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How Presidents can influence the policymaking process to suit their needs
constitution has created the executive branch and the executive power vested in the hands of the president. In fact, the president cannot act in isolation in running the executive branch. The president depends on the executive office staff and agencies like office of management and council of economic advisors and the policy development offices like the National Security Council. Further, the president selects individual cabinet members who lead the cabinet departments and other non-cabinet-level agencies. All these are mandated to interpret and implement laws passed by congress. All these departments act as advisors, formulating policies, and identifying issues for presidential consideration. In theory, all these divisions of the executive branch function in furthering the goals set by the president.
The presidents are the heads of the federal executive branch. As strong as this might sound,…
Shull, S.A. (2012). Presidential policymaking: An end-of-century assessment. Armonk, NY [u.a.: Sharpe.
Mitchell, D. (2010). Making foreign policy: Presidential management of the decision-making process. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Riley, D.D., & Brophy-Baermann, B.E. (2006). Bureaucracy and the policy process: Keeping the promises. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.
Schraeder, P.J. (2008). United States foreign policy toward Africa: Incrementalism, crisis and change. Cambridge u.a: Cambridge Univ. Press.
The second section examines the processes of the Constitutional Convention, the rectification of the weak Articles of Confederation, the ratification of the new Constitution, and the Washington and Jeffersonian Administrations. The first presidents had to try to make sense of the wording of the new document and put the presidency's ideals into practice. The third section examines the evolving role of presidents from Jackson to the present and how they defined the role in relationship to the legislative and judicial branches, public opinion, historical events, and foreign affairs.
McDonald notes that although Democrats today tend to be most critical of so-called imperially styled presidents, it was Republicans who decried the increasingly powerful office of the presidency during the Roosevelt and Johnson administrations, and only later did the two parties flip-flop, after Nixon created what would later be called the imperial presidency by Democrats. This suggests that there is less of…
By comparison, Adams "never accepted the necessity of parties, platforms, compromise, and cooperation. Believing that the president should remain above partisan politics he was incapable of manipulating support for his policies or of putting together a congressional majority in support of his initiatives. Above all, John Adams had not accepted the presidency to serve special interest. His role, as he saw it, was not to be guided by the people so much as it was to educate and guide them" (Urofsky, 2000). This aspect was crucial for the presidency of Adams because it left him with less support among the population and in the Congress, reason for which his initiatives were not considered either priority or a rule.
One of the most important achievements of the Adams administration was the creation of the United States Navy in cooperation with the French state. At the same time though, during Adam's presidency,…
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Urofsky, Melvin. American Presidents. New York: Garland Publishing, 2000.
White House. Presidents. N.d. internet, http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson
By Chapter 11 McDonald begins discussing how presidents from ashington on dealt with the law based on the Constitution. And while federal law gradually gave way to state and local laws, because some issues and problems were simply easier to deal with at the local and regional level, it was also true that presidents and their attorneys general had problems enforcing what federal laws did require federal jurisdiction. Part of this problem, McDonald write on page 285, was "the penchant of Congress to enact bad legislation"; bills that were well intentioned turned out to be "poorly crafted," or plainly impossible to enforce. The author gives examples of laws that attempted to legislate morality, that didn't work; the "Mann Act," which made it a federal crime to "transport a female across state lines for 'immoral purposes'"; and the Volstead Act (prohibition), which attempted to ban the sale or production of booze.…
McDonald, Forrest. (1994). The American Presidency: An Intellectual History. Lawrence, KS:
At the same time it was the fatal mistake that provoked and legitimized resistance to the revolutionary presidency." The Watergate scandal and the events leading to it were, from the perspective of the components mentioned above, the manifestation of both an imperial presidency visible in the way in which Nixon tackled the issue of Vietnam, and a revolutionary presidency, as the resignation of the president marked the beginning of a new period in the history of the presidential administrations.
The example of the Vietnam War is probably one of the most representatives for the issue under discussion, the idea of imperial presidency. In this sense, the author considers the right of Nixon to wage war against the authorization of the Congress. The main justification for the continuation of the war in Vietnam was the title of the president as Commander in Chief
Overall, the perspective offered by the book is…
McDonald, Forrest. The American Presidency: An Intellectual History. Lawrance: University Press of Kansas, 1994.
Rudalevige, Andrew. The New Imperial Presidency: Renewing Presidential Power after Watergate. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2005.
Schlesinger, Arthur Jr. The Imperial Presidency. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973
Arthur Jr. Schlesinger, the Imperial Presidency. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973), 299
McDonald also covers the evolution of the presidency, noting that the "level of expectation has been accelerated over the years by developments in the technology and communications" (278). In addition, the perception of the president has changed as well. As a society, we come to expect more from our president. In addition, the current-day president faces more perils than the president did one hundred years ago.
McDonald also delves into the responsibilities of the president, from executing laws to how he handles his administration. A close observation of the how the administration works allows us to see how things have evolved over decades. McDonald describes a paralysis that evolved over years regarding Congress and how it interacts with the president. He asserts that the "history of the presidency in the twentieth century has been a history of presidents' attempts to gain control of the sprawling federal bureaucracy" (329).
McDonald, Forrest. The American Presidency: An Intellectual History. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1994.
The Despotism of Federalism Why Hamilton was Wrong
Stephen Knott opens his book by quoting Alexander Hamilton, the original promoter of despotism, who, via The Federalist Papers, advocated for a strong central government—like that which the American Revolutionaries had just opposed in the Revolutionary War. It is ironic because, in that opening quote, Hamilton is talking about the risk of despotism, a risk which he made all but certain would become a real problem, as the Anti-Federalists pointed out. Jefferson was one of these, and Jefferson is criticized in the book as a populist president who thought he knew better than the framers of the Constitution. It is my argument that he did know better and that the framers of the Constitution—particularly Hamilton—were power-hungry centrists craving the moment when they themselves could demonstrate the kind of despotism they lamented in their writings. Such despotism is seen all throughout the history…
Knott, Stephen. The Lost Soul of the American Presidency. University of Kansas Press, 2019.
Kennedy, would be gunned down in Dallas only a few years later. Yet he insightfully points out that the president, in every historical era, has to deal with the lunatic fringes as well as the most well structured verbal and political offensive. ossiter writes, "The American Presidency is not universally admired. Most of us may think of it as a choice instrument of constitutional government, but there are loud dissenters in this country, especially in deep right field, and sharp dissenters abroad, especially in those happy lands where the parliamentary system is counted a success. If the opinions of the former are generally too mixed up with politics to demand serious attentions, the opinion of the latter deserve a hearing and rebuttal."
