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XML Physical Evaluation of XML
Words: 2450 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26696582
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One such body is the American National Standards Institute or ANSI which is a non-profit private organization that surprisingly institutes standards the industry accepts voluntarily. Other influential standards organizations include the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers or IEEE and the Organization for Standardization or ISO. The IEEE was the organization that defined LAN standards in the Project 802 or the 802 series. These projects could be the blueprints that could be used to make XML more effective by using PAT Algebra Operators for query needs.

XML PAT Algebra Operators

The internet is based on a foundation of distributed hypertext. There is also plenty of proof that the internet could be regarded as a large distributed database where there are million to billions of queries processed daily. "XML is too slow an exchange format for any large volume of data transfer. It is fine for exchange of small amounts of…


Avolio, Frederick M. (2000, March 20). Best Practices In Network Security -- As The Networking Landscape Changes, So Must The Policies That Govern Its Use. Don't Be Afraid Of Imperfection When It Comes To Developing Those For Your Group. Network Computing.

Dekker, Marcel. (n.d.). Security of the Internet. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at 

Gast, Matthew. (2002, April 19). Wireless LAN Security: A Short History. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at 

Oasis. (n.d.). XML: Overview. Retrieved on January 17, 2005, at

Araybhata's Contributions to Mathematics &
Words: 518 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 28926339
Read Full Paper  ❯ approximation for ?, which is surprisingly accurate. The value given is: = 3.1416. With little doubt this is the most accurate approximation that had been given up to this point in the history of mathematics. Aryabhata found it from the circle with circumference 62832 and diameter 20000. Critics have tried to suggest that this approximation is of Greek origin. However with confidence it can be argued that the Greeks only used ? = 10 and ? = 22/7 and that no other values can be found in Greek texts." (Indian Mathematics, 2009)

There is stated by Selin (2001) in the work entitled: "Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Mathematics" to be " evidence of the method for extracting cube roots having been known earlier than Aryabhata I." (Selin, 2001)


Aryabhata made great contributions to mathematics and algebra and his greatest contribution to Algebra was that of his…


Selin, Helaine (2001) Mathematics Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Mathematics. Vol. 3 Science Across Cultures. Ubiratan D'Ambrosio 2001.

Dutta, Amartya Kumar (2002) Mathematics in Ancient India. Resonance Journal Vol.7, NO. 5 April 2002.

Hooda, D.S. And Kapur, J.N. (2001) Aryabhata: Life and Contributions. New Age International 2001.

Indian Mathematics (2009) Aryabhata and His Commentators. History online available at:

Education the Lesson Has a
Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4995718
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The method the teacher uses encourages students to discover the answers for themselves rather than accept the right answer as a matter of rote learning. finally, the class is frequently divided into groups, both small and large. The groups vary to encourage maximum student interactions. Through cooperative learning the students share their suggestions and brainstorm. Finally, the teacher employs some self-directed learning strategies that allow students to ponder the equations on their own for brief periods of time. This helps the teacher make assessments during class while it also helps the students work independently.

D. The lesson addresses a variety of learning styles and intelligences.

Another major strength of this lesson is the way it addresses a variety of learning styles and intelligences. Algebra is traditionally taught using the abstract method; students must visualize the concept of alphabetical variables. The notation used in traditional algebraic equations might work for students…


Pan-Algebra: Pan Balance Equations." WGU Teacher's Resource Library. Retrieved July 10, 2007 at

Modeling Real-World Data With Sinusoidal
Words: 2604 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Journal Paper #: 51788337
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6. The rabbits will never die.

The question was how many male/female rabbit pairs will be there after a year or 12 months?

When the experiment begun, there is a single pair of rabbits.

After duration of one month, the two rabbits have mated though they have not given birth. As a result; there is still only a single pair of rabbits.

After duration of two months, the initial pair of rabbits will give birth to another pair. There will be two pairs.

After duration of three months, the initial pair will give birth again, the second pair mate, but do not give birth. This makes three pair.

When four months will elapse, the original pair gives birth, and the pair born in the second month gives birth. The pair that is born in month in the third month will mate, but will not give birth. This will make two…


Buchanan, R. (2010). Addition and subtraction with polynomials,, assessed on February, 24, 2010

Anderson, M; Frazier, J and Popendorf, K. (1999). The Rabbit Problem, Assessed on February 24, 2011

Beckmann, P. (1976). A History of Pi, St. Martin's Griffin.

Real Number Is Assigned to Each Statement
Words: 747 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58800940
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real number is assigned to each statement written in a language, within a range from 0 to 1, where 1 means that the statement is completely true, and 0 means that the statement is completely false, while values less than 1 but greater than 0 represent that the statements are partly true, to a given, quantifiable extent. This makes it possible to analyze a distribution of statements for their truth-content, identify data patterns, make inferences and predictions, and model how processes operate.

