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Alcoholics Anonymous is an international organization that was formed to help out individuals who have had drinking problems. The Alcoholics Anonymous is an example of a non-profit, non-professional organization, and it is basically an organization that was formed to serve as a medium for individuals and people to have a 'helping hand,' an immediate hand wherein an individual can get help without the embarrassing and tiring process of membership registration and the public knowledge that an individual is experiencing alcohol problems and having difficulty with one's behavior towards alcoholism.
Alcoholics Anonymous as an organization that has its own program in order to deal with individual and groups who are experiencing troubles and difficulties in handling alcoholism. The AA's program is composed of the Recovery Program and the Twelve Steps. These programs can be dealt with individually or in groups, since members of AA have various allegiances, and may undergo treatment…
A.A. Factfile." 1998. Alcoholics Anonymous Official Website. 21 October 2002 http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org/default/en_about.cfm.
The first face-to-face meeting I attended was an Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meeting at the United Methodist Church in Greenville, SC on a Friday night. Smoking was allowed at the meeting, which was held in a wheelchair-accessible facility. Coffee and snacks were served. I arrived ten minutes early. Several others were also there early, including the person setting up a table full of literature. The person setting out the literature smiled and said hello to me when I browsed the books, all of which were related to the Twelve Step program. Most of the books were official Alcoholics Anonymous publications, and I recognized the "Big Book" immediately as well as some of the other publications that are listed on the AA website.
As the people filled into the space, I noticed that many knew each other. They talked casually in the moments before the meeting began formally. I took…
The Big Book, the Basic Text for Alcoholics Anonymous, Chapter 5: How it Works (pg. 58). Please read this entire chapter. Retrieved: www.alcoholics-anonymous.org?
Leshner, A.I. (1997). Addiction is a brain disease, and it matters. Science 3 October 1997: Vol. 278 no. 5335 pp. 45-47
Narcotics Anonymous. "For the Public" and "In times of Illness" and "information about NA." Retrieved: www.na.org
Parssinen, T.M. & Kerner, K. (1980). Development of the disease model of drug addiction in Britain, 1870-1926. Cambridge Journal of Medical History 24(3).
First, the person who attends Alcoholics Anonymous meetings admits that their drinking has become out of hand. The admission of a problem is the first step toward recovery. Second, the person who joins Alcoholics Anonymous, however informally, finds solace that he or she is not alone. Suddenly the individual is surrounded by caring, compassionate, and supportive persons who share similar stories and who completely withhold judgment. In fact, one of the things I noticed most as an outsider attending the meeting was that no one commented on the stories being shared with the group. No one offered advice. The only advice members are willing to give is "Keep coming back." Other slogans like "It works if you work it" help solidify the core tenets of the group in a person's mind. Therefore, a third goal of attending Alcoholics Anonymous is that the group seems to encourage commitment and discipline. Even…
Alcoholics Anonymous. "Information on a.A." Retrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://www.aa.org/lang/en/subpage.cfm?page=1
The Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous." Retrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://www.aa.org/en_pdfs/smf-121_en.pdf
Mayo Clinic. "Alcoholism." Retrieved Mar 6, 2009 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/alcoholism/DS00340/METHOD=print&DSECTION=all
Alcoholics Anonymous: A Personal Account of my Experience at an AA 12-Step Meeting
A Personal Account of my Experience at an AA 12-Step Meeting: Alcoholics Anonymous
Alcoholics anonymous groups are groups where recovering alcoholics, and alcoholics with a desire to stop drinking meet to educate and inspire each other about their journey with alcoholism, and their decision to restore their lives. This text presents a personal account of what I experienced in one of the AA group sessions that I attended in my locality.
A Personal Account of my Experience at an AA 12-Step Meeting
I searched the internet for the available open AA 12-step groups in my locality, and located one whose members meet every other Saturday evening in the local church. The website stated clearly that this was a women's group, and I figured that it would be interesting to know the specific factors that drive women to…
Alcoholics Anonymous. (2015). The 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcoholics Anonymous. Retrieved November 5, 2015 from http://www.alcoholics-anonymous.org.uk/About-AA /The-12-Steps-of-AA
Armstrong, M. (2002). Employee Reward (3rd ed.). Wiltshire, UK: Cromwell Press.
Gastil, J. (1993). Democracy in Small Groups: Participation, Decision-Making and Communication. Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers.
Alcohol Anonymous Observation
Alcoholic Anonymous Observation
I had heard the parable before; "give a man a fish, feed him for a day; teach a man to fish, feed him for a lifetime." In many ways it had already resonated in my head, but this perspective was a skewed one from not having had to experience what it is like to be in a position not to want to help yourself. That was until I attended a local Alcohol Anonymous meeting, to discover so many people struggling with how to empower themselves beyond the dependent state of an addict.
The meeting was just at the tail end of the typical mid-week rush hour. The traffic was beginning to subside, as it was around 7:30 on a Wednesday evening. The location of the meeting was a small local church, of what Christian denomination I could not really ascertain. It was located off…
Alcoholics Anonymous meeting: April 17, from 6:30 to 7:30 P.M. In Paso Robles, California.
I previously had contacted the leader of the AA meeting to see if I could get permission to attend a session. He wondered if I was in the media, and I told him this was for a college class; and after he explained that everything is open for discussion in these meetings he made clear that I was not to use any real names in my report. I agreed and here is what happened at that meeting.
As I approached the meeting place -- in the back of a small retail building on a busy street near downtown -- several men and a woman were smoking cigarettes outside the building and greeted me with "hi." There was an outside ash tray jammed full of cigarette butts, but no cigarette butts were on the ground. I was…
This field report covers two separate visits to a Narcotics Anonymous (NA) meeting, both at the St. Matthews Missionary Baptist Church, located at 6100 NW 24th Avenue in Miami, Florida. Both meetings started at 5:15PM and ended at 6:30PM. One of the meetings took place on Tuesday, November 28, and the other on Friday, December 1, 2017. Both meetings have a theme called “Inner City Recovery.” Located in the heart of Liberty City, St. Matthews caters to the local African-American community. Unsurprisingly, attendants of the both the Inner City Recovery NA meetings were predominantly black males with a low socio-economic status. Results of the fieldwork illustrates the role Twelve Step programs like NA play in recovery.
The fieldwork took place over the course of two non-contiguous days. On Tuesday, November 28, the meeting had a theme focused on Step Two of the Twelve Steps: “We came to…
Capuzzi, D. & Stauffer, M.D. (2016). Foundations of Addictions Counseling, 3rd Edition. Pearson.
Khantzian, E.J. (2014). A psychodynamic perspective on the efficacy of 12-step programs. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly 32(2-3): 225-236.
Experiences Leading Groups:The Benefits of Alcoholics Anonymous and Group FacilitationsOne of the most gratifying and transformative experiences in my life was going to my first Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) group meeting. AA is a support and recovery group that is entirely facilitated by former addicts. It is the original 12-step group format. The purpose of AA is to enable people to have a life in recovery and overcome the grip of their addiction. AA is based upon a commitment to abstinence. It is one of the oldest types of support groups of its kind. There is a bible, called the Big Book, which outlines the basic principles of the group, and which guides the facilitation of the group.Some aspects of AA which are unique are that there are open and closed meetings. Open meetings are for recovering addicts, their families, friends, and people contemplating sobriety. Closed meetings are for members who…
Group Observation: Micro, Mezzo, and Macro Levels
Q1. What is your role in this group? (Observer, facilitator, member, etc.)
Upon the request of a friend, I chose to observe an open Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) meeting last year. Unlike a closed meeting, which is solely reserved for people who have admitted to have an alcohol addiction, AA open meetings are open to addicts contemplating recovery, friends, family members, and outside observers. I had previously attended an open meeting several years ago to support another friend to support another person. This meeting, I was an observer, acting as a supporter, as well as a critical analyst, based on my greater knowledge of social work and psychology. Since I had learned more about therapy, I was curious to see how the dynamics operated in the meeting, as well as to accompany my friend by her request.
AA has created open meetings for several…
As mentioned, both Antonio and amon described that their need for alcohol increased significantly during times of increased stress. Both related a self-medicating process whereby they utilized alcohol as a means of escape from their worries and troubles. With the accuracy of sober 20/20 hindsight, both men explained how they can now see how this process merely set into motion a vicious cycle. Drinking beget problems and stress, which beget more drinking, and more problems and stress.
In addition, both men indicated that drinking had interrupted their sleep patterns significantly. Staying up until all hours of the night drinking was not an uncommon lifestyle facet, for both men. This often led to passing out in the wee hours of the morning and not awakening until early afternoon or later. Excessive drinking often also led to spontaneous 'naps' in the middle of the day, which would lead to being unable to…
Morgenstern's research suggests that the factors which determine the success of the treatment are usually the individual's determination to make the treatment work, the individual's confidence in his own self-control, and the individual's acceptance of needing to use strategies to avoid taking drugs or drinking. These were found to be the same reasons that any drug or alcohol treatments are successful, including those which are self-initiated. The methodology of the study included the study of 93 people completing 12-step programs in one of two hospitals over the course of three weeks. The programs were designed to motivate the recovering addict by trying to help end denial, give a sense of belonging, and recogniing addiction as a disease. Those who had a strong desire to complete the program in the first place were the most successful and continued going to self-help meetings after the three-week treatment. Those who were not highly…
Liepman, M.R. (1989, June) Evaluation of a program designed to help family and significant others to motivate resistant alcoholics into recovery. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. Retrived February 24, 2005 from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0978/is_n2_v15/ai_8543431
This article is about a study done on motivating not only the alcoholic himself but also his social network to encourage seeking treatment for alcohol problems. The social networks in the study consisted of relatives and significant others of the alcoholic, and these people were given advice and counseling on the need to confront the alcoholic about his problem. There were 24 social networks of alcholics involved in this study, and seven of the participating family groups did confront the alcoholic directly about the problem. The results of the study indicated that alcoholics that are formally confronted by their friends or family are a lot more likely to seek treatment, including detox programs or self-help treatment programs. Additionally, those who were directly confronted by members of their social network were also more likely to remain sober than those who were not confronted, whether or not treatment was saught. Encouraging social networks to confront those with drinking problems may help prevent the need for a crisis to occur before the alcholic seeks treatment, and may cause treatment to be more effective.
How did this article answer my research question: In addition to health care workers and peers, the motivation for the alcoholic of being confronted by his own social network can be the factor which leads him to seek treatment. Additionally, being formally confronted by his friends and family may help keep the alcoholic motivated to remain sober during and after treatment.
S. Census Bureau) It is clear after having reviewed this information that this area is quite needy in provision of alcoholism treatment and intervention.
VI. Treatment Program Community Marketing Process
In the initiative of reaching the community both through media and public relations as tools to raise awareness the organization will be enabled to alert members of the community about the services available. Promotions, marketing, public relations and media advocacy are all critical specifically as these are all integrated with the business sector and as well adapted by nonprofit organizations. In the attempt to market or advertise to the community the available services all venues of the media should be sought and the mass media in the form of newspaper and magazines and other printed material as well as media through television and radio broadcast communications and finally through the Internet's provision of electronic media. Communication with the media should…
Ervin, N.E. (2002). Advanced community health nursing practice: Population-focused care. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall. ISBN# 0-8053-7364-0.
Bensley, R.J., & Brookins-Fisher, J. (EDs). (2003). Community health education method: a practitioners guide. (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett. ISBN# 0-7637-1801-7
Andreasen, A.R. (1995). Marketing social change: Changing behavior to promote health, social development, and the environment. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass. ISBN# 0-7879-0137-7
Medicaid EPSDT and AOD Treatment Services Policy Brief entitled Resources for Recovery: State Practices that Expand Treatment Opportunities" Medicaid EPSDT and AOD Treatment Services" (O'Brien, et al., 2005) National Program Office, Technical Assistance Collaborative, Inc. Online located at: www.resourcesforrecovery.org
Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared with Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents
I Situations Faced by Children of Alcoholic Parent(s)
II ehavior of Children with Alcoholic Parent(s)
II Hypothesis #2
I The Possibility of Developing Alcoholism on ACOA's
II ACOA's have Lower Self-Esteem Compared to Non-ACOA's
Comparing the Differences etween ACOAs and Non-ACOAs in Terms of Social and Intimate Relationships
IV Protective Factors For Resiliency
Children of Alcoholics Screening Test
Are You an Alcoholic?
Intimate ond Measure
Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale
The family is one of the most important institutions in our society today. It is from our family where we are able to develop ourselves and start the journeys we take in life. Usually, the upbringing of each family member depends on the psychological nature of the other members who are able to provide influence or may have cause effects…
Velleman, R. (2002). The Children of Problem Drinking Parents.
Institute of Health & Medicine, University of Bath.
1996). Children of Alcoholics. Alcohol Health.
Common Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.
group meets downstairs in a church. There are "tables" where the members sit and discuss their issues. In this group there are two tables, nearly filled with about 20 people at each table. There are mostly middle-aged to older adults here (40 years old and up), but a few that are under 30 years of age. There is a pretty even distribution of males and females at the two tables. The general interaction between the members is causal and quite friendly. After sitting at one table I wait for the meeting to get started. Once it is started there are a lot of formalities: an introduction by the leader (I am later told that this person is referred to as the chairperson and this position is a volunteer that changes weekly), the reading the stipulations of the group, a prayer, asking if there are any first time attendees (I remained…
Kelly, J.F., Magill, M., & Stout, R.L. (2009). How do people recover from alcohol dependence? A systematic review of the research on mechanisms of behavior change in Alcoholics Anonymous. Addiction Research and Theory, 17, 236-259.
Rosenberg, H. (1993). Prediction of controlled drinking by alcoholics and problem drinkers.
Psychological Bulletin, 113, 129-139.
Vaillant, G.E. (2005). Alcoholics Anonymous: Cult or cure? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(6), 431-436.
The AA also provides a strong network of relationships that is important for the recovery and support process as pointed out by Khantzian & Mack, (1994, pp.348).
The steps are important since they assist the alcoholics in becoming patient. They also admit that they are reckless and out of control. They also give up the alcoholic struggle with self and the bottle in order to allow the higher power as well as assistance of other to emancipate them. In the recovery process, there are sponsors. A sponsor is an alcoholic who has fully recovered and the recovering alcoholic can reach them at any time.
Alcoholic Anonymous believes even the alcoholics are important help to others. The concept of AA is beneficial in getting rid of the incessant alienation as well as shame that the alcoholics feel. It then proceeds to instill a sense of hope, contact with other as well…
Alcoholic Anonymous (2002). Service Material from the General Service Office: THE TWELVE STEPS OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS
Browne, B.R. (1991). The selective adaption of the Alcoholics Anonymous program by Gamblers Anonymous. Journal of Gambling Studies, 7(3), 187206. Fagan, R.W. (1986). The use of volunteer sponsors in the rehabilitation of skid-row alcoholics. Journal of Drug Issues, 16(3), 321-337.
Doweiko, H.E. (2009). Concepts of chemical dependency (7th ed.). Pacifi c Grove, CA:
McKella, J., Stewat, E., & Humpheys, K. (Apil, 2003). Alcoholics Anonymous: Involvement and Positive Alcohol-Related Outcomes: Cause, Consequence, o Just a Coelate? A Pospective 2-Yea Study of 2,319 Alcohol-Dependent Men. Jounal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology; 71 (2): 302-308.
McKella, Stewat, and Humpheys study the causality between A.A. involvement and positive alcohol elated outcomes in 2319 male subjects (p. 304). Thei model included involvement afte 1 yea of sobiety in elation to a 2-yea follow-up, examining the levels of alcohol elated poblems (p. 305). Thei findings include that the paticipation in the A.A. pogam can have a positive effect of alcohol-elated poblems, independent fom motivation factos o psychopathology (p. 306-308).
This souce is impotant because the study was done in a scientific manne, with a contol goup and sound methodology (p. 303-305). The study involves analysis of pevious woks, using the same hypothesis (p. 302-303), and comes to the same…
references so that the research can be reviewed by the reader (p. 560-561, p. 566). Also the journal in which the study was published is a reputable journal, so the results and study can be trusted for validity.
Call Number: AN 6582532, EBSCO Host
Vick, R. (Fall, 2002). Questioning the Use of Alcoholics Anonymous With College Students: Is an Old Concept the Only Alternative for a New Generation? Journal of College Counseling, 3 (2): 158-168.
Vick examines the effectiveness of A.A. within the college student subset of the population (p.160-161), and includes research in the area of A.A. related treatment (p. 160). In addition, Vick focuses on the reasons why A.A. may not be the best solution for college students (p. 160-161). Research of the prevalence of drinking in college students is also provided (p. 185-159). Alternative approaches which may be more effective than A.A. are also evaluated (p. 161-164). Vick concludes that, for many college students, alternative treatment methods are more successful than A.A for college students (p. 164-165).
This article is important because it shows that A.A. may not be the best treatment solution for all areas of the population (p. 164). In addition, relevant research is evaluated (p. 160-197), and appropriate citation is given at the end of the article (p. 168). Alternate methods are evaluated, providing a counter point to other studies (p. 161-165). In addition, the journal in which the article is published is a well-known, credible source of information.
values and provide an overview of my character. These three situations also illustrate how I respond to challenges, problems, and crises by using creativity, critical thinking, and communication. The first situation arose while I was working with Airtel. Airtel's launch of its broadband service was based on high density ATM DSLAMs. The DSLAMs had 16 Mbps of upstream capacity, which seemed like huge amount at the time. What the planning team did not foresee was that the 16 Mbps upstream capacity was quickly choked as consumers demanded increased bandwidth. The finance team would not authorize any upgrades, and at the same time, the DSLAM vendor demanded further purchases as per our contract. I came up with a solution. First, I put together a task force with members from all affected stakeholders. We worked with the vendor, who ultimately agreed to buy back existing equipment, while supplying a new range of…
Bulimics and anorexics are well represented at this meeting. From my understanding, Overeaters Anonymous embraces those with any type of eating disorder. I appreciate the willingness of group members to understand that it is the addictive, compulsive nature of the behavior that is the problem and not the specific manifestation. Along this line of thought, one member of the group noted his addiction to drugs as well as to food. Crossover addictions are extraordinarily common. One member indicated being a former anorexic who starved herself regularly; that was ten years ago and now she can be considered overweight. Whether or not there is a proven "addictive personality," certainly there are people for whom any pattern of behavior can become a potential problem.
From a clinician's perspective, I appreciate the formula the Twelve Steps offer. The group provides a social network. This may be the most important function of the Twelve…
Twelve-Step Program to Escaping Dante's Hell
Dante's The Inferno paints an incredibly vivid picture of what Hell is like. The journey Dante undertakes in order to progress past his 'lost' stage and escape Hell can be likened to the 12-Step Program a recovering alcoholic must complete in order to finally escape from the clutches of drinking to excess. This paper endeavors to explore Dante's journey through the perspective of this 12-Step Program. y going through each step, one can witness the introspective and emotional self-examination Dante goes through, with a little help from his support group, in order to get out of Hell.
The first step that every recovering alcoholic must take involves the process of admitting his or her problem. Alcoholics must acknowledge that they are helpless when battling their addiction and they must admit that this addiction to drink has wreaked havoc on their lives to the point…
Alcoholics Anonymous (1955) The Story of How Many Thousands of Men and Women Have Recovered From Alcoholism. New York City: Alcoholics Anonymous Publishing, Inc. http://www.recovery.org/aa/misc/12steps.html
ClassicNote on Inferno. http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/inferno/fullsumm.html
Dante's Inferno. http://www.*****/essays/Literature/danteinferno.shtml
Dante's Inferno: Character List. http://www.sparknotes.com/poetry/inferno/characters.html
Families should visit there older members more often who are in assisted living situations, or who can no longer drive. this is the assignment but I also want my experiences as helping them to recover from alcoholism, plus getting attached to them just to watch them die.
Many elderly people do not have family or friends to visit them
-Younger people should make an effort to visit the elderly because it will benefit the elderly, the younger person, and teach lessons about life
-Many people do not want to visit the elderly because it is time consuming, depressing, or boring
-I have personal experience with the elderly and I know that it is rewarding
the lives of both older and younger people will be improved
There are millions of elderly people living in nursing homes or assisted living facilities in our country. All of these people have lived a…
Croop et al. (1997).
The overall safety profile of naltrexone is good; however, care must be taken in prescribing the drug to certain patient populations; e.g., naltrexone shows a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity (package insert) and is therefore contraindicated in patients with significant hepatic impairment, which is frequently encountered in alcohol-dependent populations.
The clinical trials of naltrexone have typically been conducted in patients without significant impairment in hepatic function. Another consequence of the hepatic impact of naltrexone is the possibility of drug-drug interactions.
Kim et al. (2001) potentially clinically significant interaction has been reported between naltrexone and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; these researchers found elevated liver function tests in study participants receiving both medications, although the doses of naltrexone used in this study were higher than the typical 50 mg daily dose.
Naltrexone is not appropriate for use with patients taking prescribed or illicit opioid drugs. Antagonism of the effects of these drugs…
Ait-Daoud, N., & Johnson, B.A. (1999). Medications to treat alcoholism. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(2), 99.
Anton, R.F., & Randall, C.L. (2005). Measurement and choice of drinking outcome variables in the COMBINE study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(4), 104.
Bhagar, H.A., & Schmetzer, a.D. (2006). New antidipsotropics. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 9(4), 29.
Bean, P., & Nemitz, T. (2004). Drug treatment: What works? New York: Routledge.
His father's drinking caused him concern. He felt that his father would either become ill or meet with an accident. James suggested that John go to Alcoholics Anonymous meeting. John's reaction was violent. For the first time in his life, John struck James. He yelled, "I am not an alcoholic." John felt that his drinking was under control; he could stop any time; and he could never be classified as an alcoholic.
John never remembered hitting James, even spanking him. John belonged to the school that never subscribed to the adage: "Spare the rod, spoil the brat." James received this stoically. Though he spent the night weeping, he realized that his father did not strike him, it was the alcohol. James did miss his mother, very much. The next day, after John had sobered, but still needed that "pick me up," he felt remorse and tearfully apologized to his son.…
12 Step groups
step programs are famous for their role in the breaking of addictions. The programs cover such areas of addiction such as gambling, drug, and alcohol. Below is an evaluation of the effectiveness of the 12 step program in breaking addiction to alcohol.
Background of Alcoholism
Facts concerning the abuse of alcohol are often overlooked as it is a frequently used drug that can be obtained from the nearest store or ordered from a menu in a restaurant. Alcohol abuse statistics raise several alarms but focusing the attention of the public to the alcohol effects can help raise awareness and help in the fighting of alcoholism (Get The Facts).
Just a few drinkers of alcohol stop consumption with the first bottle. Also, an evening of heavy consumption is not always done alone (Get The Facts). Chronically consuming alcohol leads to a host of effects. When done over a…
Get the Facts on Alcohol Abuse. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://drugabuse.com/library/get-the-facts-on-alcohol-abuse/
The Birth of A.A. And Its Growth in the U.S./Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2015, from http://www.aa.org/pages/en_US/historical-data-the-birth-of-aa-and-its-growth-in-the-uscanada
It has been argued that despite this fact, because substance abuse treatment has been developed by men, for men, it emerged "as a single-focused intervention based on the needs of addicted men." (Covington 2008). ithout empowering substance abusers whose lives have become severely impaired in terms of basic life functioning, treating the abuse or disability as a purely biological function will have little effect, and only address the physical withdrawal symptoms, and surrendering to the addiction may not address the need to seek out new, positive social relationships and to actively construct an environment that does not facilitate the addiction.
Even addicts with jobs who are minimally socially functional may have social structures revolving around their addiction. In the case of many women in particular, the life pattern of being involved with an abusive partner, which may have driven the women to abuse drugs in the first place, becomes a…
Bakalar, Nicholas. (2006, July 25). Review sees no advantage in 12-step programs.
The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/25/health/25drin.html
Buddy, T. (2009, March 7). Are you a functional alcoholic?
About.com. Retrieved September 27, 2009 at http://alcoholism.about.com/od/problem/a/functional.htm
The research results will demonstrate that alcoholism is a disease and support this notion with overwhelming evidence.
In short, alcoholism is a major problem for all countries across the world. Alcoholism destroys lives and tears many families apart. The purpose of this argumentative research paper is to demonstrate with supporting evidence that alcoholism is a disease and not a social stigma.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. eb. 9 June 2011.
Organization, orld Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. eb. 10 June 2011.
Foroud Tatiana, Howard J. Edenberg, and John C. Crabbe. "Genetic research: who is at risk for alcoholism?." Alcohol Research & Health 33.1/2 (2010): 64-75. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
Organization, World Health. "Society should focus on reducing the negative impacts of alcohol." Alcohol. Ed. Andrea C. Nakaya. Detroit: Greenhaven Press, 2008. Opposing Viewpoints. Gale Opposing Viewpoints In Context. Web. 10 June 2011.
"Survey: people still unsure whether alcoholism is disease or moral weakness." Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly 17.40 (2005): 1-5. Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition. EBSCO. Web. 9 June 2011.
Addiction does not have an assigned definition. This effectively means that there are various definitions to drug and alcohol addiction that have been explored in the past. For purposes of this discussion, addiction will be defined as “a chronic, relapsing disorder characterized by compulsive drug seeking, continued use despite harmful consequences, and long-lasting changes in the brain” (National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2019). In addition to evaluating the effectiveness of group therapy aid in the treatment of alcohol addiction, this paper will, amongst other things, highlight various aspects of the formations designed to assist alcohol addicts as well as those affected by the alcohol addiction problems/behaviors of loved ones.
It is important to note, from the onset, that the relevance of group therapy in the treatment of alcohol addiction cannot be overstated. In essence, “the natural propensity of human beings to congregate makes group therapy a powerful therapeutic…
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
Speech on Alcoholism and Addiction
Main Points: I. Alcoholism is an addiction, not a character flaw.
Treating alcoholism requires modern rehabilitation methods.
The "Twelve-Step" program advocated by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
represents an extremely effective route to recovery.
Central Idea: For centuries, society has viewed addiction to alcohol and other substances as a defect in one's moral fiber, rather than a medical affliction. Modern scientific exploration into the subject of addiction has revealed that alcoholism is actually the result of neurotransmitters in the brain becoming activated, chemical responses throughout the body, genetic influences, and even environmental factors. By revising the widespread belief that addiction to alcohol is one's own "fault," and recognizing the litany of variables which determine whether somebody will be prone to addictive tendencies, the stigma placed on alcoholism may eventually be lifted.
A. For as long as mankind been aware that the actions of an individual are…
Dodes, L. (2002). The heart of addiction: A new approach to understanding and managing alcoholism and other addictive behaviors. New York, NY: Harper-Collins
Narcotics Anonymous Fellowship. (1991). An introductory guide to narcotics anonymous, revised. Narcotics Anonymous World Services, Inc. Retrieved from http://www.na.org/admin/include/spaw2/uploads/pdf/litfiles/us_english/Booklet/Intro Guide to NA.pdf
There is a gradual move in considering that the combination of both these explanations is what should be the actual position to take on the issue of alcoholism and drug addiction. This mode of thinking suggests the acceptance of the gene explanation on one side in that the research does confirm that genes that are inherited goes a long way in explaining the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcoholism and drug addiction, yet at the same time it also suggests that the lifestyle pattern that is adopted by the individual could also be a major factor in the behavioral pattern of the individual with regard to alcohols and drugs. (Frequently Asked Questions)
This means that not only is a hereditary factor only a predisposition but the behavior of the individual in social situations where the consumption occurs and the maintenance of control on these situations. This also…
Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Men" Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/mens/men.cfm?page=110&mtitle=alcoholAccessed on 20 March
Balch, Burke, J; O'Bannon, Randall, K. "Why We Shouldn't Legalize Assisting Suicide"
Retrieved form http://www.nrlc.org/euthanasia/asisuid1.html. Accessed on 20 March 2005
Frequently Asked Questions" National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
The benefits of ending the cycle of drug and alcohol abuse far outweigh the pain and hard work involved. Living a clean and sober lifestyle allows people to make their own decisions, not decisions based on their physical need for drugs or alcohol. They will regain their self-respect, and find happiness in the things they were neglecting during their use and abuse. Finally, their body will be free of the physical tolls of alcohol and drugs.
For someone like Jared, working to end his alcohol abuse will improve his life in many ways. First, working toward change will show his wife, his mother, and the rest of the people who love him that he does not want to hurt them and wants to change. While other problems may exist in Jared's marriage and life, he owes it to himself and those that he loves to try. He might spend more…
Relapse prevention therapy breaks down the chemical dependency recovery process into specific tasks and skills, which patients must learn in order to recover; it also shows patients how to recognize when they are beginning to relapse, and how to change before they start using alcohol or drugs again (Gorski and Kelley, 2003).
In order to understand the process of relapse prevention, we will first look at the phenomena of chemical dependence, and its associated behaviors, and the phenomena of relapse, in order to be able to then look at the various ways of tackling these behaviors to induce relapse prevention in the patients.
What is Chemical Dependency/Chemical Addiction?
Chemical dependency is a disease caused by the use of alcohol and/or drugs, causing changes in a person's body, mind, and behavior: as a result of the disease of chemical dependency, people are unable to control the use of alcohol and/or drugs,…
Bell, T. (1990). Preventing adolescent relapse: A guide for parents, teachers and counselors. Independence, MO: Herald House / Independence Press.
Daley, D. (1987) Relapse prevention with substance abusers: clinical issues and myths. Social Work, 45(2), 38-42.
Gorski, T.T. Passages Through Recovery. Center City, MN. Hazelden Press, 1989.
Gorski, T.T. Understanding the Twelve Steps. New York: Prentice Hall/Parkside, 1989.
How effective has the legal prohibition of alcohol been in controlling crime? A recent Department of Justice Report (U.S. Department of Justice) said that alcohol was a factor in 40% of all violent crimes and accounted for 40.9% of all traffic fatalities in the U.S.A. In the last decade. ut these figures were 34% and 29%, respectively, lower than those of the previous decade. The Report further stated that arrests conducted for driving under the influence of alcohol correspondingly declined and attributed this to the establishment of the legal and uniform drinking age in the early 1980s.
Elucidating, the Report said that, approximately 3 million violent crimes occurred each year in that decade where the offenders were drinking at the time. And although arrests were made in every age group, those made on offenders below 21 notably decreased. The rate of intoxication in fatal accidents, it said, likewise went…
1. Abbe, Winfield. Toughening Liquor Laws Will Do Little to Sober Our Drunk Culture.
Athens Banner Herald, February 2002. (accessed 25:03:03). http://www.*****/stories/022202/let_letter4.shtml
2. Alcoholics Anonymous. Alcohol. (accessed 25:03:03). http://soc.qc.edu/aa/aager.html
3. Davis, George. Why Crime? Action Sunshine Coast Crime Prevention Program. Crime Prevention through Community Building, 2000. (accessed 25:03:03). http://www.suncoastcentral.com/crimeprevention
Covert participant anthropological observations of AA and NA meetings indicate that in practice the use of theological components of the program is even more explicit than the 12 steps might indicate. During the meeting the members hold "each other's hands, and lead the membership into a recitation of the Lord's Prayer. Affixed to the Lord's Prayer is an AA ending: 'Keep coming back; it works'" (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.7). Anthropologists and critics alike have commented upon the 'cult-like' nature of AA and NA: new adherents are encouraged to leave their jobs and cut family ties to facilitate their path to sobriety; there is a ritualistic aspect to the group's meetings; a demand for purity on the part of the membership; and required adherence to all of the group's rules (Alexander & ollins, 1984, p.8). The emphasis on the need to confess and tell one's stories, the need to prioritize…
Alexander, Francesca & Michele Rollins. (1984). Alcoholics Anonymous. The unseen cult.
California Sociologist, 7(l): 33-48. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
Egelko, Bob. (2007, September 8). Appeals court says requirement to attend AA
Alcoholism a Disease?
There is little doubt that alcoholism is a chronic condition, which in 1956 was classified by the American medical Association as an illness, elevating the status to disease in 1966 (Baldwin esearch Institute, 2015). However, despite this announcement, there still appears to be a significant level of dispute within the medical community, where the concept of alcoholism as a disease has remained unproven (Hanson, 2013), however many of the characteristics of the condition appear to be aligned with a disease diagnosis (Borelli, 1989). The aim of this paper is to consider the concept of alcoholism as a disease, considering the evidence for and against this hypothesis.
The Association of alcohol disease began during the 1800s, proposed by Dr. Benjamin ush, who argues those who drank too much alcohol were diseased, and utilised this argument to promote his revisionist ideas (Baldwin esearch Institute, 2015). However, simply calling it…
Baldwin Research Institute, (2015), Alcoholism Is Not a Disease, retrieved 12 December 2015 from http://www.baldwinresearch.com/alcoholism.cfm
Borelli, N, (1989), Is Alcoholism Disease, The Journal of the American Medical Association, 262 (1), 343
Fingarette, H, (1990), "Why We Should Reject the Disease Concept of Alcoholism," in Endings, or (Ed), Controversies in the Addictions Field, Dubque, Kendall-Hunt
Hansen, D, (2013), Is Alcoholism a Disease? Retrieved 12 December 2015 from https://archive.is/Vj5lu
Attending an Alcoholics Anonymous Session
Personal experience after attending an open meeting on alcohol addiction
While studying undergraduate psychology, I was required to attend a meeting organized by non-profit organization, Alcoholic Anonymous. This very simple experience proved to be revealing to me, not only as an individual but as a nurse-in-training, as well. There is no social boundary for alcohol addiction, and for the affected individual, the condition may be personally ruinous. As I witnessed later on, after beginning clinical practice, alcohol withdrawal is associated with physical effects that are just as destructive as addiction itself is. At Alcoholic Anonymous sessions, alcoholics are understood and accepted, and this aids many of them in abstaining from alcohol. In the course of the meeting, I mulled over how much more helpful it would be for people suffering from this condition if this acceptance and understanding went beyond the short 1-hour sessions. For…
Coleman, J. (2012, March 9). Alcohol Addiction. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://nursing.advanceweb.com/Features/Articles/Alcohol-Addiction.aspx
Drugs: Use, Abuse and Addiction - Lesson Plan. (2014, December 1). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/cycp-cpcj/dr-al/lp-pl/index-eng.htm
Jacobs, L., & Hyman, J. (2010, February 24). 15 Strategies for Giving Oral Presentations. Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.usnews.com/education/professors-guide/2010/02/24/15-strategies-for-giving-oral-presentations
Psychology: Alcohol & Drug Abuse
The over-all focus of this paper is to show how alcohol, drug addictions and abuse is fundamentally a disease of the brain. It will focus on various psychological aspects of addiction, such as some theories as to why people get addicted to drugs or alcohol in the first place, and some theories for treatments of those addictions; some psychological processes of how certain drugs work; how those drugs shape addiction through their processes; and finally analyzing the understanding of addiction within the brain.
Some major theories for why people begin to use substance such as drugs (legal or not), and alcohol are the reward and reinforcement theory, recreational use, and the stress-reduction theory. Some theories for treatments include using combinations of cognitive/social support rehabilitation, or using some form of rehabilitation with medications as well. The types of drugs and their effects that will be discussed…
Anton, R. "Substance abuse is a disease of the human brain: focus on alcohol." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Winter 2010: 735+. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
Feldman, R.S. (2009). Understanding psychology (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Mcgraw-Hill.
Drummond, D. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction, 96(1), 33-46. doi:10.1080/09652140020016941
Oltmanns, T.F., Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Genetic Link of Alcoholism
Introduction great deal of attention and research has recently been concentrated on the genetic link of alcoholism and on the possibility of accounting genetically for drunken behavior. Early studies found reliable genetic transmission of alcoholism. Much of this research focused on the offspring of alcoholics and on the biochemical or neurological abnormalities they inherit that possibly lead to pathological drinking. Other studies focused on a gestalt of personality traits (concentrating on impulsiveness and antisocial activity) that can end in alcoholism.
According to Holden (1985, p. 38), "A decade ago such a theory (of inherited antisocial personality and alcoholism) would have been dismissed as out of hand." Today, this viewpoint has gained broad acceptance amongst psychologists. New research has created more detailed deterministic models of alcoholism based on biological concepts models, which have had a significant impact on the thinking of both public and clinical workers.
Goodwin, D (1991). The genetics of alcoholism. In McHugh, PR & McKusick, VA (Eds.) Genes, Brain and Behavior. New York: Raven Press Ltd.
Holden, C. (1985), Genes, personality and alcoholism. Psychol. Today 19 (No. 1): 38-39, 42-44.
Murray, Robin M. And Stabenau, James R. (1982). Genetic Factors in Alcoholism Predisposition. Encyclopedic Handbook of Aloholism. New York: Gardner Press Inc.: 135-143.
O'Connor, Sean. (2002). Self-reported subjective perception of intoxication reflects family history of alcoholism when breath alcohol levels are constant. Alcohol Clinic Review.
A brief overview of some prominent theoretical models relating to behavior modification is felt to be a pertinent starting point for his study, as many of these aspects can be compared to the actual interviews and case studies of the subjects. Research suggests that the recovery from drug and alcohol addictions is commonly a long-term process and can involve relapses before sustained and permanent rehabilitation is achieved. ehavioral theories have been shown to be effective in this process. Theories such as cognitive behavioral relapse prevention are a method that has been proven to have a sustained success rate. This theory relates specifically to the formations of behavioral changes in that patients are taught ways of acting and thinking that will assist them in avoiding previous addictions.
For example, patients are urged to avoid situations that lead to drug use and to practice drug refusal skills. They…
An Analysis of Behavioral Change and Addiction Recovery. Retrieved April 30, 2005.Web site: http://www.coursework.info/i/67785.html
Borges, G., Cherpitel, C.J., Macdonald, S., Giesbrecht, N., Stockwell, T., & Wilcox, H.C. (2004). A Case-Crossover Study of Acute Alcohol Use and Suicide Attempt. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65(6), 708+. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Cisler, R., Holder, H.D., Longabaugh, R., Stout, R.L., & Zweben, A. (1998). Actual and Estimated Replication Costs for Alcohol Treatment Modalities: Case Study from Project MATCH. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(5), 503+. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from Questia database,
client, whose name is Kate and is the main character in the 2013 film Smashed, displays compulsive behavior and a marked addiction towards alcohol and the classic symptoms of alcoholism in the scene in which she parks her car before going to teach elementary school. This scene takes place early one in the film, and indicates the sort of behavior that will characterize Kate's descent into alcoholism. Despite the fact that she is late for work because she is hung over, she still cannot refrain from consuming more alcohol -- in the form of whiskey, straight. This scene indicates that not only is Kate psychologically addicted to this substance, but it is also affecting her ability to engage in normal activities (such as work). Drinking hard liquor prior to beginning a work day in which one will be grooming the future of young children is extremely dysfunctional behavior. So is…
Beseler, C.L., Aharanovich, E., Keyes, K.M., Hasin, D.S. (2008). Adult transition from at-risk drinking to alcholo dependence: the relationship of family history and drinking motives. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 32(4), 607-616. Retrieved from http://www.columbia.edu/~dsh2/pdf/AtRiskDrinking.pdf
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.(2003). The genetics of alcoholism. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved from http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa60.htm
Saunders, L.L, Krause, J.S. (2011). Psychological factors affecting alcohol use after spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord. 49(5): 637-642. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3090503/
gambling/poker and culture. Poker, and gaming in general, permeate our culture today. The World Series of Poker is a huge event when even a decade ago it was barely known on a world scale, and poker players are the new "role models" for many in society. What does this say about our society and culture that reveres people whose only skill may be based on luck and a turn of the cards? It says a lot about our culture and what we worship, and that may be frightening to contemplate.
"The game [poker] exemplifies the worst aspects of capitalism that have made our country so great."
-- Walter Matthau
First, it is necessary to define poker. Poker is a card game, played in casinos for pleasure and hopefully profit. There are many different games of poker, from Texas hold 'em to Seven-card stud. Each game follows a different format, but…
Alvarez, A. The Biggest Game in Town. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1983.
Chick, Garry. "Writing Culture Reliably: The Analysis of High-Concordance Codes." Ethnology 39.4 (2000): 365.
Editors. "Gamblers Anonymous." GamblersAnonymous.org. 2009. 24 Oct. 2009.
"All I needed was someone to tell say, 'Yeah, I've been there, too,'" Susan said, "and that's what I found here." This attitude was typical of many of the older members present at the meeting; he almost total experience of isolation, difference and strangeness, and total helplessness could jus as well have come from a depression support group. Though these people had a specific real-world reason for their mental distress, their symptoms were no less chronic or clinically viable than those suffering from depression in more commonly recognized situations.
Doug, too, is an example of depression at work in the family of alcoholics. The real-world manipulation that his ex-wife practiced with the couple's children and money would be enough to drive most people to the brink of sever depression, if not right into it. This was not seemed to get Doug down the most, however. With some encouragement, he shared…
Al-Anon Official Website. (2006). Accessed 6 March 2009. http://www.al-anon.alateen.org/english.html
Janssen Pharmaceuticals. (2007). "Alcohol related disorders." Accessed 6 March 2009. http://www.psychiatry24x7.com/bgdisplay.jhtml?itemname=substance_alcohol
RightHealth. (2008). "Depression guide." Accessed 6 March 2009. http://www.righthealth.com/topic/Depression/overview/adam20?fdid=adam_b593fc53774e94d72ec3432ed3972154§ion=Summary
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
If one applies ChapStick only on occasion (and not relentlessly) then there is no reason to suspect that you are hooked.
Constant application, on the other hand, can easily lead to dependency and ruined lips, as InsidersHealth.com states: "The lower layers of our skin produce fresh new skin cells, which then die and can dry out by the time they reach the top layer. If you put ChapStick on the dry skin it can interfere with the signaling mechanism that gets your lower cells to start producing more moisture. So while that balm might feel great when you slather it on, it will wear off and leave your skin feeling dry again."
This is the "vicious cycle" that Crossman quotes Dr. Phillips as referring to. It is also the message that Dr. Perricone speaks of, when he warns that lip balm can be bad for lips.
"Addicted to Lip Balm." YouTube. 2011. Web. 3 Dec 2011.
Associated Press, "Bingeing on balm, or hip lip service?" St. Petersburg Times. 22 Jan
2006. Web. 3 Dec 2011.
Bellis, Mary. "The History of Chapstick -- The History of Carmex." About.com. Web. 3
Indeed, the lack of "recognition and protection" by schools in general contributes to the "critically high level of suicide" among this community of minority students (146).
Surely alert, competent, contemporarily up-to-date school counselors understand that they have the "daunting but imperative obligation to become social activists for gay, lesbian, and bisexual students" since these students are the most "stigmatized members of school environs," Stone continues. There is no doubt that certain legal and ethical issues come in the way of school counselors' being free to help LGBT adolescents with their difficult decisions.
It is a "complex landscape" for counselors indeed, and they need to use caution in discussing birth control, abortion, drug abuse and more with straight and gay / lesbian students; moreover, since parents have the ultimate authority when it comes to counseling their children on important matters (the U.S. Supreme Court has affirmed that fact in several cases),…
Cabaj, Robert Paul, and Smith, Mickey. (2008). Overview of Treatment Approaches, Modalities,
and Issues of Accessibility in the Continuum of Care. Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment. Retrieved August 27, 2011, from http://www.samhsa.gov .
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2008). A Provider's Introduction to Substance Abuse
Nurse-Care Analysis of Sheepshead Bay
The area is 4,074 square miles. Its population is 123,178. The people density of people who live in Sheepshead Bay compared to general inhabitants of Brooklyn of people per square mile is 30,233 to 34,917 (City-data.com; web).
On my visits there, I was astounded by the mass of people rubbing shoulders one with the other. The streets seemed dense and crowded with a great number of apartment buildings, more than those in the more laid back areas such as Flatbush and Queens, and also more than those in the vicinity of Coney Island. There were also a lot of immigrant offices and lawyers specializing in immigration services that was telling of the area.
In fact, involvement with immigrants who had been seeking service with bureaucracy involved with obtaining a Green card revealed that many of them, although living in other parts of Brooklyn (sometimes far…
Berke, N. (2009). Crime Prevention and Safety Workshop. Sheepshead Bites. Retrieved on 3/6/2011 from: http://www.sheepsheadbites.com/2009/06/crime-prevention-and-safety-workshop/#
Chan, S. (2006). Fatal Construction Accidents in the City Rise Sharply Over 12 Months New York Times. p. C13.
Chiswick, Barry R., (1991). Speaking, Reading and Earnings among Low-Skilled Immigrants, Journal of Labor Economics, 9, 149-170.
City-data.com. Sheepshead Bay. Retrieved on 3/6/2011 from: http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Sheepshead-Bay-Brooklyn-NY.html )
drug use and abuse in the United States and presents differing approaches that are used (or proposed) to get a handle on the problem. There is no doubt that the drug abuse issue is not new and it is not being reduced by any significant amount. This paper presents statistics and scholarly research articles that delve into various aspects of the drug abuse issue in the United States, with particular emphasis on drugs that are abused in eastern Kentucky and generally in the Appalachian communities.
History of Drug Use & Availability
The history of illegal drug use in the United States goes back to the 19th Century, according to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA). The DEA has a Museum in Arlington, Virginia, that illustrates the history of drug discoveries, drug use, and drug abuse through the years. The DEA reports that morphine, heroin, and cocaine were "discovered" in the…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2008). Drugs and Crime Facts / Drug Use / Youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://bjs.ojp.usdog.gov.
Drug Enforcement Agency. (2012). Illegal Drugs in America: A Modern History. Retrieved November 30, 2012, from http://www.deamuseum.org .
Grant, Judith. (2007). Rural women's stories of recovery from addition. Addiction Research and Theory, 15(5), 521-541.
Havens, Jennifer R., Oser, Carrie B., and Leukefeld, Carl G. (2011). Injection risk behaviors
Introduction to the Characteristics and Extent of Alcohol, Tobacco or Other Drug Use.
Addiction means physical dependence on a drug, with withdrawal symptoms when its use ceases, and in this sense, alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, heroin, hashish, opiates and amphetamines are all addictive drugs. In addition, these drugs also cause psychological dependency since they enhance a person's sense of pleasure, sociability, sexuality and emotional satisfaction, and also mask pain, low self-esteem and anxiety (Wilson and Kolander, 2011, p. 6). Student surveys are "likely to underreport the overall level of substance use and abuse by young people," and since black and Hispanic students have higher dropout and absenteeism rates, this affects survey results as well (Mosher and Akins, 2007, p. 136). Hard drug users and addicts are also more likely to be homeless, which means that their true numbers are always unknown.
All studies and surveys confirm that marijuana…
Goldberg, R. (2010). Drugs across the Spectrum, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Maisto, S.A. et al. (eds). (2010). Drug Use and Abuse, 6th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Mosher, C.M. And S. Akins. (2007). Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. Sage Publications.
Wilson, R. And C.A. Kolander. (2011). Drug Abuse Prevention: A School and Community Partnership. Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Treating Alcoholism presents therapists with multi-dimensional issues -- multicultural understanding and contextual setting of the client (profession, family, history, work conditions and exposure to extraordinary conditions, in the case of those serving in the military), dominates these settings within which psychotherapists are required to work. Lack of adequate and healthy outlet for feelings; absence of recreation, often lead to excessive, and harmful drinking. Yet, each case is an independent experience requiring the therapist to be flexible, yet focused on creating value at all times. As such, a therapist's work with each client may be termed aptly as a 'discovery'.
A psychologist deals with interpersonal exchanges using a worldview (i.e., group of attitudes) that aids in shaping their opinion of other people. Their worldview is partly governed by cultural experiences. In fact, multicultural and cross-cultural literature constantly highlight the following facts (Duncan, 2010):
1) Man is a multicultural being (Duncan, 2010);…
American Psychological Association. (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists. American Psychologist. 58(5), 377-402
Ames, G., & Cunradi, C. (2012). Alcohol Use and Preventing Alcohol-Related Problems Among Young Adults in the Military. NIAAA.
Duncan, B. (2010). On becoming a better therapist. American Psychological Society. American Psychological Association, 152.
Furuya, S., (2015). ASAP Triage (brief screen case note) for Confidential treatment program.
man loves a woman (1994), the primary conflict depicted in the film is that of the husband's attempts to deal with his wife's alcoholism. On the surface, Michael and his wife Alice have a wonderful relationship with their wonderful children. She is a school counselor and he is an airline pilot. However, Alice drinks throughout the day to cope with stress. She hits rock bottom after a series of incidents that put herself and children at risk. She gets drunk and doesn't come home, causing her family to worry; she hits her daughter with little provocation and finally she passes out on the bathroom floor. Michael tries to ignore the classic signs of alcohol addiction in his wife. These include:
blacking out drinking in the morning secret drinking being irritated if prevented from drinking at usual times interpersonal, legal, and employment problems due to drinking (Alcoholism, 2013, Mayo Clinic)
Alcoholism. (2013). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved:
Morteza & Khaleghi, K. (2012). Are you empowering or enabling? Psychology Today.
This chemical is called orexin, which is involved in the pleasure experienced after taking alcohol or drugs. Experiments with rats showed that they stopped drinking freely available alcohol when a drug stopped orexin's euphoric effects. Furthermore, rats taken off alcohol and then given the drug did not relapse when they were placed in an alcohol-associated environment. One of the researchers, Andrew Lawrence, surmised that a drug could be developed to block the orexin system in human beings to stop the craving for alcohol. It could also prevent relapse among recovering alcoholics (Chemistry and Industry).
In an addiction forum in Park City, a reformed drunk, Jack Trimpey, criticized alcohol recovery programs as ineffective (Thalman, 2003). He explained that most of these programs are premised on the belief that alcoholics or addicts are powerless against that urge to drink or get high. Yet, according to him, addicts do not need to run…
Armeli, S., et al. (2008). A serotonin transporter-gene polymorphism, drinking-to-cope motivation and negative life evens among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol: CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on January 31,2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6378/is_6_69/ai_n31027520?tag=content;col1
Chemistry and Industry (2008). Treatment for alcoholism. Society and Chemical Industry: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved on January31, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5255/is_24/ai_n29315566?tag=content;col1
Deseret Editor (2008). Fight stereotype and alcohol. Deseret News: Deseret News Publishing. Retrieved on January 31, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4188/is_20080904/ai_n28065126?tag=content;col1
Homish, G.G. And Leonard, K.F. (2008). The social network and alcohol use. Journal of Studies on Alcohol: CBS Interactive, Inc. Retrieved on January 31, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb6378/is_6_69/ai_n31027529?tag-content;col1
web page works cited page. 1)Sketch a treatment plan experiencing anorexia. Make account long-term treatment . 2)Alcohol misused abused U.S.
Q1.Sketch out a treatment plan for one experiencing anorexia. Make sure to take into account both the immediate and long-term treatment needs.
or extremely underweight individuals suffering severe health consequences, the most critical initial aspect of treating anorexia is the restoration of body weight and addressing any resulting complications (such as heart problems). or some patients, this may require hospitalization; others may benefit from an outpatient setting which combines communal meals with a therapeutic program. "Cognitive-oriented therapies, focusing on issues of self-image and self-evaluation, are likely to be the most beneficial to the client" (Anorexia nervosa treatment, 2013, PsychCentral).
Some involvement of the family is often thought to be necessary, including using the family as an aid for the patient's treatment and making eating a non-negotiable priority at home. However,…
Freedman, D. (2013). 12 health risks of chronic heavy drinking. WebMD.
Retrieved from: http://www.webmd.com/mental-health/alcohol-abuse/features/12-health-risks-of-chronic-heavy-drinking
Johnson, B. (2010). We're addicted to rehab. It doesn't even work. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/08/06/AR2010080602660.html
ather than treating their problems, the community attempts to punish them for their behaviors, placing them in systems where they rarely have access to the type of treatment that will teach them how to avoid engaging in further antisocial behaviors (Thomas & Penn, 2002). In fact, the overrepresentation of mental illness in the juvenile delinquent population as compared to the normal population suggests that the shifting of ill kids to the criminal justice system is commonplace.
Even more troubling is the idea that juveniles who are not involved in the criminal justice system but who experience significant mental health issues may not have access to mental health care. Out-of-pocket expenses for residential mental health treatment for adolescents are exorbitant, even for parents with health insurance. Copays can literally be thousands of dollars a week. However, parents who cannot afford those costs may find the state unwilling to help them; parents…
Texas Department of State Health Services. (2010, December 21). Mental health. Retrieved May 15, 2013 from State of Texas website: http://www.dshs.state.tx.us/mentalhealth.shtm
Thomas, C.R. & Penn, J.V. (2002). Juvenile justice mental health services. Child Adolesc
Psychiatr Clin N. Am, 11(4), 731-48.
A "drug" is any substance, other than food, that affects our bodies or minds. Since not all drugs are bad, the book uses "substance" to clarify the issue. Substance abuse can cause temporary or long-term problems for the abuser. Dependence, tolerance or addiction can develop.
Depressants: slow the central nervous system (CNS) down. Alcohol is a CNS depressant.
Alcohol: nearly 6% of the U.S. population are heavy drinkers, some as young as 11. Men outnumber women 3:1. Ethyl alcohol is quickly absorbed in stomach and intestine. First it depresses the areas of the brain that control judgments and curbs on behavior. Next, motor control is affected. Alcohol can also interfere with both vision and hearing. As the liver metabolizes the alcohol, the blood levels drop and function gradually returns. Patterns of alcoholism vary among socio-cultural groups and by age. Alcoholism can destroy family life, sink a career, and…
Natural Remission Has Had on the Addiction Field
Spontaneous remission from addiction is often referred to under different titles. These include, natural recovery, maturing out, and unassisted change. All of these titles refer to the process of recovering or being in remission from an addiction without the intervention of conventional methods and techniques of addiction treatment. Until fairly recently the idea of spontaneous remission had been vilified in the medical profession as being misleading and even dangerous. A paper by Chiauzzi and Liljegren ( 1993) entitled Taboo topics in addiction treatment: an empirical review of clinical folklore, stated that the concept of natural recovery was identified as a ... Taboo topic, stating that disease model advocates had put forth a tautological argument that an ability to cease addictive behaviors on one's own suggests that the individual was not addicted in the first place, .the failure to seek treatment for a…
Burman, S. (1997) The challenge of sobriety: Natural recovery without treatment and self-help groups. Journal of Substance Abuse, 9, 41-61.
Granfield, R. & Cloud, W. (1996). The elephant that no one sees:
Natural recovery among middle class addicts. Journal of Drug Issues, 26, 45-61.
Hester Reid K., Miller, William R. ( 1995) editors: Handbook of Alcoholism Treatment Approaches: Effective Alternatives: (2nd Ed.) Allyn & Bacon (Review) ( PDF) Retrieved April 15, 2005. Web site: http://www.unhooked.com/booktalk/hester_miller_handbook.html.
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…
Legalization of Marijuana
Marijuana or Cannabis is actually a plant, which has the scientific name 'cannabis sativa' and was originally used for ordinary purposes such as for fabric making and cloth weaving. Some are of the view that it was also used as sails when shipping industry had not become technologically sophisticated. The plant was also once used for the treatment of psychiatric conditions but after it was banned in the country, marijuana was forced to vanish from the medical field too.
Marijuana became a problem when people started using it as a drug in the form of powder. This is because marijuana affects chemical processes in the brain and puts a person in a state of elation. But all this is temporary and a person becomes so addicted to this drug that he cannot stay away from it. The dangerous impact on marijuana on the brain is also evident…
Cannabis" Accessed online 27 April 2004: http://www.cannabis.net
Richard Rudgley, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive substances, Little, Brown and Company (1998),
Substance Abuse Assessment
There are a variety of assessment or diagnostic instruments which can determine substance abuse. It is interesting to compare and contrast the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Chemical Dependency Assessment Profile (CDAP), and the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI).
Michigan Alcoholism Screening
The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (Mast) is a "binary-choice, 25-item test which is considered the most widely used test of its type for adults (Hodgson, 2002)."
This can be attributed to the time it takes to administer the test, which is approximately 5 minutes, and how easy it is to score. The MAST consists of a "questionnaire that requires a 'yes' or 'no' response and addresses drinking patterns, social, occupational, and medical aspects of drinking, and previous attempts at treatment. The three primary questions in the survey instrument are: 1) Have you ever attended a meeting of Alcoholics Anonymous?; 2) Have you ever gone…
Blevins, L. David. Joann B. Morton and Kimberly A. McCabe. (01 June, 1996). "Using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test to identify problem drinkers under federal supervision." Federal Probation.
Chemical Dependency Assessment Profile (CDAP). (accessed 17 May 2004). www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/cdap.htm).
Hodgson, Joele M. (22 December, 2002). "An adolescent version of the Michigan
Alcoholism Screening Test." Adolescence.
The client is a 19-year-old single male who was referred for treatment by his parents who are concerned that his use of alcohol is interfering with his grades in college. The client reportedly had all A grades in high school and had been placed in a program for gifted students. However, he has reportedly flunked out of college in his first year. Following this he was also recently arrested for his second DUI offense, the first offense occurring when he was a senior in high school.
According to his parents, the client was born at full term with no complications occurring in the pregnancy and delivery of the baby. He met all of his developmental milestones ahead of expectation and has experienced no major health issues although his last physical examination was several years ago. He excelled in school and was placed in a program for gifted and…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Epstein, N., Brown, G., & Steer, R.A. (1988). An inventory for measuring clinical anxiety: psychometric properties. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 56(6), 893-903.
Covin, R., Ouimet, A.J., Seeds, P.M., & Dozois, D.J. (2008). A meta-analysis of CBT for pathological worry among clients with GAD. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22(1), 108-116.
Dutra, L., Stathopoulou, G., Basden, S.L., Leyro, T.M., Powers, M.B., & Otto, M.W. (2008). A meta-analytic review of psychosocial interventions for substance use disorders. American Journal Psychiatry, 165 (2) 179-187.
Substance Abuse Prevention Programs in the United States
The menace of drug abuse among the most active population in the U.S. has been an issue that successive governments have struggled to contain, some to a significant success rate and yet there still remains to be substantial work to be done in the same line to ensure the dream of having a drugs free U.S. is achieved. This has made several organizations, agencies and institutions to focus more on the prevention programs as will be discussed in the section below.
Substance Abuse Prevention Program at University of Missouri- Rolla (SAPP at UMR) is one such program that has had a significant preventive effect on the population that has done through the university since 1988 when it was first initiated and even on the general public through the collaboration they have with other like minded programs like Boost Alcohol Consciousness Concerning the…