The assassination of John Kennedy and the right wing fervor over the current president's actions and policy tie well together using the framework that ossiter employs to examine…
Rossiter's work is very comprehensive and thorough, and his wit and wisdom relative to the greatest office in the land is quite insightful and refreshing. Though this book was written many decades ago, the author's understanding of the subject matter is so precise and thorough that the book is still very relevant today, some fifty years later. The dichotomies between many of the book's topics and the linking of the seemingly most unrelated issues and presidential personalities.
Rossiter, Clinton. The American Presidency. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, 1987. pp. 2-3.
Rossiter, Clinton. The American Presidency. Johns Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, 1987. pp. 36.
American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.
THE IMPACT OF…
Agar, Herbert. The People's Choice, from Washington to Harding: A Study in Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933.
Kane, Joseph Nashan. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data. New York H.W. Wilson Co., 1959.
Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
Smith, Abbot Emerson. James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career. New York: Wilson-Erickson, Incorporated, 1937.
American Territorial Expansion: The Louisiana Purchase
American territorial expansion was the top priority of ashington DC for every decade of the 19th century, including the Civil ar years. The new territory all came to Americans through treaties or conquest, and thus promoted the isolationist "Manifest Destiny" prerogative of strengthening the American continent. The earliest and largest territorial expansion of the 19th century was the Louisiana Purchase, doubling the size of the American states. The Louisiana Purchase was made with the short-term bolstering of Thomas Jefferson's government in the near-term, yet with deep concerns for the security of the new land and how and who should settle the land in the long-term.
The Louisiana Purchase was not a decision taken lightly by then President Thomas Jefferson, who felt that it would be difficult for the young America to take full possession of the territory, and thus sign the country…
1803, and the United States. "Louisiana Purchase." Gateway New Orleans: N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
Jefferson, Thomas. "Treaty with France (Louisiana Purchase). 1909-14. American Historical Documents, 1000-1904. The Harvard Classics." Bartleby.com: Great Books Online -- Quotes, Poems, Novels, Classics and hundreds more. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"Louisiana: European Explorations and the Louisiana Purchase - The Louisiana Purchase (American Memory from the Library of Congress)." American Memory from the Library of Congress - Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
"The Louisiana Purchase -- Thomas Jefferson's Monticello." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Jan. 2012. .
His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party. He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from 1837 to 1841. He was married to Hannah, and he died in 1862. His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician." His accomplishments included regulating banks and federal funds, and creating an independent treasury. He is most remembered for the Panic of 1837, and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in 1841 and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler. He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from 1841 to 1845. He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in 1862. His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe." His accomplishments included annexing Texas and…
Editors. "Biographies." Vice-Presidents.com. 2006. 22. Sept. 2006. http://www.vicepresidents.com/Biography%202006.htm
Editors. "The Presidents of the United States." WhiteHouse.gov. 2006. 22 Sept. 2006. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/index2.html
Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.
Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…
Department of Homeland Security. (2003). "Executive Order (EO-13284): Amendment of Executive Orders, and Other Actions, in Connection with the Establishment of the Department of Homeland Security." Retrieved March 11, 2012, from http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/press_release_0072.shtm.
Executive Order 9066. "The President Authorizes Japanese Relocation." Retrieved March 12,
2012, from http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5154 .
FindLaw. "Williams v. State of North Carolina, 317 U.S. 287 (1942)." Retrieved March 12,
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
Other Congressional Democrats too are withdrawing their support of the president, including Senator Paul Kirk, Jr. Of Massachusetts. Health care reform too has seen a parting of the ways for some Democrats and the president.
Health care reform was one of the primary issues President Obama focused on during his campaign. The historic vote in the House of epresentatives brought him one step closer to seeing this reform come to fruition. However, the vote revealed a significant decline in the president's support. Whereas all but one epublican voted for the bill, almost 20% of Democrats voted against Obama's flagship piece of legislation, allowing to pass by a very slim 220-215 vote ("Final vote," 2009). The Senate has yet to vote on the bill, but with a similar composition as the House, the vote is certainly to be close. Immigration reform too was a topic Obama espoused to voters along the…
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA history). (2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.nyse.tv/dow-jones-industrial-average-history-djia.htm .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (10 Oct 2002). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2002/roll455.xml .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (7 Nov 2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll887.xml .
Groen, J. & Polivka, A. (Mar 2008). Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Monthly Labor Review Online, 131(3). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/03/art3exc.htm .
It was during the same period that hostilities with the communist leadership culminated into the bombing of Libya, loggerheads with the Soviet Union and a stiff arms race with the U.S.S.R.
It is also significant to note that it was during the same time that he successfully engaged Mikhail Gorbachev who was then the Soviet General secretary and culminated into the signing of Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that signaled the end in arms race and both countries agreed to decrease in nuclear weapons in their custody.
Upon ascending to presidency, Reagan was bent on introducing new political as well as economic dispensations radically. He advocated more for supply-side economics which saw him push for reduction of tax rates to speed up economic growth, money supply control to check inflation, reduction of regulation on the economy particularly business to encourage competitive and free-market free for all which as a matter…
Investment Sections - 2009 Recovery and Reinvestment Act:
Source: Wikimedia Commons.
The largest grouping in the Act is for tax cuts. As an example of how money in one grouping gets divided, the following shows what is being allotted for tax relief:
$116 billion: Payroll tax credit of $400 per worker and $800 per couple in both 2009 and 2010 (American, 2010).
$70 billion: Alternative minimum tax: a one year increase in AMT floor to $70,950 for joint filers for 2009 (American, 2010).
$15 billion: Expansion of the child tax credit: A $1,000 credit to a larger number of families (including those that do not make enough money to pay taxes) (American, 2010).
$14 billion: Expanded college credit to provide a $2,500 tax credit for college tuition and related expenses for 2009 and 2010 (American, 2010).
$6.6 billion: Homebuyer tax credit: $8,000 refundable credit for all homes bought between 1/1/2009…
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. 2010. Recovery.gov. http://www.recovery.gov/Pages/home.aspx
Dems power stimulus bill through Congress. February 14, 2009. Associated Press. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29179041/ .
Economists say stimulus won't work. January 29, 2009. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. http://www.stltoday.com/blogzone/mound-city-money/us-economy/2009/01/economists-say-stimulus-wont-work. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
Gross, D. 12 October 2009. The $800 Billion Deception: Conservatives claim the stimulus has already failed. But it has barely started. Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2232185/ .
