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American Psychological Association in Criminal Justice
American Psychological Association
The American Psychological Association, or APA, according to its own website, is a scientific and professional organization for the field of psychology in the United States with over 154,000 members, and it is the largest alliance of psychologists in the world (APA (a), 2011). The APA is a governing organization as well as a hub for connecting psychologists and psychological professionals to one another and to a wealth of resources (APA (a), 2011). It governs in the sense that it exists, in part, to ensure that professional psychologists are well qualified and effective to the highest degree in their practice, with the highest standards of integrity, ethics, training, and experience (APA (a), 2011). Perhaps most significantly, the APA holds responsibility for establishing and upholding these high standards within its membership body through the "Ethics Code" (APA, 2010).
As an organization is…
APA. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. Retrieved on May 8, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx.
APA (1). (2011). About APA. Retrieved on May 8, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/about/index.aspx.
APA (2). (2011). Criminal Justice Section: Division 18 of the American Psychological Association. Retrieved on May 8, 2011, from http://www.apa.org/divisions/div18/cjpsych/.
Boothby, Jennifer. (2010). Division 18 Business meeting. Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association. San Diego, CA: August 2010.
The final section of an APA manuscript is the eferences page. This section should also begin on a new page. It is a section that is just as critical as the title page and main body. The purpose of the references page is to give the reader more information on the sources that were used in the paper. The references page coordinates with the parenthetical references that were given in the main body of the paper so the reader may at any time turn to the final page of the paper to see exactly what book, periodical, scholarly journal, website, or other source was used for that particular piece of information (Purdue University Online Writing Lab, 2010).
Information for references should be given in a particular order so as to avoid confusion for the reader. First should be the name of the author or authors, followed by the date, then…
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association. Washington, DC: American Psychological
Delaney, R. (2010). APA Citation Style. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from Long Island
American Psychological Association (APA) as founded in 1892. It is a society of psychologists that ork to advance the science of psychology and the field as a profession. They have "more than 159,000 members and affiliates" ("American," 2005). In addition to this ork, the APA has established an official method of formatting ritten orks, as ell as ho to notate in text citations and ho to format reference lists.
With APA format, all papers are typed double-spaced, and are to be ritten on a standard 8 1/2 x 11 paper, ith 1-inch margins on all sides. A title page is required, hich includes the title of the ork and byline of the author, along ith the affiliation of the author. An abstract giving a synopsis of the paper precedes the text ("Using American," 2005).
Pages of the manuscript are numbered consecutively, beginning ith the title page, as part of the…
works cited also differs in style, yet typically contains similar information, giving the reader the ability to investigate the cited work if they wish to do so.
American Psychological Association. (2005). Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Scholastic Library Publishing. Retrieved April 22, 2005, from http://80-gme.grolier.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com .
Guffey, M.E. (Mar 1997). Formats for the citation of electronic sources in business writing. Business Communication Quarterly, 60(1), Retrieved April 22, 2005, from Business Source Premier database.
Kelly, K.R. (Apr 2000). Author guidelines for electronic references. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22(2), 95-96.
This is accomplished though in-text citation and efeences.
In-text citation equies that fistly, the autho make use of the past tense when citing pevious wok (Angeli, 2010). The APA fomat makes use of the "autho-date" method to coectly cite the wok of othe authos. This method calls fo the autho's last name and the date of publication to be placed in the text of the wok, and a complete efeence fo that autho is placed in a last section entitled efeences. This appoach is necessay fo ideas and concepts fom othe authos. Shot quotes equie that in addition to the autho and date, the page fom which the quote is taken should be included in paenthesis. The page numbe is peceded by p. "If the autho is not named in a signal phase, place the autho's last name, the yea of publication, and the page numbe in paentheses afte the…
references in APA format book. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/apastyle/p/bookref.htm
A complete resource. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.apastyle.org/
Khan, H.J. (2010). Sample APA paper for students interested in learning APA Style 6th Edition
Retrieved from http://my.ilstu.edu/~jhkahn/APAsample.pdf
Scott, B. (2009). APA format: How to format a paper in APA style. Retrieved from http://www.articlesbase.com/writing-articles/apa-format-how-to-format-a-paper-in-apa-style-714688.html
" This is guideline can help in sorting out the custody issues related to the eldest daughter's unknown father. In society, the stigma attached to these situations are very strong and it is important that forensic psychologists, as trained, informed and non-biased participants, treat these custody challenges with balance and understanding and incorporating empirical evidence that can assist in making the best decision for the family as a whole unit.