Read the following instructions in order to complete this assignment, and review the example of how to complete the math required for this assignment:

Use the properties of real numbers to simplify the following expressions:

2a (a -- 5) + 4(a -- 5)

3(w -- 4) -- 5(w -- 6)

(0.3m + 35n) -- 0.8(-0.09n -- 22m)

Problem #1

2a (a-5) +4(a-5) I multiply 2a by each term…

Finance it Is With Great
Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Admission Essay Paper #: 9678386
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Stories detailing the rise and fall of the Egyptians, the Roman Empire and other great nations proved mesmerizing and intriguing.

My interests in other areas have also been diversified; I have pursued many adventures, participated as president of many clubs, and won many competitions in music, sports, dance and more. My strength has always been academics however. During high school I was presented the unique opportunity to come to the United States and continue my education. It was here that I decided to study history initially. Though my parents pressured me to study finance or business, I found such work tedious at least initially. I did however entertain my parents and begin taking more classes in finance. This was probably the best decision I have ever made and helped create the professional I am today.

The more I learned the more I came to understand that finance was more than…

Jaime Escalante Hero Teaching Hope
Words: 1767 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4316610
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movie Stand and Deliver (Menendez & Musca, 1988), which is based on the true story of Jamie Escalante, an individual who overcame ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic issues to become a highly successful mathematics teacher. Discuss the beliefs he held and the strategies he employed in his classroom that contributed to high achievement levels in his students.

The final report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) presents a three-pronged argument for an effective math curricula: 1) It must foster the successful mathematical performance of students in algebra and beyond; 2) it must be taught by experienced teachers of mathematics who instructional strategies that are research-based; and, 3) the instruction of the math curriculum must accomplish the "mutually reinforcing benefits of conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and automatic recall of facts" (National Mathematics Advisory Panel, 2008, p. xiv). Jamie Escalante began teaching before this report was released, but he knew from experience…


____. (2004, April 13). "Hero'" Teacher Escalante Addresses Students At Wittenberg Commencement May 9. Wittenberg University. Retrieved 

____. (2008). National Mathematics Advisory Panel, Foundations for Success. The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, D.C. Retrieved 

Barley, Z., Lauer, P.A., Arens, S.A., Apthorp, H.S., Englert, K.S., Snow, D., & Akiba, M. (2002). Helping at-risk students meet standards: A synthesis of evidence-based classroom practices. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the Midcontinent Research for Education and Learning [Web]. Retrieved

Berkas, N., & Pattison, C. (2007, November). Manipulatives: More than a special education intervention. NCTM News Bulletin. Retrieved March 20, 2008, from the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics [Web] Retreived

Logarithm History and Modern Applications
Words: 877 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77029409
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e. all loans. The same basic formulas using logarithms can be used to calculate the needed number of investments and/or the time period of investments at a given growth rate that will be needed in order to reach a target level of investments savings (Brown 2010). Both of these applications have very real implications for many individuals, whether they are trying to buy a home or planning for their retirement, as well as a n abundance of other issues related to personal banking. Logarithms are not only useful in highly technical scientific pursuits and investigations, then, but are directly applicable and necessary to situations that directly relate to and have an effect on people's daily lives.

What I found most interesting and surprising about the development of logarithms is that they are something that needed development in the first place. I suppose it is similar to having taken any invention…


Brown, S. (2010). "Loan or investment calculations." Oak road systems. Accessed 4 April 2010.

Campbell-Kelly, M. (2003). The history of mathematical tables. New York: Oxford university press.

Spiritus Temporis. (2005). "Logarithm." Accessed 4 April 2010.

Tom, D. (2002). "Use of logarithms." The math forum. Accessed 4 April 2010.

Neo-Confucianism Is a Philosophy Which Was Born TEST1
Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: Array
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Database Developer (based on job I worked on).

Syntax and Semantic Analysis

-- The Syntax errors involved misuse of keywords.

The Semantic errors involved misuse of columns and tables - there were incompatible data types.

To elaborate, the syntax refers to the structure of the program and syntactic analysis checks for errors in aspects like spelling or whether ibraces are missing in which case the program would fail syntactically.

Semantic errors, on the other hand refer to the essential meaning of the content -- whether it all makes sense and whether it is accurate (for instance writing "the sun rises in the west") is a semantic error for this is incorrect. I would have to ascertain that all data placed in tables and columns was accurate in both context and form.

b. Query Transformation

I transformed the query into simplified and standardized format based on relational algebra. Some query transformations…

Nursing Personal Statement for My Entire Life
Words: 503 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49024540
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Nursing: Personal Statement

For my entire life, acting as a caregiver has been an integral part of my identity. I come from Cuba, and caring for the old and sick is considered to be a very important obligation. I was the child who took care of the needs of my grandmother and grandfather as they aged, as well as my father who died all too young of cancer. As emotionally difficult as these experiences were, I felt privileged to be able to do something for the people who had given so much to me. I also learned how gratifying it was to nurse someone and to provide them with a sense of self-worth and empowerment, even when they were facing their own mortality. To make this my career would be my dream come true.

