Iraq contained…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.

Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.

Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.

Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
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Cyber Terrorism & Information All

Words: 2274 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59545538

The increasing skill of these terrorists in using cyberspace has led some officials to believe that they are on the point of using computers for increasing bloodshed. This new threat is not similar to hackers' earlier using computers for passing viruses and worms. This has now reached a level of being able to reach the meeting point of computers and physical structures controlled by computers. The belief of analysts in U.S. is that they may try to disable or control floodgates in dams or electrical stations handling large quantities of power and through them destroy lives and property around them.

Though there is not much evidence, they believe that al Qaeda may be using these capacities with other weapons like explosives. The al Qaeda is known to have capacity to use other sites for their own benefit, and al Qaeda laptop in Afghanistan had visited the French site of Anonymous Society. From this they had apparently collected a sabotage handbook which had sections on tools required by terrorists, planning a hit, switch gear and instrumentation, air surveillance and other such matter. In Islamic chat rooms there were some computers linked up to the al Qaeda computers that had access to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cyber-terrorism. (30 April, 2005) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber-terrorismAccessed on 14 May, 2005

Gellman, Barton. (June 27, 2002) "Cyber-Attacks by Al Qaeda Feared" Washington Post. P: A01. Retrieved at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A50765-2002Jun26?language=printerAccessed on 14 May, 2005

Lewis, James a. (December, 2002) "Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats" Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved at http://www.csis.org/tech/0211_lewis.pdf. Accessed on 14 May, 2005

O' Neil, Michael J. (2001) "Cyber-Terrorism: Case Study" Excerpt from Terrorism and the Law, by Yonah Alexander and Edgar H. Brenner, Editors. Transnational Publishers, Inc. Retrieved at http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Library/Teasers/ONeil.CyberT.html. Accessed on 14 May, 2005
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International Politics the Threat of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91834848

In all cases there is the perception of the U.S. interfering in issues that should be dealt with locally, interfering to protect their own interest and to enforce their own values; a situation which leads to resistance. Terrorism may be argued as an action undertaken when people feel that they cannot be heard in another way.

This resistance has been seen in terrorist attacks which may be directly related to the associated with the U.S. foreign policy actions in the Middle East. In 1979 there was the Iran Hostage Crisis, when the U.S. embassy in Tehran was seized by Iranian demonstrators, demonstrating against U.S. policies. 52 U.S. staff were taken hostage; in a crisis which lasted 444 days (Houghton 74). The well-known terrorist attacks of 9/11 may also be seen as relating to the actions and perceptions of the U.S. In the Middle East, with Al Qaeda objecting to the U.S. influence and interference in the Muslim world.

Question 2

The U.S. appears to have taken sides in the Israeli/Palestinian conflict. To start with the U.S. was party of the body that created the state of Israel in 1947. However, the actions in later years appear to support the state…… [Read More]

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Terrorism Justified According to Purpura 2007 Terrorism

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60203145

Terrorism Justified?

According to Purpura (2007), terrorism as a term does not have a fixed definition. This effectively means that its usage and application is largely hinged on a myriad of viewpoints, be they political or religious. In this text, I concern myself with terrorism; its justification, usage and application.

The Use of Terrorism by Powerful Governments to Delegitimize Less Powerful Governments

Though terrorism cannot be seen to be a wholly biased term formulated by powerful governments solely to delegitimize those states having insignificant political or economic clout, there are instances where governments at a national level utilize terror so as to advance a well defined agenda. It therefore follows that though in most cases it is the "non-state actors" who are blamed for terror, powerful governments also utilize terror to stifle dissent or further diplomatic efforts as well as state policies abroad.

Terrorism as "War by Other Means"

It can be argued that regardless of which side wins a conventional war, the probability of enormous damage remains inevitably high. Hence in that regard, states could view terrorism as a less costly "war by other means." Further, when terrorism is viewed from a rational perspective, it can effectively be described…… [Read More]

References

Osama Bin Laden (1996, August 23). Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holly Places: A Message from Osama Bin Muhammad Bin Laden to his Muslim Brethren All Over the World Generally and in the Arab Peninsula Specifically. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from the Terrorism Files Website:  http://www.terrorismfiles.org/individuals/declaration_of_jihad1.html 

Purpura, P.P. (2007). Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Smilansky, S. (2004). Terrorism, Justification and Illusion. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from: http://philo.haifa.ac.il/staff/smilansky/Ethics%20terrorism.pdf
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War in Afghanistan Is Visibly

Words: 2995 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54386899

S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.