Another drawback of the book is that it didn't have much perspective of what it has meant to be pluralistic or worldly in the context of the rest of the world. During the American Revolution, a country with no official religion was an odd idea. It was a general concept that the world had always been governed by a King by Grace of God, and in return protected God's true religion from heretics and blasphemers (esterlund, 2006).
In addition, the author did not discuss the major difference between the "divisive arguments about God and politics" in the late eighteenth century and today. Thus, without state support, religion flourished in the United States, and now as today is the most religious nation in the estern world. The strength of Americans' religious faith enlightens the determination of a "public religion" that even now continue to worry unbelievers and secular thinkers (esterlund, 2006).…
1. Pauline Maier. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." Washington Post.
A www.washingtonpost.com.May 7, 2006
2. Deirdre Donahue. "American Gospel by Jon Meacham." USA TODAY.
Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.
Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.
Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…
Felkins, L. (1997) Introduction to Public Choice Theory,
James, W. 1907. Pragmatism: A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
-- -- 1909. The Meaning of Truth, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
American Involvement in Vietnam
There were a number of reasons for America's involvement in the Vietnam War, and none of them are easy or give the entire picture of the situation. The War was so contentious and so costly to young American's fighting overseas that it continues to cause contention and argument even today. The remnants of Vietnam, the Vietnam Vets homeless and aged, are a constant reminder that sometimes intervention does not pay. That Vietnam was a mistake seems to be the common view now, but at the time it seemed as if it was inevitable that America become involved, or watch Southeast Asia turn into a long, wandering arm of Soviet influence.
Indeed, there were Soviet links in North Vietnam, so some of the worry was certainly founded. The Soviets were funding the North Koreans, and supplying them with most of their military might, from MIG fighters to…
Attarian, John. "Rethinking the Vietnam War." World and I July 2000: 288.
Campagna, Anthony S. The Economic Consequences of the Vietnam War. New York: Praeger, 1991.
Jasper, William F. "Seven Myths about the Vietnam War: Three Decades after Pulling out of Southeast Asia, America Remains Hostage to a Relentless Barrage of Distortion, Myths, and Outright Lies about the Vietnam War." The New American 25 Mar. 2002: 23+.
Jernigan, Pat. "Olga Gruhzit-Hoyt. A Time Remembered: American Women in the Vietnam War." Minerva: Quarterly Report on Women and the Military (2001): 83+.
American Government and Politics
The Impact of Politics on People, Communities, and the World
I have not personally been affected by American politics in ways that I can think of, possibly because I am not an American citizen. However, I understand that, in principle, political decisions can have extremely important affects on individuals. For example, if the Republicans win the presidential election and win back control of the enate and retain control of the House of Representatives, they could actually succeed in outlawing abortion and even many common forms of birth control. Politics also affects local and national communities because the decisions made in Washington determine what federal money is available to states for crucial functions such as education and health care programs. Because the United tates is the most influential nation in the world, political decisions in this country can affect all of the other nations in the world…
Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2007). Government in America: People,
Politics, and Policy. New York: Longman.
Grunwald, M. "The Party of No." Time, Vol. 180, No. 10 (2012): 42 -- 46.
Popular Music and Social Change in the Present: Green Day's 'American Idiot' (2004)
Following the catalyzing events of September 11th, 2001, the United States would find itself deeply divided over the issues of terrorism, war and presidential politics. At the heart of this frequently impassioned and vitriolic debate would be the U.S.-led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq as well as a far-reaching culture clash between two distinction American populations. The 2004 album by pop-punk trio Green Day, American Idiot, would be crafted with the intent of exploring these divisions. In the title track, Green Day would author an anthem that would become omnipresent in pop culture as the U.S. used falsified information to justify its invasion of Iraq.
"American Idiot" would serve both as a harsh critique of the war, of the presidency of George . Bush and of the violent, materialistic culture being fomented in the U.S.…
Geek Stink Breath (GSB). (2012). American Idiot Song Meaning. Geekstinkbreath.net.
Wiebe, C. (2007). Walkn' With Green Day. Center for Parent/Youth Understanding.
American Experience in Vietnam
In analyzing the Vietnam War from a historian's perspective, it is necessary to consider the cultural and social contexts of the conflict, the role played by presidential leadership, and the role played by diplomatic negotiations. In all of these realms, though, the historian can reduce the most important lesson of the Vietnam War to a single word: truth. An examination of the Vietnam War from each of these angles will show that a crucial role was played in each arena -- social, presidential, and diplomatic -- by dishonesty.
The cultural and social context in America of the Vietnam War is a familiar story: we are accustomed to hearing that the war was unpopular and occasioned numerous protests. But it is crucial to note that the campaign to make the war more palatable to the public hinged crucially upon lying to the public. We do not need…
American History: Important Changes From 1810 to 1830
The period of time from 1810 to 1830 was a major time of social, economic and political change in America. The most important of these changes are those whose impact can still be seen today. Three of the most important changes were the growth of manufacturing, the focus on the individual rather than the community and the acceptance of democracy.
The growth of manufacturing changed the nature of America forever, with manufacturing becoming more important than farming for the first time. Tocqueville (XIX) reflects on the focus America put on manufacturing saying, "No people in the world have made such rapid progress in trade and manufactures as the Americans." This rapid progress led to the industrial revolution and eventually the society we have today, with capitalism and manufacturing the basis society is built upon. As Tocqueville (XIX) argues, "Democracy not only swells…
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XV: Unlimited Power of the Majority in the United States, and its Consequences." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/1_ch15.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XIX: What Causes Almost All Americans to Follow Industrial Callings." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch2_19.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XIII: How the Principle of Equality Naturally Divides the Americans into a Multitude of Small Private Circles." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch3_13.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter I: Equality Naturally Gives Men a Taste for Free Institutions." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch4_01.htm
During the 1940s, America had just experienced the onslaught of World War II. After massive fighting against the Axis power nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan), America, along with its allies in the war, was able to conclude the conflict by deciding to drop the atomic bomb in Japan. The war ended with the Axis power conceding defeat, and America went on to rehabilitate its nation after the war. The rehabilitation of America as a nation weary of possible atrocities among nations in the world is twofold. After the war, America experienced a resurgence in economic growth, primarily brought about by the development of new technologies that spurred the country's commercial market. Furthermore, the growth of new technologies and manufacturing industry in America encouraged social mobility, enabling the middle class society to increase in number, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, the technological revolution and…
The contact between the two groups is not always straight forward, and is often fought officially, through judicial practices, and unofficially, through dubious backstage arrangements and activities. However, there is also a legal manner through which interest groups have been given the right to influence political decisions and the laws voted upon. Lobbying is one such activity.
