Al Qaeda Essays (Examples)

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Al QA'ida Trans-National Terrorist Network'

Words: 3610 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14718642

"Muslims from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Southeast Asia, and beyond fought side by side, forging relationships and creating a cadre of veterans who shared a powerful life experience, a more global view,..."

Jenkins 3)

This experience was bolstered by the victory over the Soviet Union, which consequently strengthened the organization. However, the Afghan veterans, on returning to their various homes, were viewed with suspicion by the different governments and regimes and were often seen as a political threat. Due to this factor, these veterans were susceptible to new campaigns and ideologies.

Jenkins provides a clear outline of the motivational genesis of Al Qa'ida after the Afghan resistance.

There were ample reasons and opportunities to continue the fight: the Gulf War and the consequent arrival of American troops in Saudi Arabia; the continued repression of Islamic challenges to local regimes; armed struggles in Algeria, Egypt, the newly independent Muslim republics of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuza, Zachary. "Funding Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Financial Network of Al Qaeda and Jemaah Islamiya." Contemporary Southeast Asia 25.2 (2003): 169+. Questia. 1 July 2005 http://www.questia.com/.

AL QAEDA'S GRAND STRATEGY: SUPERPOWER BAITING. 2004. Accessed June 30, 2005.  http://globalguerrillas.typepad.com/globalguerrillas/2004/05/al_qaedas_grand.html 

AL-QAEDA: SOC. June 30, 2005. http://www.specialoperations.com/Terrorism/Terrorist_Groups/al_qaeda2.htm

Al Qa'ida: Terrorism Files. June 29, 2005.  http://www.terrorismfiles.org/organisations/al_qaida.html
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Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi

Words: 1268 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5560053

Al Zarqawi

Who is Al-Zarqawi, and why is he today one of the world's most hated terrorists? What are his activities and why is he wanted by the various Intelligence Agencies not only of the U.S.A., but also of the world? Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi is today one of the world's most wanted terrorists, said to be capable of overshadowing even the 'Enemy Number 1', as he is referred to in the United States of America, Osama bin Laden, and whose value, for capture, offered by the U.S. State Department, is said to be at par with that of Osama bin Laden, that is, an astronomical amount of $25 million. However, Al-Zarqawi has not been put on the 'Most Wanted' list of the Federal Bureau of Investigation of the United States. This terrorist has been at times described as an 'Osama Associate', and also, at times, an individual who is capable…… [Read More]

References

Chossudovsky, Michel. Who is Abu Musab Al-Zarqawi? 11 June, 2004. Retrieved From

http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHO405B.html Accessed on 10 June, 2005

Mackay, Neil. A Prince of Terror's Deadly Game, the Hostage Takers, Al-Zarqawi. The Sunday Herald. September, 2004. pp: 4-5

Piszkiewicz, Dennis. Terrorism's War with America: A History. Praeger, 2003. p 168.
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Execution of Al-Awaki The Obama Administration Has

Words: 1067 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4368557

Execution of al-Awaki:

The Obama Administration has increased the use of killer drones in lieu of putting the country's boots on the ground. In one of the most debatable issues, the Obama Administration killed, Anwar al-Awaki, a suspected al-Qaeda member, in 2011. The suspected al-Qaeda member had been accused of being a significant organizer in various terrorist attacks, and was identified as one of the main al-Qaeda leaders. The controversy associated with this murder is attributed to whether the Obama Administration had the right to sanction the execution of the suspect without a court trial. This issue is further complicated with various set of factors that surround the case including the fact that al-Awaki was an American citizen before his death. As an American citizen, he was granted due process rights by the U.S. Constitution. According to the provisions of the due process, a suspect has the right to a…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Goldberg, Jonah. "Goldberg: Obama's Terrorist Dilemma," Los Angeles Times, April 4, 2013.

 http://articles.latimes.com/2011/oct/04/opinion/la-oe-goldberg-terrorists-20111004 

Gorman, Siobhan & Perez, Evan. "Obama Relents on Secret Drone Memo," The Wall Street

Journal, April 4, 2013. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324906004578288411143973612.html
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Hammond Exam on September 11 2001 Al

Words: 2863 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58732893

Hammond Exam

On September 11, 2001, Al Qaeda attacked the heart of the American economy causing not only losses in terms of property and financial damage, but also widespread terror and fear which extended far beyond the borders of the United States of America affecting the world as a whole. Like any other nation, the foremost interest of the United States is national security[footnoteRef:1], which entails not only the security of the American people, but also the security of the American soil. Since American leadership has always looked towards a better future, the moral aim is to eliminate any such danger that exists in the 21st century, leading to a more peaceful, globalized near future[footnoteRef:2]. President arrack Obama clearly stated in his speech that had there been no such risk, the troops deployed in Afghanistan would be ordered back home immediately. This objective of preserving national security, however, is aimed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dagne, Ted, Somalia: Current Conditions and Prospects for a Lasting Peace, August 31, 2011, 3-4

Testimony by Menkhaus, Ken, Horn of Africa: Current Conditions and U.S. Policy, Hearing before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on Africa and Global Health, June 17, 2010

International Security Assistance Force (ISAF), Afghanistan Commander Counterinsurgency Guidance, 1-4

Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq, Report to Congress, March 2009, 1
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Korematsu Rasul Al Odah and

Words: 2073 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12802073

The upreme Court found that the habeas corpus petition was filed improperly, and therefore the case was dismissed and all previous decisions in other courts overruled. The central issue regarding the power of the president was never decided.

Justice tevens presented a dissent stating that the government failed to give proper notice for Padilla's transfer to military custody I outh Carolina. The contention is that the habeas petition would have been filed properly if counsel had been informed in a timely manner. Justice tevens' conclusion is that the habeas corpus should be treated as one filed two days earlier, because government has not followed the correct procedures in providing information to Padilla's counsel.

The response to the dissent is that hypothetical events cannot be used in exercising statutory jurisdiction on the basis of misconduct by government. The dissent further contended that the Court made exceptions to the rules pertaining to…… [Read More]

Sources

The Oyez Project, Hamdi v. Rumsfeld, 542 U.S. 507 (2004), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/2000-2009/2003/2003_03_6696/

(last visited Friday, February 8, 2008).

The Oyez Project, Korematsu v. United States, 323 U.S. 214 (1944), available at: http://www.oyez.org/cases/1940-1949/1944/1944_22/

(last visited Friday, February 8, 2008).
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Top Al-Qai'da Leaders Living or

Words: 2514 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19576481



Richard Reid

Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.

Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009

Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"

"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
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Terrorism and Jihadist Networks

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3373061

Al Qaeda and Jihadist Networks

Al Qaeda and other Jihadist networks are a serious threat to other nations and groups of people who do not think in the same ways they do. Because of that, it is important that more is understood about them, so that they can be studied. That study will allow opinions to be drawn and decisions to be made that are based on the true danger they present and what can be done in order to mitigate that danger. From the standpoint of homeland security, Al Qaeda is the enemy. Knowing the enemy is one of the best ways to keep a country safe from harm.

Al Qaeda and Jihadist Networks

According to White (2014), there is a significant threat to homeland security from Al Qaeda and other Jihadist networks. Terrorists exist to inflict terror, often based on their belief systems and their opinions of those…… [Read More]

References

White, J.R. (2014). Terrorism and homeland security (8th. ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
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Issues of Terrorism

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42298553

terrorist groups; besides Al Queda and Al Jihad that possess both the motive and capability to implement a terrorist attack on the United States and decide which of these two groups pose a greater threat. Examine both the likelihood and potential impact. It will also assess the likelihood of another terrorist attack by the Al Queda and the Al Jihad terrorist groups. Identify and provide examples of the most likely targets in a future terrorist attack.

