Alternative Fuels Essays (Examples)

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Alternative Fuel Vehicles Alternative Fueled

Words: 5345 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96383858

I do that every day. ut I've never done that with a car. I buy what I need to look successful. esides, how would I ever calculate a payback when I have no idea what gasoline will cost in the future?" A few said with apparent certainty, "one year" or "two years." However, when we inquired where the number came from, they simply asserted that they spent lots of money on gasoline and would quickly earn their money back through savings. A smaller group proposed longer terms -- eight to ten years -- noting that they keep their cars for a long time. Several households explained that their lack of attention to gas costs was due to the fact that they felt they couldn't do anything about it; they had to drive as much as they did to lead the lives they had constructed for themselves." (Kurani, Turrentine, and Heffner,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth; and Heffner, Rusty (2007) Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice? Access. No. 31, Fall 2007. Online available at: http://pubs.its.ucdavis.edu/publication_detail.php?id=1159

E85 Everywhere: Minnesota Consumer Perception Survey for E85 & Flex-Fuel Vehicles (Phase 2: Post-Advertising Campaign) (2007) Phoenix Marketing International Report of Findings. Online available at:  http://www.cleanairchoice.org/news/E85FinalReport-PhaseIITRG.pdf 

Connelly, Mary (2007) Study: Car Ads Aren't Green Enough. Automotive News. 13 Aug 2007. Online available at: http://www.mindclickgroup.com/mgwmonitor/press/automotivenews.pdf

Struben, Jeroen and Sterman, John D. (2007) Transition Challenges for Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Transportation Systems. MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA. Online available at:  http://web.mit.edu/~jsterman/www/StrubenSterman%20EPB%2007.pdf
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Alternative Fueled Vehicles an Analysis

Words: 512 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30704740



Few hydrogen fueling stations exist, and it will cost billions to build an infrastructure that will make FCVs practical.

Critics say that hydrogen is difficult to store and that producing the hydrogen makes FCVs less efficient than other types of alternative vehicles, such as electric or natural-gas-powered cars.

Even though FCVs may represent the future of the industry, they are still not practical for most applications. However, the hybrid technology and biodiesel powered cars are already practical and many of the mainstream international rental car companies are already offering these alternative fueled vehicles. For example, Hertz will rent a Toyota Prius or comparable model as well as a bio fueled Volkswagen Jetta at many locations (Hertz, N.d.).

Lotus Rental Car should meet its customers' demands for clean technologies in their vehicle fleet. The two most practical technologies that could be added now without many challenges would be the hybrid technology…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Consumer Reports. (2010, May). The ultimate green machine: More fuel-cell vehicles are hitting the road, but it's still an uphill climb. Retrieved from Consumer Reports: http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/2010/05/the-ultimate-green-machine/index.htm

Hertz. (N.d.). Green Traveler. Retrieved from Hertz: http://www.hertz.com/rentacar/productservice/index.jsp?targetPage=greentravelercollection.jsp
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Alternative Fuel Describe Detail Happen a Significant

Words: 932 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53066583

alternative fuel describe detail happen a significant energy supply source. Explain happen. Analyse promise challenges supply source. Your essay judged cogency argument, position merits energy alternative choose.

Marine Current Power

Marine current power is one of the most promising alternative energy sources in the contemporary society. The fact that the world is still addicted to using conventional fuels certainly makes it difficult for serious investors to put their resources into projects associated with alternative energy. Even with this, the fact that many conventional energy sources are rapidly being depleted makes it difficult and almost impossible for these bodies to ignore the benefits they would experience as a result of betting on particular alternative energy sources.

Marine current power uses kinetic energy in marine currents with the purpose of generating electric power. hile most people in the present focus on solar and wind power when discussing with regard to alternative energy…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Charlier, R.H. And Finkl, C.W. Ocean Energy: Tide and Tidal Power. Springer, 08.02.2009.

Patel, M.R. Shipboard Propulsion, Power Electronics, and Ocean Energy. CRC Press, 2012

"Marine Current Energy." Available from <  http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/05-06/marine_renewables/background/marinecurrents.htm >
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Alternative Fuel Cars the Best Way That

Words: 534 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7018977

Alternative Fuel cars

The best way that we can approach this complex subject is by differentiating the different types of fuels that the cars use since each fuel requires a different type of car and each fuel, accordingly, has its particular advantages and disadvantage.

Biodiesel cars-

Biodiesal vehicles combine petroleum gasoline with vegetable oils. Their benefits lie in the fact that these fuels produce fewer carbon emissions and reduced harmful particulates than does regular fuel. Biodiesel is more cost-effective for drivers than is standard fuel and is also more energy-efficient in its production.

On the other hand, biodiesel fuel is more expensive than standard gasoline aside from the fact that its production would take up vast tracts of land, and farmers may be encouraged to replace food crop planting with biodiesel plants.

Ethanol cars

Ethanol-fueled cars are driven by a combination f gasoline and a grain-based propellant. There are various…… [Read More]

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Alternative Fuel for Lotus Alternative

Words: 2145 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2427287

Concerns about the availability of fuel also slows adoption. In a simulation representing California, entrepreneurs opened alterative fuel stations in urban areas but not in less-populated rural areas where demand is initially lower. According to Science Daily (2007), urban alternative fuel drivers must then avoid the rural areas, reducing the appeal of alternative fuel vehicles and slowing their sales everywhere. In theory, the fuel efficiency of alternative fuel vehicles should attract more buyers; however, in reality, since drivers of alternative fuel vehicles need much less fuel, energy suppliers build fewer alternative fuel stations. This in turn lowers the appeal of these vehicles, and sales of alternative fuel vehicles may in reality decline. Thus, as indicated above, the positive factors associated with alternative fuel vehicles do not meet the burdens that a car rental facility would face with adding alternative fuel vehicles to their rental fleet.

Incentives for Adding Alternative Fuel…… [Read More]

Bibliography

California Energy Commission. (2005). Resource Guide: Infrastructure of Alternative

Fuel Vehicles. Retrieved November 12, 2007 at http://www.energy.co.gov/reports/afuguide.html.

Garrett, D. (2007). Choosing Alternative Fuels. Retrieved November 19, 2007 at http://www.choosingalternativefuel.com/.

Science Daily. (2007). Alternative Fuel Vehicles will be Tough to Sell, but Policy
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Government Subsidies and Alternative Fuel Technologies the

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37582924

Government Subsidies and Alternative Fuel Technologies

The government should not subsidize alternative fuel options. This is due to the fact that a free market that follows the basic supply and demand curve should be allowed to function as a product of the available technology. This is to say that fossil fuels and other related fuels will continue to stay in demand as long as there is a supply of them and the willingness to pay. Government subsidies disrupt the supply curve as well as the willingness to pay for alternative fuels. Such subsidies create incentives to follow and develop technologies which themselves have no natural market based upon principles of supply and demand.

Technology itself cannot create a new future, s to speak. However, humans, armed with the proper technology and free market dynamics can. This means that as humans develop new technologies, and these technologies become cheaper and more…… [Read More]

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Fuel Options in Today's Society

Words: 811 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78357451

The downside to E15 is that it can only be used by some vehicles manufactured after 2007 (AFDC Ethanol, 2009) and that it's not as widely available as standard gasoline. E15 fuel is considered to be an alternative fuel source.

