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Right now, the most obvious need in the world economy is in alternative fuels.
hile the enemies of progress -- a loose coalition of oil industry interests, corrupt politicians and science-denying religious fundamentalists -- thwart attempts by government to promote alternative energy, nations such as China are leading the world in developing new energy technologies. That country, already feeling the constraints of energy shortages on economic growth, has become a leader in solar and wind technology, and has some of the biggest hydroelectric projects in the world (Fang, 2006). Other nations such as Germany are also taking the lead in the rollout of alternative fuels. If the United States allows other nations to take the lead in the development of alternative energy, it is allowing them to take the lead in development in the next century (LaMonica, 2010).
Under the current woeful alternative energy programs, the next century will see…
Fang, B. (2006). China's renewal. U.S. News and World Report. Retrieved November 30, 2010 from http://www.usnews.com/usnews/biztech/articles/060612/12china.htm
Inman, M. (2010). Has the world already passed peak oil? National Geographic. Retrieved November 30, 2010 from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/energy/2010/11/101109-peak-oil-iea-world-energy-outlook/
Hamilton, J. (2009). Oil prices and the economic recession of 2007-08. VoxEU. Retrieved November 30, 2010 from http://www.voxeu.org/index.php?q=node/3664
LaMonica, M. (2010). GE's Immelt: U.S. lagging in clean energy. CNet. Retrieved November 30, 2010 from http://news.cnet.com/8301-11128_3-10462182-54.html
" All of this experimentation eventually led to new alternative fuel technologies which in today's world is one of the fastest growing commercial industries, due to the ever-rising need for coal and oil and the continuing rise in oil prices which are expected to exceed $100 a barrel in the very near future. In addition, most major automotive manufacturers like Ford, GM, Chrysler, Toyota and Nissan "have unveiled prototype fuel cell-powered cars," some of which can be purchased today and run on fuels like hydrogen, ethanol and electricity ("Fuel Cell Basics," 2007, Internet).
Two of the most important and innovative types of alternative fuels being used in the modern world are hydrogen and electricity, both of which, for the most part, do not rely upon the use of fossil fuels and do not pollute the atmosphere like burning coal and oil to generate power.
With hydrogen as a fuel source,…
Alternative Fuel Types." (2002). Internet. Retrieved at http://www.altfuels.org / backgrnd/altftype.html.
Fuel Cell Basics: History." (2007). FCTec. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.fctec.com/fctec_history.asp .
Lee, Simon. (2007). Handbook on Alternative Fuel Technologies. New York: Taylor
Homeowners and small farmers in windy, flat areas are already using the wind as a source of power. However, the use of wind energy is problematic: the wind provides an intermittent source of energy, and once captured, it must be rationed carefully.
Power plants and homes with solar power systems or solar panels can use the sun as a heat source or source of renewable energy. However, solar power, like wind energy, is problematic because of its intermittent nature, particularly in areas of the country that have high energy needs and relatively low exposure to the sun (NEL, 2009). esidential homes in California and the Western states have used solar power, with some success.
Geothermal, hydroelectric, and tidal energy
Drilling into the core of the earth to extract geothermal energy uses ground heat water to produce steam, which then powers electric generators. It is more easily to control…
Burns, Judith. (2009, November 16). Update: Group seeks U.S. tax credits to spur electric car use.
CNN Money. Retrieved November 16, 2009 at http://money.cnn.com/news/newsfeeds/articles/djf500/200911161801DOWJONESDJONLINE000398_FORTUNE5.htm
Orlofff, Jerry. (2009). Alternative energy. About.com. Retrieved November 16, 2009 at http://saveenergy.about.com/od/alternativeenergysources/a/altenergysource.htm
Solar power. (2009). National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Department of Energy.
A similar method, called gas-to-liquids (GTL), which also uses the FT process, is receiving a lot of attention these days.
In this method, natural gas is used as the feedstock. Waste or natural gas that cannot be marketed is partially oxidized into CO and H2 gases. This synthesis gas is then supplied to a synthesis unit to similarly produce a liquid fuel. The development of synthetic jet fuels to augment petroleum fuels is becoming reenergized with the U.S. Government's Total Energy Development (TED) program. The technical hurdles for a pure synthetic jet fuel are not insurmountable, but manufacturers and regulatory agencies will still need to evaluate and test these fuels before approving them for unlimited use. (Daggett, Hendricks, Walther and Corporan, 2008)
The work of Altman (2007) entitled: "Alternative Fuels in Commercial Aviation: The Need, the Approach, Progress" states that the commercial need drivers for alternative fuels are those of:…
Altman, Richard L. (2007) Alternative Fuels in Commercial Aviation the Need, the Approach, Progress. 32 ndAnnual FAA Forecasting Conference Commercial Aviation Alternative Fuels Initiative Friday, March 16, 2007. Online available at: http://www.faa.gov/news/conferences_events/aviation_forecast_2007/agenda_presentation/media/9-%20Rich%20Altman.pdf
Daggett, David L., Hendricks, Robert C., Walther, Rainer, and Corporan, Edwin (2008) Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft. NASA STI Program. Online available at: http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/reports/2008/TM-2008-214833.pdf
Kemp, Rene (nd) Technology and the Transition to Environmental Sustainability: The Problem of Technological Regime Shifts. Futures Journal. Online available at: http://kemp.unu-merit.nl/docs/FUTURES2.pdf
Liang, Anita (nd) Emerging Fuel Cell Developments at NASA for Aircraft Applications. Aeropropulsion Projects Office NASA Glenn Research Center. Online available at: http://www.netl.doe.gov/publications/proceedings/03/seca/Anita%20Liang.pdf
Lotus Rental Car Company and Alternative Fuel Vehicles
Approximately three weeks ago California won a major victory in the fight to lessen greenhouse-gas emissions when voters defeated Proposition 23 -- an effort to block the landmark AB 32 Emissions Law. This law, if passed, will call for a reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions to below 1990 levels by 2020 . In addition, just two weeks ago, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a warning that two regions in California (having the worst air quality in the country) must submit proposals to significantly reduce emissions or risk losing federal highway funding.
California is essentially a nation-state with a population exceeding 37 million. With so many people packed into congested urban areas, the harmful effects of fossil fuels are magnified. These dangers include: the release of carcinogenic and toxic pollutants which have been proven to adversely affect the healthy growth and development…
staff. (2010, 07-23). Key Events in the History of Air Quality in California. Retrieved 11-21, 2010, from http://www.arb.ca.gov : http://search.proquest.com/docview/450716512?accountid=34899
Alliance for a safe alternative fuels environment AllSAFE; AllSAFE raises safety and regulatory concerns over EPA's consideration of partial fuel waiver for ethanol. (2009). Journal of Transportation,,
AllSAFE; alliance for a safe alternative fuels environment. (2008). Transportation Business Journal,, 68.
AllSAFE; alliance for a safe alternative fuels environment. (2008). Entertainment & Travel, (19442246), 214. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/199807822?accountid=34899
I do that every day. ut I've never done that with a car. I buy what I need to look successful. esides, how would I ever calculate a payback when I have no idea what gasoline will cost in the future?" A few said with apparent certainty, "one year" or "two years." However, when we inquired where the number came from, they simply asserted that they spent lots of money on gasoline and would quickly earn their money back through savings. A smaller group proposed longer terms -- eight to ten years -- noting that they keep their cars for a long time. Several households explained that their lack of attention to gas costs was due to the fact that they felt they couldn't do anything about it; they had to drive as much as they did to lead the lives they had constructed for themselves." (Kurani, Turrentine, and Heffner,…
Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth; and Heffner, Rusty (2007) Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice? Access. No. 31, Fall 2007. Online available at: http://pubs.its.ucdavis.edu/publication_detail.php?id=1159
E85 Everywhere: Minnesota Consumer Perception Survey for E85 & Flex-Fuel Vehicles (Phase 2: Post-Advertising Campaign) (2007) Phoenix Marketing International Report of Findings. Online available at: http://www.cleanairchoice.org/news/E85FinalReport-PhaseIITRG.pdf
Connelly, Mary (2007) Study: Car Ads Aren't Green Enough. Automotive News. 13 Aug 2007. Online available at: http://www.mindclickgroup.com/mgwmonitor/press/automotivenews.pdf
Struben, Jeroen and Sterman, John D. (2007) Transition Challenges for Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Transportation Systems. MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA. Online available at: http://web.mit.edu/~jsterman/www/StrubenSterman%20EPB%2007.pdf
Few hydrogen fueling stations exist, and it will cost billions to build an infrastructure that will make FCVs practical.