I wanted to become a nurse while still living in Cuba but unfortunately Cuban nursing schools…

National and State Subject Matter Content Standards
Words: 720 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21146694
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National and State Subject Matter Content Standards for Math

According to the California standards for high school students, the geometry curriculum contains six critical components: "to establish criteria for congruence of triangles based on rigid motions; establish criteria for similarity of triangles based on dilations and proportional reasoning; informally develop explanations of circumference, area, and volume formulas; apply the Pythagorean Theorem to the coordinate plan; prove basic geometric theorems; and extend work with probability" (Common Core Standards, California Department of Education: 69). The elucidated standards are often quite specific in terms of how students are asked to apply basic concepts such as measuring angles; understanding the different properties of parallel lines; and manipulating various polygons. Not only must the students prove theorems but they must also be able to construct such shapes using a variety of methods in a hands-on fashion (Common Core Standards, 2013, California Department of Education: 70).…

Works Cited

Common Core Standards. California Department of Education. [21 Oct 2013] 

Common Core Standards. Official Website. [21 Oct 2013]

Why I Have Chosen Teaching as a Career
Words: 529 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 30103985
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Teaching as a Career

Teaching Special Education requires a gentle temperament and devotion to the children. Maturity, regardless of age, and patience is very important. Special Education teacher must be loving, kind, and nurturing in order to make the children feel safe and secure. He or she must also be focused and creative in teaching methods. nd most importantly, present a positive role model for the children. I feel that I have the qualities and experience to become an effective Special Education teacher.

My background is vast and varied. I worked as a secretary at the University of California - Los ngeles for two years. The department in which I worked dealt with the clubs and fraternities on campus, therefore, I was constantly involved with the students and problems that arose from their activities. I spent a little over two years working as an office manager for a doctor's office.…

A then studied and received my real estate license. I worked as an agent for approximately seven years. This position required much the same skills as my other positions, flexibility, patience, and an aptitude for detail. It also required social skills, self-motivation and the ability to enjoy working with people from varying backgrounds. Between 1999 and 2000, I worked 900 hours as a substitute Educational Assistant for all grade levels in Special Education. In this position I worked with mildly to severely mentally challenged students. In 2000, I was hired full time as an Educational Assistant in the Resource Center, and am currently still employed in this position. I tutor multiple subjects, science, consumer math, algebra, social studies, and English, to special educational students. These students are mainstreamed into regular educational classes, however, still need tutoring. I have approximately 700 hours in this position.

As a wife and mother, I have devoted my life to my family and was always involved with my children and their activities. I have raised two sons, both graduated college. I have an Associate of Arts degree and will be returning to college to work towards a degree in education, with a teaching certificate and an endorsement in Special Education.

The years that I spent working as a substitute, and now full time as an Educational Assistant has given me the opportunity to understand and fully appreciate this field of study. I feel my diverse working background and life experience gives me the foundation for dedication in this area. I enjoy teaching and working with the students is very rewarding for me. I am confident that I have chosen the right career to move into at this time in my life and feel comfortable that I possess the qualities to become an effective teacher.

Gordon's Adam's Petition
Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22158449
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Gordon Adam's petition is not only well argued and properly reasoned, but, additionally, it managed to prove that all the arguments given against his petition were based on false reasoning. From the entire set of arguments, the only one that could actually be used against his argumentation was the one stating that he needed college algebra in order to "satisfy the university math requirement in order to graduate." Something like when you ask why you have to pay all kinds of different taxes: you see no real benefit, but some higher authority, in this case the state, in Gordon's case, the educational system and the college authorities, convinces you that this is necessary because it is so required!

On the other hand, because the college authorities' argumentation is based on all kind of fallacies, clearly dismantled one by one in Gordon's argumentation, it is my opinion that Gordon should be…

Organizational Health

Educational institutions generally approach organizational improvement by addressing the performance standards to which students, educators, and administrators are held. The standards movement has been a dominant theme in educational policy arenas and in the public eye. With roots in the 1950s Cold War mentality, the thrust of educational improvement has been prodded by perceptions of international industrial and scientific competition. If the rigor of educational standards in the nation -- according to the logic of this argument -- falls below that of other countries, our economy will falter and the balance of trade will be compromised, perhaps beyond the point of recovery.

Fears for the future of the country and our citizens run deep; these fears propel a course of action that is not particularly based on rational thinking and lacks a base of evidence. The course of action adopted by educational policy makers and educational leaders in…


Barth, P. (1997, November 26). Want to keep American jobs and avert class division? Try high school trig. Education Week, 30,33.

Bosch, G. (2000). The Dual System of Vocational Training in Germany. In Tremblay, D.-G. And Doray, P. (2000). Vers de nouveaux modes de formation professionnelle? Le role des acteurs et des collaborations. Quebec: Presses de l'Universite du Quebec.

