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Alternative Medicines in Australia
ackground and Importance of the Issue
Healing wounds, making sick people healthy again, determining the exact condition of people who are ill, and keeping society as healthy as possible -- these are all goals of the healthcare industry in Australia. There are very few things as important to a nation as the good health of its people. There are always incidents and injuries in any society, and there are health problems due to the imperfection of the human body and the intervention of substances that can cause a person to be ill. Cancer is one of the leading causes of illness and death in Australia. According to the Cancer Council of Australia, on in five cancer deaths result from smoking cigarettes and 3% of cancers are due to alcohol consumption; moreover, in Australia in 2012 an estimated 534,000 "…new cases of cancer will be diagnosed" (www.cancer.org.au).…
Cancer Council of Australia. 2009. 'What Causes Cancer?' Retrieved August 18, 2012, from http://www.cancer.org.au .
Hechtman, Leah. 2012. Clinical Naturopathic Medicine. Elsevier Australia: Chatswood, AU.
Maggie. 2012. 'More hollow legislation from the TGA,' Sceptics Book. Retrieved August 18, 2012, from http://scepticsbook.com .
National Herbalists Association of Australia, 2010, 'Services,' Retrieved August 18, 2012, from http://www.nationaltherapypages.com.au.
The Role of Alternative Medicine in Society
A variety of alternative medicines and therapies have been becoming popular in mainstream western culture. In fact, in Australia as well as the United States and the U.K., the alternative medicine industry has grown into a multi-billion dollar a year industry that is growing at an estimated rate of thirty percent annually (International Study, 2012). Yet, despite the incredible growth trend, these alternative remedies are highly criticized by the scientific and medical communities because the benefits of these treatments are found deficient in regards to scientific evidence to support their healing claims.
In fact, an organization has recently been founded that consists of over four hundred and fifty prominent members who have basically declared war on the entire field and wish to ensure that these fields are not included as subjects to be studied in any publically funded university (Kamenev, 2012).…
Health Insite, 2012. Complementary and Alternative Therapies. [Online]
Available at: http://www.healthinsite.gov.au/topics/complementary_and_alternative_therapies
[Accessed 25 August 2012].
International Study, 2012. Alternative medicine in Australia. [Online]
CAM refers to complementary, alternative, or integrative medicine. Sometimes the terms are used interchangeably, but they actually mean different things to practitioners. The term complementary "generally refers to using a non-mainstream approach together with conventional medicine (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). The term alternative "refers to using a non-mainstream approach in place of conventional medicine" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2013). Integrative medicine is most similar to complementary medicine, in that it refers to using alternative practices in conjunction with traditional, mainstream approaches. However, because the line between mainstream and non-mainstream approaches is fluid, many practitioners incorporate approaches that were recently considered alternative into their mainstream treatment.
Conventional medicine plays a role in most of the CAM spectrum. First, it is important to realize that few people or practitioners adhere to strictly alternative methods. "Most people use non-mainstream approaches along with conventional treatments.…
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (2000). Expanding horizons of healthcare: Five-year strategic plan 2001-2005. Retrieved September 17, 2013 from National Institutes of Health website: http://nccam.nih.gov/sites/nccam.nih.gov/files/about/plans/fiveyear/fiveyear.pdf?nav=gsa
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2012, May 31). Acupuncture for pain.
Retrieved September 17, 2013 from National Institutes of Health website: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/acupuncture/acupuncture-for-pain.htm
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2013, August 26). Complementary,
Studies published in the New England Journal of Medicine and elsewhere also have found no link. Even after thimerosal [the alleged, offending substance] was removed from infant vaccines, the autism rate has continued to climb" (Vaccine, 2008, CNN). Attributing illnesses to conventional medicine is often based upon anecdotal and emotional evidence, little else.
Conventional medicine takes a preventive perspective as well, stressing proper diet and nutrition, but a more realistic fashion and thus yield more appreciable results. Furthermore, studies suggest that eating real food, as opposed to alternative supplements or following fad diets, elimination diets, or diets that do not contain an entire group of food (such as meat or carbohydrate) are more health-promoting and sustainable over the long-term (Parker-Pope 2009).
Conventional medicine is empirically tested. Many alternative therapies have no scientific support other than heresy and simply take advantage of frightened people. They have also proved deadly, in the…
Benefits of acupuncture. (2009). Retrieved July 4, 2009 at http://www.dart-creations.com/article-tree/busin/benefits%20of%20acupuncture.html
Health benefits of acupuncture. (2009). all4naturalhealth. Retrieved July 4, 2009 at http://www.all4naturalhealth.com/benefits-of-acupuncture.html
Parker-Pope, Tara. (2007, November 5). The case for real food. The New York Times.
Retrieved July 4, 2009 at http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/11/05/the-case-for-real-food/
In contrast to other work in this field, this book views alternative health as a social movement, and shows commonalities between the cultural left and the religious right that can help form a new healthcare paradigm.
National Center for Complimentary and Alternative Medicine
2000 Expanding Horizons of Healthcare: Five-year trategic Plan, 2001-2005.
National Institute of Health Publication No. 01-5001. Gaithersburg, Maryland:
National Institutes of Health.
In this report, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) outlines the first ever, five-year-strategic plan covering the years 2000-2005. The report consists of four major sections. In the first, the NCCAM argues the case to take action through research. The second portion discusses future direction for the field. The third section details the strategic plan its self, while the fourth section covers the appendices. The report places the majority of concentration on the strategic plan outline, in which the mission and vision…
American Anthropological Association
2003 AAA Style Guide. Electronic Document, http://www.aaanet.org/pubs/style_guide.pdf , Accessed December 3, 2007.
The latter, performed by chiropractors, some conventional medical doctors, and other health care professionals involves applying force to a joint of the spine and moving it beyond its normal range of motion. This serve to alleviate back pain.
Movement therapies, another AM category, are movement-based approaches intended to promote holistic well-being. Examples include the Feldenkrais method, Pilates, Alexander technique, Rolfing Structural Integration, and Trager psychophysical integration.
Manipulation of energy fields is also practiced by some AM practitioners where it is thought that humans are infused with electromagnetic fields and that manipulating these streams of energy will promote healing. Examples include Qi gong, Reiki, and healing touch.
Finally, whole medical systems, another category of AM, include Ayurveda medicine and traditional hinese medicine with, more recently, homeopathy and naturopathy.
Three different AM treatments from alternative therapy, complementary therapy, and integrative therapy are yoga, message therapy, and attention to nutrition. Each is alternative…
Center for the Scientific Study of Yoga and Health. Evidence-based yoga. Retrieved December 28, 2010, from http://www.centerforyogaandhealth.org/Evidence-Based-Yoga.html
HerbMed. Retrieved December 28, 2010, from http://herbmed.org/
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (n. d.). Retrieved December 28, 2010, from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/#types
Alternative and Complementary & Alternative Medicine in Prostate Cancer
In order to address the higher rates of prostate cancer which have long afflicted the African-American community, a scientific study was conducted in 2007 to gauge the role that cultural traditions, including the belief in prayer and approaches to alternative medicine, play in the prevention and treatment of this disease. A group of prominent researchers in the nursing field, headed by andy A. Jones, PhD, N and Ann Gill Taylor, EdD, N, FAAN, explored links between the beliefs of African-American prostate cancer patients and techniques used by nurses, and their findings were published in a report entitled "Complementary and Alternative Medicine Modality Use and Beliefs Among African-American Prostate Cancer Survivors." This report relied on primarily phenomenological research methods, including live interviews and visits to participant's homes, to study the belief systems of 14 African-American prostate cancer survivors and found that these…
Agho, A.O., & Lewis, M.A. (2001). Correlates of actual and perceived knowledge of prostate cancer among African-Americans. Cancer Nursing, 24(3), 165-171. Retrieved from http://journals.lww.com/cancernursingonline/Abstract/2001/06000/Correlates_of_Actual_and_Perceived_Knowledge_of.1.aspx
Boehm, S., Schlenk, E.A., Funnell, M.A., Parzuchowski, J., Powell, I.J. (1995). Prostate cancer in African-American men: Increasing knowledge and self-efficacy. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 12(3), 161-169. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/pss/3427728
Jones, R.A., Taylor, A.G., & Bourguignon, C., Steeves, R., Fraser, G., Lippert, M., Theodorescu, Dan., Matthews, H., Kilbridge, K.L. (2007). Complementary and alternative medicine modality use and beliefs among African-American prostate cancer survivors . Oncology Nursing Forum, 34(2), 359-364. doi: 10.1188/07.ONF.359-364
McIntosh, H. (1997). Why do African-American men suffer more prostate cancer?. JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 89(3), 188-189. doi: 10.1093/jnci/89.3.188
After three weeks, crying was decreased in both groups, but the Lactobacillus reuteri infants demonstrated the greater reduction, from a mean of 370 minutes of crying per day at the beginning of the study to 35 minutes at the end. The placebo group's mean crying time went down from a mean of 300 minutes per day to 90 minutes per day. Stool examination also demonstrated a considerable decrease in the occurrence of E. coli among infants who got the Lactobacillus reuteri drops. esearchers considered that babies in the placebo group may have had an advancement since of reduced cow's milk in the mother's diet (Probiotic may soothe colicky babies, 2010).