Critics say that hydrogen is difficult to store and that producing the hydrogen makes FCVs less efficient than other types of alternative vehicles, such as electric or natural-gas-powered cars.
Even though FCVs may represent the future of the industry, they are still not practical for most applications. However, the hybrid technology and biodiesel powered cars are already practical and many of the mainstream international rental car companies are already offering these alternative fueled vehicles. For example, Hertz will rent a Toyota Prius or comparable model as well as a bio fueled Volkswagen Jetta at many locations (Hertz, N.d.).
Lotus Rental Car should meet its customers' demands for clean technologies in their vehicle fleet. The two most practical technologies that could be added now without many challenges would be the hybrid technology…
Consumer Reports. (2010, May). The ultimate green machine: More fuel-cell vehicles are hitting the road, but it's still an uphill climb. Retrieved from Consumer Reports: http://www.consumerreports.org/cro/2010/05/the-ultimate-green-machine/index.htm
Hertz. (N.d.). Green Traveler. Retrieved from Hertz: http://www.hertz.com/rentacar/productservice/index.jsp?targetPage=greentravelercollection.jsp
alternative fuel describe detail happen a significant energy supply source. Explain happen. Analyse promise challenges supply source. Your essay judged cogency argument, position merits energy alternative choose.
Marine Current Power
Marine current power is one of the most promising alternative energy sources in the contemporary society. The fact that the world is still addicted to using conventional fuels certainly makes it difficult for serious investors to put their resources into projects associated with alternative energy. Even with this, the fact that many conventional energy sources are rapidly being depleted makes it difficult and almost impossible for these bodies to ignore the benefits they would experience as a result of betting on particular alternative energy sources.
Marine current power uses kinetic energy in marine currents with the purpose of generating electric power. hile most people in the present focus on solar and wind power when discussing with regard to alternative energy…
Charlier, R.H. And Finkl, C.W. Ocean Energy: Tide and Tidal Power. Springer, 08.02.2009.
Patel, M.R. Shipboard Propulsion, Power Electronics, and Ocean Energy. CRC Press, 2012
"Marine Current Energy." Available from < http://www.esru.strath.ac.uk/EandE/Web_sites/05-06/marine_renewables/background/marinecurrents.htm >
Alternative Fuel cars
The best way that we can approach this complex subject is by differentiating the different types of fuels that the cars use since each fuel requires a different type of car and each fuel, accordingly, has its particular advantages and disadvantage.
Biodiesal vehicles combine petroleum gasoline with vegetable oils. Their benefits lie in the fact that these fuels produce fewer carbon emissions and reduced harmful particulates than does regular fuel. Biodiesel is more cost-effective for drivers than is standard fuel and is also more energy-efficient in its production.
On the other hand, biodiesel fuel is more expensive than standard gasoline aside from the fact that its production would take up vast tracts of land, and farmers may be encouraged to replace food crop planting with biodiesel plants.
Ethanol-fueled cars are driven by a combination f gasoline and a grain-based propellant. There are various…
Concerns about the availability of fuel also slows adoption. In a simulation representing California, entrepreneurs opened alterative fuel stations in urban areas but not in less-populated rural areas where demand is initially lower. According to Science Daily (2007), urban alternative fuel drivers must then avoid the rural areas, reducing the appeal of alternative fuel vehicles and slowing their sales everywhere. In theory, the fuel efficiency of alternative fuel vehicles should attract more buyers; however, in reality, since drivers of alternative fuel vehicles need much less fuel, energy suppliers build fewer alternative fuel stations. This in turn lowers the appeal of these vehicles, and sales of alternative fuel vehicles may in reality decline. Thus, as indicated above, the positive factors associated with alternative fuel vehicles do not meet the burdens that a car rental facility would face with adding alternative fuel vehicles to their rental fleet.
Incentives for Adding Alternative Fuel…
California Energy Commission. (2005). Resource Guide: Infrastructure of Alternative
Fuel Vehicles. Retrieved November 12, 2007 at http://www.energy.co.gov/reports/afuguide.html.
Garrett, D. (2007). Choosing Alternative Fuels. Retrieved November 19, 2007 at http://www.choosingalternativefuel.com/.
Science Daily. (2007). Alternative Fuel Vehicles will be Tough to Sell, but Policy
Government Subsidies and Alternative Fuel Technologies
The government should not subsidize alternative fuel options. This is due to the fact that a free market that follows the basic supply and demand curve should be allowed to function as a product of the available technology. This is to say that fossil fuels and other related fuels will continue to stay in demand as long as there is a supply of them and the willingness to pay. Government subsidies disrupt the supply curve as well as the willingness to pay for alternative fuels. Such subsidies create incentives to follow and develop technologies which themselves have no natural market based upon principles of supply and demand.
Technology itself cannot create a new future, s to speak. However, humans, armed with the proper technology and free market dynamics can. This means that as humans develop new technologies, and these technologies become cheaper and more…
The downside to E15 is that it can only be used by some vehicles manufactured after 2007 (AFDC Ethanol, 2009) and that it's not as widely available as standard gasoline. E15 fuel is considered to be an alternative fuel source.
Ethanol is a renewable source of fuel as it's made from corn. It is similar to grain alcohol because it's made from plant sugars that have been fermented, but it is not consumable. enewable fuel sources are fuels that are derived from components that can be renewed, such as plants. Biodiesel is a form of a fuel made from renewable sources, including plant oils. The oil (which is usually made from vegetables, sunflowers, canola, or used cooking oil) goes through a process called esterificiation, which refines it from oil into alcohol. Other examples of renewable fuels are hydrogen and methanol. There are also fuel types that are created through renewable…
Alternative and Renewable Fuel & Vehicle Technology Program. (2010, October 20). California Energy Commission Home Page. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from http://www.energy.ca.gov/altfuels/
AFDC Ethanol: E85: An Alternative Fuel. (2010, November 16). EERE: Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center Program Home Page. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/ethanol/e85.html
Basic Information | Gasoline Fuels | U.S. EPA. (2007, June 11). EPA's 40th | U.S. EPA. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from http://www.epa.gov/otaq/gasoline/information.htm
Clean Fuels: Alternative Fuel Options | State & Local Transportation Resources | U.S. EPA. (2009, September 10). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from http://www.epa.gov/oms/stateresources/rellinks/altfueloptions.htm
In the drive to discover new fuels and cheaper alternatives to driving the fact of the matter is that roads will still have to be maintained, and if the consumer is purchasing less fuel by driving fuel efficient cars, then other taxes will have to be raised or implemented to pay for the roads.
A recent study concluded that "more efficient cars and trucks still take up space on the highways and wear them out. Growth will require more highway capacity. Since we finance transportation primarily through dedicated taxes, these need to be ample enough to support these needs" (Petersen, 2007, p. 66). The taxes seen in America are not as high as the ones imposed on the European consumer.
One study showed that "European fuel costs are double those in the U.S. " (Winter, 2007, p. 5). The higher fuel costs there provides the European consumer with incentives not…
Hassett, K.A.; Metcalf, G.E.; (2008) the why's and how's of energy taxes, Issues in Science and Technology, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 45-50
Petersen, J.E.; Fueling a Tax, Governing, Vol. 20, No. 6, p. 66
Winter, D.; (2007) the big lie, Ward's Auto World, Vol. 43, No. 7, p. 5
Fuel and Economy
The price of fuel affects every citizen in one way or another, thus, it can have profound consequences on not only the United States, but the global economy as a whole.