____. (1998). Business Coalition for Education Reform. The Formula for Success: A Business Leader's Guide to Supporting Math and Science Achievement. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Hacker, A. (2012, July 20). Is algebra necessary? The New York Times [national ed.], SR1, SR6.

Problems Fostering Unemployment in America
Words: 1707 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49153562
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Unemployment in America

Policy makers in the United States continuously seek the silver bullet(s) -- plural solutions because there is clear recognition that the issue is multifaceted -- that will achieve healthy levels of employment in the nation. Certainly there some paths to increasing employment in the country are less expensive than others, and proposed solutions range across a wide array of complexity and practicality. Invariably, today, education becomes a focal point for discussions and debates about how to increase employment in any nation. This is due largely to the potential promise that solutions based in education can act as levers that are sufficiently effective to induce change.

Thesis Statement

Solutions to unemployment must be developed through the perfection of the alignment between the education young American receive -- in both secondary (high school) and post-secondary (college / university) educational systems -- and the actual labor market.

In his article…


Friedman, T.L. (2010, November 23). U.S.G. And P.T.A. The Opinion Pages. The New York Times. Retrieved ;

Hacker, A. (2012, February 28). Is Algebra Necessary? The Sunday Review. The New York Times. Retrieved

Improving Mathematics in Middle School
Words: 1168 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 37032386
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These include: question/answer, lecture, demonstration, discussion, individual student projects, laboratory, technological activities, and supervised practice. Previous research has demonstrated that the use of informal knowledge, real world settings and opportunities to apply mathematical thinking are effective instruction methods for introductory algebra. For this reason, instructional factors are related to achievement in algebra (p. 102).

When comparing the test scores from Japan and the United States, House and Telese (2008) found a correlations between positive beliefs in the student's mathematical ability and their test scores. Those who believed they could do well in math performed better than those who expressed a negative opinion about their skills, when compared to their peers. In addition, students who worked problems on their own had higher test scores. This supports Silver's (1998) analysis that much of the reason why American students have poorer test scores than their international peers is due to the classroom instructional…


Falco, L., Crethar, H. & Bauman, S. (Apr 2008). "Skill-builders: Improving middle school students' self-beliefs for learning mathematics." Professional School Counseling, 11(4). p. 229-235.

House, D. & Telese, J. (Feb 2008). "Relationships between student and instructional factors and algebra achievement of students in the United States and Japan: An analysis of TIMSS 2003 data." Educational Research & Evaluation, 14(1). p. 101-112.

Silver, E. (Mar 1998). Improving mathematics in middle school. Lessons from TIMSS and related research. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from .

Spiritual Principle For Unto Every
Words: 446 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25625809
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Once the concept of factoring is understood, technology can be used to assist the students with solving quadratic equations and equalities. The website ( will be references, but the students will have to write explanations showing that they understand how at least two homework problems were solved.

4. By the time we are ready to learn inverse functions, students will have a review of everything learned during the school year building up to inverse functions. Again, technology will be used via ( tudents will again be asked to write an explanation for various homework problems demonstrating that they understand the concepts behind solving it.

Evaluation Procedures:

A quiz once per week

Midterm exam covering current quarter

Final exam covering current and previous quarters

Written homework explanations demonstrating how certain problems were solved

Review near the end of the school year for all concepts learned

End of year final exam


Sample of Text Resources:

Cummings, J., McClain, K., & Malloy, C. (2007). Algebra: Concepts and Applications

(First Edition ed.). New York: GLENCOE/MCGRAW-HILL.

Middle School Math Teachers Over
Words: 3112 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Introduction Chapter Paper #: 44093332
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These exams would also tap teaching performance and other capabilities unlikely to be adequately assessed using conventional paper along with pencil instruments." (Shulman, 1986, pp. 4 -- 14)

These different elements are important, because they are providing a foundation for helping the schools to become more competitive in mathematics. As, they are working together to create a basic standard for: improving learning comprehension and provide the ability to solve more complex issues. Over the course of time, this will help to increase the student's ability to understand a wide variety of concepts. This is the point that they will be more prepared to deal with the various challenges that they are facing in the 21 century. Once this occurs, it will help them to establish a foundation for adapting to the changes that they will have to deal with from: shifts in technology and through these transformations because of globalization.…


Content Knowledge for Teaching. (2010). Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Diagnostic Mathematics Assessment. (2011). University of Louisville. Retrieved from:

Elementary and Secondary Education. (2004). NSF. Retrieved from: 

Frequently Asked Questions. (2011). Core Standards. Retrieved from:

Butts R E 2001 Galileo In
Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 26512856
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He looks at thee methods: histoy (melding infomation about the divese geogaphical oigins of algeba with the poblems themselves), multiple epesentations (using notation, naative, geometic, gaphical, and othe epesentations togethe to build undestanding), and the object concept of function (teaching functions without genealizing about how taits of an individual elate to taits of a goup). The aticle seves to offe some inventive solutions to a common poblem in math education: How to make mateial elevant and compelling to a beadth of students.