It seems two of the most dangerous terrorist organizations facing America today are Hezbollah and the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). These groups are particularly dangerous because they are well funded, and they consistently target the United States in their attacks. Perhaps most dangerous of these two is Hezbollah, also known as the Party of God, who are credited with numerous terrorist activities against Americans since the 1980s. These included kidnapping several Americans in the…… [Read More]

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Islamic Philosophies on September 11

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14070700

Abdal-Hakim Murad, in his "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam," generally makes the point that violence against civilians and innocents is not in accordance with Islamic scholarship or tradition. According to Murad, it was a 19th century Iranian reformer called "the Bab" who "ignored the accumulated discussion of the centuries and wrote a Koranic commentary based on his own direct understanding of scripture." (Murad) Over time, Murad asserts that this led to many Muslim groups ignoring Islamic tradition and making their own pronouncements on what the Koran means. One of these groups were the ahhabi Muslims of Saudi Arabia, who traditionally have been considered "heretics" by mainstream Islamic scholars, but with the influx of oil money in the 1960's, began to export this extreme view of Islam around the world. Because of their seeming ability to decide the meaning of the Koran, Muslims who follow this type of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Al Qaeda in its Own Words." (2008). ed. By Kepel, Gilles and Jean-Pierre Milelli. Cambridge Mass: Harvard UP. Print.

Murad, Abdal-Hakim. "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam." Islam For Today. Retrieved from www.islamfortoday.com

Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Indianapolis: American Trust, 1990. Print.
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Biggest Terror Group Threat

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28619776

Homeland Security

Over the last two decades or so, the nastiest and most active terrorist groups really have to be ISIS/ISIL and Al Qaeda. Although the former is much "younger" than the latter, they have certainly made up for lost time given what they are currently doing in the Middle East. Even so, the top question becomes which of those two groups is the most active and deadliest right now. Indeed, a case could be made for both in their own rights. Al Qaeda has had more staying power but ISIS is running roughshod over the Middle East much more so as of late than Al Qaeda has been doing anywhere. While Al Qaeda is certainly still a threat, ISIS is clearly the more clear and present danger right now.

Analysis

If this question were posed a mere ten to fifteen years ago, the answer would be Al Qaeda and…… [Read More]

References

PBS. (2016). Bill Moyers Journal. Brief History of al Qaeda -- PBS. PBS.org. Retrieved 21 May

2016, from    http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html   

Yuhas, A. (2016). NATO Commander: ISIS 'Spreading like cancer' among refugees. The Guardian. Retrieved 21 May 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com/world/2016

/mar/01/refugees-isis-nato-commander-terrorists
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Jemaah Islamiyah Tracing the Roots

Words: 3157 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97718047

Social dynamics, meanwhile, look into the prevalent perception of JI's society and the international viewpoint on radical Islamism. Lastly, the political dynamics centers on the viewpoints supporting and opposing JI activities, specifically its linkage with Al-Qaeda.

Religious dynamics

Explicated earlier is the ultimate goal of JI in establishing itself as an Islamic militant group: to create an Islam-centered social order, starting specifically in Indonesia. Jones' (2005) analysis of the history of JI as a terrorist organization delved deeply into the events surrounding its early establishment in Indonesia, and its later development as one of the Muslim groups who subsisted to jihad to promote this main objective.

Jihad is an important concept in the lives of JI members, for this became the manner in which it succeeded in increasing its membership and strengthening its network of Muslim militant groups, both locally and internationally. Among the initial contacts that JI had in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

9/11." (2006). Foreign Policy, Issue 156.

Chehab, Z. (2006). "Al-Qaeda: Still a step ahead." New Statesman, Vol. 135, Issue 4799.

Jones, S. (2005). "The changing nature of Jemaah Islamiyah." Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 59, Issue 2.

Kaplan, D. (2003). "The shadow over the summit." U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 135, Issue 13.
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Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37164865

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Nuclear terrorism or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were labeled as the single most serious threat to the national security of the United States of America by President George W. Bush. When President Barack Obama came into office, he had the same sentiments about the growing terrorism in the Middle East. Our leaders and security experts see terrorist having access to WMD as nightmares when they sleep. The Japanese group Aum Shrinrikyo, Al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Lashkar al Tayyib and Jemmah Islamiya are few of the terrorist groups who have been known to gain access to chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 5) Terrorist groups are present to spread terrorism all over the world as the name suggests. However, many would argue that these viscous people are only going to scare the world and not use any of them. However, seeing their statements and…… [Read More]

References

Cordesman, Anthony H. 2002. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger

Long, Jerry M. 2008. Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. USAF Academy, Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies

Mowatt-Larssen. 2010. Al Qaeda Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat: Hype or Reality? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School

O'Neil, Andrew. 2003. Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction: how serious is the threat? Australian Journal of International Affairs 57:99 -- 112.
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Terrorist Organizations

Words: 6350 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80361872

Terrorist Organizations and the Media

Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.

Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda…… [Read More]

References

Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) a.k.a. Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ano.htm.[7 September 2003].

Abu Nidal, Terrorist Organizations. (2000). FORSNET. Available at http://www.teror.gen.tr/english/organisations/abunidal.html.[7 September 2003].

Ahmed, E. (2003. April). Defining Extremism. The Voice.

Al-Qa'ida (The Base), Qa'idat al-Jihad, Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Christians, Usama bin Laden Network. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm.[7 September 2003].
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Criminal Justice - Counterterrorism Counterterrorism

Words: 740 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95863290

Specifically, individuals responsible for tenant selection, approval, and relations (particularly in newly developed areas) must be apprised of the operational patterns used by al-Qaeda operatives so that they will recognize behavior consistent with potential terrorist activities in the realm of property rental and use.

Travel Procedures and Transportation Security:

The al-Qaeda Training Manual includes considerable attention to the operational use of public transportation for travel and surveillance activities. Specifically, M-40, Item #2 requires al-Qaeda operatives to use secondary rather than primary entrance and exit stations because they are less subject to electronic monitoring and law enforcement patrols. Similarly, M-40, Item #5 instructs al-Qaeda operatives to separate themselves from their baggage by storing it in a different passenger compartment from that in which they ride. oth elements are consistent with later-published studies, such as by the New York City Police Department (NYPD) Intelligence Division (2007).

oth provisions provide valuable insight capable…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Al Qaeda Training Manual (2000). Retrieved January 24, 2009, at  http://www.thetulsan.com/manual.html 

NYPD. (2007). Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat. Retrieved January 24, 2009 at http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/downloads/pdf/public_information/NYPD_Report-Radicalization_in_the_West.pdf
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Terrorist Groups Since September 11th

Words: 1230 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88549947



Abu Nidal Organization:

The Abu Nidal Organization is also known by several other names, such as: Fatah evolutionary Council, Arab evolutionary Brigades, Black September, or evolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. It is an international terrorist organization that was founded by Sabri al-Banna, otherwise known as Abu Nidal. The organization split from PLO in 1974 and is made up of various functional committees. These include: political, military and financial committees. Founder Abu Nidal died in Baghdad in November 2002 and it is now unclear who the new leader of the organization is ("Abu Nidal," 2004).

The Abu Nidal Organization has carried out terrorist attacks in 20 countries and has killed or injured nearly 1,000 people in those attacks. Primary targets include the United States, United Kingdom, France, Israel, moderate Palestinians, the PLO, and a variety of Arab countries. They were responsible for the attacks on the ome and Vienna airports in…… [Read More]

References

Abu Nidal Organization. (June 2004). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://library.nps.navy.mil/home/tgp/abu.htm.

Al Qaeda. (10 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Qaeda.

Hizballah. (16 Jan. 2005). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hizballah.

Pike, J. (3 Nov. 2004). Al-Qa'ida (The Base). Retrieved January 16, 2005, at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm.
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Terrorist Phenomenon Has Changed the

Words: 1527 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32361163

egardless, the image of the United States was shaken by the success of the Al Qaeda.

From a security point-of-view, the existence of Al Qaeda triggered more vigilance among the security environment in the sense that it attracted the attention on the phenomenon of terrorism as a global threat that needs to be treated at the global level through mechanisms that in 2001 were not set in place. Therefore, a reconsideration of homeland security strategies was necessary. This in turn however affected all levels of the society, from increased security at the level of the president to the increased airport controls throughout the country and abroad. These tightened rules of security attracted scrutiny at the level of the ordinary people and accusations of infringing privacy were even articulated. Even so, the fight against terrorism has become, after 9/11 one of the primordial subjects on the agenda of world leaders.

eference…… [Read More]

Reference list

Buzan, B. (1991). People, States, and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. New York: Lynne Rienner Pub

Huntington, S. (1996) the Clash of Civilizations and the remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster.