Although lobbyists are the subject of heated debate, as many citizens consider them to be just "wheeler-dealers continually wining and dining public officials in order to secure political favors at the expense of the general public" (Volkomer 282), their main function is to supply "information about their specialized interests to a few select public officials, communicating with members and others who are concerned with their problem" (283). However their role is rather interpretable. On the one hand, they represent the interests of a certain segment of the population, such as farmers, or railway…
Janda, Kenneth, Jeffrey Berry, and Jerry Goldman. The challenge of democracy: government in America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.
Jewell Malcolm E, and David M. Olson. American state political parties and elections. Homewoo: The Dorsey Press, 1982.
Volkomer, Walter E.. American government. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,1972.
Kerr's management strategy on campus only emboldened the New Left.
In addition to the Free Speech movement, the New Left included other student organizations including Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Congress on acial Equality (COE), and the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS). The former focused on the antiwar efforts to end the Vietnam conflict, placing the students in direct conflict with many of America's most powerful institutions and organizations. Sit-ins, and other non-violent protest tactics were used to gain media coverage as well as to effect real change. The increasing awareness of how the War in Vietnam was proceeding caused the New Left to grow dramatically, providing a credible opposition to the Department of Defense. As Zinn points out, an increasingly large proportion of Americans ceased affiliating with either the Democratic or epublican parties, expressing opposition to the core institutions of government that led to injustices like those being…
Foner, E, 2011. Give Me Liberty! Norton.
"The free-speech fight that shaped the New Left." Workers' Liberty. Retrieved online: http://www.workersliberty.org/story/2008/02/09/free-speech-fight-shaped-new-left
Heilbrun, J., 1997. "The New Democrats. New Republic. Retrieved online: http://www.newrepublic.com/article/93596/democratic-leadership-council-al-from#
Kinzer, S. Overthrow: America's Century of Regime Change. New York: Henry Holt.
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…
Even if this were a philosophical correction to the varying degrees of utilitarianism we have seen in the 20th century, the simple fact is that Constitution has never defined the job of the President in the way it has been exemplified in modern times. Even Barry Goldwater, seen as a Hawk and a warmonger, commenting on this type of presidential job description: "This is nothing less than the totalitarian philosophy that the end justifies the means…. If there ever was a philosophy of government totally at war with that of the Founding Fathers, it is this one" (120).
How do we reconcile this reverence and responsibility for the American President with the cynicism, suspicion and apathy many Americans have about politics? Certainly, the consequences of the 1980s and the decade of greed enter into the calculation, as does the President who resigned while insisting "I am not a crook." Healy…
We may love to hear that a single candidate can restore American greatness -- if it was ever lost; that a candidate can turn around the economy by signing a few bills; or that a single president can change the geopolitical face of the globe -- but it simply isn't so. Instead, "a truly heroic president is one who appreciates the virtues of restraint- who is bold enough to act when action is necessary, yet wise enough, humble enough to refuse powers he out not have." Is this possible -- certainly, but until the American citizenry demands it, it cannot ever be.
Healy, G. The Cult of the Presidency. Washington, DC: The Cato Institute, 2008.
Nature of American Presidency --
The Nature of the American Presidency and how it has changed during the 20th century
The Nature of the American Presidency and how it has changed during the 20th century
The nature of U.S. presidency of the current century is quite different from that developed by the Founding Fathers during the latter part of the eighteenth century. Provisions in the U.S. Constitution limited earlier Presidents. Up to the 1930s, the federal government was dominated by the Congress. For several years, the Congress held sway over the American President. There were, however, exceptions, such as Woodrow Wilson and Theodore oosevelt, who laid the foundation for a turning point with regard to the Presidential role, for future Presidents of the nation ( Independence Hall Association, 2008-2015).
American Presidency; Theodore oosevelt, Woodrow Wilson and George W. Bush
Theodore oosevelt (1901-1909)
Popularly called the first forward-thinking U.S.…
A&E Television Networks. (2015). George W. Bush. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from History.com: www.history.com
Independence Hall Association. (2008-2015). The Evolution of the Presidency. Retrieved December 3, 2015, from U.S. History: www.ushistory.org
Milkis, S. (2015). Theodore Roosevelt: Impact and Legacy. Retrieved December 5, 2015, from Miller Center of Public Affairs, University of Virginia: http://millercenter.org
Public Expectations of the Presidency
Public expectations of presidency
The president office in most of the developing as well as developed countries is looked as an institution for bringing improvements in the society. People often look at the office with very high hopes as they are of the opinion that the representative of the masses will have a better understanding about the problems and preferences of the people of the society. Throughout the history of USA we can observe that majority of the president came into the power because they picked up the major problem faced by the people of their times and used it as a weapon for their election campaigns (Boxer, 2009, p. 51). For example when Obama was running the election campaign he highlighted the expenses which the country has to bear to fight the war in Afghanistan and Iraq. Opinion polls and surveys at…
Boxer, A. (2009). Politics, Presidency and Society in the U.S.A. 1968-2001. History Review, (65), 51. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5040989061
Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The Paradoxes of the American Presidency. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 27, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14658955
American History prior 1877 signed . Start introduction paragraph discuss historical events / people occurances, devote approximately page topic chosen.
"Unimportant" American Events
In spite of the fact that they had a decisive influence on the American society, particular historic events are likely to be forgotten by the masses. Little people know something regarding Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" pamphlet or about the influence that it had on colonists during the ar of Independence. The Three-fifths compromise made it possible for Southerners to increase their power in the U.S. through exploiting the fact that they had slaves. The Fugitive Slave Clause of 1793 was among the first legislations issued with the purpose of allowing slaveholders to get their slaves back. The ar of 1812 played an essential role in shaping U.S. history, but received little attention from the public across time. The Land Act of 1820 prohibited the acquisition of public…
"Common Sense," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=267
"Land Act of 1820," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University of Oklahoma Website: http://jay.law.ou.edu/faculty/Hampton/Mineral%20Title%20Examination/General%20Reading%20-%20Land%20Act%20of%201820.pdf
"The Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University at Buffalo Website: http://www.nsm.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/SlaveActs.html
"The Presidency of Andrew Jackson," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=637
I knew the Congress as well as I know Lady ird, and I knew that the day it exploded into a major debate on the war, that day would be the beginning of the end of the Great Society.'" in the end, these secrets when revealed, changed forever the way Americans viewed the Presidency, and politicians in general.
Johnson's style of compromise and bargining came to haunt him in dealing with the people and Congress over Vietnam. As Majority Leader in the Senate, he had supported President Eisenhower's foreign policy, partly to move forward his own agenda. What he never understood was that as President, he could not count on the same spirit of bi-partisanship from his Congress. In the end, his actions led to legislation that placed limits on the power of the Presidency.