Matinez, a.A. (2010). Tiangle sacifice to the gods. 1-11.

The aticle looks at Pythagoas, paticulaly the mythology suounding his life and his most famous discovey, the Pythagoean theoem. It calls into question the histoical evidence on which mathematics teaches base thei teaching of this theoy. The autho points out how vey little is known about Pythagoas and how he has been canonized by the math discipline because his…

references the impact that Newton's work had on mechanical applications. Lastly, the piece points out how Newton used the thought patterns associated with calculus in what appears to the modern reader as a work of geometry (with respect to his book "The Principia"). In this way, the article functions as a reminder of how scientific discoveries are created, which is by building upon the theories of others and by giving weight to the importance to mathematical principles.

Teaching Math to Students With Disabilities Education
Words: 999 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22146832
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Education: Teaching Math to Students ith Disabilities

orking with students with disabilities (SD) can be quite challenging, especially for teachers working on a full-time basis. Almost every classroom today has one or more students dealing with either an emotional, educational, or physical disability; and teachers are likely to find themselves looking for resources or information that would enable them teach all their students in the most effective way. There are numerous special-education websites from which teachers and instructors can obtain information or lessons on teaching their respective subjects. Five websites available to the math special education teacher have been discussed in the subsequent sections of this text.

Teacher Resources

Teachers Helping Teachers:

This online resource provides teaching information for all teachers, with a 'Special Education' segment that provides a number of activities meant specifically for instilling basic conceptual skills in learners with special needs. The activities are submitted by…

Works Cited

Oldham County Schools. "Instructional Resources for Math." Oldham County Schools, n.d. Web. 17 August 2014 

Starr, Linda. "Teaching Special Kids: Online Resources for Teachers." Education World, 2010. Web. 17 August 2014 from

Differential Learning in Mathematics
Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81429044
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conveyed in an effective manner to meet the needs of students. It is an important aspect of differentiating instruction. Students with diagnosed learning disabilities will receive an IEP designed to address their specific learning issues and deficits. Presentation, response, timing (scheduling) and setting can all be addressed in differentiation. Memory; auditory, visual, and even motor processing; attention deficits; abstract reasoning issues; and organizational problems can all cause issues for students that can be improved with differentiated instruction (Ginsberg & Dolan, 2003, p. 87).

In-class assessment can take place in both in traditional formative and performance-based ways. Formative assessment is used during the learning process so the teacher can check in to see what the student has retained. This can be observational or in the form of quizzes or other graded formats. But while performance-based assessment can take the form of conventional tests there are other methods besides exams, including flexible…

Chapter 6: Algebra

Algebra is often taught relatively early in a student's middle school or high school career but many students, particularly students with learning disabilities, struggle to grasp its basic concepts (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.141). Weak abstract reasoning skills, combined with computational and memory deficits as well as low self-esteem all conspire to make learning algebra especially difficult for LD students. The most basic concepts of algebra can be fostered as early as grade school, when children learn the intrinsic properties of numbers such as even and odd and zero. Even elementary school children should understand that adding and subtracting the same thing does not change the property's intrinsic value (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.146). By grade 6 or so they should be able to write their own equations to understand simple word problems; by grade 8 they should understand linear functions (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.148). But always, the emphasis must be on real understanding. Tables, graphs, and other methods can be useful although it is important for the instructor to be focused on conveying the meaning of the equation to the student, above all else. Linking the equation to a physical representation is key, not simply using a graphic without an expressed pedagogical purpose (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.152).

For LD students in particular, developing a step-by-step method to approach algebraic equations is critical. Pictorial representations can also be useful. Finally, self-monitoring is important, given that LD often have a weak skill set in this area. All of these approaches can be useful for all students but a teacher must be especially mindful of using this approach with LD students. Both authentic tasks and cognitive understanding is essential for true mastery (Lannin & Van Garderen, 2013, p.157). Peer-based learning can be helpful to enhance motivation.

Spiritual Principle So Teach Us
Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 949622
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Students will work together in groups of at least four to answer the questions on the exercise. Then, they will be required to present their findings to the class in a short, five-minute group presentation.

3. In order to familiarize students with the concepts and properties of triangles, quadrilaterals and other polygons, students will access the website, ( Under the Mathematics Gizmos section of this website, students will select the following: Grade 9-12 > Go > Geometry. Students will be required to perform all of the interactive activities in the Triangles and Quadrilateral and Polygons sections. Students will be required to write a brief explanation of understanding for each exercise.

4. Students will pick up where they left off in the first semester by continuing to use the website ( for the entire second semester. The will follow the similar path that they did during the third unit: Grade 9-12…


Monroe, Kara, Wilson, Margaret Mary, Bergman, Kathleen and Marisa Nadolny.

(2009). High School Math Made Simple (2009/2010 ed.). New Jersey: TutaPoint,


Inclusion of Technology in the
Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Grant Proposal Paper #: 34325259
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Environmental classes could chronicle their observations of the weather, for example, and post the results of their class observations online. Creating attractive, scientifically literate material online is an important skill that students should learn. New equipment is also needed in the laboratories to conduct more accurate measures of experiments. This is necessary to improve student performances at local science fairs.