On the whole, the conclusions sustain the idea that Lactobacillus reuteri may aid in reducing colic symptoms by making better gut motility and function, which in turn could decrease gas in the gastrointestinal tract and abdominal pain and cramping. Simultaneously,…
Colic. (2010). Retrieved November 17, 2010, from Mayo Clinic Web site:
Health benefits of taking probiotics. (2005). Retrieved November 17, 2010, from the Harvard
Medical School Web site: http://www.health.harvard.edu/fhg/updates/update0905c.shtml
Alternative Treatments: Acupuncture for Pain ManagementInstructions:
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine that is used throughout the world, although it is considered to be part of an ancient Chinese tradition. It is performed by inserting needles into the skin at specific points on the body and is used to treat a number of conditions. According to the Mayo Clinic, in the Chinese tradition, the insertion of needles helps to restore balance the life force, known as qi or chi, through pathways in the body. One of the most common uses is for pain treatment. However, it can be used for a number of other purposes, including preventive maintenance. It can also be used to treat emotional and psychological problems.
Acupuncture has been used for thousands of years. Its use in the United States is more recent, though, and it did not become popular until the 1970s (Tran, 2012). Although…
Acupuncture (2012). The Mayo Clinic. Retrieved electronically on May 6, 2012 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/AboutThisSite/AM00057
Koopsen, C. & Young, C. (2009). Integrative health: A holistic approach for health professionals. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett.
Tran, A. Acupuncture alternative (2012). Markula Center for Applied Ethics, Santa Clara
University, CA. Retrieved electronically on May 6, 2012 from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/dialogue/candc/cases/acupuncture.html
Complementary and alternative medicine is difficult to describe because it incorporates a very broad and continually changing field. However, this field is defined as a group of distinct medical and health care systems, products, and practices that are not generally regarded as part of traditional or conventional medicine ("What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine?" 2012). In this case, the conventional or traditional medicine is medical practices by clinical doctors, holders of doctor's degrees, and allied health care professionals like registered nurses, physical therapists, and psychologists. Nonetheless, the boundaries between conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine are not absolute since particular CAM practices may sometimes become widely accepted.
There is a significant difference between complementary medicine, alternative medicine, and integrative medicine. Complementary medicine is described as the use of CAM in combination with traditional medicine or usual care in order to help minimize pain. On the contrary, alternative medicine is…
Ratini, M. (2012, May 31). Alternative Treatments for Sleep Disorders. Retrieved March 25,
2013, from http://www.webmd.com/balance/alternative-therapy
Solomon, H.R. (2006, September 18). Alternative Approach to Treating Allergies: The Wonders
of Nature. Retrieved March 25, 2013, from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/544051_3
What is complementary/alternative medicine and how does it differ from the traditional Western approach?
Complementary medicine and alternative medicine include any treatment interventions that do not fall within the accepted rubric of the American Medical Association and related institutions. The term complementary medicine suggests that such interventions can be used in conjunction with allopathic interventions, whereas alternative medicine suggests that some patients prefer to eschew pharmacological and related allopathic interventions in favor of other forms of treatment. Mistakenly called Western medicine, allopathic medicine is practices as much in Asia and the East as it is in the West.
However, many cultures around the world including Western societies acknowledge the relevance and role that homeopathic medicine, acupuncture, herbs, and other treatments play in healing. Many so-called alternative medicine and complementary medicine treatments have been scientifically studied. The main difference between complementary and alternative medicine and traditional medicine is that…
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) (2011). What is CAM? Retrieved November 1, 2011 from http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam/
US Department of Health & Human Services, Maternal Child Health Bureau (2009). Core Concepts in Cultural Competence. Retrieved November 1, 2011 from http://support.mchtraining.net/national_ccce/case0/home.html
patients turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in pursuit of healing as a last resort following unsuccessful application of traditional or Western medicine. A National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) which also included an aspect of alternative medicine revealed that approximately 38% of adults use alternative medicine (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012). Some of the drugs attempted to improve human condition include herbal or botanical substances. There have been numerous botanical products inventoried for their medicinal effects. Nurses working in the hospice care lack the basic knowledge in administering alternative medicine on patients. Thus, to ensure efficient administration of treatment using alternative or complimentary therapy, it is necessary to education nurses on practical methods. The nurses as practitioners need to be educated on Bell's three stages for proper administration of alternative procedures.
Contribution to the Future of Healthcare
The model herein described is deduced from theoretical and related…
Bardia, A., Barton, D., Prokop, L., & Bauer, B. (2006). Efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine therapies in relieving cancer pain: A systematic review. American Society of Clinical Oncoloty, 5457-5464.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012, November 16). National Health Interview Survey. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from www.cdc.gov.
Cummings, K. (2011). End of life and hospice care . Minneapolis: University of Minnesota.
Forester, H. (2012). Alternative Medicine and Hospice Care for LPN/RNs. Retrieved November 24, 2012, from http://nursinglink.monster.com/education/articles/8397-alternative-medicine-and-hospice-care-for-lpnrns
Complimentary & Alternative Medicine Practices
Seeking far better healthcare for psychological along with other medical problems, public has increasingly took on other styles of treatment-commonly known as complementary and alternative medicine or CAM. Within 2002, 36% adult Americans utilized some kind of CAM. In the event that prayer is incorporated, that amount swells to approximately 62%. By 2007 CAM usage enhanced to approximately 14% (Edwards, 2008).
In psychiatry, nearly 54% of females with depression looked for relief through CAM therapies. Factors given really are an inclination for any "natural strategy," seeking treatments which are congruent using their own beliefs as well as values, as well as experiencing unpleasant negative effects or poor outcomes from orthodox therapy. Amongst psychological patients generally, 63% utilized some form of CAM (Edwards, 2008).
In recent decades, one has also seen a stream of articles within the psychological literature around the utilization of CAM remedies such…
American Academy of Ophthalmology. (2004). Complementary Therapy Assessment Visual Training for Refractive Errors. Accessed February 14, 2012 from http://one.aao.org/CE/PracticeGuidelines/Therapy_Content.aspx?cid=d7238b2b-a59f-49f6-9f30-64d1e84efc3b
Amminger GP, Schafer MR, Papageorgiou K, et al. (2010). Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for indicated prevention of psychotic disorders: a randomized, placebocontrolled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry; 67:146-54.
Arns M, De Ridder S, Strehl U, Breteler M, Coenen A. (2009). Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clin EEG Neurosci;40:180-89.
Edwards, S.D. (2008). Breath psychology. Psychology & Developing Societies; 20:131.
Piscidia piscipula formerly known as Piscidia erythrina and commonly known as Jamaican dogwood or Florida fishpoison tree, is a tropical, deciduous, medium-sized tree endemic to the Caribbean, Texas, southern Florida and the Keys, and Latin America. Historic use of the herb details West Indies Natives using the extracts from the tree to sedate fish (Fetrow & Avila, 2000). The sedated fish became easy to catch by hand leading to the common name of fishpoison. In modern times, scientists have discovered use for the herb as a sedative and analgesic.
The historic use of Jamaican Dogwood has been to catch fish by hand by sedating them and other traditional uses. Because the herb has sedative and analgesic properties, people of the Caribbean used it for pain relief, aid for labor, menstruation pains, toothaches, migraines, insomnia, and asthma. They would consume it either as a tincture, as a dried product, or as…
This is especially true for those methods which use an integrated approach to restore and maintain the health of the patients through changes in lifestyle, diet and other natural therapies. These alternative methods of treatment increase the longevity of life by being effective in preventing certain diseases such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, etc. As well as by promoting the health of the patient and preventing and treating aging. Looking at it from a scholarly viewpoint, it can be seen that these beliefs are actually true since diet and nutrition are related to many chronic illnesses. Therefore, if a person does improve their dietary intake, they can be able to prevent these chronic illnesses.
People also use alternative medicine because apart from treating the symptoms of the disease, they also have several other benefits. Joos, oseman, and Szecsenyc (2006)
give good examples as yoga, acupuncture and massage which apart from treating…
Barnes, P.M., Powell-Griner, E., McFann, K., & Nahin, R.L. (2004). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: United States, 2002. Advance Data 343, 1-20.
Bejean, S., & Sultan-Taieb, H. (2005). Modeling the Economic Burden of Diseases Imputable to Stress at Work. The European Journal of Health Economics, 6(1), 16-23.
Joos, S., Roseman, T., & Szecsenyc, J. (2006). Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Germany. A survey of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 6, 19.
Longmead, C., & Rampton, C. (2006). Complementary and alternative therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 23, 341-346.
To achieve these objectives, ealth Care Corporation, Inc., will collect opinion data from medical professionals and consumers regarding their use of and the effectiveness of alternative forms of medical care and the desirability of each form. This data will be collected through paper surveys of both medical professionals and customers who work with institutions affiliated with ealth Care Corporation, Inc., and interviews of medical professionals by members of ealth Care's Research and Development team. This data should be gathered in a relevant sample size, roughly 10,000 patients, by June 5, 2011.
ealth Care Corporation, Inc., will additionally collect data regarding the state of health of customers who have used alternative forms of medicine both prior to and posterior to receiving alternative forms of treatment and compare this data with relevant, archived data concerning the health of customers prior and posterior to receiving modern Western health treatments. This data will be…
Health Care Corporation, Inc., will additionally collect data regarding the state of health of customers who have used alternative forms of medicine both prior to and posterior to receiving alternative forms of treatment and compare this data with relevant, archived data concerning the health of customers prior and posterior to receiving modern Western health treatments. This data will be collected by a market research team who will survey patients regarding their blood tests and numerical medical data. This should be completed no later than June 19th, 2011.
Health Care Corporation, Inc., will then collect price averages for alternative forms of treatment as stated by practitioners of these forms on their websites, flyers, brochures, and other forms of advertisement. This should be completed no later than May 19th, 2011, and should be verified as up-to-date (and corrected if not) when the entire process is completed, which should be no later than July 5, 2011.
The following proposal, which will be considered complete when the number and share of resources which should be transferred to coverage of alternative forms of medicine are discerned, will be executed starting at the current date and research will be completed no later than July 5, 2011.
The preliminary data suggests that nurses need to adopt a holistic approach toward care as more and more mothers seek out non-pharmacological and natural methods for improving comfort and reducing the pain associated with labor and delivery.
Nurses can also help patients by educating them about their choices during labor, as well as potential unexpected events that occur during labor and delivery. As this study shows, mothers prepared for the unexpected are much more likely to report satisfaction than those who are not.
These findings provide significant insight with regard to nursing education protocols, and open the doors for new approaches to care for patients. Nursing programs of the future should focus on educating staff members regarding alternative therapies that can improve a mother's comfort before, during and after the labor process.
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain:…
Huntley, AL, Coon, JT & Ernst, E. (2004 - Jul). "Complementary and alternative medicine for labor pain: A systemic review." Am J. Obstet Gynecol. 191(1): 36-44.
Kannan, S., Jamison, R.N. & Datta, S. (2001, Sep-Oct). "Maternal satisfaction and pain control in women electing natural childbirth." Reg Anesth Pain Med, 26(5): 468-72.
Ketterhagen, D., VandeVusse, L & Berner, M.A. (2002 - Nov, Dec). "Self-hypnosis:
Alternative anesthesia for childbirth." MCN Am J. Matern Child Nurs. 27(6): 335-40.
Alternatives to Pain Medication
Given the growing concerns over opioid addictions in recent years and the potential for tolerance, clinicians continue to search for efficacious alternatives to convention pain medications (Moore & Anderson, 2016). Fortunately, a number of alternatives to conventional pan medication are readily available, including cannabis, yoga, hypnosis, mind-body meditation, therapeutic touch, herbal remedies, acupuncture, biofeedback, massage therapy, homeopathic practices (Tan & Craine, 2007) and aromatherapy (Esposito & Bystrek, 2014). To learn more about these alternatives, this paper provides an initial reference list of ten relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly sources concerning pain medication alternatives, followed by a description of clinical guidelines and an implementation plan for these alternatives. A discussion concerning the manner in which the implementation of the intervention should be tested is followed by an assessment of potential barriers and strategies intended to gain cooperation from individuals who will be implementing the change. Finally, a timeline…
Clinical practice guidelines. (2016). U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. Retrieved from https://nccih.nih.gov/health/providers/clinicalpractice.htm .
Levin, R. F. & Feldman, H. R. (2006). Teaching evidence-based practice in nursing: A guide for academic and clinical settings. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Moore, B. A. & Anderson, D. (2016, Janury). Stepped care model for pain management and quality of pain care in long-term opioid therapy. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 53(1), 137-141.
Pain management guidelines. (2016). U.S. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from https://www.guideline.gov/summaries/summary/9744 ?.
Healthcare Management Issues: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
The objective of this work is to provide a written summary on information related to Complementary and Alternative Medicine (DAM) and to answer the question that asks how CAM products and providers are regulated. This work will additionally answer the question of what impact the proliferation of CAM has had on consumer spending for health-related care and products and the question of whether there should be more widespread third-party coverage of CAM.
The National Cancer Institute reports that Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is "the term for medical products and practices that are not part of the standard medical care. Complementary medicine refers to the treatments that are used with standard treatment." (National Cancer Institute, 2011) Alternative medicine is treatments that are utilized rather than using standard type treatments. Standard treatments are such that are "based on scientific evidence from research…
$34 Billion Spent Yearly on Alternative Medicine (2009) Associated Press. 30 Jul 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32219873/ns/health-alternative_medicine/t/billion-spent-yearly-alternative-medicine/#.ToUZcOyK9QI
Health Consumers Spend More Out-of-Pocket than the Federal Government Counts (2011) Health Populi. Retrieved from: http://healthpopuli.com/2011/03/23/health-consumers-spend-more-out-of-pocket-than-the-federal-government-counts/
Santa, CF (nd) The Adoption of Complementary, and Alternative Medicine by Hospitals: A Framework for Decision Making. All Business. Retrieved from: http://www.allbusiness.com/management/3604702-1.html
What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)? (2011) National Career Institute. Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved from: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/cam
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
The dilemma associated with this case study suggests that little is known or can be done with serious illness with any great confidence. At the heart of the issue is who is responsible for the sick child as it appears, but may not be true, that he cannot take care of himself and that his immune system needs to be guided by someone else.
The lack of a formal family and the unnatural formation of this family also contributes to the confusion of this ethical problem. The Christian Scientist mother of the child holds no biological claim to the child and is demanding a unique spiritual procedure to be used to the heal the child. Although this method is controversial and not based in traditional science, the laws allowing for this type of treatment are allowed in reasonable circumstance in many areas of the world.
Dean, M. (2010). Comparative evaluation of homeopathy and allopathy within the Parisian hospital system, 1849 -- 1851. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 103(1), 34-36.
Flamm, B.L. (2004). Faith healing confronts modern medicine. Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, 8, 9-14.
Starfield, B. (2000, July 26). Is U.S. health really the best in the world? Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(4), 483-485
Alternative Medicine: The iology and usiness Aspects
Alternative medicine industry is one of the latest business opportunities that show rapid progress in the current economy. This type of business becomes a new trend in the world of medicine and modern health care. Many of the medicines had probably been invented in the traditional health care customs, ages before modern medical management took place. Despite the reality, scientific institutions and pharmaceutical companies are now conducting studies and research to investigate the reliability of the medicines apart from public believes of the remedies' glory in ancient legends of their usages. A number of hospitals and health care centers also have applied alternative medicine treatments in some cases of their patients. It looks like there is a light for another industry opportunities in here. In this case, the biggest part of the business relies on how rapid the biological researches are conducted and…
Angell, Marcia and Jerome P. Kassirer. Alternative Medicine: The Risks Of Untested And Unregulated Remedies. Sep 17, 1998. The New England Journal of Medicine Vol. 339 No. 12. December 10, 2002. http://kitsrus.com/pdf/nejm_998.pdf
La Puma, John. Tapping The Potential of Alternative Medicine. Healthcare Financial Management Magazine. April, 1998.
Mills, Simon Y. Regulation In Complementary And Alternative Medicine. Jan 20, 2001. British Medical Journal. Vol. 322 Issue 7279.
However, there would also need to be an extended period of longitudinal analysis of the effects of the therapy on the experimental group mice's health to see if the improvement continued and did not produce damaging side effects.
The MSCs in the liver therapy are not derived from human embryos and thus the objections to discarding human embryos are not a factor in the ethical discussion about the therapy. In fact, "the number of MSCs that can be obtained from a donor is significantly lower than the number needed for tissue regeneration. Therefore, MSCs are expanded ex-vivo in media supplemented with growth factors" and created in a lab ("MSC growth factors," R&D Systems, 2013). The main ethical objections to the use of MCSs revolve around the question of scientists' right to create new organs and the possible risks involved. The Japanese research team "relied on a 'cocktail' of so-called induced…
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
"Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) growth factors." R&D Systems. [7 Jul 2013]
Sustainable Distibution fo Essential Medicines in Emeging Makets
Business Case Backgound
The Sustainable challenge
Cuent distibution climate of Cue Phamaceutical
The gowing impotance of the emeging makets
Baies to gowth
Pocuement and Distibution
Challenge to oveall sustainability in phamaceutical companies
Patneships utilized in emeging makets and essential medicine distibution
Suggestions of patneships effective in essential medicine distibution
Data gatheing in essential medicine distibution
Sustainable distibution fo essential medicines in emeging makets
Business Case Backgound
This epot addesses the ole phamaceuticals play in emeging makets. Many people have associated these makets as havens fo explosive futue gowth, but thee ae also seious challenges to be faced. The epot will discuss what views investos, stakeholdes, and company executives hold on emeging makets. Thee ae thee pobable significant factos that may sway thei stance. Fist, the efoms ecently made by the govenment egading phamaceuticals and the obligations of multinationals esulting fom the efoms.…
(Multi-Stakeholder Toolkit, n.d), A Toolkit for Improved Understanding and Transparency of Drug Shortage Response in Canada 2013
Banks, M.A., & Persily, G.L. (2010). Campus perspective on the National Institutes of Health public access policy: University of California, San Francisco, library experience. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 98(3), 256 -- 259. doi:10.3163/1536-5050.98.3.015
Bors, C., Christie, A., Gervais, D., & Wright Clayton, E. (2015). Improving Access to Medicines in Low-Income Countries: A Review of Mechanisms. The Journal of World Intellectual Property. 18, 1-28.
Cure Pharmaceutical http://www.curepharmaceutical.com/about.html
3. The current emphasis on wellness as the overall goal of health care has placed considerable pressure on the health care educational system (Kreitzer, 2009). The wellness emphasis has caused the health care educational system to focus its attention on treating the entire patient and to provide the patient with the maximum amount of choice, quality, convenience, and personal care while maintaining affordability. This means that medical schools must begin to train more physicians interested in performing primary care services and to direct these physicians to areas of the country that have been traditionally poorly served. In order to develop an overall system where preventive medicine is practiced so that more serious medical difficulties can be avoided a solid network of primary care providers is necessary. Ideally, these providers would be in the form of licensed physicians but a system that utilizes a hybrid mixture of physicians, physician assistants, and…
Cullen, T.J. (1997). The National Health Service Corps: Rural physician service and retention. Journal American Board Family Practice, 272-279.
Intitute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A new Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Kreitzer, M.J. (2009). Health Professions Education and Integrative Health Care. Washington, D.C.: Institute of Medicine Integrative Medicine and the Health of the Public.
Krystal Knight, e. a. (2010). Health Centers' Contributions to Training Tomorrow's Physicians. Washington, D.C.: Division of Public Policy and Research National Association of Community Health Centers, Inc.
Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales
The United Kingdom
statistics regarding claims
THE NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM
OBSTACLES TO DUE PROCESS
THE CASE FOR REFORM
THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
THE RISING COST OF LITIGATION
LORD WOOLF'S REFORMS
MORE COST CONTROLS
THE UNITED STATES
THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
TORT REFORM IN AMERICA
STATISTICS FOR ERROR, INJURY AND DEATH
THE CALL FOR REFORM IN 2003: A FAMILIAR REFRAIN
THE UNITED STATES SITUATION, IN SUMMARY
NEW ZEALAND CASE STUDIES
THE SWEDISH SCHEME
COMPARISON: WHICH SYSTEM IS BETTER?
FIRST: UNDERLYING DIFFERENCES
TALKING TORT: AMERICAN PECULIARITIES
AMERICANS CONSIDER NO-FAULT
BRITAIN CONSIDERS NO-FAULT
Appendix A THE UNITED KINGDOM
At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…
The Development of Modern Medicine
How did Greek and Galenic notions of health and disease differ from the work of Morgagni and the practitioners of French Clinical medicine?
The Greek and Galenic notions of health and disease differed from the Morgagni in that they viewed disease as being caused by an imbalance in the body. Galenic notions were intertwined with philosophy, which was aimed at answering the Socratic question "How should a person live a good life?" Therefore, the Galenic physicians were required to have mastered philosophy and this meant that they employed more of philosophy on their diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy. It is for this reason that most of the physicians believed that a disease was caused by an excess or deficiency in the body. The main goals for treatment were to restore the proper balance of the patient's body. The physicians were not meant to treat an ailment…
There is much irony to be found in the opinion that all illness begins in the mind, because many doctors and alternative healers make this claim but yet are unwilling to admit that psychic illnesses are real. The Japanese people struggle with an honest discussion of psychiatric illnesses, as they often come to their doctors with somatic complaints. Yes, they may have headaches, stomachaches, or other issues, but it is the goal of the doctor to determine what is causing these problems. Internal medicine doctors should look for physical reasons for these issues, but should also be open to the idea that no physical cause may be found (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001). If that is the case, it is possible that the person is depressed, and that mental health counseling can be beneficial (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2001). Until the stigma of mental health and depression can be removed, however, Japanese people who need treatment…
Dale, J., Sorour, E., & Milner, G. (2008). Do psychiatrists perform appropriate physical investigations for their patients? A review of current practices in a general psychiatric inpatient and outpatient setting. Journal of Mental Health, 17(3): 293 -- 298.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2001). Gender differences in depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10(5): 173 -- 176.
The issue of grey and black markets often arose as a result of the shortages of experienced health care personnel. The system could not adapt to a flexible environment as it was led by rigid official procedures and the mentality of the people who controlled it was commanding, their vision short-sighted and hardly beneficial in such a situation (Barr and Mark, 1996).
The breaking up of Soviet Union which brought crippling economic and political problems to the countries also aggravated the health care situation making it reach an all-time low. The collapse of the health care system ran by the government led to the belief that turning towards a market economy or more capitalistic notions and perceptions would have been a better idea. The competition in the private sector would have had improved efficiency and averted an inevitable collapse of the health care system in the Soviet Union. This transformation,…
Balabanova, D., Haerpfer, C., McKee, M., Pomerleau, J., Rose, R. (2004). Health service utilization in the former Soviet Union: evidence from eight countries. Health Services Research
Barr, D.A. And Mark G. (1996). The Current State of Health Care in the Former Soviet Union: Implications for Health Care Policy and Reform. American Journal of Public Health. 86, 3.
Lewis, M. (2002). Informal Health Payments in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union: Issues, Trends and Policy Implications. In Funding Health Care, European Observatory on Health Care Systems Series, edited by E. Mossialos, a. Dixon, J. Figueras, and J. Kutzin, pp. 184-205. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Mikesell, J.L. And Mullins, D.R. (2001), Reforming Budget Systems in Countries of the Former Soviet Union. Public Administration Review. 61. 5.
Allopathic approaches in medicine dominate how healthcare is administered in the United States in today's society. Osteopathy has made some gains in popularity over the decades but it is well established that the majority of today's doctors practice and employ an allopathic approach towards healing their patients. The purpose of this essay is to explore the possible differences in society if allopathic medicine did not develop as the dominant profession but was bifurcated into equal proportions of MDs and DOs.
Salzberg (2010) suggested that medical doctors and DO's are not the same thing and a certain deficiency of training is present in doctors of osteopathy. He wrote " are they equal? Well, not quite. Osteopathy started out as little more than pseudoscience, based on the mistaken idea that manipulations of the skeleton and muscles -- massage, basically -- would cure disease. It was invented by Andrew Still in…
Decker, F. (nd). Osteopathic Doctor Vs. MD. Chron. Viewed 23 July 2013. Retrieved from http://work.chron.com/osteopathic-doctor-vs.-md-1839.html
Peters, A. et al. (1999). Comparison of Osteopathic And Allopathic Medical Schools. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 1999 December. 14 (12); 730-739. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1496864/
Prep, V. (2012). How to Decide Between an MD and a DO. Us News and World Report, 23 Aug 2012. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/education/blogs/medical-school- admissions-doctor/2012/04/23/how-to-decide-between-an-md-and-a-do
Salzberg, S. (2010). Osteopaths Vs. Doctors. Forbes, 27 Oct 2010. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/sciencebiz/2010/10/27/osteopaths-versus-doctors/
Alterative ways a vague term a group herbs. Discuss alteratives beneficial, relation body systems support.
Alterative is a vague term assigned to an herb which acts as blood purifier, meaning that it gradually modifies the condition of the body in a positive manner. These plants have been use for centuries in dealing with toxicity of the blood, infections, or arthritis, skin eruptions, and even cancer. Moreover, this category of herbs also helps the body to assimilate nutrients and eliminate waste products of metabolism.
As in the case of administering any sort of medicine, the choice of alterative herb depends upon matching its system-specific properties with the condition which has to be treated. Therefore, red clover is known to effects on protein assimilation, and is thus employed in cancer, whereas Echinacea is used to fight against acid conditions in the bloodstream associated with a stagnation of lymphatic fluids. In addition, sarsaparilla…
Agarwal, K.C. (1996), Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med. Res. Rev., 16: 111 -- 124. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1128(199601)16:13.0.CO;2-5.
Pizzorno, J. E, Murray, M.T. (2013). Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone.
Tierra, M. (1998). The Way of Herbs. New York: Pocket Books.
A., eynolds, Y., odriguez, G., Camesano, T.A. (2008). Cranberry changes the physicochemical surface properties of E. coli and adhesion with uroepithelial cells. Colloids Surf B. Biointerfaces. 2008 Feb 26 [Epub ahead of print]. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18378432?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum
Mirkin, G. (2003). Acid/Alkaline Theory of Disease Is Nonsense. Quackwatch. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.quackwatch.org/01QuackeryelatedTopics/DSH/coral2.html
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Cranberry. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://nccam.nih.gov/health/cranberry/
Natural Standard esearch Collaboration (2006). Cranberry. MedlinePlus. etrieved April 6, 2008 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-cranberry.html
az, ., Chazan, B., Dan, M. (2004). Cranberry juice and urinary tract infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 May 15;38(10):1413-9. Epub 2004 Apr 26. etrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15156480?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_esultsPanel.Pubmed_VDocSum
Schmidt, D.. & Sobota, a.E. (1988). An examination of the anti-adherence activity of cranberry juice on urinary and nonurinary bacterial isolates. Microbios. 1988;55(224-225):173-81.
Sobota, a.E. (1984). Inhibition of bacterial adherence by cranberry juice: potential use for the treatment…
The Cranberry Institute. Emerging research. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.cranberryinstitute.org/emerging.htm
Duthie, S.J., Jenkinson, a.M., Crozier, a., Mullen, W., Pirie, L., Kyle, J., Yap, L.S., Christen, P., Duthie, G.G. (2006). The effects of cranberry juice consumption on antioxidant status and biomarkers relating to heart disease and cancer in healthy human volunteers. Eur J. Nutr. 2006 Mar;45(2):113-22. Epub 2005 Jul 20. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16032375?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA
Greenberg, J., Newmann, S.J. & Howell, a.B. (2005). Consumption of sweetened dried cranberries vs. unsweetened raisins for inhibition of uropathogenic Escherichia coli adhesion in human urine: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med. 2005 Oct;11(5):875-8. Retrieved April 5, 2008 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296921?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_Discovery_RA
Liu, Y., Black, M.A., Caron, L. & Camesano, T.A. (2006). Role of cranberry juice on molecular-scale surface characteristics and adhesion behavior of Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2006 Feb 5;93(2):297-305.
public health funding be directed towards complementary medicine?
An Argumentative Essay
Complementary medicine describes the use of therapies and herbal medicines which are not commonly practiced by doctors. The term itself refers to getting a medical treatment by doctor and simultaneously getting such therapies so both treatments work together to improve the patient's health. Many of the therapies or herbal medicines have been a part of our lives but most of us do not know that they are under the umbrella term of complementary medicine. Another term is attached to complementary medicine and that is alternative medicine. Alternative medicine is when we use only these herbal medicine or therapies as a treatment instead of conventional medicine, which is commonly practiced by medical. With the increase in preference of complementary medicine and the requests for it to be used more regularly by patients, it is gradually replacing the term…
Alameddine, M, Naja, F, Abdel-Salam, S, Maalouf, S & Matta, C. (2011, August 28). Stakeholders' perspectives on the regulation and integration of complementary and alternative medicine products in Lebanon: a qualitative study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11(71). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-71.
Clement, Y.N., Williams, A.F., Khan, K, Bernard, T, Bhola, S, Fortune, M, Medupe, O, Nagee, K & Seaforth, C.E. (2005, November 18). A gap between acceptance and knowledge of herbal remedies by physicians: The need for educational intervention. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2005, 5(20). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-5-20
Kwan, D, Boon, H.S, Hirschkorn, K, Welsh, S, Jurgens, T, Eccott, L, Heschuk, S, Griener, G.G. & Cohen-Kohler, J.C. (2008, July 14). Exploring consumer and pharmacist views on the professional role of the pharmacist with respect to natural health products: a study of focus groups. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8(40). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-40
Rhodes, P.J., Small, N, Ismail, H and Wright, J.P. (2008, March 20). The use of biomedicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy among people of South Asian origin in the UK. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2008, 8(7). doi:10.1186/1472-6882-8-7.
They have no formal oversight authority. Practices regarding informed consent are inconsistent. This poses a major concern for patient safety while using CAM.
Complimentary and alternative medicine (CAM) has been criticized for a lack of standards in the delivery of services. Holexa and Caspi (2005) found that this lack of standards extends into the practice of informed consent. Patients often do not have access to proper information during the decision-making process. This increases the potential for healthcare oversights and mistakes.
When one examines informed consent issues, it is found that they are similar to the issues addressed in conventional therapies. The Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute (2008) has developed a set of informed consent and ethics that it requires member practitioners to follow. An examination of this article reveals that standards require full disclosure of evidence-based research regarding the procedure. It requires confidentiality of the procedure, professional courtesy, peer review…
Ayurveda Healing Arts Institute. 2008. Ayurvedic Herbalists Code of Ethics. [online] Available at http://www.ayurveda-california.com/ayurvedic_distance_education_berkeley/Buddhist_five_precepts/American_Herbalist_Guild_ethics.htm [Accessed March 26, 2008]. Primary source. Found by Google search.
Caspi, O. & Holexa, J. 2005. Lack of standards in informed consent in complementary and alternative medicine. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 13 (2), 123-130. [online] Available at http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/extract/161/19/2288 [Accessed March 26, 2008]. Primary Source. Science Direct Database online.
Drieman, B. 2006. Informed Consent. Journal of the American Dental Association, 137 (3),288. [online] Available at http://jada.ada.org/cgi/content/full/137/3/288-a?maxtoshow=&HITS=10&hits=10&RESULTFORMAT=&searchid=1&FIRSTINDEX=0&minscore=5000&resourcetype=HWCIT.Secondary source. Found by searching "find similar articles in Jacobson article. [Accessed March 26, 2008].
Ernst, E. 2004. Balanced judgments on complementary/alternative medicine. Is informed consent necessary? Rheumatology 2004; 43 (5), 666. [online] Available at http://rheumatology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/43/5/666 [Accessed March 26, 2008]. Primary Source: found through Google search.
As a result of this impact, religious or spiritual organizations adopt various health beliefs that govern the well-being of their members. For instance, spirituality helps religious individuals to demonstrate less destructive behaviors like smoking, minimum stress, and improved satisfaction in life. An example of such organizations is Jews for Jesus, which has an estimated number of nearly 125,000 members across the globe. The organization is founded on three major core values i.e. being under God's Word and authority, honoring the Messiah, and relying on the Holy Spirit.
The other major tenet of this spiritual organization is that it focuses on Jewish evangelism, which is a Jewish mission that involves sharing Christ with the unsaved ("Core Values," 2011). One of the health beliefs of this organization is that physical health is needed for the spiritual well-being of an individual and to carry out the activities of spreading the message of Messiahship…
"Core Values." (2011, June 29). Jews for Jesus. Retrieved January 12, 2013, from http://www.jewsforjesus.org/about/who-we-are/corevalues
"What is Complementary and Alternative Medicine?" (2012, September 18). National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM). Retrieved from National Health Institutes -- U.S. Department of Health & Human Services website: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/whatiscam
popularity of Chinese Traditional acupuncture in the United Kingdom.
Acupuncture is a form of alternative medicine that treats people by insertion and handling of solid, usually thin needles into the body. Through its beginnings, acupuncture has been deep-rooted in the notions of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Its general theory is based on the idea that bodily functions are synchronized by the flow of an energy-like entity called qi. Acupuncture tries to right inequities in the flow of qi by stimulus of anatomical locations on or under the skin called acupuncture points, most of which are linked by channels known as meridians. Scientific study has not found any bodily or organic correlate of qi, meridians and acupuncture points, and some modern practitioners needle the body without using an academic structure, instead choosing points because of their tenderness to pressure (Acupuncture: An Introduction, 2011).
Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is becoming…
Acupuncture: An Introduction.2011. [online]. Available at:
BAcC responds to NICE guidelines re acupuncture for back pain on the NHS. 2009. [online].
Available at: http://www.acupuncture.org.uk/the-news/press-statements/312.html
The first reference to the practice of acupuncture is found in the 4,700-year-old Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine, the oldest medical textbook in the world, which was itself a chronicle of much earlier practices to treat circulation, pulse, and heart-related conditions (Singer, 2007). Acupuncturists can use as many as nine types of needles today, though only six are commonly used. These needles vary in length, width of shaft, and shape of head (Singer, 2007).
Preclinical studies have documented acupuncture's effects, but they have not been able to fully explain how acupuncture works within the framework of the estern system of medicine that is commonly practiced in the United States, as estern medicine does not believe in the concept of energy blockage or ying and yang. Various theories as to acupuncture's efficacy have been proposed, including the theory that it stimulates pain-killing endorphins, encourages the release of neurotransmitters that promote…
Acupuncture." (2007). NIH/NCAM Official Website. Page last modified 7 Aug 2007.
NCCAM, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 7 Sept 2007 at http://nccam.nih.gov/health/acupuncture/
National Institutes of Health and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative
Medicine. (2007). Official Webpage. Retrieved 7 Sept 2007 at http://nccam.nih.gov/
Choice # 2: I also made the decision to make citical thinking a pat of this couse, instead of meely focusing on the histoy o technical aspects. I want students to be able to fom thei own opinions about folk medicine based on what they have leaned.
Name and descibe one of you pojects stengths.
One of the main stengths of this poject is that it combines fun with fact. In othe wods, it is not just a dy look at the histoy of folk medicine, but it will include inteesting anecdotes and some bizae and funny ituals and pactices as well. I went this diection because I want to keep things inteesting and keep the students engaged.
Name and descibe one of my pojects weaknesses.
The main weakness of this poject is that it may be difficult to include all of the many aspects of folk medicine in detail…
Additional Source #3: UCLA's Online Archive of American Folk Medicine. Web. http://www.folkmed.ucla.edu/
This online searchable database will provides students with access to thousands of articles and texts related to the course topic.