PBS. (2010) Bill Moyers Journal: Brief history of Al Qaeda. Online at    http://www.pbs.org/moyers/journal/07272007/alqaeda.html   

Reuters. (2009). Analyst's view: Al Qaeda's strengths and weaknesses. Online at http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/06/19/us-security-qaeda-strength-weakness-sb-idUSTRE55I22Z20090619
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Drones Are They a National

Words: 3362 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 630814

As mentioned earlier, innocent men women and even children have become victim of these strikes. It was believed that in between 2004 and 2009, there have been a total of 344 strikes done. This number of strikes was under President Bush. Following that, under President Obama's presidency there were a total of 292 air strikes till 2012. It is quite obvious that the numbers have increased after President Obama came into power. This number of air strikes is not what it really is. The numbers have been cut down not only by the government of the United States but also the Pakistani government as well. The government under President Musharaff wished to hide many of the actual strikes that happened. (Priest, 2005) They mentioned it either as Pakistani military operations, accidental explosions or car bombs. A person on Musharaff's side reported saying that the President thought it would be less…… [Read More]

References

Aljazeera.com (2013). U.S. legal argument for drone strikes revealed. [online] Retrieved from:  http://www.aljazeera.com/news/americas/2013/02/20132517311796860.html  [Accessed: 18 Mar 2013].

Bergen, P. (2012). A dangerous new world of drones. CNN News, [online] October 8th. Retrieved from:  http://edition.cnn.com/2012/10/01/opinion/bergen-world-of-drones  [Accessed: 16th March 2013].

Bowcott, O. (2010). UN to examine UK and U.S. drone strikes. theguardian, [online] January 24th. Retrieved from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jan/24/un-examine-uk-afghanistan-drone-strikes [Accessed: 18th March 2013].

Drew, C. (2010). Drones Are Playing a Growing Role in Afghanistan . The New York Times, [online] February 19th. Retrieved from:  http://www.nytimes.com /2010/02/20/world/asia/20drones.html?_r=0 [Accessed: 18th March 2013].
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Profiling a Leader of a Non-State World Leader

Words: 3540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61156231

Profiling Nasir al-Wahishi

The author of this research proposal deigns to cover two basic research questions and issues within this report. First is the general subject of political profiling of current or possible future political leaders and the second is the more specific focus on the case of a man by the name of Nasir al-Wahishi. That particular man is the current proclaimed leader of al-Qaida in the Arab Peninsula, often referred to as AQAP for short. The research problem to be address in this proposal and, by extension, the approved study is the vexing nature of profiling political leaders, what they are capable of, how they control and motivate the people they proselytize to, how to predict who people will glom onto and who will be ignored and so forth. There is also the question of how to deal with "stateless" regimes and groups that exist. Some of these…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Altemeyer, Bob. 'Highly Dominating, Highly Authoritarian Personalities'. The Journal of Social Psychology 144, no. 4 (2004): 421-448.

Andeweg, Rudy B., and Steef B. Van Den Berg. 'Linking Birth Order To Political

Leadership: The Impact Of Parents Or Sibling Interaction?'. Political Psychology

24, no. 3 (2003): 605-623.
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Status and Power -- Terrorism

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 942366

In that regard, one of the most dramatic uses of this tactic enabled the Bush administration to obtain congressional authority to initiate a war against Iraq based on what were later proven to be deliberate falsehoods (BBC/Curtis, 2004).

Ironically, the fictional and manipulative elevation of al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden to such levels of importance in the ideological war against the West may have actually played a substantial role in increasing the importance, the influence, and the ability of each to attract more followers (BBC/Curtis, 2004). The U.S.-led war in Afghanistan also seems to have undermined the effort against al-Qaeda by helping to transform what had been an isolated civil war in that country into a region supporting bin Laden today (BBC/Curtis, 2004).

Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya

Al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya was originally an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood; it was the largest militant group in Egypt and once hoped to overthrow the Egyptian…… [Read More]

References

CIA. (1998). President's Daily Briefing -- "Bin Laden Preparing to Hijack U.S. Aircraft

and other Attacks" (December 4, 1998). Retrieved May 20, 2010 from:

http://www.foia.cia.gov/browse_docs_full.asp

Curtis a. (2004). BBC Documentary -- the Power of Nightmares: Part 3: The Shadows
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Terrorism a Profile of a

Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55569205

Establishing better relations with Jordan and Saudi Arabia, where the core leaders of the terrorist organizations were reared, as well as attempting to target the nations where the terrorist threats to the est are based, is another vital 'leg' of the current anti-terrorist aspect of the larger 'war' on terror. Even establishing pro-peace and tolerance websites for Muslims, rather than allowing young Muslims to be attracted to militant websites that promote terror could be a positive strategy that the governments of the est could embark upon with community leaders.

Other anti-terrorism tactics consist of conducting litigation against terrorist actors, or supporters of terrorism, such as the current formal trial of Saddam Hussein, conducted according to the protocols of international law. Providing adequate protection for civilians working, living, or traveling in terrorist prone areas, such as Iraq, and ensuring that public places and areas that would be attractive to terrorists are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Armond, Paul. "Rock, Paper, Scissors: Counter-terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and Terrorism." 1997. Accessed 25 Aug 2005. http://nwcitizen.com/publicgood/reports/rockpaperscissors / 'Iraqi Insurgency." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/iraq_insurgency.htm 

'Jamaat al-Tawhid wa'l-Jihad / Unity and Jihad Group Tanzim Qa'idat Al-Jihad in Bilad al-Rafidayn (Organization of Jihad's Base in the Country of the Two Rivers)." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/zarqawi.htm 

Mendenhall, Preston. "Alleged British Bombings Masterminds U.S. ties." Newsweek. 20 July 2005. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8647113/

"Text from Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi Letter." Global Security.org. 2003. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/2004/02/040212-al-zarqawi.htm
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Homeland Security and Emergency Management

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46569250

Longest War

Homeland Security & Emergency Management

M6A1: Book Review

Bergen, Peter. (2011). The longest war: The enduring conflict between America and al-Qaeda.

New York: Free Press.

As its title suggests, Peter Bergen's book, The longest war: The enduring conflict between America and al-Qaeda, is a chronicle of a war that defies the traditional conventions and definitions of warfare. The war of terror has no clear beginning and no clear end and has challenged many of the assumptions of how warfare is viewed and waged within the United States. It is a long war, an unending war, and even though the book was written before the killing of Osama bin Laden, the orchestrator of the attacks on the Twin Towers and the Pentagon, the war will continue to rage on so long as there are state and non-state enemies willing to attack the U.S. using the mechanisms of terrorism. The…… [Read More]

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U S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001

Words: 3011 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86839720

U.S. Approach to Terrorism

U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001

The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.

President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11

After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.

Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.

Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.

Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
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Cyber Terrorism & Information All

Words: 2274 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59545538

The increasing skill of these terrorists in using cyberspace has led some officials to believe that they are on the point of using computers for increasing bloodshed. This new threat is not similar to hackers' earlier using computers for passing viruses and worms. This has now reached a level of being able to reach the meeting point of computers and physical structures controlled by computers. The belief of analysts in U.S. is that they may try to disable or control floodgates in dams or electrical stations handling large quantities of power and through them destroy lives and property around them.

