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Al QA'ida Trans-National Terrorist Network'
Words: 3610 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14718642
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"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."

Jenkins 3)

This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.

Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.

There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of…

Bibliography

Abuza, Zachary. "Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25.2 (2003): 169+. Questia. 1 July 2005  http://www.questia.com/ .

AL QAEDA'S GRAND STRATEGY: SUPERPOWER BAITING. 2004. Accessed June 30, 2005.  http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/05/al_qaedas_grand.html 

AL-QAEDA: SOC. June 30, 2005.  http://www.specialoperations.com/Terrorism/Terrorist_Groups/al_qaeda2.htm 

Al Qa'ida: Terrorism Files. June 29, 2005. http://www.terrorismfiles.org/organisations/al_qaida.html

Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi
Words: 1268 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5560053
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Al Zarqawi

Who is Al-Zarqawi, and why is he today one of the world's most hated terrorists? What are his activities and why is he wanted by the various Intelligence Agencies not only of the U.S.A., but also of the world? Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi is today one of the world's most wanted terrorists, said to be capable of overshadowing even the 'Enemy Number 1', as he is referred to in the United States of America, Osama bin Laden, and whose value, for capture, offered by the U.S. State Department, is said to be at par with that of Osama bin Laden, that is, an astronomical amount of $25 million. However, Al-Zarqawi has not been put on the 'Most Wanted' list of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. This terrorist has been at times described as an 'Osama Associate', and also, at times, an individual who is capable…

References

Chossudovsky, Michel. Who is Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi? 11 June, 2004. Retrieved From

 http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO405B.html  Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Mackay, Neil. A Prince of Terror's Deadly Game, the Hostage Takers, Al-Zarqawi. The Sunday Herald. September, 2004. pp: 4-5

Piszkiewicz, Dennis. Terrorism's War with America: A History. Praeger, 2003. p 168.

Execution of Al-Awaki The Obama Administration Has
Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4368557
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Execution of al-Awaki:

The Obama Administration has increased the use of killer drones in lieu of putting the country's boots on the ground. In one of the most debatable issues, the Obama Administration killed, Anwar al-Awaki, a suspected al-Qaeda member, in 2011. The suspected al-Qaeda member had been accused of being a significant organizer in various terrorist attacks, and was identified as one of the main al-Qaeda leaders. The controversy associated with this murder is attributed to whether the Obama Administration had the right to sanction the execution of the suspect without a court trial. This issue is further complicated with various set of factors that surround the case including the fact that al-Awaki was an American citizen before his death. As an American citizen, he was granted due process rights by the U.S. Constitution. According to the provisions of the due process, a suspect has the right to a…

Bibliography:

Goldberg, Jonah. "Goldberg: Obama's Terrorist Dilemma," Los Angeles Times, April 4, 2013.

 http://articles.latimes.com/2011/oct/04/opinion/la-oe-goldberg-terrorists-20111004 

Gorman, Siobhan & Perez, Evan. "Obama Relents on Secret Drone Memo," The Wall Street

Journal, April 4, 2013.  http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324906004578288411143973612.html

Hammond Exam on September 11 2001 Al
Words: 2863 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58732893
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Hammond Exam

On September 11, 2001, Al Qaeda attacked the heart of the American economy causing not only losses in terms of property and financial damage, but also widespread terror and fear which extended far beyond the borders of the United States of America affecting the world as a whole. Like any other nation, the foremost interest of the United States is national security[footnoteRef:1], which entails not only the security of the American people, but also the security of the American soil. Since American leadership has always looked towards a better future, the moral aim is to eliminate any such danger that exists in the 21st century, leading to a more peaceful, globalized near future[footnoteRef:2]. President arrack Obama clearly stated in his speech that had there been no such risk, the troops deployed in Afghanistan would be ordered back home immediately. This objective of preserving national security, however, is aimed…

Bibliography

Dagne, Ted, Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace, August 31, 2011, 3-4

Testimony by Menkhaus, Ken, Horn of Africa: Current Conditions and U.S. Policy, Hearing before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health, June 17, 2010

International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), Afghanistan Commander Counterinsurgency Guidance, 1-4

Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, Report to Congress, March 2009, 1

Korematsu Rasul Al Odah and
Words: 2073 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12802073
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The upreme Court found that the habeas corpus petition was filed improperly, and therefore the case was dismissed and all previous decisions in other courts overruled. The central issue regarding the power of the president was never decided.

Justice tevens presented a dissent stating that the government failed to give proper notice for Padilla's transfer to military custody I outh Carolina. The contention is that the habeas petition would have been filed properly if counsel had been informed in a timely manner. Justice tevens' conclusion is that the habeas corpus should be treated as one filed two days earlier, because government has not followed the correct procedures in providing information to Padilla's counsel.