Two Guest Speakers
Guest speaker #1: D.C. Jarvis, author of the book Folk Medicine. Having him as a guest speaker would be an excellent supplement to the book. It would also allow students to ask questions related to his book.
mith, CA & Crowther, CA (2009) Acupuncture for induction of labour, Cochrane Database of ystematic Reviews, 1, 1-26
The pregnant woman is induced when the pregnancy is becoming dangerous either for herself or for the unborn child. Generally done by drugs, mith and Crowther (2009) reviewed the effects of induction that has been impelled by acupuncture which has been historically used to help induce labor and to reduce labor pain. mith and Crowther (2009) conducted a review that included three trials involving 212 women. They concluded that clinical evidence of the effectiveness of acupuncture as applied to this situation is limited, although some qualitative small studies do suggest that women who receive acupuncture receive fewer methods of induction than do women who receive the standard care of induction.
This article is particularly significant given that we are living in a period when increasingly more people turn to holistic or alternative…
Ernst, E. (2002), A systematic review of systematic reviews of homeopathy, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 54 (6): 577 -- 82
Eysenck, HJ (1994) Systematic Reviews: Meta-analysis and its problems BMJ,309:789
Livestrong.com. How does massage therapy work?
Whether these are actually 'miracle cures' is, of course, debatable. However, anything that has few side effects and that benefits a person's health is worth looking into from a medicinal and a scientific standpoint. Many of the natural remedies do carry some potential risk for side effects, but most are not as serious as the side effects that are seen with many prescription medications today.
From work like Carper's there is a lot that can be learned. The most important thing to take away from Carper's book is that there is much more to medicine than what traditional, western doctors commonly work with. Another important point to take from reading this work is that the medicine that was used in the past should not just be tossed aside because there are new advances. The older, natural medicines often worked well for a lot of different conditions, and with that being…
Complementary and Alternative Medicine and CISM in Diverse Populations
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as often referred to as integrated medicine. This term refers to therapies used to enhance health that fall outside the realm of conventional or "western" medical therapies. Southern Medical therapies are often limited to pharmaceutical drugs, surgery, and other interventions that directly affect the body. CAM therapies can simply refer to culturally-based medical practices that are not part of mainstream medicine in the United States. ecently, the trend is toward using CAM therapies along with evidence-based Western medical practices. This research will explore CAM interventions for diverse populations within the scope of the CISM plan.
CAM Interventions for prevention of Stress and esilience
One of the most widely accepted areas for the use of CAM interventions is in the area of stress reduction, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, and other conditions that are common symptoms…
Ahn, A., Ngo-Metzger, Q., & Legedza, A. et al. (2006). Complementary and Alternative Medical
Therapy Use Among Chinese and Vietnamese Americans: Prevalence, Associated Factors, and Effects of Patient -- Clinician Communication. American Journal of Public Health. 96 (2), 647-653.
GoodTherapy.org (2011). Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Retrieved from http://www.goodtherapy.org/complementary-alternative-medicine.html
Kutch, M. (2010). Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Treating Mental Health Disorders. Retrieved from http://repository.lib.ncsu.edu/ir/bitstream/1840.16/6044/1/etd.pdf
These biologically-based practices of alternative medicine include the use of vitamins, herbs, and food supplements found in nature, chief among which are probiotics: the living, beneficial bacteria found in the intestines. These benign bacteria counteract the presences of the malignant variety, which often cause digestive problems if allowed to overpopulate. Probiotics can be obtained as supplements or found in certain foods, and have been known to prolong periods of remission in ulcerative colitis patients, with no sever side effects.
The use of fish oils is another alternative medicinal treatment for ulcerative colitis. Fish oils contain omega-3 fatty acids, which are known for their anti-inflammatory properties (Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, 2011). Omega 3 fatty acids are found in certain green vegetables and in nuts, salmon, sardines and herring, as well as in oral supplemental form and are used to treat intestinal inflammation when ulcerative colitis is active. Aloe Vera…
1. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America. (2011). Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved March 15, 2011, from http://www.ccfa.org/frameviewer/?url=/media/pdf/FactSheets/CAM.pdf
2. Life Extension. (2011).Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.lef.org/protocols/gastrointestinal/inflammatory_bowel_disease_01.htm
3. National Digestive Diseases Clearinghouse. (2006) Ulcerative Colitis. Retrieved March 16, 2011 from http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/colitis/
4. Street, Erin. (2010, December). Nutritional Therapy for Ulcerative Colitis. Livestrong.com Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/335380-nutritional-therapy-for-ulcerative-colitis/
Salvia Officinalis a Literature eview
Introduction and History of Use
Salvia officinalis, or sage, is also called garden sage or common sage. It is a perennial, evergreen shrub (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). The leaves are grayish in color, and the flowers are purple or blue (Watters, 1901). Stems are woody, and the plant is native to the Mediterranean (Clebsch & Barner, 2003). However, it has now been naturalized in a number of places throughout the world. Its history is long, mostly detailing both culinary and medicinal uses. Modern times have also seen its popularity rise as an ornamental garden plant (Kintzios, 2000). There are many other species that also carry the common name "sage." Some are related and some are not. Sage was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus, and has been grown for centuries (Sutton, 2004). Its healing properties are impressive, and it is also used in the…
Akhondzadeh, S., Noroozian, M., Mohammadi, M., Ohadinia, S., Jamshidi, A.H., & Khani, M. (2003). Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacological Therapy, 28(1): 53 -- 9.
Clebsch, B. & Barner, C.D. (2003). The New Book of Salvias. NY: Timber Press.
Dos Santos-Neto, L.L, De, V., Toledo, M, Medeiros-Souza, P, & De Souza, G. (2006). The use of herbal medicine in Alzheimer's disease -- a systematic review. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM 3(4): 441 -- 5.
Iuvone, T., De Filippis, D., Esposito, G., D'Amico, A., & Izzo, A. (2006). The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 317(3): 1143 -- 9.
However, this at least provides patients with an introduction to the therapy, and they can weigh the costs of the treatment against the improvement in their health. Some may find certain types of CAM, such as yoga, available within their health clubs or other affordable settings.
3. How might technology help you meet your goal?
A number of major research hospitals, such as New York-Presbyterian Hospital at Columbia University, now offer CAM within the hospital environment. The hospital offers nutritional, exercise, and wellness counseling. Patients can learn about breathing techniques and the use of herbs to combat symptoms. By conducting research on CAM within the framework of a hospital, the institution can make sure that the therapies are undertaken in a safe and supervised manner. More and more people are turning to CAM as a way to cope with illness and may do so whether their hospital formally encourages them…
Parker-Pope, Tara. (2002, July 23). Doctors study the heath benefits of yoga. The Wall Street
Journal. Retrieved March 29, 2011 at http://www.hvk.org/articles/0702/212.html
Varney, Sarah. (2011, March 28). Alexander Technique: A balm for back pain?
NPR. Retrieved March 29, 2011 at http://www.npr.org/2011/03/28/134861319/alexander-technique-a-balm-for-back-pain
There are many estern doctors who do not accept the traditional views and system of acupuncture but they have realized that it has certain effective aspects. estern doctors have therefore adapted acupuncture and used it as a way of regulating the nervous as well as the endocrine systems. There has also been widespread recognition of the painkilling aspects of acupuncture. hile there is still a general resistance to the deeper implications and world -view that acupuncture represents, yet there is no doubt that it is having an increasing impact on estern forms of medicine and healing praxis.
Acupuncture. May 4, 2007. http://skepdic.com/acupunc.html
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: General Information. May 4, 2007. http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/acu_info/generalinfo.html
Definition of Allopathic. May 6, 2007. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612
Frequently asked questions. May 4, 2007. http://www.markgoulding.com/gpage.html
Pulse Diagnosis. May 4, 2007. http://www.answers.com/topic/pulse-diagnosis
The Fairbourne Clinic. May 4, 2007. http://www.fairbourneclinic.co.uk/therapies/acupuncture-Newbury-Berkshire.htm
Traditional Chinese Medicine: NHS. May 4, 2007. http://www.nhsdirectory.org/default.aspx?page=TCM&t=y…
Acupuncture. May 4, 2007. http://skepdic.com/acupunc.html
American Academy of Medical Acupuncture: General Information. May 4, 2007. http://www.medicalacupuncture.org/acu_info/generalinfo.html
Definition of Allopathic. May 6, 2007. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612
Frequently asked questions. May 4, 2007. http://www.markgoulding.com/gpage.html
The amygdale manages our emotional response to an aroma. The memory and recognition of smell takes place in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is also where chemicals in an aroma trigger our unique repository of learned memories..." (Buckle, 2001).
Though there hasn't been much research, and most studies that have been done were small sample sizes, the healing qualities of aromatherapy look very promising. In 2005, Japanese researchers found that aromatherapy massage using lavender-based products reduced anxiety and stress and was helpful to the immune system. It was also noted that patients showed a considerable increase in lymphocytes (protective blood cells), while showing a decrease in depression.
Another study discovered that the use of aromatherapy after an operation lessoned the patient's feeling of nausea and vomiting. Antiemetics (drugs used to prevent nausea and vomiting) were reduced by almost 50% (Milivojevic, 2006). In small studies conducted in nursing homes, aromatherapy has indicated…
Archer, Shirley (2003). Aromatherapy Fights Dementia. The Futurist, 2. This article gives a brief overview of the effects of aromatherapy on patients with dementia.
Buckle, Jane (2001). Aromatherapy and Diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum, 124. This article summarizes the process of how aromatherapy works, and provides a brief overview of the effects of aromatherapy on diabetic patients.