American politics would never be the same after 1968. For the first time the American…
Caro, Robert a. The Years of Lyndon Johnson: The Path to Power. New York: Alfred a. Knoft, 1982.
Caro, Robert a. The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Means of Ascent. New York: Alfred a. Knoft, 1990.
Caro, Robert a. The Years of Lyndon Johnson: Master of the Senate. New York: Alfred a. Knoft, 2002.
Dallek, Robert. Lone Star Rising: Lyndon Johnson and His Times 1908-1961. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.
The Missouri Compromise
In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…
Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/ideas/reformback.html .
Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.
Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.
Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.
United States Presidents in the 1890s [...] which president conducted American Foreign policy more skillfully in the 1890's, McKinley or Cleveland? Why?
William McKinley favored an imperialistic worldview, and brought the United States into the Spanish-American War, which ultimately added the Philippines, Guam, and Puerto ico to the United States. He favored American intervention into foreign politics, especially when this intervention would benefit the U.S. In fact, McKinley's dominant imperialistic foreign policies dominated his presidency, and he is most remembered for the war and its' ultimate gain of territories for the United States. McKinley's foreign policy was anything but skillful. He listened to the American people, whose opinion was dominated by the "yellow press," rather than world sentiment. McKinley's foreign policy was domineering and imperialistic, and left America looking like a bully.
President Grover Cleveland, on the other hand, handled foreign policy with a "big stick," but a lack of…
Author not Available. "Biography of William McKinley." WhiteHouse.gov. 2004. 24 May 2004. http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/wm25.html
Author not Available. "Foreign Affairs Under Cleveland." U-S-History.com. 2002. 24 May 2004. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h796.html
American president as a king would have been one of the greatest insults in the early 19th century, merely decades after the United States won its independence from the British crown. Andrew Jackson's policies and leadership style both reminded the American public of monarchic rule. Here, Jackson is depicted as a loathsome king who tramples on the American constitution and wants to veto any legislation Congress tries to pass. The veto power refers to Jackson's vetoing of several congressional bills including those related to the creation of federal banking systems. At the top of the cartoon, the words "Born to Command" underscore the comparison with Jackson and a dictatorial ruler. Interestingly, Jackson touted himself as being the "man of the people," not "King Andrew." One reason why Jackson did engage his veto power as often as he did was that he viewed his role as being to protect the people,…
"Andrew Jackson, (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/timeline/pres_era/3_668.html
"King Andrew." [Political Cartoon]. Available online: http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/treasures_of_congress/Images/page_9/30a.html
Thompson, et al. (n.d.). An overview of healthcare management. Retrieved online: http://samples.jbpub.com/9780763790868/90868_CH01_FINAL_WithoutCropMark.pdf
American Dreams by H.. Brands
American Dreams chronicles the history of the United States after the defeat of the Axis powers until the present day. After orld ar II, America emerged as the major world power. It had an atomic capacity and had been less scarred, economically and politically, than Europe. How America managed this new role and how Americans' self-perceptions of themselves have changed over the subsequent decades is the subject of H.. Brand's brief social history.
The book is organized into three sections. The first section, called Visions of Omnipotence (1945-1965), details the heady postwar time when America was first beginning to establish its authority in the world. It played a critical role in revitalizing the fortunes of Europe through the Marshall Plan and contained communism through the establishment of NATO and the Berlin airlift. This was also the era of the Korean ar, the Bay of Pigs,…
Brands. H.W. American Dreams. New York: Penguin, 2010.
American citizenry is somewhat in the position of the unfortunate citizens of some third-world countries who try to stay out of the cross-fire while Maoist guerrillas and right-wing death squads shoot at each other. eports of a culture war are mostly wishful thinking and useful fund-raising strategies on the part of culture-war guerrillas, abetted by a media driven by the need to make the dull and everyday appear exciting and unprecedented.
At the time of every election, both the Democrat and epublican presidential candidates begin spouting their strong political platform. Somewhere along the line of American history, and perhaps it was once true, there arose the belief that a major difference exists between the two parties' beliefs. In their book Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America, Morris P. Fiorina of Stanford University, Samuel J. Abrams of Harvard University, and Jeremy C. Pope of Stanford University combine polling data…
Fiorina, Morris et al. Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America.
Upper Saddle Ridge, NJ: Pearson Education, 2004.
Survival of Racist Customs and Mores Into the 21st Century: Analysis of the American Correction and Sentencing Trends
Increasing awareness of the US's unsuccessful mass imprisonment experimentation has effected federal and state level modifications aimed at decreasing the nation's detention scale. Experts and policymakers have been suggesting "smart on crime" public safety strategies which support alternatives to imprisonment and decrease re-offense chances[footnoteRef:1]. Despite simultaneous fruitful bipartite dialogues on the subject of decreasing jail populations and bringing improvements to crime justice policies, the nation still struggles with disturbing racial frictions. The latest concern concentrates on frequent reports of law enforcement violence inflicted on non-Whites, some cases ending in fatalities of African-American males at the hands of law enforcers, with scant to no evident provocation. In this paper, the many fields in which racist values and traditions continue in the current era will be examined, with particular emphasis to the American corrective…
Based on these three differences the question of what changes will be evident are clear. One recent article touted, "There is hardly an area of their budgets -- on either the revenue or the spending side -- that will not be adversely affected by upcoming decisions in ashington" (Greenblatt, 2005, p. 26). Most of the Democrats running for President have already said they would roll back President Bush's tax cuts.
Along with tax cuts, most also said they would keep abortion legal, and would attempt to bring the troops home from Iraq.as quickly as possible. These are three fairly substantive changes in the current policy, and there are numerous others that would also become evident over the length of a four-year Presidency.
Clinton, H, (2006) Hillary Clinton quotes, ThinkExist.com, at http://en.thinkexist.com/quotation/the_challenge_is_to_practice_politics_as_the_art/209228.html, Accessed December 29, 2007
Democratic Party (2007) the Democratic Vision, http://www.democrats.org/a/party/stand.html, Accessed December 29, 2007
Clinton, H, (2006) Hillary Clinton quotes, ThinkExist.com, at http://en.thinkexist.com/quotation/the_challenge_is_to_practice_politics_as_the_art/209228.html, Accessed December 29, 2007
Democratic Party (2007) the Democratic Vision, http://www.democrats.org/a/party/stand.html , Accessed December 29, 2007
Greenblatt, a., (2005) the Washington offensive, Governing, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 26-29
The effect will also trickle into the political arena: the more minorities and women are visibly in positions of power in companies and organizations, the more women and minorities will be elected as public officials and perhaps, some day, to the highest office in America, the Presidency.