On April 28, 2005, President George . Bush expressed concern about the economy due to higher energy prices, and stressed the need to take measure to boost oil output and lower prices (Bush pp). In a primetime press conference, Bush said the small business owners and families are paying higher prices at the gas pump, and that higher gas prices is like a tax and "I do think it's affected the economy" (Bush pp). His comments followed a report that same day from the Commerce Department that stated that the United States "economy grew at an annualized 3.1% in the first quarter in terms of real gross domestic product, decelerating from the previous quarter's 3.8% and…
Gray, John. "Books: Goodbye globalisation? The World Is Flat."
The Independent (London, England); 4/29/2005; pp.
Marshall, Randi F. "War's ripple effects set city businesses back."
January 27, 2005
Alternative Power Supply to Run the Truck's Refrigeration Unit
This paper addresses a crisis management plan during event management at a conference facility. It highlights the possible options of pursuit in case of power inadequacy to support the preservation of perishable dairy products in the truck refrigeration. Hence, relying on the truck power supply is the most viable option an event manager should take.
Alternative Power Supply to Run the Truck's Refrigeration Unit
Event management is an activity geared towards ensuring the success of a particular event, festivals and conferences. It involves several processes that an event manager should acquaint himself with. However, throughout the whole process of event management, an event manager can face unexpected occurrences that need immediate reaction. Such kind of an unanticipated occurrence requires event manager to be creative enough to come up with an immediate response to save the situation. Hence, crisis management is part…
4). Likewise, in the same article, Kay Martin of the Ventura County, California public works agency is quoted as saying, "From a macroeconomics or macro-environmental perspective, it just makes sense." The need to build an infrastructure for production of bio-fuels creates economic opportunities.
Of course, not everybody is so enthusiastic. To grow corn, diesel tractors are required to plant, fertilize and harvest it with substantial coal-fired electricity needed for the still. David Pemental, a professor who has done research and a leading opponent of ethanol, says corn ethanol is "unsustainable, subsidized food burning." He charges that most of the one billion dollars spent per year by federal and state governments goes to agribusiness (such as Archer Daniels Midland, a mega corporation) that already owns 35% of the market. He also claims that an acre yielding 7,110 pounds of corn will produce 328 gallons of ethanol. He estimates 140 gallons of…
Advanced Materials & Processes (2005). Industry insider: Automotive, 163 (5), May, 69-70.
Automotive Industries (2003). Fill'er up, 183 (5), May, 51-53.
Brown, D.C. (2004). Moving toward alternative fuel vehicles. Public Works, 135 (12) Nov, 34-7.
Deierlein, B. (2001). Alternative fuels: The race is on! Waste Age, 32 (8), Aug, 62-63, 67.
According to these airlines, the public can help by contacting their Congress people.
According to the airlines in question, there are in fact (or have been) regulations in place in order to discourage the phenomenon of uncontrolled speculation and manipulation in world markets. These have however been weakened or removed, resulting in the rapid rise of fuel prices today. The claim is in fact that rising demand and diminishing supply cannot account for the rise in oil prices that have been experienced over the last year.
Alexandra Marks (2008) also addresses the role of the Government in encouraging higher fuel prices. According to airline industry experts and analysts, Congress is not doing enough to curb speculation. If this is not done very soon, according to these experts, the aviation industry could face a collapse in the not very far future, that is in danger of crippling the economy of the…
AOPA ePublishing staff. AOPA working on future avgas. http://www.aopa.org/aircraft/articles/2008/080319avgas.html
Credeur, Mary Jane. (2008, July 9). Northwest Air to Cut 2,500 jobs to Blunt Fuel Costs. Bloomberg Press. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aQSwxib7vM3s&refer=us
Hegeman, Roxana. (2008, July 8). Soaring aviation fuel cots ground many pilots. Forbes.com. http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/07/08/ap5194342.html
Lynch, Kerry. (2008, Mar. 24). AOPA, Greens Battle Over Lead in AvGas. Aviation Week. http://www.aviationweek.com/aw/generic/story_channel.jsp?channel=busav&id=news/LEAD03248.xml
Such biodegradable batteries have the ability to last 3 to 4 times longer than the lithium ion batteries in use today. It is not just the average consumer who is interested in these products but the military is also extremely interested in using such sugar-powered batteries. The portability of such devices would be appropriate for the extreme mobility required in the battlefield. It would also be suitable in emergency situations when access to electricity and other vital gasoline supply lines are cut off. Using any kind of sugar source available in the vicinity would be enough to charge up the batteries. (Fuel cell batteries that run on sugar) The energy needs of the U.S. Armed Forces are extremely high and the Department of Defense requires a constant supply of fuel for its military jets. Therefore, as per the instructions of the U.S. Congress, DOD and DAPA have also evinced interest…
Centi, Gabriele; Santen, Rutger A. van. Catalysis for renewables.
Dinham, Barbara; Hines, Colin. Agribusiness in Africa.
Africa World Press. 1984.
People are typically inclined to think that a product becomes less expensive once it enters mass production. However, this is not the case with hydrogen powered cars, as it will still be expensive to produce the fuel and to make cars capable to run on it. Gasoline burning-vehicles are likely to be replaced with cars using alternative sources of energy in the near future, only that hydrogen is improbable to become widespread in the coming years (in contrast to other alternative fuels) (Behar).
Hydrogen fuel cells are less effective in terms of space, given that they are much larger than an ordinary gas tank ("Hydrogen Car Gears Up" 23).
Most people are unaware that hydrogen is not found on earth in a normal form and that it has to be extracted from other sources. A great amount of energy is used when hydrogen is extracted from other sources and the…
Steinbugler, Margaret M. And Williams, Robert H. "Beyond Combustion: Fuel Cell Cars for the 21st Century," Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy 13.4 (1998)
"How Soon for Hydrogen?," Issues in Science and Technology Summer 2004
"Hydrogen Car Gears Up," Daily Post (Liverpool, England) 18 July 2007: 23
Lotus ental Car's CFO feasibility adding alternative fuel vehicles fleet
The problem of switching to a more fuel efficient car, especially ones that are considered non-polluting will arise for all tourist and individual car owners. The reason is the rising cost of fossil fuels and the actions of environmentalists and other powers that try and curb the use of fossil fuels and cars in many places. While the operators have some more breathing time, it can be predicted that in the near future there will be a forced shift to hybrid cars, electric vehicles and non-fuel-based vehicles in all sectors of the world. The automotive industry is itself gearing up for the change. One factor that has made the automobile producers take to producing hybrid vehicles and electric and other fuel vehicles is primarily the costs of fuel as is obtained now. The rising cost in fuel has made automobile…
Baker, Linda. (2006) "The Service Economy: Car Sharing Is the New Consumer Model." E
Magazine, vol. 17, no. 2, pp: 16-18.
Becker, Helmut. (2006) "High noon in the automotive industry"
People seeking to make a fundamental change in the way they transport themselves will likely need a great deal of information, some of which may provide greater clarity while others may provide confusion and resort in them seeking out another alternative product. The consumer may then look for information that will support their inquiry into a commitment to a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle as opposed to one of many alternatives.
a. Choosing a lower cost option, or in this case an option that best fits into their personal budget;
b. Choosing an alternative with greater support and/or greater available review data, i.e. something that has already been tried and embraced by consumers;
c. Choosing a product that offers the least resistance in the way of lifestyle change, where to fuel, how to fuel, easier to drive, and/or service.
2. Consulting an expert, such as the lease agent, dealer manufacturer or…
Al-Muslim, a. (2011, March 29). Hempstead adds three hydrogen-powered cars. Newsday, (Melville, NY). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Katzanek, J. (2005). Hybrid car buyers willing to wait in line -- and pay more. Press-Enterprise, the (Riverside, CA), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Lenderman, a. (2007). Hybrids, concept cars generate buzz. Santa Fe New Mexican, the (NM), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Strahan, D. (Nov 29-Dec 5, 2008) Hydrogen's long road to nowhere. New Scientist (200) 2684, 40-44.