Though there is not much evidence, they believe that al Qaeda may be using these capacities with other weapons like explosives. The al Qaeda is known to have capacity to use other sites for their own benefit, and al Qaeda laptop in Afghanistan had visited the French site of Anonymous…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cyber-terrorism. (30 April, 2005) Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber-terrorismAccessed on 14 May, 2005

Gellman, Barton. (June 27, 2002) "Cyber-Attacks by Al Qaeda Feared" Washington Post. P: A01. Retrieved at http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A50765-2002Jun26?language=printerAccessed on 14 May, 2005

Lewis, James a. (December, 2002) "Assessing the Risks of Cyber Terrorism, Cyber War and Other Cyber Threats" Center for Strategic and International Studies. Retrieved at http://www.csis.org/tech/0211_lewis.pdf. Accessed on 14 May, 2005

O' Neil, Michael J. (2001) "Cyber-Terrorism: Case Study" Excerpt from Terrorism and the Law, by Yonah Alexander and Edgar H. Brenner, Editors. Transnational Publishers, Inc. Retrieved at http://www.terrorismcentral.com/Library/Teasers/ONeil.CyberT.html. Accessed on 14 May, 2005
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International Politics the Threat of

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91834848

In all cases there is the perception of the U.S. interfering in issues that should be dealt with locally, interfering to protect their own interest and to enforce their own values; a situation which leads to resistance. Terrorism may be argued as an action undertaken when people feel that they cannot be heard in another way.

This resistance has been seen in terrorist attacks which may be directly related to the associated with the U.S. foreign policy actions in the Middle East. In 1979 there was the Iran Hostage Crisis, when the U.S. embassy in Tehran was seized by Iranian demonstrators, demonstrating against U.S. policies. 52 U.S. staff were taken hostage; in a crisis which lasted 444 days (Houghton 74). The well-known terrorist attacks of 9/11 may also be seen as relating to the actions and perceptions of the U.S. In the Middle East, with Al Qaeda objecting to the…… [Read More]

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Terrorism Justified According to Purpura 2007 Terrorism

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60203145

Terrorism Justified?

According to Purpura (2007), terrorism as a term does not have a fixed definition. This effectively means that its usage and application is largely hinged on a myriad of viewpoints, be they political or religious. In this text, I concern myself with terrorism; its justification, usage and application.

The Use of Terrorism by Powerful Governments to Delegitimize Less Powerful Governments

Though terrorism cannot be seen to be a wholly biased term formulated by powerful governments solely to delegitimize those states having insignificant political or economic clout, there are instances where governments at a national level utilize terror so as to advance a well defined agenda. It therefore follows that though in most cases it is the "non-state actors" who are blamed for terror, powerful governments also utilize terror to stifle dissent or further diplomatic efforts as well as state policies abroad.

Terrorism as "War by Other Means"

It…… [Read More]

References

Osama Bin Laden (1996, August 23). Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holly Places: A Message from Osama Bin Muhammad Bin Laden to his Muslim Brethren All Over the World Generally and in the Arab Peninsula Specifically. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from the Terrorism Files Website:  http://www.terrorismfiles.org/individuals/declaration_of_jihad1.html 

Purpura, P.P. (2007). Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Smilansky, S. (2004). Terrorism, Justification and Illusion. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from: http://philo.haifa.ac.il/staff/smilansky/Ethics%20terrorism.pdf
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War in Afghanistan Is Visibly

Words: 2995 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54386899

S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.

3.1.3 Power sharing agreements

In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…… [Read More]

References

Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.

Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.

Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.

Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3]
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Guerrilla Warfare Counterinsurgency Directly Apply Post-9 11 Terrorist

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60852149

guerrilla warfare counterinsurgency directly apply post-9/11 terrorist problem faced U.S. 2.

Literature on guerrilla warfare and counterinsurgency, as well as the very denotation of the former term, applies to post-9/11 terrorism combated by the United States since it defines the very nature of that struggle. The intensely covert forms of Islamic militant terrorist tactics, such as those carried out by insurgents in Iraq or those attempted by Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab, include the elements of surprise that have come to typify the war measures of such groups, and which are inherently part of guerrilla warfare strategy.

Several reports in news media have claimed that the presence of the United States in Iraq and the subsequent war efforts of the former nation have actually adversely affected the war on terror, and have allowed for the spread of the Islamic militancy terrorist movement, which in turn has enabled al Qaeda the chance to…… [Read More]

References

Associate Press. (2009). Iraq War Made Terror Worse. CBS News World. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/09/24/iraq/main2036338.shtml

Metz, S. (2006). Learning from Iraq: Counterinsurgency in American Strategy. U.S. Army Strategic Studies Institute monograph. Retrieved from  http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=752 , retrieved June 1, 2007

Megan K. Stack (2001). "Fighters Hunt Former Ally." articles.latimes.com. Retrieved from  http://articles.latimes.com/2001/dec/06/news/mn-12224
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History of Terrorism Historical Depictions

Words: 2856 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73288397



There is a little known revolution being conducted along the French and Spanish borders, where, until just before orld ar II, in 1937, Basque people lived in what was referred to as "Basque Country," perceived by them to be their country (Nunez Astrain, Louis and Stephens, Meic, 1997, p. 1). hile the Basque movement probably is one of the least known and reported on movements, it does occasionally make it to the papers when the level of violence is such that it draws widespread attention.

Basque attaches such importance to his language that he defines himself by his ability to speak it, that is to say, in linguistic terms. He does not refer to himself in terms of race or tribe, or religion, or geographical locality, but exclusively in relationship to his language. In the Basque language, in order to convey that someone is a Basque, one says that he…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675918

Astrain, Luis Nunez. The Basques: Their Struggle for Independence. Trans. Meic Stephens. Cardiff, Wales: Welsh Academic Press, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97675920.

A www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128

Evans, Martin. The Memory of Resistance: French Opposition to the Algerian War (1954-1962). Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1997. Questia. 18 Apr. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=76801128.
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Terrorism Global Terrorism the Purpose

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1269938



Brief Analysis: The three suspects are all Islamic, two were German converts to the belief, and one was a Turkish Muslim. They all supported Al Qaeda, and had a "deep hatred" for Americans. The Germans found them largely because they were discovered spying on an American military base on New Year's Eve of 2006. Authorities have been tracking their movements closely ever since. Their bombs had the potential to be more deadly than those used in the Madrid and London terrorist bombings, and they had detonators and other equipment necessary to conduct mayhem on many locations.

While the three suspects were caught, many officials believe there are up to ten more supporters still at large in Germany and in other countries. Most officials fear terrorist attacks on September 11, 2007, to "commemorate" the terrorist attacks in the Eastern United States in 2001. It seems the Al Qaeda network is determined…… [Read More]

References

Eddy, M. (2007). Germany searching for 10 terror suspects. Retrieved from the ABC News.com Website: http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=35650186 Sept. 2007.

Editors. (2007). Germany searching for 10 men behind plot. Retrieved from the Reuters.com Web site: http://uk.reuters.com/article/topNews/idUKL06403567200709066 Sept. 2007.

McHugh, D. (2007). 3 terror suspects arrested in Germany. Retrieved from the Forbes.com Web site: http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2007/09/05/ap4082577.html6 Sept. 2007.
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Great War for Civilisation The

Words: 1969 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48624232

Both Palestine and Israel experienced serious losses as a result of the divergences between the two countries.

Chapter 13 focuses on a series of matters and particularly on media's influence on the world in regard to the Palestine-Israel conflict. The estern world stood indifferent as the two countries starting fighting for the territory and caused significant damage. In spite of the fact that society came to perceive Palestinians as terrorists as a result of their determination to recover their lost lands, their power grew in the recent years, most probably as a result of the fact that they developed a feeling of respect for their cause.

3. The Choirs of Kandahar is essentially a continuation of Chapter 2.

4. The Carpet-eavers begins with the United States' and Great Britain's successful overthrow of the democratically elected prime minister of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddeq. From there, it moves on to the events leading…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fisk, Robert, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East
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Terrorism Shares Features in Common With Irregular

Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27244160

Terrorism shares features in common with irregular warfare, insurgency, and crime. Like crime, terrorism violates the law and infringes on the rights of others. Like insurgency, terrorism "appeals as a weapon of the weak," (Arquilla, onfelt & Zanini 1999, p. 134). Similarly, Arquilla et al. (1999) note that terrorism "has appealed as a way to assert identity and command attention," (p. 134). Like irregular warfare, terrorism is asynchronous and asymmetrical, not ascribing to the rules of war. However, terrorism is unique in that "today's enemy is not a state but a transnational, non-state actor" that uses warfare that is "not traditional…elusive…and…exploits…industrial and technological advantages," (Howard n.d.). As Howard (n.d.) points out, terrorism more resembles a virus than anything else (p. 123). Moreover, terrorism involves ideology and paradigms that underwrite its existence: in the case of al Qaeda a pseudo-religious doctrine. The goals of terrorism are farther-reaching and more global than…… [Read More]

References

Arquilla, J. Ronfeldt, D. & Zanini, M. (1999). Networks and Netwar, and Information-Age Terrorism.