3.1.3 Power sharing agreements

In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society at which the U.S. army did not succeed much as the number of causalities of U.S. soldiers from Afghan soldier attacks has been increasing since last few months.

The insurgent militias are now brought into the main stream through dialogue by the U.S. administration by holding talks at neutral venues.…… [Read More]

References

Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.

Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.

Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.

Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3]
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Guerrilla Warfare Counterinsurgency Directly Apply Post-9 11 Terrorist

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60852149

guerrilla warfare counterinsurgency directly apply post-9/11 terrorist problem faced U.S. 2.

Literature on guerrilla warfare and counterinsurgency, as well as the very denotation of the former term, applies to post-9/11 terrorism combated by the United States since it defines the very nature of that struggle. The intensely covert forms of Islamic militant terrorist tactics, such as those carried out by insurgents in Iraq or those attempted by Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, include the elements of surprise that have come to typify the war measures of such groups, and which are inherently part of guerrilla warfare strategy.

Several reports in news media have claimed that the presence of the United States in Iraq and the subsequent war efforts of the former nation have actually adversely affected the war on terror, and have allowed for the spread of the Islamic militancy terrorist movement, which in turn has enabled al Qaeda the chance to realize success since its destruction of the world trade center in 2001. The United States' involvement in Iraq has spurred new recruits for Islamic terrorism, which has now spanned beyond al Qaeda to include several organizations which are largely connected via the internet (Associated Press, 2009). The prolonged civil contact…… [Read More]

References

Associate Press. (2009). Iraq War Made Terror Worse. CBS News World. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/09/24/iraq/main2036338.shtml

Metz, S. (2006). Learning from Iraq: Counterinsurgency in American Strategy. U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute monograph. Retrieved from  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=752 , retrieved June 1, 2007

Megan K. Stack (2001). "Fighters Hunt Former Ally." articles.latimes.com. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/06/news/mn-12224
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History of Terrorism Historical Depictions

Words: 2856 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73288397



There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before World War II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). While the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.

Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he or she is euskaldun, which means more precisely 'Basque-speaking' or 'in possession of the Basque language'. Basque has no other way of saying 'a Basque'. We therefore have a problem in knowing how to refer to those who are native to the Basque Country but do not speak its language;…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675918

Astrain, Luis Nunez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Trans. Meic Stephens. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675920.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128

Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128.
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Terrorism Global Terrorism the Purpose

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1269938



Brief Analysis: The three suspects are all Islamic, two were German converts to the belief, and one was a Turkish Muslim. They all supported Al Qaeda, and had a "deep hatred" for Americans. The Germans found them largely because they were discovered spying on an American military base on New Year's Eve of 2006. Authorities have been tracking their movements closely ever since. Their bombs had the potential to be more deadly than those used in the Madrid and London terrorist bombings, and they had detonators and other equipment necessary to conduct mayhem on many locations.

While the three suspects were caught, many officials believe there are up to ten more supporters still at large in Germany and in other countries. Most officials fear terrorist attacks on September 11, 2007, to "commemorate" the terrorist attacks in the Eastern United States in 2001. It seems the Al Qaeda network is determined to continue terrorist activities against the United States and her supporters, and so, items such as this will continue to appear in the news. The items indicate that terrorist activities are much more understood and monitored now, and that many suspected plots have been thwarted by intelligence gathering and understanding…… [Read More]

References

Eddy, M. (2007). Germany searching for 10 terror suspects. Retrieved from the ABC News.com Website: http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=35650186 Sept. 2007.

Editors. (2007). Germany searching for 10 men behind plot. Retrieved from the Reuters.com Web site: http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKL06403567200709066 Sept. 2007.

McHugh, D. (2007). 3 terror suspects arrested in Germany. Retrieved from the Forbes.com Web site: http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2007/09/05/ap4082577.html6 Sept. 2007.
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Intelligence Pathologies the Church Committee

Words: 3119 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24847335

The Church Committee concluded that these activities made the intelligence community a secret government that was illegal, unethical, and improper and did not reflect the people or the nation of America.