Ethanol is a renewable source of fuel as it's made from corn. It is similar to grain alcohol because it's made from plant sugars that have been fermented, but it is not consumable. enewable fuel sources are fuels that are derived from components that can be renewed, such as plants. Biodiesel is a form of a fuel made from renewable sources, including plant oils. The oil (which is usually made from vegetables, sunflowers, canola, or used cooking oil) goes through a process called esterificiation, which refines it from oil into alcohol. Other examples of renewable fuels are hydrogen and methanol. There are also fuel types that are created through renewable…… [Read More]

References

Alternative and Renewable Fuel & Vehicle Technology Program. (2010, October 20). California Energy Commission Home Page. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from  http://www.energy.ca.gov/altfuels/ 

AFDC Ethanol: E85: An Alternative Fuel. (2010, November 16). EERE: Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center Program Home Page. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/ethanol/e85.html

Basic Information | Gasoline Fuels | U.S. EPA. (2007, June 11). EPA's 40th | U.S. EPA. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from http://www.epa.gov/otaq/gasoline/information.htm

Clean Fuels: Alternative Fuel Options | State & Local Transportation Resources | U.S. EPA. (2009, September 10). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from http://www.epa.gov/oms/stateresources/rellinks/altfueloptions.htm
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Fuel Tax the United States

Words: 862 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57008871



In the drive to discover new fuels and cheaper alternatives to driving the fact of the matter is that roads will still have to be maintained, and if the consumer is purchasing less fuel by driving fuel efficient cars, then other taxes will have to be raised or implemented to pay for the roads.

A recent study concluded that "more efficient cars and trucks still take up space on the highways and wear them out. Growth will require more highway capacity. Since we finance transportation primarily through dedicated taxes, these need to be ample enough to support these needs" (Petersen, 2007, p. 66). The taxes seen in America are not as high as the ones imposed on the European consumer.

One study showed that "European fuel costs are double those in the U.S. " (Winter, 2007, p. 5). The higher fuel costs there provides the European consumer with incentives not…… [Read More]

References

Hassett, K.A.; Metcalf, G.E.; (2008) the why's and how's of energy taxes, Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 45-50

Petersen, J.E.; Fueling a Tax, Governing, Vol. 20, No. 6, p. 66

Winter, D.; (2007) the big lie, Ward's Auto World, Vol. 43, No. 7, p. 5
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Fuel and Economy the Price of Fuel

Words: 1480 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34005604

Fuel and Economy

The price of fuel affects every citizen in one way or another, thus, it can have profound consequences on not only the United States, but the global economy as a whole.

On April 28, 2005, President George . Bush expressed concern about the economy due to higher energy prices, and stressed the need to take measure to boost oil output and lower prices (Bush pp). In a primetime press conference, Bush said the small business owners and families are paying higher prices at the gas pump, and that higher gas prices is like a tax and "I do think it's affected the economy" (Bush pp). His comments followed a report that same day from the Commerce Department that stated that the United States "economy grew at an annualized 3.1% in the first quarter in terms of real gross domestic product, decelerating from the previous quarter's 3.8% and…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Gray, John. "Books: Goodbye globalisation? The World Is Flat."

The Independent (London, England); 4/29/2005; pp.

Marshall, Randi F. "War's ripple effects set city businesses back."

January 27, 2005
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Alternative Power Supply to Run the Truck's

Words: 615 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22060294

Alternative Power Supply to Run the Truck's Refrigeration Unit

This paper addresses a crisis management plan during event management at a conference facility. It highlights the possible options of pursuit in case of power inadequacy to support the preservation of perishable dairy products in the truck refrigeration. Hence, relying on the truck power supply is the most viable option an event manager should take.

Alternative Power Supply to Run the Truck's Refrigeration Unit

Event management is an activity geared towards ensuring the success of a particular event, festivals and conferences. It involves several processes that an event manager should acquaint himself with. However, throughout the whole process of event management, an event manager can face unexpected occurrences that need immediate reaction. Such kind of an unanticipated occurrence requires event manager to be creative enough to come up with an immediate response to save the situation. Hence, crisis management is part…… [Read More]

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Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol Climate Change

Words: 1187 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46951401

Alternatives to the Kyoto Protocol

Climate Change

The effort to bring about effective changes in energy policy worldwide began with the emergence of scientific evidence showing greenhouse gas concentrations and global surface temperatures had both increased over a geologically short period of time, to unprecedented levels within the last 20,000 years (Betsill, 107). This evidence fueled a series of conferences during the last half of the 20th century. Midway through this series the first target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions was defined in Toronto, Canada, at the 1988 orld Conference on the Changing Atmosphere (Betsill, 106). The "Toronto Target" set a goal of reducing worldwide CO2 emissions to 20% below 1988 levels by 2005.

The Toronto conference may have set the first goal for mitigating rising surface temperatures, but getting countries around the world to agree has been extremely difficult. The structure within which global negotiations for reducing greenhouse gas…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Betsill, Michele M. "Global Climate Change Policy: Making Progress or Spinning Wheels?" The Global Environment: Institutions, Law, and Policy, 2nd Edition. Eds. Regina S. Axelrod, David L. Downie, and Norman J. Vig. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Inc., 2005. 103-124. Print.

Hass, Peter M. "Forum: Climate Change Governance after Bali." Global Environmental Politics 8.3 (2008): 1-8. Print.

Victor, David G. "Toward Effective International Cooperation on Climate Change: Numbers, Interests and Institutions. Global Environmental Politics 6.3 (2006): 90-103. Print.
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Ethanol for Fuel in the

Words: 2822 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41645226

4). Likewise, in the same article, Kay Martin of the Ventura County, California public works agency is quoted as saying, "From a macroeconomics or macro-environmental perspective, it just makes sense." The need to build an infrastructure for production of bio-fuels creates economic opportunities.

Of course, not everybody is so enthusiastic. To grow corn, diesel tractors are required to plant, fertilize and harvest it with substantial coal-fired electricity needed for the still. David Pemental, a professor who has done research and a leading opponent of ethanol, says corn ethanol is "unsustainable, subsidized food burning." He charges that most of the one billion dollars spent per year by federal and state governments goes to agribusiness (such as Archer Daniels Midland, a mega corporation) that already owns 35% of the market. He also claims that an acre yielding 7,110 pounds of corn will produce 328 gallons of ethanol. He estimates 140 gallons of…… [Read More]

References

Advanced Materials & Processes (2005). Industry insider: Automotive, 163 (5), May, 69-70.

Automotive Industries (2003). Fill'er up, 183 (5), May, 51-53.

Brown, D.C. (2004). Moving toward alternative fuel vehicles. Public Works, 135 (12) Nov, 34-7.

Deierlein, B. (2001). Alternative fuels: The race is on! Waste Age, 32 (8), Aug, 62-63, 67.
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High Fuel Costs on the

Words: 4320 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61115111

According to these airlines, the public can help by contacting their Congress people.