The response to the dissent is that hypothetical events cannot be used in exercising statutory jurisdiction on the basis of misconduct by government. The dissent further contended that the Court made exceptions to the rules pertaining to…

Sources

The Oyez Project, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004), available at:  http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2003/2003_03_6696/ 

(last visited Friday, February 8, 2008).

The Oyez Project, Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944), available at:  http://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1949/1944/1944_22/ 

(last visited Friday, February 8, 2008).

Top Al-Qai'da Leaders Living or
Words: 2514 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 19576481
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Richard Reid

Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…

Works Cited

Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.

Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009

Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"

"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009

Foreign Terrorist Organization Al Shabab
Words: 346 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31774203
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FTO
Al-Shabab is an FTO designated on March 18, 2008. The name Al-Shabab translates into “The Youth” in Arabic. Its goal is to overthrow the Somali government and implement Shariah law. For that reason it is viewed as similar to ISIS (Center for International Security and Cooperation, 2019). It is a breakaway terrorist group from the Islamic Courts Union, from which it separated in 2006. It is an ally of Al-Qaeda and its battle with the Somali government is considered a mission of jihad. As it is considered a holy war by the group, it has conducted its activities in Kenya and likely would extend them even further if it had the resources to do so. The group originated in the Islamic Courts Union, as the military arm of the courts, led by Aden Hashi Ayro in 1997. Under Ayro, al-Shabab engaged in lethal exercises that were not authorized by…

References
Center for International Security and Cooperation. (2019). Al Shabaab. Retrieved from
 https://cisac.fsi.stanford.edu/mappingmilitants/profiles/al-shabaab 

Terrorism and Jihadist Networks
Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3373061
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Al Qaeda and Jihadist Networks

Al Qaeda and other Jihadist networks are a serious threat to other nations and groups of people who do not think in the same ways they do. Because of that, it is important that more is understood about them, so that they can be studied. That study will allow opinions to be drawn and decisions to be made that are based on the true danger they present and what can be done in order to mitigate that danger. From the standpoint of homeland security, Al Qaeda is the enemy. Knowing the enemy is one of the best ways to keep a country safe from harm.

Al Qaeda and Jihadist Networks

According to White (2014), there is a significant threat to homeland security from Al Qaeda and other Jihadist networks. Terrorists exist to inflict terror, often based on their belief systems and their opinions of those…

References

White, J.R. (2014). Terrorism and homeland security (8th. ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Issues of Terrorism
Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42298553
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terrorist groups; besides Al Queda and Al Jihad that possess both the motive and capability to implement a terrorist attack on the United States and decide which of these two groups pose a greater threat. Examine both the likelihood and potential impact. It will also assess the likelihood of another terrorist attack by the Al Queda and the Al Jihad terrorist groups. Identify and provide examples of the most likely targets in a future terrorist attack.

It seems two of the most dangerous terrorist organizations facing America today are Hezbollah and the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). These groups are particularly dangerous because they are well funded, and they consistently target the United States in their attacks. Perhaps most dangerous of these two is Hezbollah, also known as the Party of God, who are credited with numerous terrorist activities against Americans since the 1980s. These included kidnapping several Americans in the…

Islamic Philosophies on September 11
Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14070700
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Abdal-Hakim Murad, in his "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam," generally makes the point that violence against civilians and innocents is not in accordance with Islamic scholarship or tradition. According to Murad, it was a 19th century Iranian reformer called "the Bab" who "ignored the accumulated discussion of the centuries and wrote a Koranic commentary based on his own direct understanding of scripture." (Murad) Over time, Murad asserts that this led to many Muslim groups ignoring Islamic tradition and making their own pronouncements on what the Koran means. One of these groups were the ahhabi Muslims of Saudi Arabia, who traditionally have been considered "heretics" by mainstream Islamic scholars, but with the influx of oil money in the 1960's, began to export this extreme view of Islam around the world. Because of their seeming ability to decide the meaning of the Koran, Muslims who follow this type of…

Works Cited

"Al Qaeda in its Own Words." (2008). ed. By Kepel, Gilles and Jean-Pierre Milelli. Cambridge Mass: Harvard UP. Print.

Murad, Abdal-Hakim. "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam." Islam For Today. Retrieved from www.islamfortoday.com

Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Indianapolis: American Trust, 1990. Print.

Biggest Terror Group Threat
Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28619776
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Homeland Security

Over the last two decades or so, the nastiest and most active terrorist groups really have to be ISIS/ISIL and Al Qaeda. Although the former is much "younger" than the latter, they have certainly made up for lost time given what they are currently doing in the Middle East. Even so, the top question becomes which of those two groups is the most active and deadliest right now. Indeed, a case could be made for both in their own rights. Al Qaeda has had more staying power but ISIS is running roughshod over the Middle East much more so as of late than Al Qaeda has been doing anywhere. While Al Qaeda is certainly still a threat, ISIS is clearly the more clear and present danger right now.

Analysis

If this question were posed a mere ten to fifteen years ago, the answer would be Al Qaeda and…

References

PBS. (2016). Bill Moyers Journal. Brief History of al Qaeda -- PBS. PBS.org. Retrieved 21 May

2016, from  http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html 

Yuhas, A. (2016). NATO Commander: ISIS 'Spreading like cancer' among refugees. The Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from  http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016 

/mar/01/refugees-isis-nato-commander-terrorists

Jemaah Islamiyah Tracing the Roots
Words: 3157 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97718047
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Social dynamics, meanwhile, look into the prevalent perception of JI's society and the international viewpoint on radical Islamism. Lastly, the political dynamics centers on the viewpoints supporting and opposing JI activities, specifically its linkage with Al-Qaeda.

Religious dynamics

Explicated earlier is the ultimate goal of JI in establishing itself as an Islamic militant group: to create an Islam-centered social order, starting specifically in Indonesia. Jones' (2005) analysis of the history of JI as a terrorist organization delved deeply into the events surrounding its early establishment in Indonesia, and its later development as one of the Muslim groups who subsisted to jihad to promote this main objective.

Jihad is an important concept in the lives of JI members, for this became the manner in which it succeeded in increasing its membership and strengthening its network of Muslim militant groups, both locally and internationally. Among the initial contacts that JI had in…

Bibliography

9/11." (2006). Foreign Policy, Issue 156.

Chehab, Z. (2006). "Al-Qaeda: Still a step ahead." New Statesman, Vol. 135, Issue 4799.

Jones, S. (2005). "The changing nature of Jemaah Islamiyah." Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 59, Issue 2.

Kaplan, D. (2003). "The shadow over the summit." U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 135, Issue 13.

Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction
Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37164865
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Weapons of Mass Destruction

Nuclear terrorism or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were labeled as the single most serious threat to the national security of the United States of America by President George W. Bush. When President Barack Obama came into office, he had the same sentiments about the growing terrorism in the Middle East. Our leaders and security experts see terrorist having access to WMD as nightmares when they sleep. The Japanese group Aum Shrinrikyo, Al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Lashkar al Tayyib and Jemmah Islamiya are few of the terrorist groups who have been known to gain access to chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 5) Terrorist groups are present to spread terrorism all over the world as the name suggests. However, many would argue that these viscous people are only going to scare the world and not use any of them. However, seeing their statements and…

References

Cordesman, Anthony H. 2002. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger

Long, Jerry M. 2008. Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. USAF Academy, Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies

Mowatt-Larssen. 2010. Al Qaeda Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat: Hype or Reality? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School

O'Neil, Andrew. 2003. Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction: how serious is the threat? Australian Journal of International Affairs 57:99 -- 112.

Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism Counterterrorism
Words: 740 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95863290
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Specifically, individuals responsible for tenant selection, approval, and relations (particularly in newly developed areas) must be apprised of the operational patterns used by al-Qaeda operatives so that they will recognize behavior consistent with potential terrorist activities in the realm of property rental and use.

Travel Procedures and Transportation Security:

The al-Qaeda Training Manual includes considerable attention to the operational use of public transportation for travel and surveillance activities. Specifically, M-40, Item #2 requires al-Qaeda operatives to use secondary rather than primary entrance and exit stations because they are less subject to electronic monitoring and law enforcement patrols. Similarly, M-40, Item #5 instructs al-Qaeda operatives to separate themselves from their baggage by storing it in a different passenger compartment from that in which they ride. oth elements are consistent with later-published studies, such as by the New York City Police Department (NYPD) Intelligence Division (2007).

oth provisions provide valuable insight capable…

Bibliography

Al Qaeda Training Manual (2000). Retrieved January 24, 2009, at  http://www.thetulsan.com/manual.html 

NYPD. (2007). Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat. Retrieved January 24, 2009 at http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/public_information/NYPD_Report-Radicalization_in_the_West.pdf

Terrorist Groups Since September 11th
Words: 1230 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88549947
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Abu Nidal Organization:

The Abu Nidal Organization is also known by several other names, such as: Fatah evolutionary Council, Arab evolutionary Brigades, Black September, or evolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. It is an international terrorist organization that was founded by Sabri al-Banna, otherwise known as Abu Nidal. The organization split from PLO in 1974 and is made up of various functional committees. These include: political, military and financial committees. Founder Abu Nidal died in Baghdad in November 2002 and it is now unclear who the new leader of the organization is ("Abu Nidal," 2004).

The Abu Nidal Organization has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries and has killed or injured nearly 1,000 people in those attacks. Primary targets include the United States, United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and a variety of Arab countries. They were responsible for the attacks on the ome and Vienna airports in…

References

Abu Nidal Organization. (June 2004). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://library.nps.navy.mil/home/tgp/abu.htm.

Al Qaeda. (10 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Qaeda .

Hizballah. (16 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hizballah .

Pike, J. (3 Nov. 2004). Al-Qa'ida (The Base). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at  http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm .

Terrorist Phenomenon Has Changed the
Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 32361163
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egardless, the image of the United States was shaken by the success of the Al Qaeda.

From a security point-of-view, the existence of Al Qaeda triggered more vigilance among the security environment in the sense that it attracted the attention on the phenomenon of terrorism as a global threat that needs to be treated at the global level through mechanisms that in 2001 were not set in place. Therefore, a reconsideration of homeland security strategies was necessary. This in turn however affected all levels of the society, from increased security at the level of the president to the increased airport controls throughout the country and abroad. These tightened rules of security attracted scrutiny at the level of the ordinary people and accusations of infringing privacy were even articulated. Even so, the fight against terrorism has become, after 9/11 one of the primordial subjects on the agenda of world leaders.

eference…

Reference list

Buzan, B. (1991). People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Lynne Rienner Pub

Huntington, S. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.

PBS. (2010) Bill Moyers Journal: Brief history of Al Qaeda. Online at  http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html 

Reuters. (2009). Analyst's view: Al Qaeda's strengths and weaknesses. Online at  http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/06/19/us-security-qaeda-strength-weakness-sb-idUSTRE55I22Z20090619

Terrorism a Profile of a
Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55569205
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Establishing better relations with Jordan and Saudi Arabia, where the core leaders of the terrorist organizations were reared, as well as attempting to target the nations where the terrorist threats to the est are based, is another vital 'leg' of the current anti-terrorist aspect of the larger 'war' on terror. Even establishing pro-peace and tolerance websites for Muslims, rather than allowing young Muslims to be attracted to militant websites that promote terror could be a positive strategy that the governments of the est could embark upon with community leaders.

Other anti-terrorism tactics consist of conducting litigation against terrorist actors, or supporters of terrorism, such as the current formal trial of Saddam Hussein, conducted according to the protocols of international law. Providing adequate protection for civilians working, living, or traveling in terrorist prone areas, such as Iraq, and ensuring that public places and areas that would be attractive to terrorists are…

Works Cited

Armond, Paul. "Rock, Paper, Scissors: Counter-terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and Terrorism." 1997. Accessed 25 Aug 2005.  http://nwcitizen.com/publicgood/reports/rockpaperscissors  / 'Iraqi Insurgency." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/iraq_insurgency.htm 

'Jamaat al-Tawhid wa'l-Jihad / Unity and Jihad Group Tanzim Qa'idat Al-Jihad in Bilad al-Rafidayn (Organization of Jihad's Base in the Country of the Two Rivers)." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/zarqawi.htm 

Mendenhall, Preston. "Alleged British Bombings Masterminds U.S. ties." Newsweek. 20 July 2005. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8647113/ 

"Text from Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi Letter." Global Security.org. 2003. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/2004/02/040212-al-zarqawi.htm

Profiling a Leader of a Non-State World Leader
Words: 3540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 61156231
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Profiling Nasir al-Wahishi

The author of this research proposal deigns to cover two basic research questions and issues within this report. First is the general subject of political profiling of current or possible future political leaders and the second is the more specific focus on the case of a man by the name of Nasir al-Wahishi. That particular man is the current proclaimed leader of al-Qaida in the Arab Peninsula, often referred to as AQAP for short. The research problem to be address in this proposal and, by extension, the approved study is the vexing nature of profiling political leaders, what they are capable of, how they control and motivate the people they proselytize to, how to predict who people will glom onto and who will be ignored and so forth. There is also the question of how to deal with "stateless" regimes and groups that exist. Some of these…

Bibliography

Altemeyer, Bob. 'Highly Dominating, Highly Authoritarian Personalities'. The Journal of Social Psychology 144, no. 4 (2004): 421-448.

Andeweg, Rudy B., and Steef B. Van Den Berg. 'Linking Birth Order To Political

Leadership: The Impact Of Parents Or Sibling Interaction?'. Political Psychology

24, no. 3 (2003): 605-623.

Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90959021
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1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…

Status and Power -- Terrorism
Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 942366
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In that regard, one of the most dramatic uses of this tactic enabled the Bush administration to obtain congressional authority to initiate a war against Iraq based on what were later proven to be deliberate falsehoods (BBC/Curtis, 2004).

Ironically, the fictional and manipulative elevation of al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden to such levels of importance in the ideological war against the West may have actually played a substantial role in increasing the importance, the influence, and the ability of each to attract more followers (BBC/Curtis, 2004). The U.S.-led war in Afghanistan also seems to have undermined the effort against al-Qaeda by helping to transform what had been an isolated civil war in that country into a region supporting bin Laden today (BBC/Curtis, 2004).

Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya

Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya was originally an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood; it was the largest militant group in Egypt and once hoped to overthrow the Egyptian…

References

CIA. (1998). President's Daily Briefing -- "Bin Laden Preparing to Hijack U.S. Aircraft

and other Attacks" (December 4, 1998). Retrieved May 20, 2010 from:

 http://www.foia.cia.gov/browse_docs_full.asp 

Curtis a. (2004). BBC Documentary -- the Power of Nightmares: Part 3: The Shadows

Homeland Security and Emergency Management
Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 46569250
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Longest War

Homeland Security & Emergency Management

M6A1: Book Review

Bergen, Peter. (2011). The longest war: The enduring conflict between America and al-Qaeda.

New York: Free Press.

As its title suggests, Peter Bergen's book, The longest war: The enduring conflict between America and al-Qaeda, is a chronicle of a war that defies the traditional conventions and definitions of warfare. The war of terror has no clear beginning and no clear end and has challenged many of the assumptions of how warfare is viewed and waged within the United States. It is a long war, an unending war, and even though the book was written before the killing of Osama bin Laden, the orchestrator of the attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, the war will continue to rage on so long as there are state and non-state enemies willing to attack the U.S. using the mechanisms of terrorism. The…

U S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
Words: 3011 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86839720
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U.S. Approach to Terrorism

U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001

The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.

President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11

After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…

Works Cited

Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.

Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.

Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.

Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.

Cyber Terrorism & Information All
Words: 2274 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59545538
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The increasing skill of these terrorists in using cyberspace has led some officials to believe that they are on the point of using computers for increasing bloodshed. This new threat is not similar to hackers' earlier using computers for passing viruses and worms. This has now reached a level of being able to reach the meeting point of computers and physical structures controlled by computers. The belief of analysts in U.S. is that they may try to disable or control floodgates in dams or electrical stations handling large quantities of power and through them destroy lives and property around them.

Though there is not much evidence, they believe that al Qaeda may be using these capacities with other weapons like explosives. The al Qaeda is known to have capacity to use other sites for their own benefit, and al Qaeda laptop in Afghanistan had visited the French site of Anonymous…

Works Cited

Cyber-terrorism. (30 April, 2005) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber-terrorismAccessed  on 14 May, 2005

Gellman, Barton. (June 27, 2002) "Cyber-Attacks by Al Qaeda Feared" Washington Post. P: A01. Retrieved at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A50765-2002Jun26?language=printerAccessed  on 14 May, 2005

Lewis, James a. (December, 2002) "Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats" Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved at  http://www.csis.org/tech/0211_lewis.pdf . Accessed on 14 May, 2005

O' Neil, Michael J. (2001) "Cyber-Terrorism: Case Study" Excerpt from Terrorism and the Law, by Yonah Alexander and Edgar H. Brenner, Editors. Transnational Publishers, Inc. Retrieved at http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Library/Teasers/ONeil.CyberT.html. Accessed on 14 May, 2005

Terrorism Justified According to Purpura 2007 Terrorism
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Terrorism Justified?

According to Purpura (2007), terrorism as a term does not have a fixed definition. This effectively means that its usage and application is largely hinged on a myriad of viewpoints, be they political or religious. In this text, I concern myself with terrorism; its justification, usage and application.

The Use of Terrorism by Powerful Governments to Delegitimize Less Powerful Governments

Though terrorism cannot be seen to be a wholly biased term formulated by powerful governments solely to delegitimize those states having insignificant political or economic clout, there are instances where governments at a national level utilize terror so as to advance a well defined agenda. It therefore follows that though in most cases it is the "non-state actors" who are blamed for terror, powerful governments also utilize terror to stifle dissent or further diplomatic efforts as well as state policies abroad.

Terrorism as "War by Other Means"

It…

References

Osama Bin Laden (1996, August 23). Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holly Places: A Message from Osama Bin Muhammad Bin Laden to his Muslim Brethren All Over the World Generally and in the Arab Peninsula Specifically. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from the Terrorism Files Website: http://www.terrorismfiles.org/individuals/declaration_of_jihad1.html

Purpura, P.P. (2007). Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Smilansky, S. (2004). Terrorism, Justification and Illusion. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from: http://philo.haifa.ac.il/staff/smilansky/Ethics%20terrorism.pdf

War in Afghanistan Is Visibly
Words: 2995 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54386899
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S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.

3.1.3 Power sharing agreements

In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…

References

Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.

Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.

Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.

Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]

History of Terrorism Historical Depictions
Words: 2856 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73288397
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There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.

Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…

Works Cited

 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675918 

Astrain, Luis Nunez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Trans. Meic Stephens. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008  http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=97675920' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Why We Went to War With Iraq
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War in Iraq

Should we have gone to war with Iraq based on the reasons given at the time the war started? When we went to war with Iraq, ush gave three reasons for doing so. First, he claimed that Saddam Hussein had ties to al-Qaeda (Richelson, p. 44, p. 69). Secondly, he said that Saddam Hussein at the very minimum was attempting to acquire nuclear weapons and in fact might have already gotten them. Third, he claimed that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Of the three claims, the third one regarding WMD was instantly believable, because American news had been full of pictures of dead Kurds, citizens of Iraq, killed with Iraq's chemical weapons. Hussein had used WMD's in the past on his own citizens, and so it seemed likely that he could easily use them on people he regarded as enemies of his country. In addition,…

Bibliography

Barry, Tom and Jim Lobe. 2002. "U.S. Foreign Policy -- Attention, Right Face, Forward March." Foreign Policy in Focus, April. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04.  http://www.fpif.org/papers/02right/ 

CNN. 2003. "Bush sends Iraq war letter to Congress." CNN Edition Inside Politics. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04  http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/19/sprj.irq.bush/ 

Cochran, John. 2004. "Corroborating O'Neill's Account." ABC News, Jan. 13. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04.  http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/U.S./oneill_charges_040113.html 

Richelson, Jeffrey.2004. "Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction." National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 80. Feb. 11. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04.  http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB80/

Great War for Civilisation The
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Both Palestine and Israel experienced serious losses as a result of the divergences between the two countries.

Chapter 13 focuses on a series of matters and particularly on media's influence on the world in regard to the Palestine-Israel conflict. The estern world stood indifferent as the two countries starting fighting for the territory and caused significant damage. In spite of the fact that society came to perceive Palestinians as terrorists as a result of their determination to recover their lost lands, their power grew in the recent years, most probably as a result of the fact that they developed a feeling of respect for their cause.

3. The Choirs of Kandahar is essentially a continuation of Chapter 2.

4. The Carpet-eavers begins with the United States' and Great Britain's successful overthrow of the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddeq. From there, it moves on to the events leading…

Works Cited

Fisk, Robert, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East

Terrorism Shares Features in Common With Irregular
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Terrorism shares features in common with irregular warfare, insurgency, and crime. Like crime, terrorism violates the law and infringes on the rights of others. Like insurgency, terrorism "appeals as a weapon of the weak," (Arquilla, onfelt & Zanini 1999, p. 134). Similarly, Arquilla et al. (1999) note that terrorism "has appealed as a way to assert identity and command attention," (p. 134). Like irregular warfare, terrorism is asynchronous and asymmetrical, not ascribing to the rules of war. However, terrorism is unique in that "today's enemy is not a state but a transnational, non-state actor" that uses warfare that is "not traditional…elusive…and…exploits…industrial and technological advantages," (Howard n.d.). As Howard (n.d.) points out, terrorism more resembles a virus than anything else (p. 123). Moreover, terrorism involves ideology and paradigms that underwrite its existence: in the case of al Qaeda a pseudo-religious doctrine. The goals of terrorism are farther-reaching and more global than…

References

Arquilla, J. Ronfeldt, D. & Zanini, M. (1999). Networks and Netwar, and Information-Age Terrorism.

Howard, R.D. (n.d.). Preemptive Military Doctrine: No Other Choice.

Weimann, G. (2004). How modern terrorism uses the internet. United States Institute of Peace: Special Report.

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next
Words: 5067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10464176
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Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack

Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…

Bibliography

Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New

York:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).

Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).

Security on Commercial Flights Describe Two 2
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Security on Commercial Flights

Describe two (2) lapses in pre-flight security that contributed to the ease of the hijacking operation on September 11, 2001

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States of America evaluated the security of the commercial Airline Industry. Major security lapses gave way for terrorists to board commercial flights, which finally led to the aircrafts' hijacking and demise.

The first lapse that contributed to terrorist attack is President Bill Clinton's ignorance. U.S. administration under the leadership of President Bill Clinton ignored warning signs that Osama bin Laden and al Qaida organization was planning a terrorist attack on United States. Osama Bin Laden claimed responsibility of various attacks on U.S. Militaries deployed in various countries, such as Sudan and Soviet Union aimed at fighting the rising terrorist groups (Oliver, 2006).

The failure of the Intelligence Community is another lapse that contributed to the attack.…

Reference

Oliver, W. (2006). Homeland security for policing (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Homeland Defense Terrorism Domestic Counter
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These teams are called in to deal with highly dangerous and threatening situations, including terrorist attacks. Some of the "special operations" tactics that may be employed to deal with active shooters, barricades, and hostage situations include: three or four man entries using shields, power flooding for "large structure clearing," mobile hostage rescues, "linear entry techniques," and vehicle takedowns (Navy Seals, 2010).

eapons of Mass Destruction

eapons of mass destruction (MD) include any weapons that can cause catastrophic damage or destruction to a large number of people, structures, organizations, or the environment. Examples include bombs, nuclear, chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Due to the catastrophic threats posed by MD, in 2006 the FBI launched the eapons of Mass Destruction Directorate (MDD) to further integrate agency efforts for better prevention against MD attack.

Terrorism group, (International or Domestic)

Terrorists most often operate from within radical groups with political motivations. ithin the United…

With America's increasing dependence upon the Internet for storage and retrieval of critical information, and the use of computers to direct and make critical decisions, terrorists have more and more opportunities to hack or otherwise sabotage the Internet and cost human lives (as well as lots of money) as a result. While many people believe the threat of lost lives from a cyber attack is minimal, experts warn that the danger must be taken seriously, because "servers in the United States are the most aggressively targeted information systems in the world, with attacks increasing in severity, frequency, and sophistication each year" (CDI, 2011). Malicious computer users are becoming more skilled day-to-day, so defensive measures against these attacks must increase in strength and remain vigilant at all times. Cyber-terrorism threats can involve banks, hospitals, and government agencies; motivations include profit, general harm, or even assassination. While the U.S. has only experienced minor attacks, other countries such as the Ukraine and Estonia have suffered more massive attacks (CDI, 2011).

Bin Laden and Al Qaeda

Osama Bin Laden established his terrorist group, Al Qaeda, in 1988; it's "goals were the advancement of Islamic revolutions throughout the Muslim world and repelling foreign intervention in the Middle East" (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden's efforts began with fights against the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, and he always had access to large sums of money as the son of a Saudi Arabian billionaire. After the Gulf Wars began, Al Qaeda became involved in terrorist activities against U.S. involvement in the Middle East, particularly the presence of American troops in Islamic holy lands (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden began to align with other terrorist groups, and in 1996 moved back to Afghanistan and joined forces with the Taliban (ADL, 2011). Attacks continued over the years since then, until the culmination of Al Qaeda's efforts in the 9/11 terrorist attacks -- in which nearly 3,000 innocent people lost their lives

Terrorist Group Factors for Formation and Continued Operations
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Hezbollah

The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism

The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…

References

Baranovich, Nadia, and Ravichandran Moorthy. "The Dynamics of Terror Strategies by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Israel-Palestine Conflict." Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2011): 28-61.

Byman, Daniel. "Should Hezbollah be next?" Foreign Affairs (2003): 54-66.

Cohen, Ariel. "Knowing the Enemy." Policy Review 145 (2007): 40-53.

Feldman, Shai. "The Hezbollah-Israel War: A Preliminary Assessment." Middle East Brief 10, no. 2 (2006).

September 11 and the New Emerging International
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eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order

This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.

As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.

IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…

Sources:

Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1

The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002  http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm# 

Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795  http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm 

Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan:  http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html

Elf Earth Liberation Front Elf Elf Logo
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ELF

Earth Liberation Front (ELF)

ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)

Eco-Terrorism Overview

Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups

The Earth Liberation Front

If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)

There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.

This…

Works Cited

Earth Liberation Front. (N.d.). Earth Liberation Front. Retrieved from Earth Liberation Front: http://earth-liberation-front.com/

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (N.d.). Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation:  http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition 

Jarboe, J. (2002, February 12). Testimony Before the House Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation:  http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/the-threat-of-eco-terrorism 

Libcom.org. (2012, January 12). If a tree falls: A story of the Earth Liberation Front (documentary). Retrieved from Libcom.org:  http://libcom.org/blog/if-tree-falls-story-earth-liberation-front-documentary-12012012

Soviet-Afgan War Conflict Analysis Focus
Words: 5116 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 10933340
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(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)

Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."

[26] Contrary…

Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .

United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.

Looming Tower by Lawrence Wright
Words: 835 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47270377
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From prison, Qutb regenerated the secret apparatus and Saudi Arabia supplied the group with arms and money. Qutb was betrayed, however, and six months after he was released from prison, he was arrested again for a plot to overthrow the Egyptian government. He was sentenced to death by hanging for his radical views and accepted his fate with pride. His anger inspired Zawahiri and, in due course, influenced Osama bin Laden.

Qutb's death paved the way for more Rabie al-Zawahiri, a professor. His son, Ayman, grew up to be a rebellious, self-righteous man with "headstrong qualities that would invariably be associated with him in the future and that would propel him into conflict with nearly everyone he would meet" (37). Zawahiri was the perfect man to put Qutb's vision into action. At 15 years of age, he formed an underground cell "devoted to overthrowing the government and establishing an Islamic…

Works Cited

Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower. New York: Alfred a Knopf, 2006.

Changing Paradigm in International Policing
Words: 8998 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87743756
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The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."

The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.

Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."

Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…

Bibliography

Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.

Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at  http://www.un.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Terrorism Who The U S Congress
Words: 484 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17428690
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As reported by the New York Times

How: A Pakistani man accused of aiding Al Qaeda who was imprisoned in his home country for three years, has been released by the government.

Brief Analysis: The connections of Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan to terrorism are debated, as the CIA alleges he has been involved in terrorist activity but Pakistani officials have said that information from Mr. Khan led them to a Tanzanian wanted in connection with the 1998 bombings of American embassies in East Africa, which killed more than 200 people. They say he is not a terrorist, but merely had knowledge of the event, and thus upon gaining this information, he was released. This highlights how the international nature of terrorist organizations and the conflicting policies of nations in dealing with terrorists make it even more difficult to combat this threat.

orks Cited

Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say…

Works Cited

Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say Lessons from 9/11 Were Not Followed in Deutsche Bank Blaze." The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at  http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/22/nyregion/22fire.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fT%2fTerrorism 

Pakistan Releases a Man Accused of Aiding Al Qaeda." (21 Aug 2007). The New York

Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at  http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/21/world/asia/21pakistan.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fT%2fTerrorism 

Rutenberg, J. (7 Aug 2007). "Bush Still Wields Fear of Terrorism." The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at  http://www.nytimes.com/2007/08/07/washington/07assess.html?ex=1187928000&en=0b077e645f7d8104&ei=5070

CCTV the Incursion of Technology
Words: 4289 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 79735708
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these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…

References

1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_ice_livewave.pdf

2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx

3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/

4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from  http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn175.pdf   http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23412867-tens-of-thousands-of-cctv-cameras-yet-80-of-crime-unsolved.do

Geopolitical Analysis of China From
Words: 3969 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85714287
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America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.

It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…

References

Barber, BR 1992 "Jihad vs. McWorld," the Atlantic Monthly 269, no. 3 (March 1992): 53 -- 65.

Cohen, MA, 2011, 'Think Again: The Two State Solution', Foreign Policy, Viewed on 18 June 2013, [ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/09/14/think_again_the_two_state_solution ]

Gettleman, J 2010, 'Africa's Forever Wars,' Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010.

Gilboy, GJ and Read, BL 2008, 'Political and Social Reform in China,' Washington Quarterly, summer 2008, pg 143-164.

Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism

Sovereign states have always had a vested interest in accurately predicting the course of future events, from the ancient espionage of medieval courts to the advanced intelligence agencies used today, but the process of anticipating and neutralizing threats on a preemptive basis has proven to be exceedingly difficult in the age of modern terrorism. Western powers explicitly targeted by Al-Qaeda and other jihadist organizations, including the United States, Great Britain, and other industrialized nations, have been forced to exist in a state of perpetual tension, knowing that the next spectacularly-scaled attack is inevitable but lacking the specific foresight needed to prevent its occurrence. With billions of dollars being invested annually to fund counterterrorism intelligence operations, and scant evidence that these efforts have constituted an efficient and effective use of valuable resources, many governments have begun to reassess this philosophy of preventative vigilance. The incredible complexity of…

References

Kluger, Jeffrey. "Why We Worry About The Things We Shouldn't And Ignore The Things

We Should." TIME Magazine, November 26, 2006, http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~shagin/080923risk.pdf (accessed February 16, 2013).

McNeill, Jenna B., James J. Carafano and Jessica Zuckerman. "30 Terrorist Plots Foiled: How

the System Worked." The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder # 2405, 11-19,  http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/04/30-terrorist-plots-foiled-how-the-system-worked  (accessed February 15, 2013).

Islam and Politics the Islamic
Words: 2281 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 67614134
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There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.

Question

In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.

According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…

Bibliography

Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004

Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89

Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi

Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005