Fowler, Newton (2006). Complementary and alternative therapies: the nurse's role. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing, 261. This article analyzes the nurse's role in integrating CAM for the purpose of increasing the quality and quantity of life among patients. It also supplies a brief overview of the concepts of CAM as well as case studies and statistical analysis.
Milivojevic, J., (2006). Just the essentials: you know they smell good, but are there any benefits to incorporating essential oils into your practice? Massage Therapy Journal, 64. This article explores the benefits of incorporating essential oil aromatherapy massage into traditional medical practice. It reviews several case studies and defines aromatherapy.
Movement: Feldenkrais Method
The Feldenkrais Method® of somatic education considers itself to be an educationally-based therapy, as distinct from massage. According to the official website of the trademarked method, its use "is a distinct profession based on the principles spelled out in the International Feldenkrais® Standards of Practice" (FGNA position on regulation, 2011, Official Website). The Method is self-regulated, although regulating an educational practice, even one based in movement, could prove unwieldy given how many other movement-based therapies exist that are self-policed like yoga, Pilates, the Alexander technique.
Whole medical system: Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).
Most states require national board certification for TCM practitioners if they are not licensed physicians. "Practitioners must complete at least three years full-time schooling" (Is TMC egulated, 2011, University of Minnesota). Candidates "must complete at least 2,625 hours (about 4 years of full-time study) of didactic and clinic coursework in both acupuncture and Chinese herbal…
FGNA position on regulation. (2011). Feldenkrais Method. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at http://www.feldenkrais.com/profession/fgna_position_on_regulation/
Is TMC regulated? (2011). Taking charge of our health. University of Minnesota.
Retrieved January 11, 2011 at http://takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/explore-healing-practices/what-traditional-chinese-medicine/-tcm-regulated
Scientific acupuncture clinic center. (2011). Official Webpage. Retrieved January 11, 2011 at http://www.scientificacupuncture.com/usregulation.htm
WHAT WORKS EST
Adherence Intervention for Afro-Caribbeans
Recent improvements on prescription medications are beneficial only if patients adhere to them faithfully. Non-adherence is common and results in adverse conditions (Ho et al., 2009). This is a problem both to patients and heir care providers as well as the healthcare system itself. The solution consists of identifying the causes and motivations of non-adherence and the design and implementation of better interventions to improve adherence (Ho et al.). The following studies present and suggest more effective interventions for a variety of health conditions among Afro-Caribbean people who have been reported to have a high level of non-adherence to therapy.
Many health providers contend that more effective interventions in reducing risks for diseases, especially HIV / AIDS, through greater adherence need to culturally conform to the specific culture of the subject population (Archibald, 2011). This study used a…
Adams, O.P. And Carter, A.O. (2010). Diabetes and hypertension guidelines and the primary health care practitioners in Barbados: knowledge, attitudes, practices and barriers -- a focus group study. Vol 11 # 96, BMC Family Practice: BioMed Central.
Retrieved on February 1, 2013 from http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2296/11/96
Archibald, C. (2011). Cultural tailoring for an Afro-Caribbean community: a naturalistic approach. Vol 18 # 4, Journal of Cultural Divers: Pubmed. Retrieved on January 27,
2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3408883
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet thus correspond to the seven chakras located along the spinal column." (Fuller 242) Crystal therapy is therefore based on the control and manipulation of these energies so that there is the "correct" or appropriate and balanced amount of this energy in each of the chakras.
The most touted of New Age healing techniques has been the use of crystals. Enthusiasts claim that because rock crystal is almost entirely devoid of color, it is an almost perfect capacitor of divine white light. Explanations of exactly how crystals wield their healing powers vary from practitioner to practitioner. Some maintain that the unique properties of crystals make them excellent receptors of metaphysical energies.
rief history of crystal therapy
As has already been mentioned, the history of this form of therapy is to be found in many historical documents and in myths, stories and…
Albanese, Catherine L. "Chapter 6 the Magical Staff: Quantum Healing in the New Age." Perspectives on the New Age / . Ed. James R. Lewis and J. Gordon Melton. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992. 68-84. Questia. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102478457 .
Bachelor B. Alternative therapies. 11 Mar. 2007. http://www.barcelona- metropolitan.com/Article.aspx?TabID=2&MenuID=8&ArticleID=146
Blanchard a. Alternative medicine and herbal use among university students. Journal of American College Health. 2006. 11 Mar. 2007. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-155567732.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108566203
Bix, Amy Sue. "Engendering Alternatives." The Politics of Healing: Histories of Alternative Medicine in Twentieth-Century North America. Ed. Robert D. Johnston. New York: Routledge, 2004. 153-180. Questia. 11 Mar. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108566390 .
The largest difference exists in the basis of the Western holistic treatment and the basis of Ayurveda. Western holistic treatments are based on TCM or 'Traditional Chinese Medicine'. The key components of TCM are as follows:
Qi (pronounced like "chee") - this is the vital energy necessary for life (blood, body fluid)
Zang-Fu - the internal organs; and Jing-Luo: - this governs the meridian and collateral systems of the body. (rown, 2001)
Practitioners of TCM also used a system referred to as "The Eight Principles" which are used to categorize illness or disease. These eight principles are comprised of "four pairs of polarities, including:
deficiency/excess; and Yin/Yang." (rown, 2001)
These principles are stated to determine:
1) Disease location;
2) the nature of imbalance;
3) the presence of a pathological (disease) factors; and 4) the strength of the body's own energies. (rown, 2001)
Summary and Conclusion
Ayurvedic medicine is…
Brown, Liz (2001) East Meets West and Western Medicine Takes a Back Seat: Why Ayurvedic and Chinese Medicines are at the Core of All That's Right with Holistic Healing Today. Better Nutrition Journal. December 2001. Online available at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FKA/is_12_63/ai_83076770/print .
Cooper, Edwin L. (2004) 12th International Congress of Oriental Medicine. Oriental Medicine and Biotechnology in the Post-Genomic Era - WHO's Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002 Date: November 6-9, 2003. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine Journal. 2004 1(1):103-106 Oxford University Press.
Healing Choices (2007) Guide to Complementary and Alternative Healthcare. Online available at http://www.healingchoicesonline.com/ .
Herlihy, John a. (2003) the Mystery and the Miracle Ayurveda. 13 April 2003. AuthorsDen.com. Online available at http://www.authorsden.com/visit/viewShortStory.asp?AuthorID=1363&id=7866 .
The office and administrative expenses would remain constant even to that point, as would the insurance expense.
Exhibit B: Cash Flow Statement, Year Two
At this point, the business is earning a healthy return and Mr. Ahn is receiving will be able to bring in a reasonable salary. The nature of the business may well change at this point. At the maximum revenue of $144,000 per year the pretax profit would be $63,600. As a result, it is likely that a clinic will be formed with other practitioners in order to minimize expenses and increase profitability.
e did not include taxes in our cash flow examples because the company is going to be set up as a sole proprietorship. This means that the income from the company will be rolled into the income for Mr. Ahn, as well as his liabilities. Mr. Ahn's personal expenses are therefore not included in…
No author (2007). Traditional Chinese Medicine. Alternative Medicine Foundation. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.amfoundation.org/tcm.htm
No author (2005). Regulation of TCM in the United States. Medscape Today. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/511877_7
No author (2008). HIV / AIDS, the U.S.-China Partnership for Public Health at Work, and Traditional Chinese Medicine in the U.S. Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.hhs.gov/news/facts/chinahiv.html
Census information from U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
Nursing Process to Deliver
Application of the Nursing Process to Deliver Culturally Competent Care: Malay culture
Each society has devised its own methodology of dealing with diseases. As per the old Manuscript MSS1292 KitabTib (Book of Healing) (a 19th century Malay manuscript), people of Malay have successful and strong healing practices which work wonderfully well in case of integrative and complementary medicines (Baharuddin & Sidik, 2010). An analytical approach is required to study the contents of the Malay manuscript for understanding it deeply. As per the research, there are three kinds of methods in case of healing diseases (Baharuddin & Sidik, 2010). These are as follows:
Wafak (written symbols)
Quranic verses for healing purposes and offering respect to prophet (P.B.U.H)
It is quite evident that these traditional practices were ecological and holistic in origin, which is stressed upon even today (Baharuddin & Sidik, 2010).
The roots of…
Baharuddin, A., & Sidik, R. (2010). The Case of Malay Manuscript of the 19th Century. Traditional Healing In Malay Culture:, 1-7.
Farooqui, M. (2013).The Current Situation and Future Direction of Traditional and Complementary Medicine (T&CM) in Malaysian Health Care System. Alternative and Integrative Medicine, 1(1), 1.
Ghani, R., & Hamid, M. (2011).Traditional and Complementary Medicine Programme in Malaysia. Traditional and Complementary Medicine, 1-6.
Jamal, A. (2006). An overview of scientific and technological progress. Malay Traditional Medicine, 37-46.
The articles on the website do feature articles on classified subcategories of depression such as bipolarity, major depression, minor depression, and psychotic depression and information about drug treatments and side effects that are legitimately accepted by the medical community.