Funding for field trips to science museums and other on-site locations to supplement education:

Interacting with science and technology in a hands-on fashion; visiting science laboratories that use technology; and meeting with individuals who use science and technology in their vocations are all ways to get students excited about technology and its applications.

Hiring a part-time or full time teacher of technology

This professional would be officially in charge of acting as a facilitator between the math and science departments; teach elective courses in technology; and conduct laboratories and educational…


McQuinland, Larry & Louise Kennelly. (2005, November 22). New study finds. American Institute for Research. Retrieved March 19, 2010 at

School & Community the Use
Words: 1338 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38836406
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, 2007).

The use of the Cognitive Tutor not only enriches students' experience at the academic task-level but also impacts the teachers' instructional practices and relationship with her students (Level 3) A district-wide survey of high school teachers using the program reveals that the Cognitive Tutor allows them more time to provide individual assistance to students; gives them the opportunity to adjust their instructional practices as a result of students progressing in problem solving; and makes Algebra more interesting and relevant to students (Schneyderman, 2001). These views imply that the use of the program makes teaching less burdensome in the sense that the teacher acts as facilitator of learning rather than instructor, which is one of the arguments for educational technology in general.

Due perhaps to the wide acceptance of the use of Cognitive Tutor and other instructional software in American classrooms, the "No Child Left Behind" Act called for…

Research evidence on implementation factors may suggest some explanations for the above findings. First, there are teacher-related issues. Technology products places demands on teachers' time and skills as they have to prepare the product, transfer the students to computer labs, maintain the technology, and monitor and help students as they use the software (Dynarski et al., 2007). Many teachers also feel that they have a significant need for professional development on how to manage classroom activities that integrate computer technology (Adelman et al. 2002 in Dynarski et al., 2007). In the ED study, although teachers underwent training and were confident at the end to use the products in their classes, their confidence dropped to some degree after they began using the products in the classroom (Dynarski et al., 2007). This may have been due in part to technical difficulties, which is another implementation factor issue. For instance, computer access may be limited, hardware can be unreliable, computer networks unstable, and technical support inadequate (Cuban, 2000 and Culp et al., 2003, in Dynarski et al., 2007). In the ED study, however, technical difficulties were considered "minor" as they were easily corrected or worked around (Dynarski et al., 2007).

These observations show how the other levels of school organization may affect the success of novel learning tasks and instructional design. Specifically, the teacher's belief about her efficacy and classroom management practices (Level 3) can send implicit and explicit messages to her students, that in turn may influence their academic performance (Eccles and Roeser, 1998). Hence, one of the recommendations of the ED study is to evaluate a second batch of students with the same teachers' implementing the products in their classroom. They hope to see the effect of teachers having prior experience and improved skills in using the products on students' performance (Dynarski et al., 2007). School resources (Level 5) in terms of adequate materials and technical capacity are also thought to be important for children's learning (Eccles and Roeser, 1998). Hence, it would be worthwhile to include recommending the upgrade of school computer networks and labs for Phase 2 of the ED study.

In summary, computer software such as the Cognitive Tutor can be beneficial for middle school and older students to improve their academic outcomes in challenging subjects like Math. For younger students such as those in grade school, the effectiveness of some computer software seems to be influenced by teacher and school factors. Although there is conclusive evidence from an ED study that reading and mathematics software don't significantly impact the performance of grade school and some middle school students, it could be worth addressing these contextual factors in a sequel study to re-evaluate the findings.

Greek Letter Pi Equations and
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Thus, in 1 Kings 7:23, the word "line" is written Kuf Vov Heh, but the Heh does not need to be there, and is not pronounced. With the extra letter, the word has a value of 111, but without it, the value is 106. (Kuf=100, Vov=6, Heh=5). The ratio of pi to 3 is very close to the ratio of 111 to 106. In other words, pi/3 = 111/106 approximately; solving for pi, is pi = 3.1415094... (Tsaban, 78). This figure is much more accurate than any other value that had been calculated up to that point, and would hold the record for the greatest number of correct digits for several hundred years afterwards. Unfortunately, very few people know this fact.

Archimedes of Greece was the first person to make serious use of the pi calculation. In 287 to 212 BC, he focused on the polygons' perimeters as opposed to…


Archimedes. "Measurement of a Circle" in Pi: A Source Book. Heidelberg: Springer

Verlag, 1997.

Baumgart, J.K.J.K.)." The history of algebra: An overview." In Historical topics for the mathematics classroom. 31st National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Yearbook. Washington, DC: NCTM, 1969

Blatner, David. The Joy of Pi. Walker Publishing Company, Inc. New York, 1997.