According to the airlines in question, there are in fact (or have been) regulations in place in order to discourage the phenomenon of uncontrolled speculation and manipulation in world markets. These have however been weakened or removed, resulting in the rapid rise of fuel prices today. The claim is in fact that rising demand and diminishing supply cannot account for the rise in oil prices that have been experienced over the last year.

Alexandra Marks (2008) also addresses the role of the Government in encouraging higher fuel prices. According to airline industry experts and analysts, Congress is not doing enough to curb speculation. If this is not done very soon, according to these experts, the aviation industry could face a collapse in the not very far future, that is in danger of crippling the economy of the…… [Read More]

Sources

AOPA ePublishing staff. AOPA working on future avgas. http://www.aopa.org/aircraft/articles/2008/080319avgas.html

Credeur, Mary Jane. (2008, July 9). Northwest Air to Cut 2,500 jobs to Blunt Fuel Costs. Bloomberg Press. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aQSwxib7vM3s&refer=us

Hegeman, Roxana. (2008, July 8). Soaring aviation fuel cots ground many pilots. Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/07/08/ap5194342.html

Lynch, Kerry. (2008, Mar. 24). AOPA, Greens Battle Over Lead in AvGas. Aviation Week. http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_channel.jsp?channel=busav&id=news/LEAD03248.xml
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Converting Sugar Into Fuel Man's

Words: 2102 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30641303

Such biodegradable batteries have the ability to last 3 to 4 times longer than the lithium ion batteries in use today. It is not just the average consumer who is interested in these products but the military is also extremely interested in using such sugar-powered batteries. The portability of such devices would be appropriate for the extreme mobility required in the battlefield. It would also be suitable in emergency situations when access to electricity and other vital gasoline supply lines are cut off. Using any kind of sugar source available in the vicinity would be enough to charge up the batteries. (Fuel cell batteries that run on sugar) The energy needs of the U.S. Armed Forces are extremely high and the Department of Defense requires a constant supply of fuel for its military jets. Therefore, as per the instructions of the U.S. Congress, DOD and DAPA have also evinced interest…… [Read More]

References

Centi, Gabriele; Santen, Rutger A. van. Catalysis for renewables.

Wiley-VCH, 2007.

Dinham, Barbara; Hines, Colin. Agribusiness in Africa.

Africa World Press. 1984.
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Hydrogen Fuel Cars as an

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 362629

People are typically inclined to think that a product becomes less expensive once it enters mass production. However, this is not the case with hydrogen powered cars, as it will still be expensive to produce the fuel and to make cars capable to run on it. Gasoline burning-vehicles are likely to be replaced with cars using alternative sources of energy in the near future, only that hydrogen is improbable to become widespread in the coming years (in contrast to other alternative fuels) (Behar).

Hydrogen fuel cells are less effective in terms of space, given that they are much larger than an ordinary gas tank ("Hydrogen Car Gears Up" 23).

Most people are unaware that hydrogen is not found on earth in a normal form and that it has to be extracted from other sources. A great amount of energy is used when hydrogen is extracted from other sources and the…… [Read More]

Steinbugler, Margaret M. And Williams, Robert H. "Beyond Combustion: Fuel Cell Cars for the 21st Century," Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 13.4 (1998)

"How Soon for Hydrogen?," Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2004

"Hydrogen Car Gears Up," Daily Post (Liverpool, England) 18 July 2007: 23
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Lotus Rental Car's CFO Feasibility Adding Alternative

Words: 2748 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40061060

Lotus ental Car's CFO feasibility adding alternative fuel vehicles fleet

The problem of switching to a more fuel efficient car, especially ones that are considered non-polluting will arise for all tourist and individual car owners. The reason is the rising cost of fossil fuels and the actions of environmentalists and other powers that try and curb the use of fossil fuels and cars in many places. While the operators have some more breathing time, it can be predicted that in the near future there will be a forced shift to hybrid cars, electric vehicles and non-fuel-based vehicles in all sectors of the world. The automotive industry is itself gearing up for the change. One factor that has made the automobile producers take to producing hybrid vehicles and electric and other fuel vehicles is primarily the costs of fuel as is obtained now. The rising cost in fuel has made automobile…… [Read More]

References

Baker, Linda. (2006) "The Service Economy: Car Sharing Is the New Consumer Model." E

Magazine, vol. 17, no. 2, pp: 16-18.

Becker, Helmut. (2006) "High noon in the automotive industry"

Springer.
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Hydrogen Fuel Car Option 2

Words: 3497 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38560131

People seeking to make a fundamental change in the way they transport themselves will likely need a great deal of information, some of which may provide greater clarity while others may provide confusion and resort in them seeking out another alternative product. The consumer may then look for information that will support their inquiry into a commitment to a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle as opposed to one of many alternatives.

a. Choosing a lower cost option, or in this case an option that best fits into their personal budget;

b. Choosing an alternative with greater support and/or greater available review data, i.e. something that has already been tried and embraced by consumers;

c. Choosing a product that offers the least resistance in the way of lifestyle change, where to fuel, how to fuel, easier to drive, and/or service.

2. Consulting an expert, such as the lease agent, dealer manufacturer or…… [Read More]

Resources

Al-Muslim, a. (2011, March 29). Hempstead adds three hydrogen-powered cars. Newsday, (Melville, NY). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Katzanek, J. (2005). Hybrid car buyers willing to wait in line -- and pay more. Press-Enterprise, the (Riverside, CA), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Lenderman, a. (2007). Hybrids, concept cars generate buzz. Santa Fe New Mexican, the (NM), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Strahan, D. (Nov 29-Dec 5, 2008) Hydrogen's long road to nowhere. New Scientist (200) 2684, 40-44.
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Hydrogen Fuel as an Alternative

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53578378

Instead, loss of the fuel results in entropy, a concern of the second law of thermodynamics and this helps prove the impracticality of this fuel. Combine this with the size of the fuel tank necessary to power a car for many hundreds of miles, and hydrogen begins to look far worse as a real alternative to fuel conservation and replacing fossil fuels.

Hydrogen seems like a good idea, and there are hydrogen vehicles in production and on the road. However, delivering hydrogen from the production plants to facilities also proves to be expensive, and it is expensive to build new hydrogen fuel centers, as well. Hydrogen can be dangerous, too. Liquid hydrogen can freeze air, and hydrogen can cause explosions, just like gasoline. If enough hydrogen leaks from a faulty valve or tank in a confined space, like a garage, it can explode, as well (McCarthy). That means that hydrogen…… [Read More]

References

McCarthy, John. "Hydrogen." Stanford University. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008.  http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/hydrogen.html 

Rocheleau, Richard E. "Hydrogen." Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www.hnei.hawaii.edu/hydrogen.asp
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Hydrogen Fuel in the Later

Words: 826 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43643905

According to Dr. David Thompson, assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at Memorial, long-term goal is to make fuel from sunlight, a field known artificial photosynthesis. The larger question revolves around whether a system can be designed to take captured solar energy and create molecules that can be utilized as fuels (Hester, 2007).