Third, the changing workforce in America could herald deep cultural changes throughout the nation. Values that were founded on European Christian civilization might be replaced by values shared by different cultures from around the world: Asian, African, and Middle Eastern. Public policies could therefore change to reflect social values different from those that have been in existence over the past several hundred years. The creative arts and the media would also change as a result of these changes to cultural expression…
American history is strongly embedded in the consciousness of the U.S. population. They place great emphasis on the arrival of the pilgrims on the Newfoundland, the colonization and the eventual gaining of independence from the British rule.
The Americans take great pride in their history and continue to emphasize on the values which sat at the foundation of the country, such as freedom and democracy. But the American children tend to know less and less about American history. The educational system is focused on presenting facts and data which are important in history, but which do not interest the children.
The history subject in public schools is focused on revealing crucial events and personalities in the history of the country, such as the role of the United States in the Second World War or the presidency of J.F. Kennedy. The history textbooks discuss political decisions and important moments in time.…
Wheeler, W.B., Becker, S., Glover, L., 2011, Discovering the American past: a look at the evidence, 7th edition, Cengage Learning
Jimmy Carter's foreign policy in the United States of America, many have come up with very negative views and have highlighted more or less the same loop holes in his policy and administration that led to his failure, namely his misconceptions of views relating to public relations and his inept political and management skills. (Smith 1986; Hargrove 1988; Jones 1988)
Kaufman (1993, 3) on one hand, praised Carter for his true ideas, intentions and achievements, while on the other hand agrees with the negative judgments that have been made on his political span as the President.
While, rinkley (1996, 552) was all in praise of Carter's improvisation skills to come up with a suitable policy for the Cold War before it was over, yet still blamed his inefficient public opinion skills and polls as the reason for the downfall of his foreign policy or its ineffectiveness.
However, what all these…
Andrew Z. Katz. (2000) Public Opinion and the Contradictions of Jimmy Carter's Foreign Policy. Presidential Studies Quarterly. 30: 4.
Brinkley, Douglas. (1996). The rising stock of Jimmy Carter: The "hands on" legacy of our thirty-ninth president. Diplomatic History 20:505-29.
Carter: 1980) America will meet Soviet challenge. 1980. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, January 26, 171.
Hargrove, Erwin. (1988). Jimmy Carter as president: Leadership and the politics of the public good. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.
hearing the name of Nobel Prize Winner Sinclair Lewis, The Jungle often comes to mind first because of the impact this book made in its time and ever since. Yet, It Can't Happen Here should be judged just as -- if not more -- important than any of Lewis' books. The work, which describes what would happen if America voted in a dictator such as Stalin or Hitler to "save the day," clearly reflects the fears of Lewis' own time. It also strongly warns today's readers what could occur if civil society does not keep watchful.
The main story of It Can't Happen Here revolves around Doremus Jessup, a moderate 60-year-old epublican and editor of a small-town newspaper in Vermont. Everyone, including Jessup, said in 1935, "If there ever is a Fascist dictatorship here, American humor and pioneer independence are so marked that it will be absolutely different from anything…
Lewis, Sinclair. It Can't Happen Here. New York: New American Library, 1970.
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…
Felzenberg, Alvin S. "There You Go Again:" Liberal Historians and the 'New York Times' Deny Ronald Reagan His Due." Policy Review, no. 82 (1997): 51+.
McKenna, Marian C. Franklin Roosevelt and the Great Constitutional War: The Court-Packing Crisis of 1937. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.
Reagan, Ronald. 2008. Inaugural Address. [Online] available from the Internet at http://www.americanpresidents.org/inaugural/39a.aspaccessed 3 May 2008.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
Steven Kelman's Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government
Steven Kelman's 1998 book on politics is entitled Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government. This is a brief but accurate summary of the central thesis of Kelman's philosophy of what enables the American system of government to function as well as it does. Perhaps because of the contentious nature of the modern media, discussions of the American governmental system and political process tend to focus on criticisms rather than on praises of its ability to address social ills. However, it is this stress upon the functionality, rather than upon the disfunctionality of American government that drives the structure, arguments, and philosophy advocated by Kelman's book.
In his introduction, Kelman states that he wishes to "evaluate how well the policy-making process works in the United States." In other words, Kelman wishes to rate the efficacy of the…
Kelman, Steven. Making Public Policy: A Hopeful View of American Government, 1998.
Monarchy." World Book Encyclopedia Online. http://www2.worldbook.com/
Parliamentary System" World Book Encyclopedia Online. http://www2.worldbook.com
omen, Men and Environment
hile we might like to believe that we are each the masters of our own fate, in fact the environment plays an important role in shaping who we become. Guthrie makes this point in The Big Sky, for Boone, Summers and Teal Eye are all more the product of their environment than they are the creators of the world around them. Guthrie suggests that this being-shaped-by rather than shaping-of the environment is especially strong in the est, but he also at least suggests that the environment is a potent force in shaping the lives of people everywhere.
It has become fashionable in recent years to scoff at the myth of the est and to replace this myth with history. This is in large measure what Guthrie has set out to do. He is intent on telling a real story about a real place, and in particular…
Guthrie, A.B. The Big Sky. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. http://www.literature.org/authors/bronte-charlotte/jane-eyre
Schlissel, Lillian. Women's Diaries of the Westward Journey. New York: Schocken, 1992.
Union at Risk, historian Richard Ellis confronts the most singularly formative event of Andrew Jackson's two presidential terms: The Nullification Crisis of 1832 and 1833. In response to tariffs enacted by the Congress in Washington in the late 1820s, the State of South Carolina declared their legal independence from national laws. Avoiding the tariffs, South Carolina poses a real threat to the Jackson administration with serious national repercussions; responsively, Jackson issued a Proclamation asserting the foremost power of the Federal government.
Because legal action means little to a state already refusing Washington's insistence, Jackson found executive support in the Force Act, allowing national laws to be enforced on a state-wide basis with troops. The assuagement of the crisis by Henry Clay brought solvent end to this doctrinal crisis between states' rights and national policy. Richard Ellis argues that this decisive moment in 19th century politics not only connected to other…
Generally considered to be the greatest president of the United States, who freed four million slaves and saved the nation after leading the Union to victory in the Civil War of 1861-65, Abraham Lincoln was born in Kentucky in 1809 to a pioneer family on what was then the western frontier of the United States. His family then moved to southern Indiana in 1816 and southern Illinois three years later, although Lincoln by all accounts never intended to follow the same social and economic path as these poor white farmers. Even as a young man, though, he picked up their strongly antislavery views and the common belief that poor whites had little opportunity to better their social and economic circumstances in the slave states. Given the lack of schools and universities on the frontier, almost all of Lincoln's education was really self-education, and he learned his writing…
From that point onward, the abolition of slavery depended on the success of the Northern armies, and by the end of the war freed slaves made up 10% of these. Lincoln finally found two generals who had achieved great success against the Confederates in the West -- William Tecumseh Sherman and Ulysses S. Grant -- and formulated a successful strategy with them for winning the war (Thomas 306). Grant was sent to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond and defeat Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia while Sherman was sent through Georgia and the Carolinas to destroy Confederate railroads, industry and agriculture there. In 1864, Lincoln feared that he would be defeated for reelection by General George McClellan, a conservative Democrat who had opposed the Emancipation Proclamation and intended to offer peace terms to the Confederacy that would permit slavery to continue (Thomas 409). Sherman's capture of Atlanta, Georgia in 1864 ensured Lincoln's reelection, while Grant captured Richmond in April 1865 and accepted the surrender of Lee's forces at Appomattox Courthouse. Lincoln was assassinated on April 14, 1865, before he had really begun to deal with the problems of postwar Reconstruction, but at the end of his life he was moving toward the position of granting citizenship and voting rights to blacks for the first time in U.S. history (McPherson 63).
American Way of War
The history of the American Way of War is a transitional one, as Weigley shows in his landmark work of the same name. The strategy of war went from, under Washington, a small scale, elude and survive set of tactics practiced by what seem today to be relatively "quaint" militias, to -- in the 20th century -- a full-scale operation known as "total war." True, "total war" was not a concept invented by the Americans in the 20th century. The North eventually practiced "total war" against the Confederates when Sherman's campaign left utter destruction of civilian territory in its wake. The ancient Romans practiced it when, under the direction of Cato, they destroyed Carthage because its mere existence, they felt, posed a threat to their prosperity. In the 20th century, however, "total war" received an enormous boost of technical support when the inventors of the atom…
Butler, Smedley. War is a Racket. LA: Feral House, 2003.
Chollet, Derek and James Goldgeier. America Between the Wars. NY: Public Affairs,
Debs, Eugene. "Anti-War Speech," 16 June 1918. Web.
Woodrow Wilson used the radio to appeal to the American public directly to support the nation's entry into the then-unpopular World War I. Franklin Roosevelt, of course, was the master of the fireside chat, and even after his demise, the rapid rise of the Soviet power and the Cold War enabled Harry Truman to "scare hell" out of the country by using the media.
Popular, collective fear of the Soviets tipped the balance even farther in favor of the powers of the chief executive. The Johnson Administration refused to spend the funds allocated to crucial agricultural programs, to bully Congress into accepting its deficit spending for the Great Society and the Vietnam War (87). These examples, along with the escalation of the Vietnam War, show how Democratic presidents were often just as guilty as Republican presidents of abusing the office's authority. In recent memory, the Clinton Administration went to court…
Today's President has many important duties, and while some have delegated some tasks to their vice presidents, they are ultimately still in charge of these tasks. As the country has evolved, so has the importance of the vice president, therefore making it comprehensible that the vice president may eventually officially assume some of the President's current duties.
Felzenbery, Alvin S. The Vice Presidency Grows Up. Policy Review. (2001): 01 February.
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Felzenbery, Alvin S. The Vice Presidency Grows Up. Policy Review. (2001): 01 February.
Outline of U.S. Government. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/outusgov/ch3.htm).
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The President of the United States. (accessed 25 January, 2005). http://bensguide.gpo.gov/3-5/government/national/president.html ).
Non-Native as President
In many countries of the world, actually in most countries of the world, the position of the supreme commander of that nation can only be a person who was born in that country. The reason behind this requirement is that it is feared that someone who has such immediate blood ties to another country may not be willing to take arms against that nation should the two countries be at war. The United States Constitution forbids anyone who was not born in America from becoming President. Article 2 of that document states: "No person except a natural born Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of the President" (United). This is also true for the position of Vice-President of the United States since if the President becomes incapacitated the Vice-President will take over the…
McLaughlin, Andrew. Cyclopedia of American Government. New York, NY: D. Appleton. 1914.
Sabato, Larry J. A More Perfect Constitution: Why the Constitution Must be Revised. New York:
Walker. 2006. Print.
Most Americans know that former President Clinton just had his library dedication in Arkansas. He was a popular president and even the Monica Lewinski scandal was not enough to taint his legacy. Unfortunately, Richard Nixon's library does not seem to have the same prestigious following as Bill Clinton seems to have. Consider that just after Christmas of last year; the Nixon's Foundation and Library won an award that almost no American on the street knows anything about. I have to admit that before I saw the Dimitri Simes who is the current President of the Nixon Center in ashington, D.C., I never even considered that there was a Nixon Foundation. "The Nixon Center is the Nixon Foundation's programmatically independent public policy institute. It recently celebrated its 10th anniversary by acquiring The National Interest, a prestigious foreign policy journal, and by presenting its Distinguished Service Award to Mikhail Baryshnikov at…
C-Span. Interview with Simes, Dimitri. Nixon Center Chief On C-SPAN: Simes Enters Ring on Boxing Day. Washington, D.C. December 23, 2004.
Nixon, Richard M. RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Touchstone, 1990.
Reeves, Richard. President Nixon: Alone in the White House. New York: Touchstone, 2001.
Yet, Theodore oosevelt also found within the American nationalism a powerful civic culture that made the United States of America as a country that welcomed all kinds of people irrespective of where they came from, their racial identity and religious leanings as long as they were prepared to devote themselves to the country and observe the laws of the land. Theodore oosevelt also loved the idea that the United States of America was a melting pot in which a hybrid race of different strains could be created. Theodore oosevelt believed that such a mixing had created and would sustain the racial superiority of the American race. This belief of his was demonstrated by his personal delight in moving across social boundaries and meeting people of diverse groups. (Theodore oosevelt and the Divided Character of American Nationalism)
Thus we see that after President Lincoln for nearly thirty five years the leaders…
Gerstle, Gary. Theodore Roosevelt and the Divided Character of American Nationalism. The Journal of American History. Retrieved at http://www.historycooperative.org/cgi-bin/justtop.cgi?act=justtop&url=http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jah/86.3/gerstle.html . Accessed on February 27, 2005
Leonard, Erin Ruth. Theodore Roosevelt's Broad Powers: From Revolution to Reconstruction. Retrieved at http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/teddy/teddyxx.htm. Accessed on February 27, 2005
President of the United States. Retrieved form http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761571294_4/President_of_the_United_States.html#p56Accessed on February 27, 2005
Roosevelt, Theodore. The American President. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://ap.grolier.com/article?assetid=0250190-0&templatename=/article/article.html. Accessed on February 27, 2005
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger."