Secret intelligence actions were used to disrupt, harass, and destroy domestic law-abiding citizens and groups. At the time, people were spied on with excessive intrusion with the methods being illegal. In addition, the intelligence agencies carried out secret infiltration and surveillance activities of lawful groups, with mail being illegally opened (McCarthy, 2009). The recommendations to establish the FISA court and Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 have failed following the aftermath of 9/11. Current intelligence agencies are once more intractable as they carry out the decisions of the executive branch of government and legislator (McCarthy, 2009). Like intelligence activities under the rule of President Nixon, intelligence agencies have searched, arrested, and detained many legal citizens and groups in the name of counter-terrorism measures. The CIA has spread its surveillance operations in nations considered terrorism strongholds like Iraq, Afghanistan, Somalia, and Libya and made numerous arrests. Unlawful surveillance, searches of personal communication and arrests have led to unlawful detention of people considered as threats to national security at Guantanamo. The…… [Read More]

References

Auerswald, D.P., Campbell, C.C. (2012). Congress and the Politics of National Security. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Best, R.B., Jr. (2011, Dec 16). Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, 7-5700, RL34231.

Dale, C., Serafino, N.M., & Towell, P. (2008, Dec 16). Organizing the U.S. Government for National Security: Overview of the Interagency Reform Debates. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, 7-5700, RL34455.

Halchin, L.E., & Kaiser, F.M. (2012, May 14). Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, 7-5700, RL32525.
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Why We Went to War With Iraq

Words: 1304 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61882076

War in Iraq

Should we have gone to war with Iraq based on the reasons given at the time the war started? When we went to war with Iraq, Bush gave three reasons for doing so. First, he claimed that Saddam Hussein had ties to al-Qaeda (Richelson, p. 44, p. 69). Secondly, he said that Saddam Hussein at the very minimum was attempting to acquire nuclear weapons and in fact might have already gotten them. Third, he claimed that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Of the three claims, the third one regarding WMD was instantly believable, because American news had been full of pictures of dead Kurds, citizens of Iraq, killed with Iraq's chemical weapons. Hussein had used WMD's in the past on his own citizens, and so it seemed likely that he could easily use them on people he regarded as enemies of his country. In addition, he used Scud missiles (short-range, and easily moved) to attack Saudi Arabia and even Israel during the Gulf War (Richelson, p. 75), demonstrating his willingness to attack other nations. The second concern, that Iraq might already nuclear weapons, had less direct evidence people could recall easily, but was also quite…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barry, Tom and Jim Lobe. 2002. "U.S. Foreign Policy -- Attention, Right Face, Forward March." Foreign Policy in Focus, April. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://www.fpif.org/papers/02right/

CNN. 2003. "Bush sends Iraq war letter to Congress." CNN Edition Inside Politics. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04  http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/19/sprj.irq.bush/ 

Cochran, John. 2004. "Corroborating O'Neill's Account." ABC News, Jan. 13. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/U.S./oneill_charges_040113.html

Richelson, Jeffrey.2004. "Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction." National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 80. Feb. 11. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB80/
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Great War for Civilisation The

Words: 1969 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48624232

Both Palestine and Israel experienced serious losses as a result of the divergences between the two countries.

Chapter 13 focuses on a series of matters and particularly on media's influence on the world in regard to the Palestine-Israel conflict. The Western world stood indifferent as the two countries starting fighting for the territory and caused significant damage. In spite of the fact that society came to perceive Palestinians as terrorists as a result of their determination to recover their lost lands, their power grew in the recent years, most probably as a result of the fact that they developed a feeling of respect for their cause.

3. The Choirs of Kandahar is essentially a continuation of Chapter 2.

4. The Carpet-Weavers begins with the United States' and Great Britain's successful overthrow of the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddeq. From there, it moves on to the events leading up to and following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 which deposed Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

5-8. The Path to War and the subsequent chapters the Whirlwind War, War Against War and the Fast Train to Paradise and Drinking the Poisoned Chalice deal with Saddam Hussein's Iraq, the battles of the Iran-Iraq…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fisk, Robert, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East