The general idea, of course, is that the Petroleum Era will be replaced by the Hydrogen Era. Because hydrogen is so prevalent in the universe, it will require only the technological acumen to harness this most abundant element in order to produce a clean, unlimited, reliable, and endless supply of power. Enough scientists believe in this technology that in January 2003, President G.W. Bush announced a $720 million commitment towards the development of hydrogen fuel (www.hydrogenassociation.com). Modern society has the technology to change behaviors, or at least the vision to develop this alternate paradigm, but perhaps…… [Read More]

REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED

Alternative Energy Institute 2006, "Powering Our Future: An Energy Sourcebook for

Sustainable Living." Cited in:

http://books.google.com/books?id=DuSYMMOIQ2UC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Powering+Our+Future:+an+Energy+Sourcebook+for%09Sustainable+Living.&source=bl&ots=rf__m6Oclr&sig=hwVCb13h8uzMsozk8ne2hI1vLoQ&hl=en&ei=vY0YTJzeCoqOMray5NgE&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false

Gibilisco, S. (2006), Alternative Energy Demystified, McGraw
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White Pages Hydrogen Fuel --

Words: 1400 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88759994

The study advocated a broader energy policy for automobiles, specifically one that allocated more money to the development of gas-electric hybrids. Hydrogen may be the fuel of the future, but it is a distant future, at least fifty years away (Stauffer par. 8-9). In the meantime, the development of proven technology will be of more benefit than hydrogen.

The Myriad Issues with Hydrogen: Availability, Extraction, and Storage Are Just the Beginnings

Another study -- this time by 18 scientists and engineers from universities, the government, and private laboratories -- concluded that no known alternative energy source, hydrogen included, is ready to take the place of fossil fuels ("Fossil Fuels" par. 1-2). Regarding hydrogen, the study had very specific points. One, hydrogen does not exist in a natural pure form. Two, hydrogen must be extracted from either natural gas or water. Three, more carbon dioxide and less energy is produced with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crabtree, George W., Mildred S. Dresselhaus, and Michelle V. Buchanan. "The Hydrogen Economy." Physics Today Online. Dec. 2004. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-57/iss-12/p39.html.

Fossil Fuels Still Don't Have a Feasible Replacement." The Times via Associated Press. 1 Nov. 2002. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.rff.org/rff/News/Coverage/2002/November/Fossil-Fuels-Still-Dont-Have-Feasible-Replacement.cfm.

Hydrogen Economy Offers Major Opportunities but Faces Considerable Hurdles." The National Academies: Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine. 4 Feb. 2004. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www4.nationalacademies.org/news.nsf/isbn/0309091632?OpenDocument.

Is Hydrogen a Viable Fuel Alternative?" Physorg.com. 12 Oct. 2005. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.physorg.com/news7198.html.
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Alternative Commercial Dispute Resolution A Critical Assessment

Words: 2235 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82226306

Alternative Commercial Dispute esolution: A Critical Assessment of the AD Mechanism in the Saudi Legal System and Practice

General review of Alternative Dispute esolution

The rationale of the AD movement. The benefits of using arbitration in particular in lieu of formal adjudication in the courts have attracted a growing amount of interest from the private sector around the world. For example, Davis and Katbeh (2009) point out that this process is especially evident in the politically unstable Middle East. According to these authorities, "Increasingly, commercial alternative dispute resolution (AD) programs are being created throughout the world. These AD centers provide a model of peaceful dispute resolution for other countries, particularly when they are located in a geographic area known for political conflict" (Davis & Katbeh, 2009, p. 67).

Certainly, Saudi Arabia is no stranger to political conflict, but there are some interesting aspects concerning commercial dispute resolution that are virtually…… [Read More]

References

Al-Nuwaiser, W.N. (2012, September). Reform of the Saudi Arbitration Law. Insight:

International Arbitration, 1-3.

Baudenbacher, C. (2008, Spring). Judicialization: Can the European model be exported to other parts of the world? Texas International Law Journal, 39(3), 381-393.

Bingham, L.B. (2004, Spring). Control over dispute-system design and mandatory commercial arbitration. Law and Contemporary Problems, 67(1-2), 221-229.
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Fuel Cell Technology There Are Over 600

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70476693

Fuel Cell Technology

There are over 600 million motor vehicles in the world today. If present trends continue, the number of cars on Earth will double in the next 30 years." ("Cars Emit")

As the demand for energy increase and resources, such as fossil fuel, decrease alternative must be sought. Of these alternatives, hydrogen fuel cell technology, in automotive applications, has significant benefits and is now technologically feasible. Given this knowledge, it is imperative that we begin to set up the infrastructure necessary to utilize this technology.

I have studied this topic over the last three years, and the advancement of the technology has become increasingly exciting. hat was once a dream is now a reality.

I'm going to provide you first with an overview of how fuel cells work and then describe for you the benefits of the use of fuel cells, including why hydrogen is the best choice.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cars Emit Carbon Dioxide." 1997. Global Warming Focus on the Future. 27 May 2004. http://globalwarming.enviroweb.org/ishappening/sources/sources_co2_facts3.html.

Efficiency of Fuel Cells." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell4.htm.

Gasoline and Battery Power." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell5.htm.

Proton Exchange Membrane." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell2.htm.
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Promoting Fuel Efficient Cars Establishing Green Spaces

Words: 889 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4937518

promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.

Fuel efficient cars

Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.

Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.

Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)

The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…… [Read More]

Sources

Future-Method. Fuel Efficient Hybrid Cars -- Initiatives to Reduce Pollution. http://www.futuremethod.org/418/fuel-efficient-hybrid-cars-initiatives-to-reduce-pollution

The benefits of alternative transportation http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/library/CR-007047.pdf

Supnithadnaporn, (2007), Do Vehicles Passing Emission Test Pollute Less-Georgia Institute of Technology http://www.spp.gatech.edu/faculty/WOPRpapers/AnupitWOPRFinal.pdf
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Aircraft Engine Fuel on Our

Words: 2050 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44180171

At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).

Conclusions

With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.

Appendixes

Appendix a

Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere

University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)

Appendix B

Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…… [Read More]

References

Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from  http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm 

University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf

United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html
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Supplements for Athletes Ripped Fuel &Copy Is

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84928638

Supplements for Athletes

ipped Fuel © is a weight loss supplement used widely by individuals who are trying to improve their physical and athletic performance (Brown). These capsules are utilized as a method of rapidly burning fat, while quickly gaining muscle; they are popular among athletes because of this. The supplements work in a way that allows the burning of fat -- which is the most difficult part of body shaping -- to occur in a rapid fashion. Desired results are achieved in a limited amount of time, therefore adding to the appeal of this supplement to young athletes who are just beginning their journey through sports and are essentially attempting to make themselves stand out from the hundreds of other athletes. However, the components of these supplements have been of great concern due to their potential undesired effects (Brown). Despite the glorious results that the particular coach at hand…… [Read More]

References:

Brown, E. (2011). What do ripped fuel capsules do? LIVESTRONG. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/401862-what-do-r ipped-fuel-capsules-do/

OneResult. (2012). NCAA Legal and Illegal Supplements. ONERESULT: Look Like an Athlete. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from  http://www.oneresult.com/articles/supplements/ncaa  -legal-and-illegal-supplements
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Diesel Fuel Pricing Effects on

Words: 1897 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77125308



Threats:

Loss of industry as prices of oil are unstable due to market fluctuation

Long-term contracts cannot be formulated in the basis of changing prices

Gradual increase in prices can result into economic turmoil as raw materials and finished product prices will be increased lowering the economic process

Conclusion:

The trucking enterprises are significant in creating the United States transportation and freight industry. The transportation of raw materials and finished goods in required as most of the national and international corporations have established manufacturing systems in developing countries to take advantage of the supply chain management techniques. The business is significantly incorporating a market based approach. The influx of products and goods in high demand markets is one of the basic principles in free market economy. The business setup their manufacturing units in rural and industrial districts take advantage of the infrastructure and human resources available in these vicinities. However…… [Read More]

Ozener, O.O. (2008). Collaboration in transportation.USA: ProQuest.