Instead, loss of the fuel results in entropy, a concern of the second law of thermodynamics and this helps prove the impracticality of this fuel. Combine this with the size of the fuel tank necessary to power a car for many hundreds of miles, and hydrogen begins to look far worse as a real alternative to fuel conservation and replacing fossil fuels.
Hydrogen seems like a good idea, and there are hydrogen vehicles in production and on the road. However, delivering hydrogen from the production plants to facilities also proves to be expensive, and it is expensive to build new hydrogen fuel centers, as well. Hydrogen can be dangerous, too. Liquid hydrogen can freeze air, and hydrogen can cause explosions, just like gasoline. If enough hydrogen leaks from a faulty valve or tank in a confined space, like a garage, it can explode, as well (McCarthy). That means that hydrogen…
McCarthy, John. "Hydrogen." Stanford University. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/hydrogen.html
Rocheleau, Richard E. "Hydrogen." Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www.hnei.hawaii.edu/hydrogen.asp
According to Dr. David Thompson, assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry at Memorial, long-term goal is to make fuel from sunlight, a field known artificial photosynthesis. The larger question revolves around whether a system can be designed to take captured solar energy and create molecules that can be utilized as fuels (Hester, 2007).
The general idea, of course, is that the Petroleum Era will be replaced by the Hydrogen Era. Because hydrogen is so prevalent in the universe, it will require only the technological acumen to harness this most abundant element in order to produce a clean, unlimited, reliable, and endless supply of power. Enough scientists believe in this technology that in January 2003, President G.W. Bush announced a $720 million commitment towards the development of hydrogen fuel (www.hydrogenassociation.com). Modern society has the technology to change behaviors, or at least the vision to develop this alternate paradigm, but perhaps…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Alternative Energy Institute 2006, "Powering Our Future: An Energy Sourcebook for
Sustainable Living." Cited in:
Gibilisco, S. (2006), Alternative Energy Demystified, McGraw
The study advocated a broader energy policy for automobiles, specifically one that allocated more money to the development of gas-electric hybrids. Hydrogen may be the fuel of the future, but it is a distant future, at least fifty years away (Stauffer par. 8-9). In the meantime, the development of proven technology will be of more benefit than hydrogen.
The Myriad Issues with Hydrogen: Availability, Extraction, and Storage Are Just the Beginnings
Another study -- this time by 18 scientists and engineers from universities, the government, and private laboratories -- concluded that no known alternative energy source, hydrogen included, is ready to take the place of fossil fuels ("Fossil Fuels" par. 1-2). Regarding hydrogen, the study had very specific points. One, hydrogen does not exist in a natural pure form. Two, hydrogen must be extracted from either natural gas or water. Three, more carbon dioxide and less energy is produced with…
Crabtree, George W., Mildred S. Dresselhaus, and Michelle V. Buchanan. "The Hydrogen Economy." Physics Today Online. Dec. 2004. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.physicstoday.org/vol-57/iss-12/p39.html.
Fossil Fuels Still Don't Have a Feasible Replacement." The Times via Associated Press. 1 Nov. 2002. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.rff.org/rff/News/Coverage/2002/November/Fossil-Fuels-Still-Dont-Have-Feasible-Replacement.cfm .
Hydrogen Economy Offers Major Opportunities but Faces Considerable Hurdles." The National Academies: Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine. 4 Feb. 2004. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www4.nationalacademies.org/news.nsf/isbn/0309091632?OpenDocument .
Is Hydrogen a Viable Fuel Alternative?" Physorg.com. 12 Oct. 2005. 25 Oct. 2005 http://www.physorg.com/news7198.html.
Fuel Cell Technology
There are over 600 million motor vehicles in the world today. If present trends continue, the number of cars on Earth will double in the next 30 years." ("Cars Emit")
As the demand for energy increase and resources, such as fossil fuel, decrease alternative must be sought. Of these alternatives, hydrogen fuel cell technology, in automotive applications, has significant benefits and is now technologically feasible. Given this knowledge, it is imperative that we begin to set up the infrastructure necessary to utilize this technology.
I have studied this topic over the last three years, and the advancement of the technology has become increasingly exciting. hat was once a dream is now a reality.
I'm going to provide you first with an overview of how fuel cells work and then describe for you the benefits of the use of fuel cells, including why hydrogen is the best choice.…
Cars Emit Carbon Dioxide." 1997. Global Warming Focus on the Future. 27 May 2004. http://globalwarming.enviroweb.org/ishappening/sources/sources_co2_facts3.html.
Efficiency of Fuel Cells." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell4.htm .
Gasoline and Battery Power." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell5.htm .
Proton Exchange Membrane." 2004. HowStuffWorks.com. 27 May 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/fuel-cell2.htm .
promoting fuel efficient cars, establishing green spaces or forestry, random emission testing, and encouraging alternative transportation, walking, and bicycle use. The total cost is $15.5 M.
Fuel efficient cars
Fuel efficient cars not only reduces pollution but I chose it due to the fact that it is also a good option given today's rising gas prices.
Fuel efficient cars come in 2 categories -- electric and water. What this means is that these cars substitute gas -- which pollutes the atmosphere -- with either electricity or water or hydroxyl.
Hybrid cars are healthier for the environment since they combine gas and water (or electricity) producing lower emissions. They also reduce dependence on fossil fuel which is the main source of fuel today.(Future-Method.com)
The trade-offs of fuel efficient cars are first and foremost price. That, however, can be overcome by compelling distributors to lower the price by making it a more…
Future-Method. Fuel Efficient Hybrid Cars -- Initiatives to Reduce Pollution. http://www.futuremethod.org/418/fuel-efficient-hybrid-cars-initiatives-to-reduce-pollution
The benefits of alternative transportation http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/library/CR-007047.pdf
Supnithadnaporn, (2007), Do Vehicles Passing Emission Test Pollute Less-Georgia Institute of Technology http://www.spp.gatech.edu/faculty/WOPRpapers/AnupitWOPRFinal.pdf
At the same time, research on ozone depletion showed the dire situation and helped support pushes for reform and regulation of harmful chemicals being used in such a vulnerable context as in our atmosphere. Many Western nations have passed legislation limiting the types of chemicals and levels which are acceptable, for example the Air Pollution Act in the United States (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010).
With this growing amount of data, it is clear that stricter regulation will be necessary to curb future ozone and water pollution as a result of the growth of the aviation industry. We cannot completely ban airline travel, and so resources need to be implemented in finding safer alternatives for the harmful chemicals necessary in massive airline travel.