A website should review CAM and conventional medicine in the same terms
Look for slanted advice [Image: Display picture of editorial on Depression website' UL: http://www.holisticonline.com/emedies/Depression/dep_editorial.htm]
Speaker's Notes: The website does not claim that alternative treatments should be used to replace conventional medicine. One editorial written by Dr. Matthews (and it is clearly marked as an editorial opinion, not as fact) reads: "There has been tremendous progress made in the past years in understanding how the brain works. One of the outcomes of this research is that we now understand that depression may be due to the decreased activity of the serotenergic pathways in the brain. (This…
Benedetti, Jo-Ann. (2010). Evaluating Health Web Sites. From snake oil to penicillin:
Evaluating consumer health information on the Internet. NN/LM (National Networks of Libraries of Medicine. Retrieved January 8, 2011 at http://nnlm.gov/outreach/consumer/evalsite.html
Matthews, J. (2010). Editorial. Depression. Holistic Health. Retrieved January 8, 2011 at http://www.holisticonline.com/Remedies/Depression/dep_editorial.htm
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (2010). Depression. Holistic Health. Retrieved January 8, 2011 at http://www.holisticonline.com/Remedies/Depression/dep_antidepressant-SSRI.htm
("St. John's ort," 2006, NCAM: National Council of Alternative Medicine)
Research, at present, is inconclusive. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) conducted a 3-year study of 336 patients with major depression of moderate severity. The study randomly assigned patients to an 8-week trial. One-third of patients received a uniform dose of St. John's ort, another third a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) commonly prescribed for depression, and the final group received a placebo. The study participants who responded positively were followed for an additional 18 weeks. At the end of the first phase of the study, participants were measured on two scales, one for depression and one for overall functioning. There was no significant difference in rate of response for depression, but the scale for overall functioning was better for the antidepressant than for either St. John's ort or placebo. ("Depression," 2000, National Institute of Health)
Another study, described in…
Depression." (2006) Healthy Place. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.healthyplace.com/Communities/depression/causes.asp
Depression." (2000) National Institute of Health. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depression.cfm
Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group."(2002). Journal of the American Medical
Association. 287(14): 1807-1814. Retrieved 23 Oct 2006 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=11939866&query_hl=2
Efforts to Achieve Healthy Aging
Institute of Chinese Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, HKSA.
Abstract: Longevity is a blessing as long as good health is not lost. However, the tendency to have a decline on normal physiological activities is inevitable because of the natural processes of degeneration at all levels: molecular, cellular and organic. Hence, the elderly people frequently suffer from cardiovascular problems and skeletal deteriorations that gradually develop to disabilities. Awareness of factors leading to unhealthy aging has led to the formation of different professional groups that aim at the maintenance of health of aging community. The approach tends to be target orientated for the European and US groups, aiming at hormonal replacements and detoxification. In contrast, the oriental groups have been keeping their traditional belief of prevention and internal balance, using nutritional arrangements and non-strenuous exercise as means of maintaining health.
Keywords: chinese medicine,…
Abreu, M.T., Fukata, M. and Arditi, M. 2005. T.L.R. Signalling in the gut
in Health and Disease. J. Immunol., 174(8):4453 - 60.
Benno, Y., Shiragami, N., Uchida, K. et al. 1986. Effect of Moxalactum on Human Fecal Microflora. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.,
29(1):175 - 8.
Buckwalter, J.A., Heckman, J.D. and Petrie, D.P. 2003. Aging of the North American Population: New challenges for orthopaedics. J. Bone Joint Surg. Am., 85-A(4):748 - 58.
Census and Statistics Department, The Government of Hong Kong Special
Administrative Region. 2007. Style Guide [online]. Accessed 23 June
2008. URL: http://www.censtatd.gov.hk/hongkongstatistics/
Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours. The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy (Robinson 1999).
There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine (Robinson 1999). ecause it is often linked with food allergies and intolerances, the identification and elimination of the offending foods can contain or decrease the frequency of the attacks. Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way. iofeedback training may also help prevent some vascular changes when an attack begins by increasing the flow of blood to the extremities. The patient must put the lights down low, put his…
Cottrell, C.K. et al. (2002). Perceptions and Needs of Patients with Migraine. Health and Fitness. Journal of Family Practice. http://www.findarticles.com/articles/p/mi_m 6689/is_2_51/ai_83551751' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Nusing poblem 1: May's pain must be contained so she does not injue heself.
Because childen cannot always expess thei sensations of pain, thei pain may go unnoticed until it becomes sevee and fightening.
Nusing poblem 2: Vomiting and the possibility of choking.
Anxiety and pain can cause childen to vomit, making teatment of pain and administeing pope nutition difficult.
Nusing poblem 3: May is attempting to emove he oxygen mask.
A lack of knowledge on the pat of the child as to why cetain teatments ae administeed can esult in noncompliance.
Nusing poblem 4: The need fo social suppot when May's mothe is not pesent.
The unfamiliaity of the hospital envionment is exacebated by May's lack of paental cae.
Diagnosis 1: Pain management
Outcome: The FLACC: a behavioual scale fo scoing postopeative pain in young childen that can be helpful in detemining how to teat…
Almond, C. (1998). Children are not little adults. Australian Nursing Journal, 6(3), 27 -- 30.
Bruce, E., & Franck, L. (2000). Self-administered nitrous oxide (Entonox () for the management of procedural pain. Paediatric Nursing, 12(7), 15 -- 19.
Manworren R. & Hynan L.S (2003) Clinical validation of FLACC: preverbal patient pain scale. Paediatric Nursing 29(2):140-146.
McInerney, M. (2000). Paediatric pain. Pulse Information Sheet of Royal College of Nursing,
Another clinical study was done on the effectiveness of Kava extract for treating anxiety. This study analysis was aimed at assessing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of Kava extract as a symptomatic treatment for anxiety. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of oral Kava extract for the treatment of anxiety were analyzed. Superiority of Kava extract over placebo was suggested by all seven reviewed trials. The meta-analysis of three trials suggests a significant difference in the reduction of the total score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for anxiety in favor of Kava extract. So, according to the study, Kava extract is an herbal treatment option for anxiety that is worthy of consideration (Pittler & Ernst, 2000).
Kava -- is truly one of the strongest anti-anxiety herbs in the world. Kava also has one of the best safety profiles of any anti-anxiety / anti-depression herb (orne, 2003).
Other Natural Herbs
Borne, J.V. (2003, Sept 15). Treating depression. Real solutions. Retrieved May 18, 2009, from Insight Journal: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/wellness_concerns/community_depression/treating_depression.php
Pittler, M., & Ernst, E. (2000). Efficacy of kava extract for treating anxiety. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 84-89.
Woelk, H. (2000). Comparison of st. john's wort and imipramine for treating depression: randomized controlled trial. BMJ, 321:536-539.
Those who suffer from it become red in the face, with their skin extremely agitated. Moreover, "they may have flushing of the face, when they are hot, drink alcohol or hot drinks, or eat spicy foods. This flushing causes the face to appear red" (AZ Network, 2013). Blood vessels under the skin often become visible along with the flush of redness experienced by rosacea sufferers. These symptoms tend to get worse with time, with multiple cyclical outbreaks.
A number of treatments exist to try to counter act the effects of rosacea. Here, the research suggests that "you can help keep rosacea under control by keeping a record of things that cause it to flare up. Try to avoid or limit these triggers as much as you can" (AZ Network, 2013). Understanding what triggers a flare up can be crucial in helping to avoid them. Yet, medical treatments also prove effective,…
AZ Network. (2013). Rosacea: Facial redness. News Medical Net. Web. http://www.news-medical.net/health/Rosacea-Facial-Redness.aspx
Clinical Reference Systems. (2004). Rosacea. Columbia University. Web. http://www.cumc.columbia.edu/student/health/pdf/R-S/Rosacea.pdf
Cole, Gary W. & Stoppler, Melissa Conrad. (2012). Rosacea. EMedicine Health. Web. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/rosacea/article_em.htm
MacKenzie, Debora. (2012). Rosacea mat be caused by mite feces in your pores. New Scientist. Web. http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn22227-rosacea-may-be-caused-by-mite-faeces-in-your-pores.htmlt
Credibility and eliability of Sources of CAM Information:
The identification of the most suitable Complementary and Alternative Medicine therapy to help in treatment of the patient's symptoms is a process that is based on extensive research. The increased use of CAM therapy in the American health care system provides clinicians with a new responsibility of becoming informed regarding the suitability, safety, and effectiveness of various healing procedures that are largely unfamiliar. The research process used to develop the most suitable CAM therapy involves obtaining information based on opinions rather than facts. Actually, there is plenty of research on CAM therapies that are not usually published in the established American medical journals or presented based on the traditions of standard medical research. Therefore, since the health care system requires factual information instead of opinions, clinicians face the need to ensure the credibility and reliability of the sources of Complementary and Alternative…
"Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Evaluate Treatment Claims." (2011, October 22).
Mayo Clinic -- Consumer Health. Retrieved September 23, 2013, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/alternative-medicine/SA00078
"Evaluating Information Sources for Complementary and Alternative Health Care." (2004).
Program on Integrative Medicine. Retrieved from Department of Physical Medicine -- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill website: http://www.med.unc.edu/phyrehab/pim/files/Evaluating.pdf