Math Explains the World the
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First, math courses are required as part of college work in the pursuit of most degrees in the health care field. The level of required achievement is different, depending on the degree sought. For example, a student pursuing an LPN may take a semester or two of college algebra. A pre-med student is often required to take one or two semesters of calculus. A student pursuing a master's degree in health care administration will take courses in statistics, finance and accounting. The master's candidate can perhaps more easily see the relevance of the required math courses toward the future career. For the nursing student studying algebra or the pre-med student struggling through calculus, the correlation between academic study and actual practice may be unclear. They may wonder why they must undertake these courses, which seem to have little to do with the work in which they will eventually be engaged.…


Marketplace Money. (2011). The cost of the common cold. American Public Media.

Retrieved from -


Paris, N. (2007). Hawking to experience zero gravity. London Telegraph 26 Apr 2007.

Hypatia of Alexandria Daughter of Theon
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Hypatia of Alexandria, daughter of Theon. Specifically, it will examine the life of Hypatia, especially her mathematical accomplishments. Hypatia was the first female mathematician that left a record that historians can trace. She was a philosopher, mathematician, and teacher who lived in Alexandria, Egypt from about 350 to 415 A.D. She was the daughter of Theon, a renowned mathematician and head of the library in Alexandria.

Historians do not agree on the year Hypatia was born. Some estimate it at around 355, while others place it as late as 370. What is known of Hypatia is that she was extremely influential in mathematics and philosophical thought. Hypatia was born in Alexandria and most historians believe she spent her entire life there. Some historians believe Hypatia studied mathematics in Athens, and then traveled through Europe (Coffin, 1998, p. 94), while others believe her father taught her most of what she knew…


Coffin, L.K. (1998). Hypatia. In Notable women in mathematics: A biographical dictionary, Morrow, C. & Perl, T. (Eds.) (pp. 94-96). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Osen, L.M. (1974). Women in mathematics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Russell, N. (2000). Cyril of Alexandria. London: Routledge.

Williams, Robyn. (1997). Ockham's razor. Retrieved from the Web site: 8 Aug. 2005.

Arizona State University
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Arizona State University (ASU) is a leading metropolitan research international institution in the United States that is committed to excellence in teaching, research, and public service. Established in Tempe in 1885 by a legislative act, ASU was initially formed as a teachers college. The core of the Tempe campus was a 20-acre cow pasture donated by leading citizens who desired an institution to educate public school teachers and offer instruction to their children in agriculture and mechanical arts.

In 2002, Michael M. Crow became the University's sixteenth president. In his inaugural address, he outlined his vision for the transformation of the school into a prototype for a new American university. This future institution will be a comprehensive research university that continues its academic excellence as well as have a strong commitment to social, economic, cultural, and environmental issues to meet the needs of the growing Phoenix area. The city has…

Prelude to Statistical Data Analysis
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Take for example a human resource manager who is interested in how three different departments in a business situation waste time on the internet on a given day when they should be doing company business. The human resource person would collect data through a time study process and determine the number of times each employee in each department logs on and off the internet for personal business. The times would be collected, added together and the times of each department converted to percentages. In the example presented, the human resource manager can report that, cumulatively, the employees in Department 1 spent a total of 5 hours a day on the Internet, Department 2 employees 2 hours a day and Department 3 spent 6 hours. The raw numeric count is then converted to percentages and the pie chart would look like the following (Ohlson, 2005):

The solution to the data presented…


Ohlson, E.L. (1998). Best Fit Statistical Practices. Chicago: ACTS Testing Labs. p.43

Weirs, Ronald M. (2005). Introduction to Business Statistics. Scranton, PA: Brooks/Cole

Publishing Company.


Professional Business Resume
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Educator Coach Resume

6335 La Mirada Way -- Long Beach, CA 92042


Professional, experiences, articulate and student-focused professional with proven expertise in motivating you to achieve appropriate goals. Prioritizing strategies for wining school athletic programs without losing sight of team-building, social, and sportsmanship training. Holds students, parents, staff in high-esteem while ensuring that students of all levels are accountable for their performance and attitude, on and off the field. Interacts with colleagues and administrators with a high degree of professionalism and personal integrity. Background includes pedagogical leadership and business. Extremely dedicated to student and staff development. Proficient with athletic scheduling software. Adept at training programs for all levels.



2002 -- Present

Athletic Director, Boys Football and Basketball Coach

Reorganized football and basketball programs and exceeded California Athletic Association Standards

Created new policies and…

Inverse Equations Problem A Is an Example
Words: 494 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5871730
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Inverse Equations

Problem "a" is an example of substitution equations. In this case, it is asking the two equations to be subtracted and the number four substituted for "x." In order for this operation to be properly accomplished, order of operations requires that the two problems be simplified to their final state before being combined.

Proof a.


Problems "b" are examples of inverse functions. Here, a secondary function is being placed in the original function's "x" position. Once this is accomplished, order of operations and rules of simplification allow for the simplifying of the final expression. These cannot be entirely solved as there is no value given for "x."

Proof b.