Increased Air Traffic in Northern Hemisphere
University of Berlin (http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf)
Approximate Emission Index Levels for Cruise Level Operation of Current Commercial…
Holzman, David. (1997). Plane pollution. Environmental Health Perspectives. 105(12). Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/qa/105-12focus/focus.html
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). (2000). Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. IPCC Working Groups. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.grida.no/publications/other/ipcc_sr/?src=/Climate/ipcc/aviation/014.htm
University of Berlin. (2010). Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Sciences, Volume 1-6. Institute for Meteorology. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.geo.fu-berlin.de/met/bibliothek/Encyclopedia_of_Atmospheric_Sciences/Aircraft_emmisions.pdf
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2010). Origins of modern air pollution regulations. Air Pollution Control Orientation Course. Retrieved February 21, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/apti/course422/apc1.html
Supplements for Athletes
ipped Fuel © is a weight loss supplement used widely by individuals who are trying to improve their physical and athletic performance (Brown). These capsules are utilized as a method of rapidly burning fat, while quickly gaining muscle; they are popular among athletes because of this. The supplements work in a way that allows the burning of fat -- which is the most difficult part of body shaping -- to occur in a rapid fashion. Desired results are achieved in a limited amount of time, therefore adding to the appeal of this supplement to young athletes who are just beginning their journey through sports and are essentially attempting to make themselves stand out from the hundreds of other athletes. However, the components of these supplements have been of great concern due to their potential undesired effects (Brown). Despite the glorious results that the particular coach at hand…
Brown, E. (2011). What do ripped fuel capsules do? LIVESTRONG. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/401862-what-do-r ipped-fuel-capsules-do/
OneResult. (2012). NCAA Legal and Illegal Supplements. ONERESULT: Look Like an Athlete. Retrieved 22 April 2013 from http://www.oneresult.com/articles/supplements/ncaa -legal-and-illegal-supplements
Loss of industry as prices of oil are unstable due to market fluctuation
Long-term contracts cannot be formulated in the basis of changing prices
Gradual increase in prices can result into economic turmoil as raw materials and finished product prices will be increased lowering the economic process
The trucking enterprises are significant in creating the United States transportation and freight industry. The transportation of raw materials and finished goods in required as most of the national and international corporations have established manufacturing systems in developing countries to take advantage of the supply chain management techniques. The business is significantly incorporating a market based approach. The influx of products and goods in high demand markets is one of the basic principles in free market economy. The business setup their manufacturing units in rural and industrial districts take advantage of the infrastructure and human resources available in these vicinities. However…
Ozener, O.O. (2008). Collaboration in transportation.USA: ProQuest.
Teravaninthorn, S., & Raballand, G. (2009). Transport prices and costs in Africa: a review of the main international corridors. World Bank Publications.
Yergin, D. (2006). Ensuring energy security. Foreign Affairs, 69-82.
Whether it is solar power, used vegetable oil, turds, wood, or hydrogen research and experimentation is the way forward. These cheap resources have already been proven effective in various ways and manners. The need of the day is to develop new energy technologies and apply them in the most useful and practical way possible. If we want global economic stability then eco energy sector requires due attention. We have witnessed crises situations in the past. The rising demand for oil, its increasing prices and possible depletion of oil resources demand a way out. Alternative energy sources in this scenario give us a flicker of hope. U.S. government is also pushing the agenda and so should other individuals and organizations also look in this direction for the economic betterment of their counties and the world with the use eco-fuels. The change cannot be brought about by government alone, will and…
Kay, Tonya Making Biodiesel. Hawai'i Indymedia, Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://hawaii.indymedia.org/news/2006/06/5943.php.
Youngquist, W. (1998, December). Alternative Energy Sources - Myths and Realities. Electronic Green Journal. Retrieved December 11, 2006, at http://egj.lib.uidaho.edu/egj09/youngqu1.html
Bond, M. (2000, November). SOLAR ENERGY Seeing the Light.. Geographical, 72(11), 28.
Eco-Lifestyle Ideas for Surfers'. Retrieved December 11, 2006 at http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:wzhmycSWxXQJ:www.ecosurfproject.org/downloads/download.php%3Ffilename%3Decosurfer.pdf%26backto%3D../resources/articles/index.php+Articles+on+ECO-FUELS&hl=en&gl=pk&ct=clnk&cd=14
This is frequently referred to as entropy. In the route of energy transfer, some energy will disperse as heat. Entropy is a measure of disarray. The course of energy sustains order and life. Entropy is successful when organisms stop taking in energy and die (Laws of Thermodynamics, 2010).
Many experts feel that Hydrogen is the ideal fuel known to man at this time. It is a fuel source that has no chance of being depleted until the Sun stops producing it. There isn't much chance of the Sun stopping production either. The only result of hydrogen combustion is water. Because one of the ways hydrogen can be produced is by separating it from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, the process lends itself to recycling within a closed system. There are a few negatives that surround the use of Hydrogen. First, it is a very dangerous explosive. It is…
Hydrogen: The Never Ending Fuel Source. (n.d.). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
Laws of Thermodynamics. (2010). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Web site:
There are certain algae that produce hydrogen as a waste byproduct, and the cultivation of such algae and collection of their hydrogen emissions has so far proven somewhat successful (AE 2009). Continued refinement of this process and a bolstering of its efficiency could lead to commercially and industrially viable production levels. There are also methods for extracting hydrogen from waste materials that makes use at least partially of the natural breakdown of these materials; though energy is used in this decomposition, it is not energy transformed and applied at human expense, eliminating its strain on the system (AE 2009). Complex new storage mechanisms are also making the concept of hydrogen fuel cells in cars more viable (U.S. Dept. Of Energy 2009). There have been several major test projects involving hydrogen-powered vehicles in land, air, and sea, including the use of drone spy planes by the U.S. military, municipality waste removal…
AE. (2009). "Hydrogen Fuel." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/technology/hydrogen-fuel/
EPA (2009). "Fuel Cells and Vehicles." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.epa.gov/fuelcell/
US. Dept. Of Energy. (2009). "Hydrogen." Accessed 12 December 2009. http://www.fueleconomy.gov /Feg/hydrogen.shtml' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Synthetic Fuels are liquid or gaseous fuels that are used as an excellent alternative to gasoline and natural gas. They are derived from a variety of sources like coal, tar, biomass etc. As the demand for fuel is increasing there is more extraction from the natural sources and consequently faster depletion of the same. Synthetic fuels offer to be an excellent solution for this problem of depleting energy resources. Some of the important synthetic fuels that are industrially produced are Methanol, ethanol, hydrazine, synthetic Hydrogen, etc. Let us look into two main methods of producing synthetic fuels before discussing their advantages and disadvantages.
Fischer- Tropsh Method
One of the important laboratory methods of producing synthetic fuel is the Fischer- Tropsh method. This method is actually a reduction of carbon monoxide. Two German scientists named Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch developed this method. This process essentially involves a mixture of hydrogen…
James E. Kloeppel, "Synthetic Enzyme shows Promise as Way to Make Hydrogen Cheaply," "Inside
Illinois" Vol 19, Pg. 8, November 18, 1999. Also available online at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/10/991008075716.htm
2) B.S.Bahl, Arun Bahl "A text-Book of Organic Chemistry," 'Synthetic Petrol', Chand
Company 1991, pg 191.
The motivation that makes the researcher to investigate this problem is to assist Amtrak to cut costs to generate yearly profitability. It is essential to realize that the government is funding a business that is not generating profits due to the inefficiency of the company management. The annual grant giving to the company is the taxpayer money that needs to be diverted into other useful venture. The Amtrak Company could generate net profits without the assistance of the Federal government if the company is being run by competent people. Recent report by New York Times reveals that Amtrak is losing $80 Million annually on food sales. "It's an outrageous cost to taxpayers," (2). These are part of the activities where the company is losing money making the company to run at a loss yearly. Amtrak's management needs to be replaced with people skilled in management practice to make…
Amtrak. Amtrak Annual Report 2011. Amtrak Rail System. USA. 2011.
House of Representatives. Management of Amtrak systemic problems require actions to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and accountability: report to the Chairman, Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. DIANE Publishing. USA. 2007.
York Times. Amtrak Losing Millions Each Year on Food Sales. Published: August 2, 2012.
In her article, "Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11 -from an organizer's point-of-view" the military could have done more. In particular the author asserts that General Myers who controlled such military operations, couls have done more to prevent the attacks (Brouillet). Instead the general was awarded one of the highest military honors for his inaction prior to 9/11 (Brouillet). The author also explain that she organized rallies and showecd people a film entitled "The Great Deception" which was the first televised show that contradicted the claims that were being made by the mainstream media in the aftermath of 9/11.
Mark Dunlea is one of the most outspoken voices on the events of September 11 and the lack of cooperation from the Bush administration in reference to a bipartisan review of the terrorist attacks. Dunlea is a member of the Green Party of New York city. In fact, Mark Dunlea…
Brouillet, Carol Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11
from an organizer's point-of-view. Retrieved January 2, 2005 from;
Dunlea, Mark. Madame President: The Unauthorized Biography of the First Green Party President. Big Toad Books: New York.