Teravaninthorn, S., & Raballand, G. (2009). Transport prices and costs in Africa: a review of the main international corridors. World Bank Publications.

Yergin, D. (2006). Ensuring energy security. Foreign Affairs, 69-82.
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Eco-Fuels in the Face of

Words: 1586 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37047395



Conclusions

Whether it is solar power, used vegetable oil, turds, wood, or hydrogen research and experimentation is the way forward. These cheap resources have already been proven effective in various ways and manners. The need of the day is to develop new energy technologies and apply them in the most useful and practical way possible. If we want global economic stability then eco energy sector requires due attention. We have witnessed crises situations in the past. The rising demand for oil, its increasing prices and possible depletion of oil resources demand a way out. Alternative energy sources in this scenario give us a flicker of hope. U.S. government is also pushing the agenda and so should other individuals and organizations also look in this direction for the economic betterment of their counties and the world with the use eco-fuels. The change cannot be brought about by government alone, will and…… [Read More]

References

Kay, Tonya Making Biodiesel. Hawai'i Indymedia, Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://hawaii.indymedia.org/news/2006/06/5943.php.

Youngquist, W. (1998, December). Alternative Energy Sources - Myths and Realities. Electronic Green Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2006, at http://egj.lib.uidaho.edu/egj09/youngqu1.html

Bond, M. (2000, November). SOLAR ENERGY Seeing the Light.. Geographical, 72(11), 28.

Eco-Lifestyle Ideas for Surfers'. Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://209.85.135.104/search?q=cache:wzhmycSWxXQJ:www.ecosurfproject.org/downloads/download.php%3Ffilename%3Decosurfer.pdf%26backto%3D../resources/articles/index.php+Articles+on+ECO-FUELS&hl=en&gl=pk&ct=clnk&cd=14
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Science Hydrogen Fuel as an

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43345015

This is frequently referred to as entropy. In the route of energy transfer, some energy will disperse as heat. Entropy is a measure of disarray. The course of energy sustains order and life. Entropy is successful when organisms stop taking in energy and die (Laws of Thermodynamics, 2010).

Many experts feel that Hydrogen is the ideal fuel known to man at this time. It is a fuel source that has no chance of being depleted until the Sun stops producing it. There isn't much chance of the Sun stopping production either. The only result of hydrogen combustion is water. Because one of the ways hydrogen can be produced is by separating it from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, the process lends itself to recycling within a closed system. There are a few negatives that surround the use of Hydrogen. First, it is a very dangerous explosive. It is…… [Read More]

References

Hydrogen: The Never Ending Fuel Source. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:

http://www.tcnj.edu/~energy/altfuel/Hydrogen.htm

Laws of Thermodynamics. (2010). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:

http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/biobookener1.html
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Hydrogen Fuel as a Possible

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21926620

There are certain algae that produce hydrogen as a waste byproduct, and the cultivation of such algae and collection of their hydrogen emissions has so far proven somewhat successful (AE 2009). Continued refinement of this process and a bolstering of its efficiency could lead to commercially and industrially viable production levels. There are also methods for extracting hydrogen from waste materials that makes use at least partially of the natural breakdown of these materials; though energy is used in this decomposition, it is not energy transformed and applied at human expense, eliminating its strain on the system (AE 2009). Complex new storage mechanisms are also making the concept of hydrogen fuel cells in cars more viable (U.S. Dept. Of Energy 2009). There have been several major test projects involving hydrogen-powered vehicles in land, air, and sea, including the use of drone spy planes by the U.S. military, municipality waste removal…… [Read More]

References

AE. (2009). "Hydrogen Fuel." Accessed 12 December 2009.  http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/hydrogen-fuel/ 

EPA (2009). "Fuel Cells and Vehicles." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.epa.gov/fuelcell/

US. Dept. Of Energy. (2009). "Hydrogen." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.fueleconomy.gov/Feg/hydrogen.shtml
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Synthetic Fuels

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97663308

Synthetic Fuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are used as an excellent alternative to gasoline and natural gas. They are derived from a variety of sources like coal, tar, biomass etc. As the demand for fuel is increasing there is more extraction from the natural sources and consequently faster depletion of the same. Synthetic fuels offer to be an excellent solution for this problem of depleting energy resources. Some of the important synthetic fuels that are industrially produced are Methanol, ethanol, hydrazine, synthetic Hydrogen, etc. Let us look into two main methods of producing synthetic fuels before discussing their advantages and disadvantages.

Fischer- Tropsh Method

One of the important laboratory methods of producing synthetic fuel is the Fischer- Tropsh method. This method is actually a reduction of carbon monoxide. Two German scientists named Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch developed this method. This process essentially involves a mixture of hydrogen…… [Read More]

Bibliography

James E. Kloeppel, "Synthetic Enzyme shows Promise as Way to Make Hydrogen Cheaply," "Inside

Illinois" Vol 19, Pg. 8, November 18, 1999. Also available online at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/10/991008075716.htm

2) B.S.Bahl, Arun Bahl "A text-Book of Organic Chemistry," 'Synthetic Petrol', Chand

Company 1991, pg 191.
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Amtrak Trains System Fuel Consumption

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73615626



Your motivation

The motivation that makes the researcher to investigate this problem is to assist Amtrak to cut costs to generate yearly profitability. It is essential to realize that the government is funding a business that is not generating profits due to the inefficiency of the company management. The annual grant giving to the company is the taxpayer money that needs to be diverted into other useful venture. The Amtrak Company could generate net profits without the assistance of the Federal government if the company is being run by competent people. Recent report by New York Times reveals that Amtrak is losing $80 Million annually on food sales. "It's an outrageous cost to taxpayers," (2). These are part of the activities where the company is losing money making the company to run at a loss yearly. Amtrak's management needs to be replaced with people skilled in management practice to make…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Amtrak. Amtrak Annual Report 2011. Amtrak Rail System. USA. 2011.

House of Representatives. Management of Amtrak systemic problems require actions to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability: report to the Chairman, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. DIANE Publishing. USA. 2007.

York Times. Amtrak Losing Millions Each Year on Food Sales. Published: August 2, 2012.
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September 11 Many Different Alternative

Words: 2756 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52619842

In her article, "Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11 -from an organizer's point-of-view" the military could have done more. In particular the author asserts that General Myers who controlled such military operations, couls have done more to prevent the attacks (Brouillet). Instead the general was awarded one of the highest military honors for his inaction prior to 9/11 (Brouillet). The author also explain that she organized rallies and showecd people a film entitled "The Great Deception" which was the first televised show that contradicted the claims that were being made by the mainstream media in the aftermath of 9/11.

Mark Dunlea is one of the most outspoken voices on the events of September 11 and the lack of cooperation from the Bush administration in reference to a bipartisan review of the terrorist attacks. Dunlea is a member of the Green Party of New York city. In fact, Mark Dunlea…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Brouillet, Carol Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11

from an organizer's point-of-view. Retrieved January 2, 2005 from;

 http://www.communitycurrency.org/aoa.html 

Dunlea, Mark. Madame President: The Unauthorized Biography of the First Green Party President. Big Toad Books: New York.
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Ethanol Fuel Barely a Couple

Words: 2316 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9287436

In addition, large quantities of natural gas are required to produce fertilizers which are needed for growing corn. It is estimated that an average of 135 pounds of nitrogen (a potent-greenhouse-gas) per acre is used in growing corn in most U.S. farms. Besides, research by the U.S. Department for Agriculture (USDA) shows that tilled soil releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere in proportion to the volume of soil loosened (Kenny).

Most of all, it is erroneous to assume that ethanol is likely to reduce America's dependence on foreign oil. It has been estimated that the current ethanol production in the United States that has triggered such massive increase in grain and food prices around the world barely satisfies less than 3% of U.S. gasoline needs; and if the entire U.S. grain harvest were converted into ethanol, it would satisfy scarcely 18% of the country's automotive fuel need (Brown.). Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Lester R. "Why Ethanol Production Will Drive World Food Prices Even Higher in 2008." Earth Policy Institute. January 24, 2008. May 30, 2008. http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2008/Update69.htm

Carter, Colin a. And Henry I. Miller. "Hidden Costs of Corn-Based Ethanol." Christian Science Monitor. May 21, 2007. May 30, 2008.  http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0521/p09s02-coop.html 

Corn...Fuel...Fire!" Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. December 17, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.stri.org/english/about_stri/headline_news/news/article.php?id=736

Flavin, Christopher. "Biofuels 2.0: It's Time for Congress to Act." World Watch.
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Bahrain S Smes as a Fuel for Growth

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41625012

Medium Enterprises in Bahrain

Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) represent a significant part of Bahrain's economy, considering that in 2015 they made up 99% of companies registered in the country. Approximately 30% of the Gross Domestic Product in Bahrain is believed to be owed to SMEs, thus demonstrating the degree to which these respective institutions fuel progress in the country. The fact that SMEs provide employees with a more intimate work environment is among the reasons why many eventually come to identify their goals with the objectives of the company they are working in. This in turn leads to employees who are unhesitant about getting actively involved in activities likely to help their workplace as a whole improve.

A SME can be a micro, small, or medium enterprise, with most SMEs employing lesser than 250 individuals. These respective companies are also unlikely to generate turnovers of over 50 million dollars…… [Read More]

Works cited:

The Report: Bahrain 2011. "Oxford Business Group." "

"SMEs make up 99% of Bahrain-registered companies." Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://bna.bh/portal/en/news/655941
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Hydrogen as a Source of

Words: 1893 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11881835

This presents challenges because neither high-pressure compressed hydrogen gas nor cryogenic liquefied hydrogen can easily be handled at home." (Panasonic, p. 1)

This underscores the reality noted by this proposal and cast to further examination in the research justified by this proposal that any real implementation of an energy source transformation would be a considerable commercial, political, economic and practical endeavor.

All of that noted, it still remains that case that hydrogen has the potential to light the way for a better fuel economy, a more efficient society and a more pristine environment in Singapore. This is because at its root, hydrogen carries not just the potential for clean-burning but also for greater energy-storing capacity. According to the Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA) "hydrogen is the lightest gas and also the most energy-dense fuel per mass. One pound of hydrogen holds 52,000 Btu, three times the energy of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA). (2010). Hydrogen Energy Overview. FCHEA.org.

Linde Group (LG). (2010). Hydrogen Energy. Linde Industrial Gases.

Ministry of the Environment and Water Sources (MEWR). (2010). Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. http://app.mewr.gov.sg

National Climate Change Committee (NCCC). (2008). Singapore's National Climate Change Strategy. app.mewr.gov.sg.
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Elucidates on the Possibilities of

Words: 1382 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37809455

Because of the wide variety of feedstocks ethanol offers great opportunity for economic growth and can help generate jobs outside traditional system.

There are many benefits of using ethanol as an alternative fuel. Most importantly the manageability of E85 is far easier than gasoline as it is less volatile. E85 fueling equipment is slightly different but costs almost the same as one used for storing and dispensing petroleum fuels. It is even possible to convert petroleum equipment into an E85. Moreover using E85 will reduce our overall use of petroleum consumption and replace it with a fuel produced or grown in the U.S. E85 also offers considerable environmental benefits. FFVs specifically designed for ethanol-based fuels are easily available, recommended and are affordable. Today E85 is sold at 60 stations in 16 states according to an Environmental Protection Agency fact sheet. (obinson, 2004). Even though the overall mileage of E85 is…… [Read More]

Reference:

Alternative Fuels Data Center, 8 April 2005, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy retrieved online on 25 October 2005 at http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel/whatis_eth.html

What is ethanol?, 8 April 2005, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy retrieved online on 25 October 2005 at http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel/whatis_eth.html

Jennifer Loven, May 17, 2005, Bush Promotes Ethanol As Alternative Fuel, Chicago Sun Times.

Stephen Thompson, Sept-Oct 2004, USDA study boosts fuel conversion efficiency rating for ethanol, Rural Cooperatives.
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LNG Liquefied Natural Gas Liquefied Natural Gas

Words: 1881 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58095607

LNG Liquefied Natural Gas

Liquefied Natural Gas LNG

LNG (liquefied natural gas)

Why using LNG (liquefied natural gas) as a marine fuel is an innovative subject?

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a clean-burning fuel that is obvious, colorless, fragrance-free, noncorrosive, and harmless. One cubic meter of LNG is equal to 600 cubic meters of natural gas at atmospheric pressure, thus providing for better storage ability and easier transporting. LNG is presently less costly than petroleum based-fuels and is expected to stay the lesser price fuel for the probable future. These innate properties create LNG an attractive alternative fuel for concentrated fuel consuming request such as hardwearing trucking, Oil and natural gas borer, browbeat, mining, aquatic, and other manufacturing consumer. It is also a perfect power cause for distant site where contact to natural gas pipelines is restricted. The command for LNG fuel is speed up in the United States because…… [Read More]

References

Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., LNG Alternative Fuel, airproducts.com, n.d, web. Retrieved 29 October 2012 from http://www.airproducts.com/industries/energy/lng/lng-fuel.aspx

Bandemehr, (2012). Reducing Emissions from Ships: AU.S.-Mexico Fuel Switching Demonstration, epa.gov, 23 July 2012, web. Retrieved 29 October 2012 from http://www.epa.gov/oia/fuelswitch.html

Center for Liquefied Natural Gas, LNG Vehicles, lngfacts.org, 2012, web. Retrieved 29 October 2012 from  http://www.lngfacts.org/lng-market/lng-vehicles/ 

Irvin, S. (2012). What Is The Difference Between Natural Gas And Liquid Gas?, enerlix.com, n.d, web. Retrieved 29 October 2012 from http://www.enerlix.com/environmental-technology/report_325.htm
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Economic Impact of Persistent High

Words: 1270 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87395011



The long-run price elasticity of demand for gasoline is stronger at 0.7 (Ibid). This implies that in the long-run, given higher gas prices, consumers will adjust their consumption habits. One example is that consumers will purchase more fuel efficient vehicles, thereby lowering their consumption level. Some consumers may switch to public transit. Young adults entering the workforce may eschew car ownership altogether in favor of other modes of transport. In the long run, businesses will also seek out alternatives for plastics, because those will rise in price as well.

The price elasticity of demand for oil may also exist on a curve. This means that the higher the price rises, the greater the price elasticity of demand will be. It may also change over time, as more consumers and businesses come to the realization that oil prices will not drop at any point in the future. At this point, there…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Anderson, P., McLellan, R., Overton, J. & Wolfram, G. (1997). Price elasticity of demand. Mackinac Center. Retrieved November 30, 2011 from www.mackinac.org/1247

Campbell, C. (2011). Understanding peak oil. Peak Oil.net. Retrieved November 30, 2011 from http://www.peakoil.net/about-peak-oil
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Energy Industry Is Heavily Dependent

Words: 3063 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79983114



Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…… [Read More]

References

Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).

"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.

Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.

Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.
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Society's Continuing Concern About Gas

Words: 2548 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98688702

As the situation exists today, driving gasoline and electric hybrid vehicles is still more economical and environmentally sensitive than driving fuel cell cars run on hydrogen. The future may prove otherwise but the reality is that hydrogen has not proven to be the great answer that some have suggested.

IV. Comparing popular press and professional viewpoints

As one might expected, the treatment provided the issue of hydrogen use has received different treatment in the popular press than it has in the professional journals. In the popular press, the emphasis has been on the how the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel would benefit the whole of society. Little attention is provided the technical problems related to the use of hydrogen or the requisite changes that must be made in order to accommodate the changeover to hydrogen. Instead, the popular press tends to point out the environmental and consumer advantages.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

(Editor), Shawna McQueen. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements. Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2008.

Gold, R. "Natural Gas Costs Hurt U.S. Firms." Wall Street Journal 17 February 2004: 2.

Kinaci, A. "Ab initio investigation of FeTi - H System." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2006): 2466-2474.

Liss, William E. Role of Natural Gas in the Future Hydrogen Market. Research. Des Plaines, IL: Hydrogen Energy Systems Center, 2003.
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Americans Are Beginning to Be

Words: 2482 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69071796

" The wildlife result of raising the usual row crops such as corn is well-known. The greatest impact of enhanced corn ethanol would be that much more land would be converted to agricultural use as well as the additional erosion and fertilizer application that goes hand-in-hand with agricultural production. Increasing ethanol production through the use of corn may lead to negative effects on wildlife, the degree of which this occurs based on production levels and if the land put aside for this enhanced production had previously been idle, in a natural state, or planted in other row crops.

Bies (1205) sees the strengths of the ethanol use. However, the use of the product and how it is produced are two different things. President Bush signed the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 that included a provision concerning the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC), in addition to other biofuels provisions.…… [Read More]

References

Bies, Laura. The Biofuels Explosion. Wildlife Society Bulletin. (2006) 34.4 1203-1206

Dinneen, Bob. Vital Speeches of the Day. New York.(2007) 73.4, 167-171.

Cothran, Helen. Energy Alternatives. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002

Ethanol Across America. 18 July, 2007  http://www.ethanolacrossamerica.net/
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Article Analysis and Paraphrasing Environmental

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96733743

S. government to be deeply
committed to an 'alternative' fuel policy that is widely criticized for its
inefficiency. The EPA article shows that the United States government and
its oil, auto and agro industry partners have collectively pushed forward
with an alternative fuel policy dominated by corn-based ethanol and biofuel
strategies. Specifically, according to the Environmental Protection
Agency, "the Renewable Fuel Standard program will increase the volume of
renewable fuel required to be blended into gasoline to 7.5 billion gallons
by 2012. The RFS program was developed in collaboration with refiners,
renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders." (EPA 2008, p. 1)
This passage is a revealing one which demonstrates that under the
existing policy and for at least the coming three years, the United States
will balk at making real overtures toward the movement away from fossil
fuels. The goals projected here show that the EPA remains steeped in…… [Read More]

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Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead

Words: 2494 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74696952

Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines

Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction…… [Read More]

References

Alternative Fuels Data Center. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site.



Eto, Joseph. 1996. The Past, Present, and Future of U.S. Utility Demand-Side Management Programs.

Imperial College. Environmental Planning and Management. Imperial College Press.
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Popular Science An Understand of

Words: 1491 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71268415

The political implications of this article are enormous, including international relations to come up with worldwide emissions agreements, economic reform in regards to the businesses that continue to use carbon-emitting practices, and legislation that will limit the abilities of businesses. This article is written from the point-of-view, therefore, of someone who has been monitoring this situation for quite some time, and who is concerned about global warming's impact on earth. In addition, this person writes from the political point-of-view, having a great deal of knowledge about how the problem can be solved politically. The scientific conclusion that global warming is a time-sensitive problem is unique, but not valid, while the idea of 350 is based on a new study, so its accurateness cannot be confirmed. McKibben, however, does not suggest this. Instead, he relies on the number, 350, as solid fact, without admitting that it may not be correct. Thus,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Allen, Laura. (2008, December 19). The Other Big Meltdown. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-12/other-big-meltdown

Cyr, Christine. (2008, December 11). Flying High on Biofuels. Retrieved December, 20

2008, at http://www.popsci.com/military-aviation-amp-space/article/2008-12/flying-high-biofuels

McKIbben, Bill. (2008, November/December). The Most Important Number on Earth.
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Biodiesel Distillation the Advantages of Biodiesel Distillation

Words: 1305 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91715426

Biodiesel Distillation

The Advantages of Biodiesel Distillation

The search for non-fossil alternative fuels has been conducted now for more than a decade. The impetus for this search has increased in more recent years mainly due to the talk of supposed global warming; the incidence of which is increased by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere by fossil fuels. Because of the Kyoto protocols, one of the primary processes being perfected is that of making biodiesel. This type of diesel can be made from any type of fat or oil, but there are problems associated with its production and use. To mitigate these issues, firms have begun using a distillation process which, in most ways, fixes the problems that have commonly been associated with biodiesel. The following paper discusses what biodiesel is, how the fuel is made, what the distillation process is, and what advantages distilled biodiesel has over non-distilled…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lurgi. "Biodiesel," 2010. http://www.lurgi.com/website/fileadmin/user_upload/1_PDF/1_Broshures_Flyer/e nglisch/0301e_Biodiesel.pdf

Matallana, L.G., Gutierrez, L.F., & Cardona, C.A. "Biodiesel Production by Reactive Distillation." Enpromer 64 (2005): D2-0-5. Print.

Singh, Arvindar P., Thompson, Joe C., & He, Brian B. "A Continuous-Flow Reactive Distillation reactor for Biodiesel Preparation from Seed Oils." An ASAE/CSAE Meeting Presentation, 2004. Print.

SRS Engineering. "Biodiesel Distillation," 2010. http://c1- preview.prosites.com/37030/wy/docs/Biodiesel%20Distillation.pdf
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Behavioral Changes Reducing the Effects

Words: 1835 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10604564

hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.

Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/.

Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming

And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange.

Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm.
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Alternate Energy in Daily Life Imagine That

Words: 5656 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20298659

Alternate Energy in Daily Life

Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…… [Read More]

Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at  http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/ 

IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzm6pvHPSGo

Johnson, Keith. (August 10, 2009.) "Blown Away: Wind Power Makes Electricity Cheaper in Texas." Retrieved April 28, 2011 from the Wall Street Journal at  http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2009/08/10/blown-away-wind-power-makes-electricity-cheaper-in-texas/ 

Kobayashi, Teruo. (December, 2005.) "Progress of Electric Railways in Japan." Japan Railway and Transport Review issue 42. Pp 62-69. Retrieved from  http://jrtr.net/jrtr42/pdf/s62_kob.pdf 

Loftin, Josh. (April 18, 2011.) "Home renewable energy for focus of Utah conference." Retrieved April 27, 2011 from Business Week at http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9MM3JV80.htm
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Shaping the Future of Energy

Words: 6370 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77643617



As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…… [Read More]

References

Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission

Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-

48.

Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
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Biodiesel Business Plan Executive Summary

Words: 2519 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62176801

Historically one retailer in the area has offered 100 gallon drums of 100 to consumers for purchase, but has recently restricted sales to 500 gallons per purchase, no doubt to serve industry. While another retail location has spotty supplies that must be called upon, on a weekly basis to determine if 100 is even available, though conveniently they do sell it by the gallon. (iodiesel in Tampa Website)

Competition

One of the most essential aspects of beginning to build a biofuel infrastructure on a local level in a domestic city is to create such an infrastructure that would curtail the dominance of foreign biofuel in the region. As was seen in the first section of the work EarthFirst Technologies serves as a significant local and regional competitor as this company has seen and answered the need to import biodiesel to answer a growing need in the U.S. For such sources.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Biodiesel in Tampa Website Retrieved May 23, 2008 at http://www.forums.biodieselnow.com/forums/p/9832/63809.aspx

Adams D. Huettel, S.(November 19, 2005) Huge biodiesel shipment arrives: A Tampa company has lofty plans to continue importing the alternative fuel from Ecuador to sell for use in diesel engines. Tampa Bay Partnership Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.tampabay.org/press.asp?rls_id=1089&

EarthFirst Technologies Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.earthfirsttech.com/CompanyBackGround.asp

Florida Biofuel Coop Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.biodiesel.coop/
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Influence of 2007 Economic Crisis on American Car Market

Words: 24230 Length: 88 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81822842

2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market

Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries

Crisis in the United States

Crisis in Canada

Crisis in ussia

Crisis in European markets

Crisis in Asian markets

Effects by other related crisis events

In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.

Introduction

The automobile industry is a very important part…… [Read More]

References

Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.

Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.

Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.

Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
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Toyota's Prius With the Increased Level of

Words: 3131 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81530266

TOYOTA'S PIUS

With the increased level of awareness of the environment, automotive car manufacturers vie on the viability of selling environmentally hybrid cars. Leading this group are Honda and Toyota. The following is a market analysis of the position of Toyota's Prius. It analyzes the following factors:

Situation of the firm in the market

The industry of hybrid cars

The strategy adopted by Prius and how it is faring in the market

The barriers of the market

Some alternative strategies to rectify the weakness of Prius and The implementation of one of its alternatives.

SITUATION ANALYSIS

Firm

Toyota Motor Corporation with its subsidiaries all around the world reports $5,447 billion for the fiscal year 2001. With more than 5.5 million cars, trucks, and buses worldwide sold annually, the company boast of high profits and symbolizes the ideal in automotive industry. Spread to 24 nations and regions worldwide, Toyota with its…… [Read More]

References

 http://www.corolland.com/prius-review.html  http://global.toyota.com/ir.html

Shenandoah Weiss, Environmentally friendly car may become wave of the future., University Wire, 04-26-2000.

REITMAN, VALERIE Toyota Touts Dual Benefits Of Hybrid Power System. Wall Street Journal March 26, 1997-Page A-12

JOE GAROFOLI, SUN NEWS SERVICES, NEW CIVIC TAKES HYBRIDS PRIME TIME., The Edmonton Sun, 02-01-2002, pp DR28.
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Biodiesel Plant Marketing & Business

Words: 1700 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62106630

The price charged for the company's biodiesel product lines will be tied to the prevailing prices charged for feed stock and production costs, but any costs in excess of traditional diesel fuel alternatives will be offset by marketing initiatives designed to promote the environmentally responsible aspects of the products' use, as well as the patriotic aspects of reducing America's reliance on foreign oil.

Distribution (Place). Transportation for the company's product line will be outsourced.

Promotion. As noted above, biodiesel products possess a number of characteristics that can be promoted to different industries and organizations depending on their specific needs. Larger enterprises such as Universal Studios Theme Park could be encouraged to use biodiesel alternatives based on the tax advantages and public relations opportunities such use affords; likewise, governmental agencies could reap economies of scale by converting large vehicle fleets to biodiesel applications and also enjoy the P benefits that accrue…… [Read More]

References

Cravens, D.W. (2000). Strategic marketing (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Edinger, R. & Kaul, S. (2003). Sustainable mobility: Renewable energies for powering fuel cell vehicles. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Kram, J.W. (2008, April). Biodiesel blossoms in the Sunshine State. Biodiesel Magazine. [Online]. Available: http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=2209&q=&page=3.

Schmidt, C.W. (2007). Biodiesel: Cultivating alternative fuels. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 86-87.
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Portable Nuclear Power Is a Portable Nuclear

Words: 3012 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15564492

Portable Nuclear Power

Is a Portable Nuclear Power Device Feasible?

As the global population grows, we find ourselves facing growing energy consumption needs. In industrialized nations, this translates into rising energy costs to power our homes and businesses. Power outages are a major concern in metropolitan areas that depend on power to meet humanity's most basic needs. For those in poorer nations, we do not even have a way to supply them power. It is hard to believe, but there are still many in the world who are not close enough to a power grid to be connected.

What if there was a way to cut energy costs in half? What if we could eliminate the possibility of power outages in the future? What if we did find a way to supply power to those in even the most remote areas, even though there is no grid close by? What…… [Read More]

References

Asher, M. "Miniature Nuclear Reactors to be on Sale Within 5 years." Daily Tech. November 10, 2008. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Biomass For Electricity Generation. U.S.

Department of Energy. Electricity Analysis Reports. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.

Fehrenbacher, K. "Hyperion's Nuclear-In-A-Box by 2013." Gigaom. August 1, 2008. (Web)
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Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude

Words: 9344 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22808838

Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage

Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:

http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.

AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:

http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm. August 1, 2004.