The war against Spain and for the liberation of Cuba was one that would prove the superiority of America and its ideals. The United States, too, could join the nations of Europe as a major world power, with interests in every corner of the globe. Roosevelt became a hero as a result of his exploits in the Spanish-American War - a modern day crusader. He used his standing to vault to the governorship of the State of New York. As Governor he now headed the wealthiest most populous state in the nation, enjoying a position of influence and power unparalleled in his career. New York was the great melting pot, the entry point for the vast waves of immigrants that were arriving from Europe. Immigration in this era…
Brantlinger, Patrick. "Kipling's "The White Man's Burden" and Its Afterlives." English Literature in Transition 1880-1920 50, no. 2 (2007): 172+.
Burton, David H. The Learned Presidency: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988.
Burton, David H. Theodore Roosevelt, American Politician: An Assessment. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.
Collins, Michael L. That Damned Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and the American West, 1883-1898. New York: Peter Lang, 1991.
Board of Education of Topeka. This case represented a watershed for Civil ights and helped to signal an end to segregation because it determined that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal" (Warren, 1954). It is essential to note that federal support on this particular issue was only earned after African-Americans decided to use the legislative system to their advantage by taking the segregationist school system of Topeka, Kansas to task. This particular court case was a class action lawsuit filed on behalf of 13 parents whose children were enrolled in the city's school system. This action was highly influential in the African-American struggle for civil rights and to end discrimination because it demonstrated that they had learned the most effective means of fighting this systemic oppression -- by utilizing the system itself, in this instance, the legislative system that ran the country.
By doing so, African-Americans helped to end the…
Du Bois, W.E.B. DuBois, W.E.B. 1903. "The Talented Tenth." Pp. 31-75 in the Negro Problem: A Series of Articles by Representative American Negroes of to-Day. Contributions by Booker T. Washington, Principal of Tuskegee Institute, W.E. Burghardt DuBois, Paul Laurence Dunbar, Charles W. Chesnutt, and others. (NY: James Pott & Co., 1903
Lincoln, a. "13th amendment to the U.S. constitution: abolition of slavery." Ourdocuments.gov. Retrieved from http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=40
Mack, K.W. (1999). "Law, Society, Identity and the Making of the Jim Crow South: Travel and Segregation on Tennessee Railroads, 1875-1905.," 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 377 . http://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/2790089/Law%2c%20Society%2c%20Identity%20and%20the%20Making%20of%20the%20Jim%20Crow%20South.pdf?sequence=2
Maidment, R.A. (1973). "Plessy v. Fergueson re-examined." Journal of American Studies. 7 (2): 125-132.
Lessons Learned by American Experience of the Vietnam War: Diplomatic Negotiations, Presidential Leadership, and Cultural/Social Context
The objective of this study is to examine the lessons learned by the American Experience of the Vietnam War in terms of diplomatic negotiations, presidential leadership, and the cultural and social context of the war. The work of Mariney (1989) writes that the U.S. civilian and military leadership failed "to heed the lessons of the past during the Vietnam war." (p.1) Not only was the enemy underestimated but as well, America underestimated the war's nature. The historical context was not given due consideration according to Mariney (1989) and specifically in terms of how the Chinese, Japanese, and the French have "over the centuries, attempted to exert control over Indochina unsuccessfully." (p.1)
Vietnamese Strong National Identity
The result of this experience was the forging of a strong national identity in Vietnam, both North and South…
Lewis, AM (1996) Re-examining Our Perceptions on Vietnam. CIA Historical Review Program 2 Jul 1996. Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/kent-csi/vol17no4/html/v17i4a01p_0001.htm
Mariney, C (1989) Vietnam: Lessons Learned. Global Security Org. Retrieved from: http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/MC.htm
Winterstein, S. (2000) Teaching the Vietnam War: A Conference Report. Foreign Policy Research Institute. July. Retrieved from: http://www.fpri.org/footnotes/064.200007.winterstein.teachingvietnam.html
Cable television also opened up the medium to numerous types of television programming that had previously been excluded, simply because it could never have competed with the demand for mainstream types of programs during the same time slot.
Initially, cable television was only available in the largest markets like New York and Los Angeles and it was priced out of the range of most consumers. The technology also required a cable connecting the television to the channel box, which often was the size of small dinner platter. Within a few years, the technology advanced to the point of providing microwave remote controls that were no larger than those already included with many television sets.
The addition of virtually unlimited available channels resulted in the creation of dozens of specialty-interest program content such as cable television channels dedicated exclusively to history, science, nature, sports, politics, and comedy, to name just several.…
Throughout American history, Judaism has played a major role in influencing historical events. This is because the persecution of Jews over the centuries has created the desire to a find a place where they will be respected. Examples of this go back as far as the Romans, when the Emperor Tiberius was a part of a program to systematically disperse the Jewish population throughout the Roman Empire. This was in response to the revolts that occurred in Judea and modern day Jerusalem during the 1st and 2nd centuries. (Merrill 365 -- 372)
As a result, the Jews would face a variety of obstacles over the course of time. This is because of: their unique way of life and how different their religion was from Christianity in certain aspects. These elements led to feelings of resentment and mistrust in Western Europe of the Jewish population. During the Renaissance period…
Glazer, Nathan. American Judaism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988. Print.
Lieberman, Joseph. Amazing Adventure. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003. Print.
Merrill, Elmer. "The Expulsion of Jews." Classical Philology 14.1 (1919): 365 -- 372. Print.
Nadell, Pamela. Conservative Judaism. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988. Print.
The US constitution is a supreme law guiding the conducts of government, people, and organizations in the United States. The U.S. constitution comprises of seven articles that delineates the form of government. However, before the constitution came into force in 1789, there were philosophical thinking that influenced the compilation of the American constitution.
The objective of this essay is to discuss the philosophical influences on the U.S. Constitution.
John Locke was an English Philosopher and his thinking had the great impact on the American constitution. John Locke believed that all people has alienated rights and they are created equal. John Locke was political philosopher was the early proponent of social contract theory believing that there were certain inalienable rights that people should enjoy. Locke believed that it was people who created the government, and people could overthrow the government if they failed to protect their rights. In his philosophical thinking,…