In addition, large quantities of natural gas are required to produce fertilizers which are needed for growing corn. It is estimated that an average of 135 pounds of nitrogen (a potent-greenhouse-gas) per acre is used in growing corn in most U.S. farms. Besides, research by the U.S. Department for Agriculture (USDA) shows that tilled soil releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere in proportion to the volume of soil loosened (Kenny).
Most of all, it is erroneous to assume that ethanol is likely to reduce America's dependence on foreign oil. It has been estimated that the current ethanol production in the United States that has triggered such massive increase in grain and food prices around the world barely satisfies less than 3% of U.S. gasoline needs; and if the entire U.S. grain harvest were converted into ethanol, it would satisfy scarcely 18% of the country's automotive fuel need (Brown.). Furthermore,…
Brown, Lester R. "Why Ethanol Production Will Drive World Food Prices Even Higher in 2008." Earth Policy Institute. January 24, 2008. May 30, 2008. http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2008/Update69.htm
Carter, Colin a. And Henry I. Miller. "Hidden Costs of Corn-Based Ethanol." Christian Science Monitor. May 21, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0521/p09s02-coop.html
Corn...Fuel...Fire!" Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. December 17, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.stri.org/english/about_stri/headline_news/news/article.php?id=736
Flavin, Christopher. "Biofuels 2.0: It's Time for Congress to Act." World Watch.
Medium Enterprises in Bahrain
Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) represent a significant part of Bahrain's economy, considering that in 2015 they made up 99% of companies registered in the country. Approximately 30% of the Gross Domestic Product in Bahrain is believed to be owed to SMEs, thus demonstrating the degree to which these respective institutions fuel progress in the country. The fact that SMEs provide employees with a more intimate work environment is among the reasons why many eventually come to identify their goals with the objectives of the company they are working in. This in turn leads to employees who are unhesitant about getting actively involved in activities likely to help their workplace as a whole improve.
A SME can be a micro, small, or medium enterprise, with most SMEs employing lesser than 250 individuals. These respective companies are also unlikely to generate turnovers of over 50 million dollars…
The Report: Bahrain 2011. "Oxford Business Group." "
"SMEs make up 99% of Bahrain-registered companies." Retrieved May 4, 2016, from http://bna.bh/portal/en/news/655941
This presents challenges because neither high-pressure compressed hydrogen gas nor cryogenic liquefied hydrogen can easily be handled at home." (Panasonic, p. 1)
This underscores the reality noted by this proposal and cast to further examination in the research justified by this proposal that any real implementation of an energy source transformation would be a considerable commercial, political, economic and practical endeavor.
All of that noted, it still remains that case that hydrogen has the potential to light the way for a better fuel economy, a more efficient society and a more pristine environment in Singapore. This is because at its root, hydrogen carries not just the potential for clean-burning but also for greater energy-storing capacity. According to the Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA) "hydrogen is the lightest gas and also the most energy-dense fuel per mass. One pound of hydrogen holds 52,000 Btu, three times the energy of…
Fuel Cell & Hydrogen Energy Association (FCHEA). (2010). Hydrogen Energy Overview. FCHEA.org.
Linde Group (LG). (2010). Hydrogen Energy. Linde Industrial Gases.
Ministry of the Environment and Water Sources (MEWR). (2010). Climate Change and Energy Efficiency. http://app.mewr.gov.sg
National Climate Change Committee (NCCC). (2008). Singapore's National Climate Change Strategy. app.mewr.gov.sg.
Because of the wide variety of feedstocks ethanol offers great opportunity for economic growth and can help generate jobs outside traditional system.
There are many benefits of using ethanol as an alternative fuel. Most importantly the manageability of E85 is far easier than gasoline as it is less volatile. E85 fueling equipment is slightly different but costs almost the same as one used for storing and dispensing petroleum fuels. It is even possible to convert petroleum equipment into an E85. Moreover using E85 will reduce our overall use of petroleum consumption and replace it with a fuel produced or grown in the U.S. E85 also offers considerable environmental benefits. FFVs specifically designed for ethanol-based fuels are easily available, recommended and are affordable. Today E85 is sold at 60 stations in 16 states according to an Environmental Protection Agency fact sheet. (obinson, 2004). Even though the overall mileage of E85 is…
Alternative Fuels Data Center, 8 April 2005, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy retrieved online on 25 October 2005 at http://www.eere.energy.gov/afdc/altfuel/whatis_eth.html
What is ethanol?, 8 April 2005, U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy retrieved online on 25 October 2005 at
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…
Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).
"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.
Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.
Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.
As the situation exists today, driving gasoline and electric hybrid vehicles is still more economical and environmentally sensitive than driving fuel cell cars run on hydrogen. The future may prove otherwise but the reality is that hydrogen has not proven to be the great answer that some have suggested.
IV. Comparing popular press and professional viewpoints
As one might expected, the treatment provided the issue of hydrogen use has received different treatment in the popular press than it has in the professional journals. In the popular press, the emphasis has been on the how the use of hydrogen as an alternative fuel would benefit the whole of society. Little attention is provided the technical problems related to the use of hydrogen or the requisite changes that must be made in order to accommodate the changeover to hydrogen. Instead, the popular press tends to point out the environmental and consumer advantages.…
(Editor), Shawna McQueen. Analysis of the Transition to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles & the Potential Hydrogen Energy Infrastructure Requirements. Survey. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy, 2008.
Gold, R. "Natural Gas Costs Hurt U.S. Firms." Wall Street Journal 17 February 2004: 2.
Kinaci, A. "Ab initio investigation of FeTi - H System." International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2006): 2466-2474.
Liss, William E. Role of Natural Gas in the Future Hydrogen Market. Research. Des Plaines, IL: Hydrogen Energy Systems Center, 2003.
" The wildlife result of raising the usual row crops such as corn is well-known. The greatest impact of enhanced corn ethanol would be that much more land would be converted to agricultural use as well as the additional erosion and fertilizer application that goes hand-in-hand with agricultural production. Increasing ethanol production through the use of corn may lead to negative effects on wildlife, the degree of which this occurs based on production levels and if the land put aside for this enhanced production had previously been idle, in a natural state, or planted in other row crops.
Bies (1205) sees the strengths of the ethanol use. However, the use of the product and how it is produced are two different things. President Bush signed the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 that included a provision concerning the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC), in addition to other biofuels provisions.…
Bies, Laura. The Biofuels Explosion. Wildlife Society Bulletin. (2006) 34.4 1203-1206
Dinneen, Bob. Vital Speeches of the Day. New York.(2007) 73.4, 167-171.
Cothran, Helen. Energy Alternatives. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002
Ethanol Across America. 18 July, 2007 http://www.ethanolacrossamerica.net/
S. government to be deeply
committed to an 'alternative' fuel policy that is widely criticized for its
inefficiency. The EPA article shows that the United States government and
its oil, auto and agro industry partners have collectively pushed forward
with an alternative fuel policy dominated by corn-based ethanol and biofuel
strategies. Specifically, according to the Environmental Protection
Agency, "the Renewable Fuel Standard program will increase the volume of
renewable fuel required to be blended into gasoline to 7.5 billion gallons
by 2012. The RFS program was developed in collaboration with refiners,
renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders." (EPA 2008, p. 1)
This passage is a revealing one which demonstrates that under the
existing policy and for at least the coming three years, the United States
will balk at making real overtures toward the movement away from fossil
fuels. The goals projected here show that the EPA remains steeped in…
Electronic and Hybrid Engines Be Used Instead of the Petrol Engines
Hybrid engines and electric and other forms of fuel are being tried the world over on account of multiple problems. It is not only for vehicles but also for the industries that use fossil fuels and chemicals for manufacture. The primary problem is the pollution of the air, water and the entire planet on account of fossil fuel use. Not all fossil fuel forms are harmful. For example CNG, compressed natural gas is less harmful. The use of fossil fuel has deadly repercussions on human, animal and plant health. In other words all life on the planet can be at jeopardy. The shocking truth is revealed as follows: John Vidal of the Guardian reported that millions die in Asia on account of vehicle pollution. According to the report he quoted, issued by a consortium of universities working in conjunction…
Alternative Fuels Data Center. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles Govt Energy site.
Eto, Joseph. 1996. The Past, Present, and Future of U.S. Utility Demand-Side Management Programs.
Imperial College. Environmental Planning and Management. Imperial College Press.
The Advantages of Biodiesel Distillation
The search for non-fossil alternative fuels has been conducted now for more than a decade. The impetus for this search has increased in more recent years mainly due to the talk of supposed global warming; the incidence of which is increased by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere by fossil fuels. Because of the Kyoto protocols, one of the primary processes being perfected is that of making biodiesel. This type of diesel can be made from any type of fat or oil, but there are problems associated with its production and use. To mitigate these issues, firms have begun using a distillation process which, in most ways, fixes the problems that have commonly been associated with biodiesel. The following paper discusses what biodiesel is, how the fuel is made, what the distillation process is, and what advantages distilled biodiesel has over non-distilled…
Lurgi. "Biodiesel," 2010. http://www.lurgi.com/website/fileadmin/user_upload/1_PDF/1_Broshures_Flyer/e nglisch/0301e_Biodiesel.pdf
Matallana, L.G., Gutierrez, L.F., & Cardona, C.A. "Biodiesel Production by Reactive Distillation." Enpromer 64 (2005): D2-0-5. Print.
Singh, Arvindar P., Thompson, Joe C., & He, Brian B. "A Continuous-Flow Reactive Distillation reactor for Biodiesel Preparation from Seed Oils." An ASAE/CSAE Meeting Presentation, 2004. Print.
SRS Engineering. "Biodiesel Distillation," 2010. http://c1- preview.prosites.com/37030/wy/docs/Biodiesel%20Distillation.pdf
The political implications of this article are enormous, including international relations to come up with worldwide emissions agreements, economic reform in regards to the businesses that continue to use carbon-emitting practices, and legislation that will limit the abilities of businesses. This article is written from the point-of-view, therefore, of someone who has been monitoring this situation for quite some time, and who is concerned about global warming's impact on earth. In addition, this person writes from the political point-of-view, having a great deal of knowledge about how the problem can be solved politically. The scientific conclusion that global warming is a time-sensitive problem is unique, but not valid, while the idea of 350 is based on a new study, so its accurateness cannot be confirmed. McKibben, however, does not suggest this. Instead, he relies on the number, 350, as solid fact, without admitting that it may not be correct. Thus,…
Allen, Laura. (2008, December 19). The Other Big Meltdown. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-12/other-big-meltdown
Cyr, Christine. (2008, December 11). Flying High on Biofuels. Retrieved December, 20
2008, at http://www.popsci.com/military-aviation-amp-space/article/2008-12/flying-high-biofuels
McKIbben, Bill. (2008, November/December). The Most Important Number on Earth.
hy the huge disparity in viewpoints when the science has been empirically established for twenty years or more? Journalist Bryan alsh references sociologists from Michigan State and Oklahoma State Universities (Riley Dunlap and Aaron McCright, respectively), who say there has been a "well-financed effort on the part of conservative groups and corporations to distort global-warming science" (alsh, 2011). In the book written by Dunlap and McCright (the Oxford Handbook of Climate Change and Society) they assert that global climate change science has been "assaulted" by fossil-fuel corporations, conservative think tanks" for over twenty years.
Hence, in conclusion, one way to spread the word to consumers and citizens is to battle back against the propaganda that seeks to deny the truth about climate change. In addition, very simple changes in lifestyles (using CFLs, taking the bus, hanging clothes out to dry, keeping the car tuned up, and sealing up leaks and…
Chevrolet. (2012). Somebody Has to Be First. Chevrolet VOLT. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.chevrolet.com/volt-electric-car/ .
Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Frequently Asked Questions About Global Warming
And Climate Change: Back to Basics. Retrieved March 8, 2012, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange .
Greenercars.org. (2010). Green Driving Tips. Retrieved March 9, 2012, from http://www.greenercars.org/drivingtips.htm .
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…
Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/
IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vzm6pvHPSGo
Johnson, Keith. (August 10, 2009.) "Blown Away: Wind Power Makes Electricity Cheaper in Texas." Retrieved April 28, 2011 from the Wall Street Journal at http://blogs.wsj.com/environmentalcapital/2009/08/10/blown-away-wind-power-makes-electricity-cheaper-in-texas/
Kobayashi, Teruo. (December, 2005.) "Progress of Electric Railways in Japan." Japan Railway and Transport Review issue 42. Pp 62-69. Retrieved from http://jrtr.net/jrtr42/pdf/s62_kob.pdf
Loftin, Josh. (April 18, 2011.) "Home renewable energy for focus of Utah conference." Retrieved April 27, 2011 from Business Week at http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9MM3JV80.htm
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
Historically one retailer in the area has offered 100 gallon drums of 100 to consumers for purchase, but has recently restricted sales to 500 gallons per purchase, no doubt to serve industry. While another retail location has spotty supplies that must be called upon, on a weekly basis to determine if 100 is even available, though conveniently they do sell it by the gallon. (iodiesel in Tampa Website)
One of the most essential aspects of beginning to build a biofuel infrastructure on a local level in a domestic city is to create such an infrastructure that would curtail the dominance of foreign biofuel in the region. As was seen in the first section of the work EarthFirst Technologies serves as a significant local and regional competitor as this company has seen and answered the need to import biodiesel to answer a growing need in the U.S. For such sources.…
Biodiesel in Tampa Website Retrieved May 23, 2008 at http://www.forums.biodieselnow.com/forums/p/9832/63809.aspx
Adams D. Huettel, S.(November 19, 2005) Huge biodiesel shipment arrives: A Tampa company has lofty plans to continue importing the alternative fuel from Ecuador to sell for use in diesel engines. Tampa Bay Partnership Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.tampabay.org/press.asp?rls_id=1089& ;
EarthFirst Technologies Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.earthfirsttech.com/CompanyBackGround.asp
Florida Biofuel Coop Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.biodiesel.coop/
2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market
Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries
Crisis in the United States
Crisis in Canada
Crisis in ussia
Crisis in European markets
Crisis in Asian markets
Effects by other related crisis events
In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.
The automobile industry is a very important part…
Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.
Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.
Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.
Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
With the increased level of awareness of the environment, automotive car manufacturers vie on the viability of selling environmentally hybrid cars. Leading this group are Honda and Toyota. The following is a market analysis of the position of Toyota's Prius. It analyzes the following factors:
Situation of the firm in the market
The industry of hybrid cars
The strategy adopted by Prius and how it is faring in the market
The barriers of the market
Some alternative strategies to rectify the weakness of Prius and The implementation of one of its alternatives.
Toyota Motor Corporation with its subsidiaries all around the world reports $5,447 billion for the fiscal year 2001. With more than 5.5 million cars, trucks, and buses worldwide sold annually, the company boast of high profits and symbolizes the ideal in automotive industry. Spread to 24 nations and regions worldwide, Toyota with its…
Shenandoah Weiss, Environmentally friendly car may become wave of the future., University Wire, 04-26-2000.
REITMAN, VALERIE Toyota Touts Dual Benefits Of Hybrid Power System. Wall Street Journal March 26, 1997-Page A-12
JOE GAROFOLI, SUN NEWS SERVICES, NEW CIVIC TAKES HYBRIDS PRIME TIME., The Edmonton Sun, 02-01-2002, pp DR28.
Portable Nuclear Power
Is a Portable Nuclear Power Device Feasible?
As the global population grows, we find ourselves facing growing energy consumption needs. In industrialized nations, this translates into rising energy costs to power our homes and businesses. Power outages are a major concern in metropolitan areas that depend on power to meet humanity's most basic needs. For those in poorer nations, we do not even have a way to supply them power. It is hard to believe, but there are still many in the world who are not close enough to a power grid to be connected.
What if there was a way to cut energy costs in half? What if we could eliminate the possibility of power outages in the future? What if we did find a way to supply power to those in even the most remote areas, even though there is no grid close by? What…
Asher, M. "Miniature Nuclear Reactors to be on Sale Within 5 years." Daily Tech. November 10, 2008. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Biomass For Electricity Generation. U.S.
Department of Energy. Electricity Analysis Reports. (Web) Accessed 6 June 2011.
Fehrenbacher, K. "Hyperion's Nuclear-In-A-Box by 2013." Gigaom. August 1, 2008. (Web)
The price charged for the company's biodiesel product lines will be tied to the prevailing prices charged for feed stock and production costs, but any costs in excess of traditional diesel fuel alternatives will be offset by marketing initiatives designed to promote the environmentally responsible aspects of the products' use, as well as the patriotic aspects of reducing America's reliance on foreign oil.
Distribution (Place). Transportation for the company's product line will be outsourced.
Promotion. As noted above, biodiesel products possess a number of characteristics that can be promoted to different industries and organizations depending on their specific needs. Larger enterprises such as Universal Studios Theme Park could be encouraged to use biodiesel alternatives based on the tax advantages and public relations opportunities such use affords; likewise, governmental agencies could reap economies of scale by converting large vehicle fleets to biodiesel applications and also enjoy the P benefits that accrue…
Cravens, D.W. (2000). Strategic marketing (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Edinger, R. & Kaul, S. (2003). Sustainable mobility: Renewable energies for powering fuel cell vehicles. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Kram, J.W. (2008, April). Biodiesel blossoms in the Sunshine State. Biodiesel Magazine. [Online]. Available: http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=2209&q=&page=3 .
Schmidt, C.W. (2007). Biodiesel: Cultivating alternative fuels. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 86-87.
Environmental Hazards as a Consequence of Crude Oil/Natural Gas Exploration, Transportation, Refining and Storage
Ever since crude oil was first successfully drilled in the U.S. In Titusville, Pennsylvania, in 1859, the demand for oil has only been increasing over the years in countries all over the world. (Camden, 1883) Crude oil, from which various petroleum products are obtained, is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon component found trapped in rocks below the earth. The word "petroleum" means "rock oil" or "oil from the earth." Natural gas is another form of hydrocarbon that is also found in nature. oth crude oil and natural gas have excellent combustibility and are good sources of energy. Crude oil is not used in the extracted form; but it is refined to obtained products such as gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), naphtha, kerosene, gas-oil and fuel oil. Secondary products during the purification of crude oil are obtained are…
Associated-Press, and Reuters. World's Biggest Oil Rig Sinks. 2001. CNN. Available:
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/americas/03/20/brazil.rig.02/.August 2, 2004.
AWMA. Oil Spills - a Fact Sheet. 2000. Air & Waste Management Association. Available:
http://www.awma.org/education/oilspills.htm . August 1, 2004.
Externalities and Financing Government
Microeconomics Today -- hat is a fair tax?
Tax the rich, give to the poor! Tax the gas-guzzling SUVs of the rich, and give the money to the poor! Or, at very least, give the revenue in the form of tax breaks to independent and corporate organizations attempting to make alternative fuel vehicles. In theory, it seems like an excellent idea. However, although a higher gas tax may seem like a pro-environmentalist policy and superficially progressive in its political tenor and tone, in fact a gas tax really functions in its application as a regressive tax, penalizing the poorer rather than the wealthier Americans. It goes contrary to the fair financing of government, one of the philosophical principles of this nation.
Application of Microeconomic Theory -- regressive taxation and economic incentives for changes in consumer behavior through changes in tax policy
Two of the most controversial…
Carson, Robert Barry, Wade L. Thomas, Jason Hecht. (2005) Microeconomic Issues Today. 8th Edition. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe.
Ignatius, David. (31 May 2004) "Why Gas Prices are Too Low." The Washington Post. Available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A5080-2004May31.html
Mankiw, Gregory N. (24 May 1999) "Gas Tax Now!" Fortune Magazine. Available at http://post.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/mankiw/columns/may99.html
Problems and risks related to contracted a new company relate both to cost, safety measures and legal liability. The primary consideration is cost, as this is the major problem related to the issue mentioned above. The first requirement for the new company would then have to be a cost that is as close as possible to the price to date charged by Walkers Ausgas before the increase. Being a transport company, safety is also of utmost importance. Hence, it has to be ensured that the new company will deliver a service either of similar or higher quality than Walkers Ausgas. Pricing and quality therefore have to be in optimal balance in order to minimize the risk of legal liability.
pecifically then, the risks include the following:
afety is one of the most important issues at Kingsgrove. Ensuring that proper testing and certification measures are in place minimizes the…
Australian Institute of Petroleum. Petroleum Topic Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 18, 2006 at http://www.aip.com.au/industry/fact_alt_fuels.htm .
Beer, T., Grant, T., Brown, R., Edwards, J., Nelson, P., Watson, H., and Williams, S. (2000). Life-cycle Emissions Analysis of Alternative Fuels for Heavy Vehicles - Stage 1 CSIRO Atmospheric Research Report C/0411/1.1/F2 to the Australian Greenhouse Office, March 2000.
Hill, R. (2000). Converting $12.4 million into Improved Greenhouse Performance. Media Release. Leader of the Government in the Senate. Minister for the Environment and Heritage. August 21, 2000. Retrieved June 18, 2006 at http://www.deh.gov.au/minister/env/2000/mr21aug00.html.
Werner, C. (2006). National Clean Bus Update. Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Retrieved June 18, 2006 at http://www.eesi.org/publications/Newsletters/Clean%20Bus%20Update/March%202006.htm
Carbon monoxide gas [CO (g)] is a byproduct of this reaction which defeats the intent of alternative fuel sources to eliminate production of greenhouse gases. Following the first and second laws of thermodynamics, this procedure results in a severe energy loss. The first law of thermodynamics says that the energy output from any process can't exceed the energy input, and the second law focusing in part on decay states that each process decays energy.
The production of the methanol from natural gas results in an initial 32% to 44% net energy loss, then the steam treatment process to procure the hydrogen results in a further 35% energy loss.
Several processes are being explored to derive hydrogen from water, as an inexhaustible source. However, this reaction, 2H2O + e = 2H2(g) + O2(g), requires a substantial energy investment per unit of water (286kJ per mole).
This energy investment is again required…
[i, ii, iv, vi] Joseph J. Romm, the Hype About Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the race to save the Climate (Island Press, NW. Washington DC 2004).
Joseph J. Romm, Andrew a. Frank "Hybrid Vehicles Gain Traction" Scientific American (April 2006).
Business Wire "?
The simple fact is this that the initiation of offshore oil drilling can be used effectively as a threat to lower the overall importing prices of oil from the Middle East States. The actual drilling, if looking at its impact internally, might or might not result in the actual decrease in gas prices or increase of alternative fuel and energy production. But in the recent times, the real reason for such a high debate on the offshore drilling aspect has been to use it merely as a strategy and a negotiation tool.
This approach and application of this strategy is something that neither I, nor people like who think that offshore drilling has more negative effects then positive, have a problem with. I do have a problem however with how offshore drilling is portrayed as the savior for the American dependency on foreign oil. Its like love is cast off…
Daniels, B. Offshore Drilling: Pros and Cons. 2008.Taken from: http://www.411mania.com/politics/columns/81832
Gertz, E. Can Offshore Drilling Really Make the U.S. Oil Independent? Even if U.S. energy policy goes "drill baby drill," there will be no escape from the vicissitudes of the global oil market. Scientific American. 2008.
Gross, D. Drilling for Answers: Will we find the oil we need offshore? Newsweek, 18-06-2008.
Parsley, J. Wellington chamber weighs pros, cons of offshore drilling. South Florida Sun-Sentinel. 2008.