Howard, R.D. (n.d.). Preemptive Military Doctrine: No Other Choice.

Weimann, G. (2004). How modern terrorism uses the internet. United States Institute of Peace: Special Report.
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Terrorist Organizations Exploitable Weakness in

Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52535191



Alien Absconder Apprehension Initiative

The goal of the alien absconder apprehension initiative was basically to increase intelligence opportunity by interrogating middle easterners. The goal was partially attained as many Arab descent people in the U.S. were detained and deported as an implication of the Alien Absconder Apprehension initiative. Within a time span of one to two years, almost 1300 fugitives were detained and deported due to which the likelihood of crime occurrence became low. However, the concentration was on the Arabs only, while it should have been on other descents as well (Miller, 2012).

Although the Alien Absconder Apprehension Initiative is well appreciated by most of the people, it has its drawbacks as well. Many innocent visitors were deported based on doubts of them being potential terrorists within the country.

About Point of Failure (POF)

A point of failure can be identified by certain conditions such as a loop of…… [Read More]

References

Bolz, F.J., Dudonis, K.J., & Schulz, D.P. (2001). The Counter Terrorism Handbook. New York: CRC Press LLC .

Cohn, E.G., Farrington, D.P., & Wright, R.A. (1998). Evaluating Criminology and Criminal Justice. Westport: Greenwood Press.

FBI. (2012, September 5). USA Patriot Act Ammendments to Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Authorities. Retrieved from FBI - the Federal Bureau of Investication: http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/usa-patriot-act-amendments-to-foreign-intelligence-surveillance-act-authorities

Miller, T.A. (2012, September 5). Blurring the boundaries between immigration and crime control after September 11. Retrieved from Boston College: http://www.bc.edu/dam/files/schools/law/lawreviews/journals/bctwj/25_1/04_TXT.htm
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Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next

Words: 5067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10464176

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack

Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New

York:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).

Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
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Why We Went to War With Iraq

Words: 1304 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61882076

War in Iraq

Should we have gone to war with Iraq based on the reasons given at the time the war started? When we went to war with Iraq, ush gave three reasons for doing so. First, he claimed that Saddam Hussein had ties to al-Qaeda (Richelson, p. 44, p. 69). Secondly, he said that Saddam Hussein at the very minimum was attempting to acquire nuclear weapons and in fact might have already gotten them. Third, he claimed that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction (WMD).

Of the three claims, the third one regarding WMD was instantly believable, because American news had been full of pictures of dead Kurds, citizens of Iraq, killed with Iraq's chemical weapons. Hussein had used WMD's in the past on his own citizens, and so it seemed likely that he could easily use them on people he regarded as enemies of his country. In addition,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barry, Tom and Jim Lobe. 2002. "U.S. Foreign Policy -- Attention, Right Face, Forward March." Foreign Policy in Focus, April. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://www.fpif.org/papers/02right/

CNN. 2003. "Bush sends Iraq war letter to Congress." CNN Edition Inside Politics. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04  http://www.cnn.com/2003/ALLPOLITICS/03/19/sprj.irq.bush/ 

Cochran, John. 2004. "Corroborating O'Neill's Account." ABC News, Jan. 13. Accessed via the Internet 4/8/04. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/wnt/U.S./oneill_charges_040113.html

Richelson, Jeffrey.2004. "Iraq and Weapons of Mass Destruction." National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 80. Feb. 11. Accessed via the Internet 4/15/04. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB80/
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Security on Commercial Flights Describe Two 2

Words: 774 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80010334

Security on Commercial Flights

Describe two (2) lapses in pre-flight security that contributed to the ease of the hijacking operation on September 11, 2001

Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States of America evaluated the security of the commercial Airline Industry. Major security lapses gave way for terrorists to board commercial flights, which finally led to the aircrafts' hijacking and demise.

The first lapse that contributed to terrorist attack is President Bill Clinton's ignorance. U.S. administration under the leadership of President Bill Clinton ignored warning signs that Osama bin Laden and al Qaida organization was planning a terrorist attack on United States. Osama Bin Laden claimed responsibility of various attacks on U.S. Militaries deployed in various countries, such as Sudan and Soviet Union aimed at fighting the rising terrorist groups (Oliver, 2006).

The failure of the Intelligence Community is another lapse that contributed to the attack.…… [Read More]

Reference

Oliver, W. (2006). Homeland security for policing (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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Homeland Defense Terrorism Domestic Counter

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8180102

These teams are called in to deal with highly dangerous and threatening situations, including terrorist attacks. Some of the "special operations" tactics that may be employed to deal with active shooters, barricades, and hostage situations include: three or four man entries using shields, power flooding for "large structure clearing," mobile hostage rescues, "linear entry techniques," and vehicle takedowns (Navy Seals, 2010).

eapons of Mass Destruction

eapons of mass destruction (MD) include any weapons that can cause catastrophic damage or destruction to a large number of people, structures, organizations, or the environment. Examples include bombs, nuclear, chemical, radiological, or biological weapons. Due to the catastrophic threats posed by MD, in 2006 the FBI launched the eapons of Mass Destruction Directorate (MDD) to further integrate agency efforts for better prevention against MD attack.

Terrorism group, (International or Domestic)

Terrorists most often operate from within radical groups with political motivations. ithin the United…… [Read More]

With America's increasing dependence upon the Internet for storage and retrieval of critical information, and the use of computers to direct and make critical decisions, terrorists have more and more opportunities to hack or otherwise sabotage the Internet and cost human lives (as well as lots of money) as a result. While many people believe the threat of lost lives from a cyber attack is minimal, experts warn that the danger must be taken seriously, because "servers in the United States are the most aggressively targeted information systems in the world, with attacks increasing in severity, frequency, and sophistication each year" (CDI, 2011). Malicious computer users are becoming more skilled day-to-day, so defensive measures against these attacks must increase in strength and remain vigilant at all times. Cyber-terrorism threats can involve banks, hospitals, and government agencies; motivations include profit, general harm, or even assassination. While the U.S. has only experienced minor attacks, other countries such as the Ukraine and Estonia have suffered more massive attacks (CDI, 2011).

Bin Laden and Al Qaeda

Osama Bin Laden established his terrorist group, Al Qaeda, in 1988; it's "goals were the advancement of Islamic revolutions throughout the Muslim world and repelling foreign intervention in the Middle East" (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden's efforts began with fights against the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, and he always had access to large sums of money as the son of a Saudi Arabian billionaire. After the Gulf Wars began, Al Qaeda became involved in terrorist activities against U.S. involvement in the Middle East, particularly the presence of American troops in Islamic holy lands (ADL, 2011). Bin Laden began to align with other terrorist groups, and in 1996 moved back to Afghanistan and joined forces with the Taliban (ADL, 2011). Attacks continued over the years since then, until the culmination of Al Qaeda's efforts in the 9/11 terrorist attacks -- in which nearly 3,000 innocent people lost their lives
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Terrorist Group Factors for Formation and Continued Operations

Words: 2787 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38291069

Hezbollah

The Formation and Perpetuation of Hezbollah: Successful Politics and Successful Terrorism

The decade following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City has seen some dramatic changes in U.S. And global policy towards terrorist groups and terrorist action, and to public sentiment and attitude regarding these groups and their actions, as well. From the semi-official War on Terror to the recent "Arab Spring" and the attendant turmoil in the Middle East, the global context within which terrorism exists -- the way in which the world responds to terrorism and the way in which terrorist organizations present themselves to the world -- has changed dramatically in the recent past. This has necessitated certain changes amongst terrorist organizations, or those organizations labeled as terrorists by the international community, that hope to remain viable and relevant forces in the modern world. Though it can be impolitic to discuss…… [Read More]

References

Baranovich, Nadia, and Ravichandran Moorthy. "The Dynamics of Terror Strategies by Hezbollah and Hamas in the Israel-Palestine Conflict." Tamkang Journal of International Affairs 14, no. 4 (2011): 28-61.

Byman, Daniel. "Should Hezbollah be next?" Foreign Affairs (2003): 54-66.

Cohen, Ariel. "Knowing the Enemy." Policy Review 145 (2007): 40-53.

Feldman, Shai. "The Hezbollah-Israel War: A Preliminary Assessment." Middle East Brief 10, no. 2 (2006).
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September 11 and the New Emerging International

Words: 4078 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83500963

eptember 11 and the New Emerging International Order America and Europe in the New World Order

This is a paper that outlines the international order in American and Europe in the formation of New World Order. It has 11 sources.

As the War in Iraq takes place, and people hope for a quick end to all conflicts around them there is deep thought continuously being given to the emergence of a new world order. People aren't really sure in which direction military conflicts are going to talk them. Most people are afraid, and they are rightly so, because presently nothing is certain at all.

IT seems on one hand there is a dominant American nationalist move to take control gradually of all the weaker countries that it might be able to exploit. On the other hand it is hardly seems likely that Europe would stand by and watch the Americans…… [Read More]

Sources:

Mcguire, Stryker. And Meyer, Michael. Is This the New World Order? Newsweek International. 2003. http://stacks.msnbc.com/news/882701.asp?cp1=1

The North Atlantic Treaty, 2002 http://www.nato.int/welcome/home.htm#

Kant, Immanuel. Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch. 1795 http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/kant/kant1.htm

Power and Weakness by Robert Kagan: http://www.policyreview.org/JUN02/kagan.html
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Elf Earth Liberation Front Elf Elf Logo

Words: 2984 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25233009

ELF

Earth Liberation Front (ELF)

ELF Logo 2009 (Earth Liberation Front, N.d.)

Eco-Terrorism Overview

Examples of Eco-Terrorism Groups

The Earth Liberation Front

If a Tree Falls in the oods: A Story of the Earth Liberation Front (Documentary)

There are many people and/or groups who claim responsibility for the Earth Liberation Front's (ELF) development. The group is comprised of loosely affiliated or autonomous cells that are only bound by the idea that they can move beyond civil disobedience and accept more contentious tactics for the defense of their environmental causes. This group was one of the groups that helped coined the label of an "eco-terrorist" which later became mainstream label of such types of offenders. The ELF group was considered one of the first eco-terrorist groups and was at one time labeled by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) as the most dangerous domestic terror group in the United States.

This…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Earth Liberation Front. (N.d.). Earth Liberation Front. Retrieved from Earth Liberation Front:  http://earth-liberation-front.com/ 

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (N.d.). Definitions of Terrorism in the U.S. Code. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/terrorism/terrorism-definition

Jarboe, J. (2002, February 12). Testimony Before the House Resources Committee, Subcommittee on Forests and Forest Health. Retrieved from Federal Bureau of Investigation: http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/the-threat-of-eco-terrorism

Libcom.org. (2012, January 12). If a tree falls: A story of the Earth Liberation Front (documentary). Retrieved from Libcom.org:  http://libcom.org/blog/if-tree-falls-story-earth-liberation-front-documentary-12012012
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Soviet-Afgan War Conflict Analysis Focus

Words: 5116 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10933340

(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)

Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."

[26] Contrary…… [Read More]

Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .

United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
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Looming Tower by Lawrence Wright

Words: 835 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47270377

From prison, Qutb regenerated the secret apparatus and Saudi Arabia supplied the group with arms and money. Qutb was betrayed, however, and six months after he was released from prison, he was arrested again for a plot to overthrow the Egyptian government. He was sentenced to death by hanging for his radical views and accepted his fate with pride. His anger inspired Zawahiri and, in due course, influenced Osama bin Laden.

Qutb's death paved the way for more Rabie al-Zawahiri, a professor. His son, Ayman, grew up to be a rebellious, self-righteous man with "headstrong qualities that would invariably be associated with him in the future and that would propel him into conflict with nearly everyone he would meet" (37). Zawahiri was the perfect man to put Qutb's vision into action. At 15 years of age, he formed an underground cell "devoted to overthrowing the government and establishing an Islamic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wright, Lawrence. The Looming Tower. New York: Alfred a Knopf, 2006.
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Ending the Outreach of Terrorist Organizations

Words: 371 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74740830

Dr. Jones' testimony in detail, providing examples of how the facts that he presents have had an impact on your own pre-conceived ideas and perceptions. How did Dr. Jones' testimony alter your opinions on exploiting weaknesses and what would you change about our efforts against international terror groups like al-Qaeda and al-Shabaab?

According to Dr. Jones, rather than solely focusing on how terrorist groups begin, there should be equal attention devoted in the literature to how they end. esearch indicates that the most common methods of termination are localized ways, either incorporating the group into the political process or using local intelligence agencies to kill critical members. Outside military force or, conversely, the group using force to achieve victory, is extremely rare (Jones 2008:1). Interestingly, while religious groups tend to be less likely to achieve victory, they are also amongst the most difficult to eliminate. Also, when terrorist groups become…… [Read More]

References

Jones, S. (2008). Defeating terrorist groups. RAND. Retrieved from:

 http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/testimonies/2008/RAND_CT314.pdf
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Changing Paradigm in International Policing

Words: 8998 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87743756

The lack of action over Rwanda should be the defining scandal of the presidency ill Clinton. Yet in the slew of articles on the Clinton years that followed Clinton's departure from power, there was barely a mention of the genocide."

The UN, pressured by the ritish and the U.S., and others, refused to use the word "genocide" during the event, or afterward when it issued its official statement of condemnation of the genocide in Rwanda.

Since that time, ill Clinton has said that Rwanda is one of his regrets of his presidency, but that he lacked the information to "fully grasp what was going on in Rwanda."

Reports to the UN and its member states, as reported by William Ferroggiaro (1995), online at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAE/NSAE119/index.htm, were based on reports via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), said that there was a "probability" of certain individuals and groups being responsible for certain…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, D.L. The Columbia Guide to the Vietnam War. Columbia University Press, New York, 2002. p. 232.

Brahimi. L, Report of the Panel on United Nations Peace Operations (2000), found at     http://www.un.org  /  peace/reports/peace_operations/, accessed on 09 May 2010.

Demaggio, a.R. Mass Media, Mass Propaganda: Examining American News in the "War on Terror. 2008, p. 236.

Department of Peacekeeping Operations Department of Field Support, United Nations Peacekeeping Operations Principles and Guidelines (2010), found at http://www.peacekeepingbestpractices.unlb.org/Pbps/Library/Capstone_Doctrine_ENG.pdf, accessed on 09 May 2010.
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Terrorism Who The U S Congress

Words: 484 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17428690

As reported by the New York Times

How: A Pakistani man accused of aiding Al Qaeda who was imprisoned in his home country for three years, has been released by the government.

Brief Analysis: The connections of Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan to terrorism are debated, as the CIA alleges he has been involved in terrorist activity but Pakistani officials have said that information from Mr. Khan led them to a Tanzanian wanted in connection with the 1998 bombings of American embassies in East Africa, which killed more than 200 people. They say he is not a terrorist, but merely had knowledge of the event, and thus upon gaining this information, he was released. This highlights how the international nature of terrorist organizations and the conflicting policies of nations in dealing with terrorists make it even more difficult to combat this threat.

orks Cited

Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Al. (23 Aug 2007). "Critics Say Lessons from 9/11 Were Not Followed in Deutsche Bank Blaze." The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at  http://www.nytimes.com /2007/08/22/nyregion/22fire.html?n=Top%2fReference%2fTimes%20Topics%2fSubjects%2fT%2fTerrorism

Pakistan Releases a Man Accused of Aiding Al Qaeda." (21 Aug 2007). The New York

Times. Retrieved 21 Aug 2007 at
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CCTV the Incursion of Technology

Words: 4289 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79735708

these little slivers of plastic provide commerce at the swipe of a wrist, but every time that card is swiped, the time, date, location, value, and often the items of a purchase are recorded several times over, by banks, credit card companies, superstores, fashion chains, transport industries, and many other points on the economic tree (Trango, n.d.). These details, over time, can and are used to create a 'picture' of you and your buying habits; Can you be trusted to pay back a loan? What times do you usually come into a store? Do you take public transport because you can or because its cheaper? What bra size are you? All of these details can be correlated over time, and can often then be sold onto third parties for marketing purposes, and, depending on where you are, that information can all be sold including your name and address. (The EU…… [Read More]

References

1. Schenkel, G. (2009, September 17). Livewave cctv system. Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/privacy/privacy_pia_ice_livewave.pdf

2. Trango, . (n.d.). Wireless surveillance systems & homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.trangobroadband.com/solutions/security-surveillance-cctv-systems.aspx

3. Ng, K. (2010, April 20). Why Cctv is a priority for asian homeland security. Retrieved from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2010/apr/20/cctv-priority-asian-govts/

4. Post, . (2002). Cctv. POSTNOTE, (175), Retrieved from  http://www.parliament.uk/documents/post/pn175.pdf  http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/news/article-23412867-tens-of-thousands-of-cctv-cameras-yet-80-of-crime-unsolved.do
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Geopolitical Analysis of China From

Words: 3969 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85714287

America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.

It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…… [Read More]

References

Barber, BR 1992 "Jihad vs. McWorld," the Atlantic Monthly 269, no. 3 (March 1992): 53 -- 65.

Cohen, MA, 2011, 'Think Again: The Two State Solution', Foreign Policy, Viewed on 18 June 2013, [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/09/14/think_again_the_two_state_solution]

Gettleman, J 2010, 'Africa's Forever Wars,' Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010.

Gilboy, GJ and Read, BL 2008, 'Political and Social Reform in China,' Washington Quarterly, summer 2008, pg 143-164.
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Is Predicting Terrorism a Beneficial Proposition for Intelligence for Counter-Terrorism Stakeholders

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21669964

Counterintelligence and Predicting Terrorism

Sovereign states have always had a vested interest in accurately predicting the course of future events, from the ancient espionage of medieval courts to the advanced intelligence agencies used today, but the process of anticipating and neutralizing threats on a preemptive basis has proven to be exceedingly difficult in the age of modern terrorism. Western powers explicitly targeted by Al-Qaeda and other jihadist organizations, including the United States, Great Britain, and other industrialized nations, have been forced to exist in a state of perpetual tension, knowing that the next spectacularly-scaled attack is inevitable but lacking the specific foresight needed to prevent its occurrence. With billions of dollars being invested annually to fund counterterrorism intelligence operations, and scant evidence that these efforts have constituted an efficient and effective use of valuable resources, many governments have begun to reassess this philosophy of preventative vigilance. The incredible complexity of…… [Read More]

References

Kluger, Jeffrey. "Why We Worry About The Things We Shouldn't And Ignore The Things

We Should." TIME Magazine, November 26, 2006, http://ksuweb.kennesaw.edu/~shagin/080923risk.pdf (accessed February 16, 2013).

McNeill, Jenna B., James J. Carafano and Jessica Zuckerman. "30 Terrorist Plots Foiled: How

the System Worked." The Heritage Foundation Backgrounder # 2405, 11-19, http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2010/04/30-terrorist-plots-foiled-how-the-system-worked (accessed February 15, 2013).
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Resolving the American War in Afghanistan the

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76003211

Resolving the American ar in Afghanistan

The oft repeated lament of philosophers from Tromph to Twain holds that "history repeats itself," and perhaps no human endeavor serves to exemplify this metaphysical maxim as clearly as the pursuit of war. The recurrence of regional conflicts between bitter neighbors, the overwhelming tragedy inflicted on both the victor and the vanquished, all aspects of war other than the weaponry employed are beholden to history's own vicious cycle. In his eerily prescient analysis of America's calamitous excursion into the jungles of Vietnam, entitled The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam during the Kennedy Era, war correspondent and author David Halberstam demonstrates the inexorable influence of historic recurrence on modern events. Although only thirty years of age at the time of his reporting, Halberstam harnesses lessons learned through centuries of human conflict, focusing his penetrating perceptive skills on the defining event of his era:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Halberstam, David. The Making of a Quagmire: America and Vietnam During the Kennedy Era. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publisher's, Inc., 1965. Print.
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Islam and Politics the Islamic

Words: 2281 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67614134



There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.

Question

In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.

According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004

Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89

Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi

Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005
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Predominantly Latino Gangs Mara Salvatrucha

Words: 17380 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44825476



Government

Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.

Importance of the Study

The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…… [Read More]

References

Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.

Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,

2006 from  http://www.CNSNews.com .

Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
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War in Iraq

Words: 3714 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48792839

invasion and occupation of Iraq from three different perspectives. Firstly, the paper provides a historical background pertaining to the interest of energy-hungry countries such as France, America and Britain. The paper also provides a brief background of the relationship of Iraq with its neighbors and how oil has turned out to be a major source of attraction for the imperial powers. Secondly, the paper provides an in-depth perspective of the ongoing war in Iraq from an economic perspective. The paper briefly reveals the unstable relationship of Iraq with its neighbors. The paper also reveals the importance of the Iraqi oil reserves in the war waged on Iraq and how the American and European companies have lobbied with George Bush and Tony Blair to get contracts worth billions of dollars. Thirdly, the paper studies the political aspects of this war. The paper focuses on the impact that democracy and the recent…… [Read More]

References

(1) Abbas Alnasrawi. Oil, Sanctions Debt and the Future. Arab Studies Quarterly, Vol. 23, 2001.

(2) Ibid, 1.

(3) Dr. Ferruh Demirmen. Oil in Iraq: The Byzantine Beginnings. Global Policy Forum. April 25, 2003.

(4) Michael Dobbs. U.S. Had Key Role in Iraq Buildup. Washington Post. December 30, 2002.
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Blackwater the Private Contractor Dilemma

Words: 3059 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67030567

Vermont's Junior Senator, Bernard Sanders introduced to the Senate the Stop Outsourcing Security Act S. 2398. The Stop Outsourcing Security Act will help solve the lack of oversight of contractors in Iraq by requiring that by June 2008, "the President shall submit to each specified congressional committee a report on the status of planning for the transition away from the use of private contractors for mission critical or emergency essential functions by January 1, 2009, in all conflict zones in which Congress has authorized the use of force" (s 2398). This bill will examine contractor activities and ensure that renewals will only happen if the president certifies that contractors have undergone background checks and are clear of any crimes that could lead to additional problems with their work in the future. It will also allow congress to have access to information of private military companies including, the number of persons…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Addicott, Jeffrey F. "Contractors on the "Battlefield": Providing Adequate Protection, Anti-Terrorism Training, and Personnel Recovery for Civilian Contractors Accompanying the Military in Combat and Contingency Operations." Houston Journal of International Law 28.2 (2006): 323. Questia. 16 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015737160.

Broder, John M. "Report critical of guard firm; Blackwater sought to cover up Iraq shootings, study finds." 3 October 2007: 4. Lexis Nexis 13 June 2008. http://www.lexisnexis.com/us/lnacademic/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T3963560559&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T3963560562&cisb=22_T3963560561&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=8357&docNo=5

Greenwald, Robert "Iraq for Sale" (Documentary Film) 2005 Information Website:  http://iraqforsale.org/ 

Krugman, Paul. "Hired Gun Fetish." The New York Times. A29. 28 September 2007. Proquest. 5 July 2008. http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?index=0&did=1343375061&SrchMode=1&sid=2&Fmt=3&VInst=PROD&VType=PQD&RQT=309&VName=PQD&TS=1215612063&clientId=27893
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Extraordinary Rendition the Costs of

Words: 6889 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32847680

In other words, up until the middle of the 19th century, there were no cases of note or significance that indicated that the executive branch of the UNITED STATES government had the authority to render suspects or criminals to foreign locations outside of the explicit authority granted through a signed treaty with a foreign government.

It was during the Civil War that the first major break with this established legal tradition was made. The incident involved the capture of a foreign citizen in New York City during wartime and performed by presidential authority alone. The man captured was Jose Augustin Arguelles, a Spanish subject, who captured illegal slave traders, claimed a reward, then sold the slaves to plantation owners. Under Spanish law he was a criminal, but the United States had no extradition treaty with Spain. Despite having no legal authority to do so, Lincoln authorized the capture of the…… [Read More]

References

Elsea, J.K. And Kim, J. (2007, January 23). Undisclosed UNITED STATES detention sites overseas: background and legal issues. CRS Report for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Retrieved November 29, 2007, at http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/RL33643.pdf

Grey, S. (2005, December 19). Torture's tipping point. New Statesman, pp. 24-25.

Grey, S. (2006, November 20). Missing presumed tortured. New Statesman, pp. 12-15.

Gutierrez, D. (2006, January-February). The extraordinary cruelty of "extraordinary rendition." The Humanist, pp. 11-15.
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Anaconda Operation Anaconda There Were

Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25896227

Part of the reason this chain of command was both so complex and so ambiguous -- many officers involved in the operation later expressed confusion as to exactly who reported to whom, and where commands were originating -- was that General Frank of CENTCOM had strictly limited the amount of forward deployed command staff and resources he wanted moved to the Shahikot Valley (Grossman 2004; Lambeth 2005). Even without this forward deployed command, however, clearer and better publicized chains of command issuing directly from CENTCOM could have been created, or a single forward deployed coordinating and command unit could have been established. Both alternatives would have been more effective than the command system that was put into place, however haphazardly and unbeknownst to many officers even after the fact.

Given the number of foreign powers attempting to rest control of the area away from stabilizing forces, General Frank's restraint is…… [Read More]

References

Lambeth, Benjamin S. Air Power Against Terror: America's Conduct of Operation Enduring Freedom. Chapter Five. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND, 2005.

Grossman, Elaine. Was Operation Anaconda ill-fated from the start? Inside the Pentagon. (July 29, 2004):http://di.net/grossman/army_analyst_blames.htm.
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Terrorism Global Terrorism Issues Who

Words: 692 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68877228



hat: Arrests are made in connection with planned terrorist attacks.

here: Germany

hen: September 5, 2007

How: Police say that there are ten more "terror plotters" still being sought in connection with the alleged plot.

Brief Analysis: Three men - terrorists - were arrested on suspicion of plotting to kill hundreds of people in German bars, airports, and restaurants where Americans are known to frequent. "They were motivated by hatred of America," according to Jorg Ziercke, president of the Federal Criminal Investigation Agency, quoted through an article in the Times (Boyes, 2007). The police believe that these terrorists were planning on using 750 kilos of hydrogen peroxide to blow up restaurants, bars, and facilities in the airport in Berlin. The real story behind the arrests (besides the fact that an estimate ten more terrorists who were part of this "cell" are being hunted) is that this was a "home-grown" operation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyes, Roger. (2007, September 6). Ten Terror Plotters Still on the Run in Germany.

The Times Online, Retrieved September 6, 2007, at http://www.timesonline.co.uk.

Mazzetti, Mark. (2007, August 7). A Spy Chief's Political Education. The New York Times,

Retrieved September 6, 2007, at  http://www.nytimes.com .
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Defense Agency Department of Defense

Words: 1943 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40298090

They believe that the information was there for the asking, but that DHS did not have the individuals on the ground that could ask.

Since that time, of course, there has been billions of dollars poured into DHS, DIA and the CIA. The DIA's three centers have become more refined and defined. Those three centers as they exist today, consists of: The National Military Production Center, the National Military Intelligence Collection Center, and the National Military Intelligence Systems Center. Each of the three has specific jobs and responsibilities as well as the objective to effectively coordinate information flow between the three centers.

According to Polmar, The National Military Production Center is responsible for producing and managing military intelligence, including assessments of aerospace, maritime and ground forces of foreign forces as well as threat assessment.

The National Military Intelligence Collection Center does exactly what it sounds like, that is it; manages…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beal, Clifford (2006) Chronic Underfunding of U.S. HUMINT Plays Role in Intelligence Failures, http://www.janes.com/security/international_security/news/jdw/jdw010911_1_n.shtml, Accessed August 21, 2006

Polmar, Norman and Allen, Thomas B. (1997) Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage. New York: Random House

Powers, Thomas. (2002) Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda. New York: The New York Review of Books
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Terrorism How Does Terrorism Affect Children Children

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55134687

Terrorism

How does terrorism affect children?

Children are often the victims of terrorism, and sometimes die in terrorist attacks (Dyson, 2001). When children witness or survive a terrorist attack, psychological ramifications like post-traumatic stress disorder may result (Hall, 2003). In some cases, children lose their loved ones and their lives may be turned upside down by terrorist attacks as all that is familiar to them -- schools, family, homes, community -- are destroyed (FBI, 2007). The war on terrorism can also affect the lives of children, as the media perpetuates a culture of fear. Children may, for example, be raised to be suspicious of people of different races or ethnicities because their parents, teachers, and the media perpetuate stereotypes about who is and who is not a terrorist.

What makes "martyrdom" such an effective tool for terrorists? Discuss in terms of social construction.

Suicide bombings and other examples of terrorist…… [Read More]

References

Dyson, W.E. (2001). Terrorism: An investigator's handbook. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2007). Retrieved March 25, 2007, from www.fbi.gov.

Gunaratna, R. (2002), Inside Al Qaeda: Global network of terror. New York: Berkley Books.

Hall, H.V. (2003). Introduction: Psychological study of terrorism. Journal of Threat Assessment 2(3), 1-8.
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Freedom and Terrorism Online

Words: 3136 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27373214

policy makers underestimate internet independence?

YouTube independence of positing video content

The internet moderated terrorism

egulating the internet for anti-terrorism

Freedom and Terrorism on the Internet

The purpose of the study is to explore the use of internet by terrorist organizations and the degree of independence that terrorist enjoy while conducting and coordinating their terrorism activities from the cyberspace. The topic is an area of interest for the researcher as it is significantly relevant in today's environment when cross-border terrorism has increased. As part of the academic and citizen world, the researcher feels it is essential to gauge the scale and severity of terrorism moderated by internet sources.

Audience

The main audiences of the research paper are academic instructors, research students of cyber security and government policy makers who can influence to control terrorism originating from the freedom of internet use for every user irrespective of the underlying motive.

1.2…… [Read More]

References

Amble, J.C. (2012). Combating terrorism in the new media environment.Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35(5), 339-353.

Brinkerhoff, J.M. (2006). Digital diasporas and conflict prevention: the case of Somalinet. com. Review of International Studies, 32(1), 25-47.

Crilley, K. (2001, September). Information warfare: new battle fields Terrorists, propaganda and the Internet. In Aslib Proceedings (Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 250-264). MCB UP Ltd.

Denning, D.E. (2009). Terror's web: How the internet is transforming terrorism.Handbook on Internet crime.
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Individuals Become Terrorists As the Costly Global

Words: 3542 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13618868

Individuals Become Terrorists?

As the costly global battle against terrorism continues, the question is constantly begged, "Why do some individuals become terrorists while others do not?" Certainly, there are some generic attributes that distinguish many individuals who are considered terrorists in the eyes of the international community, including being young and male, but the generalities tend to stop there because women and even children have also been involved in terrorist attacks in the past. To gain some fresh insights about these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the various motivational factors that have been shown to turn ordinary individuals into terrorists. Following a discussion of these issues, a summary of the research and important findings concerning why some individuals become terrorists are provided in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

What is terrorism, anyway? Although a single, universally acceptable definition of terrorism is…… [Read More]

References

Abrahms, M 2008, 'What Terrorists Really Want: Terrorist Motives and Counter-terrorism strategy,' International Security, Vol. 32, No. 4, 78-105.

Acharya, A 2009, Targeting Terrorist Financing: International Cooperation and New Regimes,

New York: Routledge.

Atran, S 2008, 'Who becomes a terrorist today?,' Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol.2, No. 5, 1-5.