2(x^2 -- 3) +

2x^2 -- 6 +

2x^2 -- 1

(7 -- (x^2 -- 3)) /

(7 -- x^2 + 3) /

(10 -- x^2) /

Problems "c" are examples of finding the inverse of a single…

Works Cited

Chen, C.H. (1987). Applications of algebra of rotations in robot kinematics.Mechanism and machine theory, 22(1), 77-83.

McKeague, C.P. Elementary and Intermediate Algebra. Cengage Learning.

Disequilibrium in Learning Piaget's Concept of Disequilibrium
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Disequilibrium in Learning

Piaget's concept of disequilibrium in learning makes a great deal of sense both in terms of child development and in terms of the general way in which humans tend to think and act. Piaget bases much of his theories on evolutionary biology, and so adaptation necessarily plays a certain role in his thinking. He theorizes that the student is always active and that learning is an action by which one constructs knowledge (hence consctructivism), but that at the same time humans tend towards stagnation, seeking to "continue in past patterns as long as possible" (Doll, 1993, p. 83) Piaget supposes that it is necessary for the teacher to create a sort of cognitive dissonance and discomfort which will shock the student out of their complacency and force them to evolve and learn. He calls this state of uneasiness which is necessary to learning "disequilibrium." The social aspect…


Doll, W.E. (1993). A Post-Modern Perspective on Curriculum. New York: Teachers College Press.

Forman, E. & McPhail, J. (1993). "Vygotskian perspectives on children's collaborative problem-solving activities." In E.A. Forman, N. Minick, & C. Addison Stone (Eds.). Contexts for learning. Sociocultural dynamics in children's development. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Woolfolk, A. (2003). Educational Psychology. New York: Pearson Allyn & Bacon.

Three Mathematic Textbooks Review
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Precalculus With Limits by on Larson

This book as well as the other two books are for college freshman level or college introductory level mathematics courses. The strengths of the book are mainly focused on its layout. For example, the book has a great way to demonstrate a varied and large amount of information easily and simply. This means that people reading the text just have to look for certain visual cues like colors or pictures that will point the information they seek. For example, the diagrams have a different background color than the text. All of this removes time spent looking for things. The use of bold also further differentiates the text, highlighting key words, phrases and things to memorize.

The weaknesses are in lack of context surrounding the topics and footnotes. Another book reviewed has footnotes and yet another provides adequate background for each topic. This book sacrifices…


Larson, R., Hostetler, R., & Edwards, B. (2011). Calculus I, with precalculus (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Larson, R., Hostetler, R., Edwards, B., & Heyd, D. (2013). Precalculus with limits (3rd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Mirsky, L. (2012). Introduction to Linear Algebra. Dover Publications.

Jeffery Case Study Background for
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For this he can use the FOIL method. FOIL means FIST OUTSIDE INSIDE LAST. This order can help erase the confusion that arises with understanding of order in which equations are to be solved. This technique falls in the category of Mnemonics which was one of the strategies recommended for Jeffery's case. Mnemonics are any sentences or pictures that help students make connections and understand concepts.

Students often are befuddled with the use of complex terms in mathematics and hence it's recommended that they become familiar with some commonly used terms before they are used in the context of mathematics or algebra. For example students can be told what a variable is without actually referring to any mathematical equation. Variable is simply any letter in which a value can be stored. 4x for example would be the number 4 with a variable x that also contains a value though hidden…


Marcee M. Steele and John W. Steele (2003). Teaching Algebra to Students with Learning Disabilities. Mathematics Teacher, Volume 96, Number 9; December, 2003; pp.622-624.

Blessman, J., & Myszczak, B. (2001). Mathematics vocabulary and its effect on student comprehension. Saint Xavier University & Skylight Professional Development. (ERIC Document Reproducion Service No. ED455122).

Rubenstein, R. (2007). Focused strategies for middle-grades mathematics vocabulary development. Mathematics Teacher, 10(4), 200-207.

Schoenberger, K., & Liming, L. (2001). Improving students' mathematical thinking skills through improved use of mathematics vocabulary and numerical operations. Saint Xavier University and Skylight Professional Development. (ERIC Reproduction Service No. ED455120).

Standards Maps in the
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At which point, the students would begin studying composition of functions to verify each other. There will be a brief period of one day, to review the information that was covered during the quarter. (Cox, 2006)

In the first week of August, is when a comprehensive review will take place, covering everything that was presented in the year and preparing students, for their achievement as well as quarterly examinations. At this time, is when the educator needs to be focused on spending more time with the students. In some cases, it may be prudent to set up more recitation / review sessions before or after school. The extra time that can be spent reviewing the material and covering what was presented; will help to ensure that students are prepared for their assessment as well as quarterly examination, at the same time. ("Time and Structure in Curriculum Development, " n.d.)



Time and Structure in Curriculum Development. (n.d.)

Cox, K. (2006). Georgia Performance Standards: Mathematics 2. Retrieved July 23, 2010 from Georgia Standards website: