Algebra Essays (Examples)

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XML Physical Evaluation of XML

Words: 2450 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26696582

One such body is the American National Standards Institute or ANSI which is a non-profit private organization that surprisingly institutes standards the industry accepts voluntarily. Other influential standards organizations include the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers or IEEE and the Organization for Standardization or ISO. The IEEE was the organization that defined LAN standards in the Project 802 or the 802 series. These projects could be the blueprints that could be used to make XML more effective by using PAT Algebra Operators for query needs.

XML PAT Algebra Operators

The internet is based on a foundation of distributed hypertext. There is also plenty of proof that the internet could be regarded as a large distributed database where there are million to billions of queries processed daily. "XML is too slow an exchange format for any large volume of data transfer. It is fine for exchange of small amounts of data on the fly but when you get to the stage of wanting to transfer Gigabytes of data when converted to XML that mushrooms pretty rapidly. Before XML becomes any more mainstream it should be looked at now to see how compression can be adopted. It must be backward compatible…… [Read More]


Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices In Network Security -- As The Networking Landscape Changes, So Must The Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid Of Imperfection When It Comes To Developing Those For Your Group. Network Computing.

Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at 

Gast, Matthew. (2002, April 19). Wireless LAN Security: A Short History. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at

Oasis. (n.d.). XML: Overview. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at
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Secondary General Education Case Study

Words: 1012 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46605618

Another way to help the students learn Algebra is to show them real-world problems where they can see what the purposes are for learning Algebra and how they would use Algebra. One of the ways to do this would be bring in parents or other adults that use Algebra in their day-to-day careers or jobs. They could explain why they used Algebra and how they used Algebra.

A learning objective for this subject would be "the student will use mean, median, mode and range in a set of ten problems and get seven to eight of the problems correct." The student will be able to explain or demonstrate how they arrived at their answers. They may use calculators, but still must show the steps used to find the answers.

One example that could be used in the classroom is to have each student take their pulse rate and write it down. After the entire class has listed the pulse rate of the each student in the classroom, they would list them from least to greatest and then put them in order. After they have the list, they will find the mean, median, mode and range of pulse rates. Since they…… [Read More]


Ferguson, B.T., Ph.D., Psychological Theory and Models of Teaching -- Understanding Origins of Teaching Methods and Approaches, 2011.

Ferguson, B.T., Ph.D., Assessment Basics and Grading, 2011.

McLeod, S.A. (2009). Jean Piaget | Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from 

McLeod, S.A. (2007). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from
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Araybhata's Contributions to Mathematics &

Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28926339 approximation for ?, which is surprisingly accurate. The value given is: = 3.1416. With little doubt this is the most accurate approximation that had been given up to this point in the history of mathematics. Aryabhata found it from the circle with circumference 62832 and diameter 20000. Critics have tried to suggest that this approximation is of Greek origin. However with confidence it can be argued that the Greeks only used ? = 10 and ? = 22/7 and that no other values can be found in Greek texts." (Indian Mathematics, 2009)

There is stated by Selin (2001) in the work entitled: "Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Mathematics" to be " evidence of the method for extracting cube roots having been known earlier than Aryabhata I." (Selin, 2001)


Aryabhata made great contributions to mathematics and algebra and his greatest contribution to Algebra was that of his approximation for?

stated as equaling 3.1416 stated to be the most accurate approximation given at that time or previously in history. Aryabhata spent a great deal of time in examining previous mathematic and algebra study and filled in many knowledge gaps in these areas of study.… [Read More]


Selin, Helaine (2001) Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Mathematics. Vol. 3 Science Across Cultures. Ubiratan D'Ambrosio 2001.

Dutta, Amartya Kumar (2002) Mathematics in Ancient India. Resonance Journal Vol.7, NO. 5 April 2002.

Hooda, D.S. And Kapur, J.N. (2001) Aryabhata: Life and Contributions. New Age International 2001.

Indian Mathematics (2009) Aryabhata and His Commentators. History online available at:
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Education the Lesson Has a

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4995718

The method the teacher uses encourages students to discover the answers for themselves rather than accept the right answer as a matter of rote learning. finally, the class is frequently divided into groups, both small and large. The groups vary to encourage maximum student interactions. Through cooperative learning the students share their suggestions and brainstorm. Finally, the teacher employs some self-directed learning strategies that allow students to ponder the equations on their own for brief periods of time. This helps the teacher make assessments during class while it also helps the students work independently.

D. The lesson addresses a variety of learning styles and intelligences.

Another major strength of this lesson is the way it addresses a variety of learning styles and intelligences. Algebra is traditionally taught using the abstract method; students must visualize the concept of alphabetical variables. The notation used in traditional algebraic equations might work for students whose linear or mathematical thinking is strong. However, students strong in visual thinking or tactile learning will benefit more from a lesson like this one. Furthermore, the current lesson uses a significant amount of verbal communications, so that students strong in intrapersonal, interpersonal, and even linguistic intelligence will benefit.

E.…… [Read More]


Pan-Algebra: Pan Balance Equations." WGU Teacher's Resource Library. Retrieved July 10, 2007 at
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Modeling Real-World Data With Sinusoidal

Words: 2604 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51788337

6. The rabbits will never die.

The question was how many male/female rabbit pairs will be there after a year or 12 months?

When the experiment begun, there is a single pair of rabbits.

After duration of one month, the two rabbits have mated though they have not given birth. As a result; there is still only a single pair of rabbits.

After duration of two months, the initial pair of rabbits will give birth to another pair. There will be two pairs.

After duration of three months, the initial pair will give birth again, the second pair mate, but do not give birth. This makes three pair.

When four months will elapse, the original pair gives birth, and the pair born in the second month gives birth. The pair that is born in month in the third month will mate, but will not give birth. This will make two new pairs, thereby making a total of five pair.

After duration of five months, each pair that was alive two months earlier will give birth. This will make three new pair, totaling to eight (Anderson, Frazier, and Popendorf, 1999)

Factor Theorem:

Value a is a root of polynomial p (x)…… [Read More]


Buchanan, R. (2010). Addition and subtraction with polynomials, , assessed on February, 24, 2010

Anderson, M; Frazier, J and Popendorf, K. (1999). The Rabbit Problem, Assessed on February 24, 2011

Beckmann, P. (1976). A History of Pi, St. Martin's Griffin.
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Real Number Is Assigned to Each Statement

Words: 747 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58800940

real number is assigned to each statement written in a language, within a range from 0 to 1, where 1 means that the statement is completely true, and 0 means that the statement is completely false, while values less than 1 but greater than 0 represent that the statements are partly true, to a given, quantifiable extent. This makes it possible to analyze a distribution of statements for their truth-content, identify data patterns, make inferences and predictions, and model how processes operate.

Read the following instructions in order to complete this assignment, and review the example of how to complete the math required for this assignment:

Use the properties of real numbers to simplify the following expressions:

2a (a -- 5) + 4(a -- 5)

3(w -- 4) -- 5(w -- 6)

(0.3m + 35n) -- 0.8(-0.09n -- 22m)

Problem #1

2a (a-5) +4(a-5) I multiply 2a by each term inside the parentheses

2a^-10a+4(a-5) then I multiply 4 by each term inside the parentheses, and the distribution

Property removes parentheses

2a^-10a+4a-20 Now since -10a and 4a are like terms I subtract 4a from -10a to get -6a

2a^-6a-20 the expression fully simplify

Problem # 2

2w-3+3(w-4)-5(w-6) here I multiply 3…… [Read More]

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Attribute Hiearchy Critique of the Journal Article

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89763636

Attribute Hiearchy

Critique of the Journal Article "Using the Attribute Hierarchy Method to Make Diagnostic Inferences about Examinees' Cognitive Skills in Critical Reading" by Changjiang Wang and Martin J. Gieri

Gierl, M.J., Wang, C., & Zhou, J. (2008). Using the attribute hierarchy method to make diagnostic inferences about examinees' cognitive skills in algebra on the SAT. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 6(6). Retrieved from

One problem with evaluating the effectiveness of different types of test questions is that it is often unclear why students get particular exam questions wrong (or right). The SAT is a particularly controversial and challenging test and can have a long-lasting impact upon a college applicant's life, depending on what score he or she receives. Thus, effective analysis of SAT questions for veracity is essential to be fair to the high school students that take the test.

The purpose of the study by Gierl, Wang & Zhou (2008) entitled "Using the attribute hierarchy method to make diagnostic inferences about examinees' cognitive skills in algebra on the SAT" was an attempt to provide greater clarity about the test-taking strategies used by various students on the SAT than simply analyzing the answers from a correct vs.…… [Read More]

The model used was constructed via a four-step process. First, the model was formed, "using psychometric methods and linking these skills to diagnostic inferences" (Gierl, Wang & Zhou 2008: 39). Secondly, four models were elaborated "that describe different aspects of problem solving using sample items from Algebra I and II" and one was specifically selected for the study (Gierl, Wang & Zhou 2008: 39). "The third aspect, model use, provides structure to the model so that explanations and predictions can be made" and then fourth step was evaluation of the model (Gierl, Wang & Zhou 2008: 39).

The scope of the study was admittedly rather narrow -- only one model was tested. The researchers admitted that more testing was needed in this area of research and the study was a relatively preliminary experiment in mind-mapping, Student skills needed to be broken down into more specific attributes and a further problem was that the study was retroactive, which they hoped would not be the case in the future: "this order of events -- where the cognitive model is first identified and then the test items are developed -- is needed because the hierarchical organization of attributes should guide the development of test items and, subsequently, the interpretation of test performance when using the AHM" (Gierl, Wang & Zhou 2008: 44).

Overall, while the analysis presented is intriguing in parts, the reader is overwhelmingly presented with the notion that the authors 'bit off more than they could chew' in terms of the ambition of their research. The potential models of approaching different problems were so numerous, it was difficult to come to a definitive conclusion, and even the model selected was an imperfect fit. Furthermore, the generalizability of results to other domains in math or to other grade levels was unclear, and although the SAT is certainly justified by its importance for further, future analysis, whether the approach it requires of students is generalizable to other types of tests (even in algebra) remains in doubt. Also, the retroactive model of analysis the authors hope to analyze the future would not be suitable for the SAT and would require them to design their own test to refine their model.
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Finance it Is With Great

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9678386

Stories detailing the rise and fall of the Egyptians, the Roman Empire and other great nations proved mesmerizing and intriguing.

My interests in other areas have also been diversified; I have pursued many adventures, participated as president of many clubs, and won many competitions in music, sports, dance and more. My strength has always been academics however. During high school I was presented the unique opportunity to come to the United States and continue my education. It was here that I decided to study history initially. Though my parents pressured me to study finance or business, I found such work tedious at least initially. I did however entertain my parents and begin taking more classes in finance. This was probably the best decision I have ever made and helped create the professional I am today.

The more I learned the more I came to understand that finance was more than crunching numbers. The field of finance has a unique history all its own. Finance is an interesting and creative process, which I cam to realize after some time. I have since began to recognize how financial analysis, research and teachings can contribute to our welfare.

My desire to learn more…… [Read More]

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Jaime Escalante Hero Teaching Hope

Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4316610

movie Stand and Deliver (Menendez & Musca, 1988), which is based on the true story of Jamie Escalante, an individual who overcame ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues to become a highly successful mathematics teacher. Discuss the beliefs he held and the strategies he employed in his classroom that contributed to high achievement levels in his students.

The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) presents a three-pronged argument for an effective math curricula: 1) It must foster the successful mathematical performance of students in algebra and beyond; 2) it must be taught by experienced teachers of mathematics who instructional strategies that are research-based; and, 3) the instruction of the math curriculum must accomplish the "mutually reinforcing benefits of conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and automatic recall of facts" (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008, p. xiv). Jamie Escalante began teaching before this report was released, but he knew from experience -- and instinct -- that students who do not achieve mastery of foundational concepts of mathematics will face unforgiving -- perhaps harsh -- consequences in their lives (Won, 2010).

Frontrunner Excellence. A report published in 2006 by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics made recommendations for math curriculum that…… [Read More]


____. (2004, April 13). "Hero'" Teacher Escalante Addresses Students At Wittenberg Commencement May 9. Wittenberg University. Retrieved

____. (2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel, Foundations for Success. The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 

Barley, Z., Lauer, P.A., Arens, S.A., Apthorp, H.S., Englert, K.S., Snow, D., & Akiba, M. (2002). Helping at-risk students meet standards: A synthesis of evidence-based classroom practices. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning [Web]. Retrieved

Berkas, N., & Pattison, C. (2007, November). Manipulatives: More than a special education intervention. NCTM News Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [Web] Retreived
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Logarithm History and Modern Applications

Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77029409

e. all loans. The same basic formulas using logarithms can be used to calculate the needed number of investments and/or the time period of investments at a given growth rate that will be needed in order to reach a target level of investments savings (Brown 2010). Both of these applications have very real implications for many individuals, whether they are trying to buy a home or planning for their retirement, as well as a n abundance of other issues related to personal banking. Logarithms are not only useful in highly technical scientific pursuits and investigations, then, but are directly applicable and necessary to situations that directly relate to and have an effect on people's daily lives.

What I found most interesting and surprising about the development of logarithms is that they are something that needed development in the first place. I suppose it is similar to having taken any invention that pre-existed myself a little for granted, but with something intangible like a mathematical concept, it seems even more strange that there was a time before logarithms were used -- the numbers and operations necessary for their development existed for millennia, so it seems odd that it took so long…… [Read More]


Brown, S. (2010). "Loan or investment calculations." Oak road systems. Accessed 4 April 2010.

Campbell-Kelly, M. (2003). The history of mathematical tables. New York: Oxford university press.

Spiritus Temporis. (2005). "Logarithm." Accessed 4 April 2010.

Tom, D. (2002). "Use of logarithms." The math forum. Accessed 4 April 2010.
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Resume Project My Strengths Include

Words: 1726 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92176953

Again, I should have a strong feel for current trends and innovations in software design and technology, including those at Microsoft and those being developed by competitors. Beyond software success, I should have many examples handy of how I have displayed leadership and effective group management in the software development environment.

Finally, I must prove to the interviewer that I am ready and capable enough to handle working in a team environment in an international branch of the Microsoft Corporation. I should be aware of the current trends and conditions that are specific to Shanghai and should know how to respond to questions concerning how I will adapt to the language and cultural differences. By being prepared for questions and anticipating what skills the job requires I will be able to succeed in getting my dream position.… [Read More]

Works Cited

Microsoft, Job Listing for Software Development Engineer.

Microsoft, Job Listing for Lead Software Development Engineer in Shanghai, China.
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Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Database Developer (based on job I worked on).

Syntax and Semantic Analysis

-- The Syntax errors involved misuse of keywords.

The Semantic errors involved misuse of columns and tables - there were incompatible data types.

To elaborate, the syntax refers to the structure of the program and syntactic analysis checks for errors in aspects like spelling or whether ibraces are missing in which case the program would fail syntactically.

Semantic errors, on the other hand refer to the essential meaning of the content -- whether it all makes sense and whether it is accurate (for instance writing "the sun rises in the west") is a semantic error for this is incorrect. I would have to ascertain that all data placed in tables and columns was accurate in both context and form.

b. Query Transformation

I transformed the query into simplified and standardized format based on relational algebra. Some query transformations need to be costed in order to be chosen and some not. For instance, if a table is eliminated totally from the join, then need to cost that consequent applied transformation is minimal since functional behavior is barely altered.

Table profiles are inputs to access plans. An access plan is…… [Read More]

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Nursing Personal Statement for My Entire Life

Words: 503 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49024540

Nursing: Personal Statement

For my entire life, acting as a caregiver has been an integral part of my identity. I come from Cuba, and caring for the old and sick is considered to be a very important obligation. I was the child who took care of the needs of my grandmother and grandfather as they aged, as well as my father who died all too young of cancer. As emotionally difficult as these experiences were, I felt privileged to be able to do something for the people who had given so much to me. I also learned how gratifying it was to nurse someone and to provide them with a sense of self-worth and empowerment, even when they were facing their own mortality. To make this my career would be my dream come true.

I wanted to become a nurse while still living in Cuba but unfortunately Cuban nursing schools are not able to accept many students. My dream was thwarted only temporarily and in the United States I intend to pursue my degree in the field of nursing. Nursing would allow me to use my compassion and joy in taking care of others every day. At present, I am…… [Read More]

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Philosophy of Education Math Field

Words: 1152 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86411019

Philosophy of Education

Norma Cunningham

I am a nontraditional student and I am returning back to college due to a job loss. I have been given a second chance at obtaining an education. Since I have been attending college, I was accepted into the nursing program, but I turned it down. I did this because I remember my dream has always been to be a math teacher. Everyone knows teachers are not in the profession for the money, and that nurses make more money, so people may ask, why a teacher? Well, I remember when I was growing up, every time someone would ask me what I wanted to be, I always answered, a math teacher. Certain teachers that I have had in the past, and present, have helped me decide that I want to spend the rest of my life teaching math. Helping any age student to learn math gives me chills, because, like those teachers, I love solving problems and trying to figure out the right answers. Like John Travolta sang in Grease, "I've got chills, they're multiplying." Ever since I graduated in 1976, math has been my passion. I helped my children with their math throughout their…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bloom, B. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, the classification of educational goals. New York: McKay.

Brown, J., & Duguid, P. (2002). Knowledge and organization: a social-practice perspective. Organization Science, 12(2), 198-213.

Elmore, R. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development. Washington D.C.: Albert Shanker Institute.

Morrison, T. (1987). Beloved. New York: Penguin Group Inc.
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National and State Subject Matter Content Standards

Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21146694

National and State Subject Matter Content Standards for Math

According to the California standards for high school students, the geometry curriculum contains six critical components: "to establish criteria for congruence of triangles based on rigid motions; establish criteria for similarity of triangles based on dilations and proportional reasoning; informally develop explanations of circumference, area, and volume formulas; apply the Pythagorean Theorem to the coordinate plan; prove basic geometric theorems; and extend work with probability" (Common Core Standards, California Department of Education: 69). The elucidated standards are often quite specific in terms of how students are asked to apply basic concepts such as measuring angles; understanding the different properties of parallel lines; and manipulating various polygons. Not only must the students prove theorems but they must also be able to construct such shapes using a variety of methods in a hands-on fashion (Common Core Standards, 2013, California Department of Education: 70).

Deeper understanding as well as superficial understanding must be demonstrated; the core requirements are conceptual as well as highly specific. This can be seen in regards to the definition of congruency: students must "use geometric descriptions of rigid motions to transform figures and to predict the effect of a given…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Common Core Standards. California Department of Education. [21 Oct 2013] 

Common Core Standards. Official Website. [21 Oct 2013]
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Why I Have Chosen Teaching as a Career

Words: 529 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30103985

Teaching as a Career

Teaching Special Education requires a gentle temperament and devotion to the children. Maturity, regardless of age, and patience is very important. A Special Education teacher must be loving, kind, and nurturing in order to make the children feel safe and secure. He or she must also be focused and creative in teaching methods. And most importantly, present a positive role model for the children. I feel that I have the qualities and experience to become an effective Special Education teacher.

My background is vast and varied. I worked as a secretary at the University of California - Los Angeles for two years. The department in which I worked dealt with the clubs and fraternities on campus, therefore, I was constantly involved with the students and problems that arose from their activities. I spent a little over two years working as an office manager for a doctor's office. This gave me not only the opportunity to perfect my managerial skills but also provided the atmosphere to prepare me for my next employment that involved crisis situations. For the next five years I was Operations Manager for an ambulance service that provided 911 service for the county of…… [Read More]

A then studied and received my real estate license. I worked as an agent for approximately seven years. This position required much the same skills as my other positions, flexibility, patience, and an aptitude for detail. It also required social skills, self-motivation and the ability to enjoy working with people from varying backgrounds. Between 1999 and 2000, I worked 900 hours as a substitute Educational Assistant for all grade levels in Special Education. In this position I worked with mildly to severely mentally challenged students. In 2000, I was hired full time as an Educational Assistant in the Resource Center, and am currently still employed in this position. I tutor multiple subjects, science, consumer math, algebra, social studies, and English, to special educational students. These students are mainstreamed into regular educational classes, however, still need tutoring. I have approximately 700 hours in this position.

As a wife and mother, I have devoted my life to my family and was always involved with my children and their activities. I have raised two sons, both graduated college. I have an Associate of Arts degree and will be returning to college to work towards a degree in education, with a teaching certificate and an endorsement in Special Education.

The years that I spent working as a substitute, and now full time as an Educational Assistant has given me the opportunity to understand and fully appreciate this field of study. I feel my diverse working background and life experience gives me the foundation for dedication in this area. I enjoy teaching and working with the students is very rewarding for me. I am confident that I have chosen the right career to move into at this time in my life and feel comfortable that I possess the qualities to become an effective teacher.
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Gordon's Adam's Petition

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22158449

Gordon Adam's petition is not only well argued and properly reasoned, but, additionally, it managed to prove that all the arguments given against his petition were based on false reasoning. From the entire set of arguments, the only one that could actually be used against his argumentation was the one stating that he needed college algebra in order to "satisfy the university math requirement in order to graduate." Something like when you ask why you have to pay all kinds of different taxes: you see no real benefit, but some higher authority, in this case the state, in Gordon's case, the educational system and the college authorities, convinces you that this is necessary because it is so required!

On the other hand, because the college authorities' argumentation is based on all kind of fallacies, clearly dismantled one by one in Gordon's argumentation, it is my opinion that Gordon should be allowed not to take his algebra class and graduate without. My own argumentation will rely, first of all, on a presentation of the facts and of the different arguments that the two parties involved have used. I will be able to show that Gordon's option is not determined by laziness…… [Read More]

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Organizational Health Educational Institutions Generally Approach Organizational

Words: 2709 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11719523

Organizational Health

Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.

Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in the country is this: Advanced mathematics and science are necessary if students are to be disciplined learners with refined capacity for scientific analysis and application of their learning once they enter the world of work. In this paper, I discuss this premise, its effect on the establishment of curricula, and…… [Read More]


Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.

Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.

____. (1998). Business Coalition for Education Reform. The Formula for Success: A Business Leader's Guide to Supporting Math and Science Achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Hacker, A. (2012, July 20). Is algebra necessary? The New York Times [national ed.], SR1, SR6.
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Using Technology in a 2nd Grade Classroom to Improve Student Achievement in Math

Words: 4360 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37504594

Technology in a 2nd grade classroom to improve student achievement in math

Of late, there has been a push to bring in technology to schools where teachers as well as students would be able to reap the benefits of the World Wide Web, the Internet, and other related technologies. In many schools across the United States of America, this fact has been acknowledged and recognized, and many teachers and educators are being trained in the techniques and methods of using these technologies. However, it is also a fact that most teachers have admitted to the truth that they have not been using these technologies, simply because they do not know and they have not been taught, how to, and nor do they have the basic technical support to use these technologies effectively. Power Point, White Boards, Laptops, LCD Projectors, CDROMS, the internet, and others are some of the technologies available to students today, and if proper use were to be made of them, then the students would most definitely do better in all their tests, especially in mathematics, which is a subject that most children seem to fear. It is to be hoped that their scores would show a dramatic…… [Read More]


Aggarwal, Anil. (2003) "Web-based Learning and Teaching Technologies, Opportunities and Challenges" Idea Group Inc. (IGI)

"Definition of Power Point" Retrieved From lr=& oi=defmore& defl=en& q=define:PowerPoint Accessed 28 October, 2005

"Definition of Technology." Retrieved From
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Problems Fostering Unemployment in America

Words: 1707 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49153562

Unemployment in America

Policy makers in the United States continuously seek the silver bullet(s) -- plural solutions because there is clear recognition that the issue is multifaceted -- that will achieve healthy levels of employment in the nation. Certainly there some paths to increasing employment in the country are less expensive than others, and proposed solutions range across a wide array of complexity and practicality. Invariably, today, education becomes a focal point for discussions and debates about how to increase employment in any nation. This is due largely to the potential promise that solutions based in education can act as levers that are sufficiently effective to induce change.

Thesis Statement

Solutions to unemployment must be developed through the perfection of the alignment between the education young American receive -- in both secondary (high school) and post-secondary (college / university) educational systems -- and the actual labor market.

In his article in The New York Times, Thomas Friedman argues that educational standards should be higher and that students, parents, and educators need to put more effort into meeting those standards. Friedman argues that there are three fundamental pillars of unemployment in the United States today: (1) Global competition for higher-paying skilled…… [Read More]


Friedman, T.L. (2010, November 23). U.S.G. And P.T.A. The Opinion Pages. The New York Times. Retrieved

Hacker, A. (2012, February 28). Is Algebra Necessary? The Sunday Review. The New York Times. Retrieved
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Improving Mathematics in Middle School

Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37032386

These include: question/answer, lecture, demonstration, discussion, individual student projects, laboratory, technological activities, and supervised practice. Previous research has demonstrated that the use of informal knowledge, real world settings and opportunities to apply mathematical thinking are effective instruction methods for introductory algebra. For this reason, instructional factors are related to achievement in algebra (p. 102).

When comparing the test scores from Japan and the United States, House and Telese (2008) found a correlations between positive beliefs in the student's mathematical ability and their test scores. Those who believed they could do well in math performed better than those who expressed a negative opinion about their skills, when compared to their peers. In addition, students who worked problems on their own had higher test scores. This supports Silver's (1998) analysis that much of the reason why American students have poorer test scores than their international peers is due to the classroom instructional practices. Teachers, currently, are not instilling confidence in their students, in their math skills, which negatively affects their test scores.

Falco, Crethar and Bauman (2008) also agree that a middle school student's attitudes towards mathematics affects their learning and test scores. In their study, students received a Skill Builders curriculum,…… [Read More]


Falco, L., Crethar, H. & Bauman, S. (Apr 2008). "Skill-builders: Improving middle school students' self-beliefs for learning mathematics." Professional School Counseling, 11(4). p. 229-235.

House, D. & Telese, J. (Feb 2008). "Relationships between student and instructional factors and algebra achievement of students in the United States and Japan: An analysis of TIMSS 2003 data." Educational Research & Evaluation, 14(1). p. 101-112.

Silver, E. (Mar 1998). Improving mathematics in middle school. Lessons from TIMSS and related research. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from
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Spiritual Principle For Unto Every

Words: 446 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25625809

Once the concept of factoring is understood, technology can be used to assist the students with solving quadratic equations and equalities. The website ( will be references, but the students will have to write explanations showing that they understand how at least two homework problems were solved.

4. By the time we are ready to learn inverse functions, students will have a review of everything learned during the school year building up to inverse functions. Again, technology will be used via ( Students will again be asked to write an explanation for various homework problems demonstrating that they understand the concepts behind solving it.

Evaluation Procedures:

A quiz once per week

Midterm exam covering current quarter

Final exam covering current and previous quarters

Written homework explanations demonstrating how certain problems were solved

Review near the end of the school year for all concepts learned

End of year final exam

Resources: /

Teacher handouts

Pilone, T., & Pilone, D. (2008). Head First Algebra: A Learner's Guide to Algebra (First

Edition ed.). Cambridge: O'Reilly.… [Read More]

Sample of Text Resources:

Cummings, J., McClain, K., & Malloy, C. (2007). Algebra: Concepts and Applications

(First Edition ed.). New York: GLENCOE/MCGRAW-HILL.
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Middle School Math Teachers Over

Words: 3112 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44093332

These exams would also tap teaching performance and other capabilities unlikely to be adequately assessed using conventional paper along with pencil instruments." (Shulman, 1986, pp. 4 -- 14)

These different elements are important, because they are providing a foundation for helping the schools to become more competitive in mathematics. As, they are working together to create a basic standard for: improving learning comprehension and provide the ability to solve more complex issues. Over the course of time, this will help to increase the student's ability to understand a wide variety of concepts. This is the point that they will be more prepared to deal with the various challenges that they are facing in the 21 century. Once this occurs, it will help them to establish a foundation for adapting to the changes that they will have to deal with from: shifts in technology and through these transformations because of globalization.

To corroborate these finding with one another Ball (2008) had similar kinds of observations. As, the author believes that Shulman is providing a basic foundation for improving the student's understanding of different mathematical concepts. They found, that there were a number of similar approaches and trends that must be embraced…… [Read More]


Content Knowledge for Teaching. (2010). Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Diagnostic Mathematics Assessment. (2011). University of Louisville. Retrieved from:

Elementary and Secondary Education. (2004). NSF. Retrieved from:

Frequently Asked Questions. (2011). Core Standards. Retrieved from:
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Digital Audio Over the Last

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24367537

At the same time, digital audio recording also uses what is known as Boolean algebra and De Morgan's Theorem. Boolean algebra is when you are combining various binary codes and signals. De Morgan's Theorem is when you are complimenting various expressions in Boolean algebra, to more accurately represent the sound that is being heard. In digital recording, these two methods allow the various binary codes to be utilized, to specifically identify the different influxes in the various sounds. While, at the same time being able to provide, a more accurate recording of: the different noises. This is because you were able to combine the various formulas, to accurately reflect various sounds. Once this takes places, it means that actual audio recording that is being heard on the digital recorder; will more precisely reflect the various sounds that someone will hear. This is because the binary code and the Boolean algebra / De Morgan Theorem, are helping to precisely record the various inflections that are occurring. At which point, the overall amounts of sound quality will improve dramatically, as this device will capture the actual ranges vs. The overall wave of the sounds. (Pohlmann, n.d. )

Clearly, digital recording is changing…… [Read More]


Pohlmann, K. (n.d.). Principals of Digital Audio.
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Butts R E 2001 Galileo In

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26512856

He looks at three methods: history (melding information about the diverse geographical origins of algebra with the problems themselves), multiple representations (using notation, narrative, geometric, graphical, and other representations together to build understanding), and the object concept of function (teaching functions without generalizing about how traits of an individual relate to traits of a group). The article serves to offer some inventive solutions to a common problem in math education: How to make material relevant and compelling to a breadth of students.

Martinez, a.A. (2010). Triangle sacrifice to the gods. 1-11.

The article looks at Pythagoras, particularly the mythology surrounding his life and his most famous discovery, the Pythagorean theorem. It calls into question the historical evidence on which mathematics teachers base their teaching of this theory. The author points out how very little is known about Pythagoras and how he has been canonized by the math discipline because his theory is so useful. He outlines evidence that exists about Pythagoras, taking a critical eye to where and from whom the histories were derived. The tone of the article is playful but also makes an important point. It is critical that teachers take a close look at what information they…… [Read More]

references the impact that Newton's work had on mechanical applications. Lastly, the piece points out how Newton used the thought patterns associated with calculus in what appears to the modern reader as a work of geometry (with respect to his book "The Principia"). In this way, the article functions as a reminder of how scientific discoveries are created, which is by building upon the theories of others and by giving weight to the importance to mathematical principles.
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Teaching Math to Students With Disabilities Education

Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22146832

Education: Teaching Math to Students With Disabilities

Working with students with disabilities (SWD) can be quite challenging, especially for teachers working on a full-time basis. Almost every classroom today has one or more students dealing with either an emotional, educational, or physical disability; and teachers are likely to find themselves looking for resources or information that would enable them teach all their students in the most effective way. There are numerous special-education websites from which teachers and instructors can obtain information or lessons on teaching their respective subjects. Five websites available to the math special education teacher have been discussed in the subsequent sections of this text.

Teacher Resources

Teachers Helping Teachers:

This online resource provides teaching information for all teachers, with a 'Special Education' segment that provides a number of activities meant specifically for instilling basic conceptual skills in learners with special needs. The activities are submitted by teachers from different parts of the country, and include study skills, current events, geography, math, and reading lessons for learners in different grades (Starr). The 'Math Game' activity, for instance, helps students with learning disabilities to improve their problem-solving skills through sportsmanship and teamwork. There also are activities geared at…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Oldham County Schools. "Instructional Resources for Math." Oldham County Schools, n.d. Web. 17 August 2014

Starr, Linda. "Teaching Special Kids: Online Resources for Teachers." Education World, 2010. Web. 17 August 2014 from