The third issue from this case that appears to be of great importance are the varied reports of what is believed to be factual about this case study. Two stark and differing opinions about what is actually happening in this family are being presented by the lawyers in this case, each with their own personal interests at stake. This is why it is important to understand guideline #10: " Psychologists strive to employ multiple methods of data gathering." Getting to…
APA Online: Guidelines for Child Custody Evaluations in Divorce Proceedings
Case Study. Provided by customer.
queries about American Psychological Association (APA) citation-style writing as well as the general form, function and requirements behind what are known as peer-reviewed journal articles. To be specific, the author if this report will analyze the criteria for peer-reviewed journal articles, the author will analyze the importance of peer-reviewed journal articles, the author will analyze the appropriate use of non-peer-reviewed articles and the author will evaluate the subject of academic writing.
Per the CUNY Lloyd Sealy Library website, there are several criteria that exist when it comes to a peer-reviewed article. They are as follows:
The author of the journal article must submit the article to the journal editor who will then forward the article to experts that exist in the field. These other experts in the field are chosen because they are the "peers" of the author who wrote the article under review.
The peers who are sent the…
Angelo State. (2015). How to recognize peer-reviewed journals. Angelo.edu. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.angelo.edu/services/library/handouts/peerrev.php
CNN. (2015). Retracted autism study an 'elaborate fraud,' British journal finds. Cnn.com. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://www.cnn.com/2011/HEALTH/01/05/autism.vaccines/
CUNY. (2015). What Is A Peer-Reviewed Article? - Evaluating Information Sources - LibGuides at John Jay College of Criminal Justice, CUNY. Guides.lib.jjay.cuny.edu. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://guides.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/c.php?g=288333&p=1922599
UWRF. (2015). What is a Scholarly Journal? - Help! I Need 5 Scholarly Sources - LibGuides at University of Wisconsin River Falls. Libguides.uwrf.edu. Retrieved 15 June 2015, from http://libguides.uwrf.edu/ScholarlyArticles
Particularly with the American Psychological Association literature reviews provide credibility to the overall subject. Literary reviews also provide the reader with justification that the author has a complete understanding of the subject area. This is critical for the APA, as theories are form the foundation of its research. Without a thorough understanding of the subject matter, the conclusions derived for the research may be biased. A literary review therefore allows the writer to better establish a theoretical framework and methodological focus. As a result the literary review provides a comprehensive focus for both the provider and the consumer on the information (Beyea, 1998)
The literature review, as discussed above, is a discussion and summary of statistical literature. There are numerous elements within a literature review that are important. This literature must have either a general or specialize relevant to the subject area being discusses. In addition, nearly every statement in…
1)Beyea S, Nicholl L (1998) Writing an integrative review. AORN Journal 67(4): 877 -- 80
2)Carnwell R, Daly W (2001) Strategies for the construction of a critical review of the literature. Nurse Educ Pract 1: 57 -- 63
Professional Knowledge and Abilities
The American Psychological Association (APA) is a pivotal organization within the discipline of psychology. The influence of the APA on questions of standards and professionalism is unquestioned. A demonstration of this influence is the use of the APA standard for presenting papers and research work. Thus, the APA is the guardian for quality and integrity in the psychological landscape in America and much of the world.
The APA has very specific organizational purposes and attempts to stay within the parameters of its organizational purposes. The main purpose of the APA is the advance of "psychology as a science, a profession and as a means of promoting health, education, and human welfare" (American Psychological Association, 2011). This purpose is achieved through the publication of journals, the establishing of best practices, the improvement of research approaches in psychology, and the real life application of research findings. The improvement…
American psychological association. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/about/index.aspx
Booth, A. & Bisztray, G. (1970). "Value orientations, member integration and participation in voluntary association activities" Administrative Science Quarterly 15(1): 39-45.
It also promotes research in the field and therefore the improvement of the research methods and applications. Other ways in which the Association improves the understanding and use of knowledge in the field is by means of meetings, contacts, reports, papers, discussion and publication (American Psychological Association, 2012).
The APA is governed by volunteer governance members, who are responsible for the direction of the advocacy, publishing, member service, and other functions of the APA. Specifically, the governance members include a Council of epresentatives, whose responsibility includes approving policy and the appropriation of revenues. The Board of Directors is elected by members and administers the functions of the Council of epresentatives. The APA president is an annual position that is filled by a person who is elected by the membership. The president provides a leadership contact for the Association. Other ruling parties include committees, boards and task forces with specific functions…
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. (2012). About ASPPB. Retrieved from: http://www.asppb.net/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3285
American Psychological Association Code of Ethics, Chapter 5.
American Psychological Association (2012). About APA. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/about/index.aspx
American Psychological Association (2010, Feb 20). Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.
Portfolio: Patients who express suicidal ideation should always be taken seriously. I have read that the greatest risk factor for suicide in previous attempts. Sometimes suicide can be considered a cry for help, and everyone who expresses some time of suicidal ideation deserves evaluation.
The form of psychotherapy I find the most appealing is the cognitive behavioral approach. It appeals to me since the focus if reparative and based on a desire to change one's behaviors which contribute to the problem which prompted therapy in the first place. Patients who engage in cognitive behavioral therapy require a certain degree of insight into how their behaviors contribute to their own emotions or feelings. The interaction of mind and body can be especially telling; many psychological disorders have physical manifestations and conversely, many chronic medical problems can also manifest emotional symptoms. Cognitive behavioral therapy allows the individual to recognize patterns…
Moscicki EK. Identification of suicide risk factors using epidemiologic studies. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1997; 20:499-517.
Bushman BJ, Peterson WC, Bonacci EA, Vasquez EA, Miller N. (2005) Chewing on it Can Chew You Up: Effects of Rumination on Triggered Displaced Aggression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association. Vol. 88, No. 6, 969-983
Caprara, G.V., Barbaranelli, C., & Comrey, a.L. (1992). A personological approach to the study of aggression. Personality and Individual Differences,
According to the manual, the personality disorder 'is clinical syndrome which has more long lasting symptoms and encompass the individual's way of interacting with the world; the mental disorder includes paranoid, antisocial, and borderline personality disorders' (House, 2000). The deterioration of the physical condition is considered to be likely cause of the development, continuance, or exacerbation of clinical syndromes, developmental disorders and personality disorders. The DMS-IV manual has elaborated the conditions experienced by the patients in particular those under sever psychological trauma, and the physicians have been provided with the best possible technique to address the psychological pains and mental sufferings. The mental sufferings have their origin which is socially, politically, and naturally motivated or self-imposed (James, 2000).
The occurrences of the tragic events due the life span has the potential to create mental disorder, there have been cases where the patients have reflected their vulnerability of the mental dissatisfaction…
James Roy Morrison. The First Interview: Revised for DSM-IV. Guilford Press. 2000, pp. 34-54.
House, Alvin E. DSM-IV Diagnosis in the Schools. Guilford Press. 2000. pp. 45-76.
Michael B. First, Allen J. Frances, Harold Alan Pincus. DSM-IV: Diagnostics Differentials. 2000. pp. 187-201.
Thomas a. Widiger. DSM-IV Sourcebook. American Psychiatric Publication Inc. 2001. pp. 134-154.
Ethical and legal use of psychological testing has a significant impact on the standards and practices of psychological testing to demonstrate intervention for those being tested. The purpose of the ethical boundaries of psychological testing is to ensure that clinicians are utilizing the best test possible and then applying the results ethically to demonstrate assistance with diagnosis and intervention modes in a way that best meets the needs of the subject. This work will discuss the ethical application and utilization of psychological testing instruments to demonstrate the best possible outcomes and interventions for subjects in a way that recognizes tests strengths and limitations and ultimately leads to the appropriate and essential answers needed to aid people with diagnosis and treatment objectives. There are a significant number of psychological tests at the disposal of clinicians and they are in a constant state of revision by the entities that develop…
Emanuel, E.J., & Menikoff, J. (2011). Reforming the regulations governing research with human subjects. The New England Journal Of Medicine, 365(12), 1145-1150. doi:10.1056/NEJMsb1106942
Green, B., Li, L., Morris, J., Gluzman, R., Davis, J.L., Wang, M., & Katz, R.V. (2011). Detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Who knows what? A framework for health promotion strategies. Health Education & Behavior, 38(6), 629-636. doi:10.1177/1090198110391529
Hogan, T.P. (2007). Psychological testing: A practical introduction (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Nagy, T.F. (2011). Ethics in psychological assessment. In T.F. Nagy (Ed.), Essential ethics for psychologists: A primer for understanding and mastering core issues (pp. 171-183). Washington, DC U.S.: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/12345-009
assist counselors in selecting psychological tests and/or assessments?
There are a number of psychology test directories available in reference libraries. Thee directories typically contain a directory of psychology tests organized according to subject matter. For example, there will be separate sections for self-concept, cognitive ability, personality traits, etc. Each reference book will have its own system of classification so this must be taken into account.
For each entry, there is typically a general profile of the psychology tests and related links. The nature of these entries will vary depending on whether the book is a bibliography or whether it is in-depth directory. The four most popular reference book titles are Tests, Tests in Print (TIP), the Mental Measurements Yearbook (MMY), and Test Critiques (APA).
Tests In Print is a bibliographic encyclopedia of information on every published and commercially available test in psychology and achievement. It is published by uros Institute…
American Psychological Association - FAQ/Finding Information About Psychological Tests
It is also interesting to note that the correlation between depression and childhood sexual abuse was found to be higher among females in many studies.
However, the issue of the relationship between depression and sexual abuse may not be as clear-cut as the above studies suggest. Recent research has begun to question this correlation and has produced findings that suggest that there are many other parameters and variables that should be considered. This is especially the case with regard to the view that childhood sexual abuse necessarily leads to depression in adulthood. As one report claims, "...there is accumulating evidence to contradict these claims" (Roosa,
Reinholtz, (Angelini, 1999). However the majority of studies indicate that there is a strong possibility that children who are sexually abused experience symptoms of depression that can extend into adulthood.
3.1. What is PTSD?
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a disorder that has shown…
Abused Children Face Depression Risk as Adults. Retrieved March 3, 2009 at http://www.healthyplace.com/abuse/abuse-and-depression/abused-children-face-depression-risk-as-adults/menu-id-52/
Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse History and Adverse
Psychosocial Outcomes in controlled studies. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.leadershipcouncil.org/1/res/csa.html
Barker J. Adult Sequelae of Child Sexual Abuse. Retrieved March 6, 2009, at http://www.medicineau.net.au/clinical/psychiatry/SexualAbuse.html
Ultimately, it may be the greatest measure of humanity that we recognize that the relevance of animal sentience in relation to our needs is not a function of their similarity to us or of our chosen relationships with them.
Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,
And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam
Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.
Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
"Meta-Analysis Of Psychological Interventions For Chronic Low Back Pain."
Health Psychology, 2007 26 (1): 1-9.
Jensen, Maureen C.; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N.; Obuchowski, Nancy; Modic, Michael
T. Malkasian, Dennis, and Ross, Jeffrey S. "Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lumbar Spine in People without Back…
Coren, Stanley. (1995). The Intelligence Of Dogs: A Guide To The Thoughts, Emotions,
And Inner Lives Of Our Canine Companions. New York: Bantam
Gatchel, Robert J.; Polatin, Peter B.; and Kinney, Regina K. "Predicting Outcome of Chronic Back Pain Using Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology: A Prospective Analysis." Health Psychology, 1995 14 (5): 415-420.
Hoffman, Benson M.; Papas, Rebecca K.; Chatkoff, David K.; and Kerns, Robert D.
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…
Amaro, Hortensia, et al. (2005) Racial/Ethnic Differences in Social Vulnerability Among Women with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Disorders: Implications for Treatment Services - Journal of Community Psychology. Vol. 33 Issue 4.
An Overview of the Effectiveness of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Models (2001) Thousand Oaks, December 2001. Online available at http://web.utk.edu/~dap/SA2003/EffectadolescentSATx.html
Blane, H.T. (1993) Recent Development in Alcoholism: Ethnicity: Recent Development in Alcoholism, 11, 109-122.
Bridging the Gap: What We Know and Don't Know About Dual Diagnosis (1998) Healing Hands Journal. Vol.2, No.4 July 1998.
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Individual Psychological Testing in the Workplace
Faced with an ever increasing competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. Every organization wants to ensure that they hire the right person. Job applicants may submit an effective resume and perform well during an interview, but they usually highlight only positive attributes. Psychological testing has been identified as one way of ensuring that the business picks an applicant who is a perfect fit for the position and actually can do the work required. Physiological tests have been validated by experts as a very good indicator of an applicant's working style. Testing potential employees can increase the chances that a company chooses the right person for a job, reduce turnover and their by lower training costs.
Specific Psychological Testing used in the Workplace
Personality tests are self-report measures…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National
Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association
American Psychological Association. (2011). Rights and responsibilities of test takers:
guidelines and expectations. American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved June
Profile of a Terrorist
It is common for people to assume that a potential terrorist might be influenced by political causes or social pressures. hile this may be true in some cases, the actual motivations for joining a terrorist group could be among a plethora of various reasons. Furthermore, it is very difficult to study terrorism. Primarily because a terrorist is unlikely to participate in studies on their own free will (DeAngelis, 2009). Terrorist are not likely to volunteer as experimental subjects or offer reliable data through interviews. Therefore the data pool surrounding terrorism is extremely limited and must of the research takes are more subjective approach given these limitations.
There are three primary approaches to studying terrorism which include macro-sociological, psychological, and psychosocial (de la Corte, 2007). The macro-sociological perspective considers social dysfunctions or conflictive trends in the society and social systems. This perspective will try to identify…
de la Corte, L. (2007). Explaining Terrorism: A sychosocial approach. Retrieved from Perspectives of Terrorism: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/8/html
DeAngelis, T. (2009, November). Understanding Terrorism. Retrieved from American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/11/terrorism.aspx
history the merican public has become shocked by the amount of violence that is occurring within its school system. Students have brought guns to school and used them to kill their classmates. Teachers have been attacked in the halls and administrators have been accosted as they went from the building to the car and back again. Violence in the merican school system is becoming a common occurrence by previous standards and as the nation watches in shock the demand for solutions becomes almost deafening. Several years ago when the attack occurred at Columbine the nation watched in horror while dead bodies of teens laid for days in the buildings and their parents were denied access to the carnage because of the ongoing investigation. nother act of school violence occurred in rkansas when two middle school students opened fire on their classmates who responded to a false fire alarm. side from…
As might be expected, accompanying the increase in school violence, media coverage of it is increasing concern about school safety. In a national survey of 1,261 school administrators (Boothe, Bradley, Flick, Keough, & Kirk, 1993), 97% indicated that school violence was increasing across the United States and in their neighboring school districts. In an April 1993 national survey of 2,508 students in Grades 7 to 12, sponsored by the Joyce Foundations (Harris, 1993), 73% of the students indicated that violence was increasing in schools across the country. Other national studies (American Psychological Association, 1993; American School Health Association, 1989; Centers for Disease Control, 1991; National Institute of Education, 1977) have also emphasized this concern about youth violence in general and school violence in particular (Furlong, 1994)."
The belief that violence in schools is on the rise is also subjective according to some reports. According to some reports it has been relatively stable since the 1970's. These conflicting reports, regarding the violence in American schools further strengthen the need for a study that will answer the questions from the students who live daily with the violence in their hallways. The students being able to answer questions about the guns, drugs, knives and other zero tolerance infractions that may not be noticed by administrators can provide a concrete direction in where to go in the future regarding how to handle violence in the school system. The study is significant in its ability to determine how serious the zero tolerance policies are and how well they are working. The study will also help answer questions about what administrators are missing. If the study uncovers the fact that there are a significant number of infractions occurring that are not being noticed it will provide needed guidance as to why and what some of the solutions might be to correct it.
If the study reveals that there are not a high number of unnoticed infractions this is an indicator that zero tolerance may be working, though there will be many things to study to be sure that zero tolerance has a causation affect.
ole and Evolution of the American Prison System
Explain the Primary ole and Evolution of the American Prison System and Determine if Incarceration educes Crime
The United States constitution is the fundamental foundation of the American criminal justice system. Given that the document is now over two hundred years old, it constantly experiences numerous amendments and interpretations. As a result, the criminal justice system over the years experienced alterations in order to reflect the needs and beliefs of each subsequent generation. The configuration of the modern prison system has its basis in the late 1700's and early 1800s. The development of the modern prison system aims at protecting innocent members of the society from criminals. The prison systems also deter criminals from committing more crimes through detaining and rehabilitating them. However, more and more deluge of white-collar crimes and other crimes, burdens the American criminal justice system and the prison…
Barnes E. Harry. (1921). The Historical of the Prison System in America. Journal of the American Institute of Criminal Law and Criminology. Vol. 12, No. 1, May, 1921
Craig Haney. (1998). The Past & Future of U.S. Prison Policy Twenty-Five Years after the Stanford Prison Experiment. American Psychological Association July 1998 Vol. 53, No. 7, 709-727
Dina R. Rose & Todd R. Clear (2006). Incarceration, Social, Capital, & Crime: Implications for Social Disorganization Theory. Volume 36, Issue 3, pages 441-480.
Escresa - Guillermo, Laarni (2011) Reexamining the Role of Incarceration and Stigma in Criminal Law. Law and economics, criminal law, stigma, social norms, behavioral economics.
Television and Cultural Plagues in America
American society is both one of the most litigious and one of the most violent in the world. ut violence is not the only cultural quagmire: Sexual promiscuity -- along with the itinerant sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies -- is another cultural minefield. And of course, racism, drug use and alcohol abuse are other major, seemingly unsolvable problems.
A common thread behind these social problems is the fact that social critics and activists blame television and its centrality to American culture for all. Television's pervasiveness especially among children is the concern. Today, often with both parents working and out of the house, latchkey kids come home from school and immediately turn on the television and start absorbing its disparate and often uncontrolled and only lightly censored messages.
Consequently, activists point their finger at television for corrupting the minds of our youth and steering…
American Academy of Pediatrics: Television and the Family. http://www.aap.org/family/tv1.htm
American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org / .
Christenson, Peter. Substance Abuse in Popular Prime Time Television. Mediascope, Inc.: 2000.
Collins, Rebecca L., Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse, Dale Kunkel, Sarah B. Hunter, and Angela Miu, "Watching Sex on Television Predicts Adolescent Initiation of Sexual Behavior," RAND Pediatrics, Vol. 114, No. 3, September 2004.
Sexual Child Abuse
Child sexual abuse involves a broad range of sexual behaviors that take place between a child and an older person. These sexual behaviors are planned to erotically stir the older person, commonly without concern for the consequences, choices, or outcome of the behavior upon the child. efinite conducts that are sexually offensive frequently involve bodily contact, such as in the state of sexual kissing, touching, fondling of genitals, and oral, anal, or vaginal contact. Nevertheless, behaviors might be sexually abusive even if they do not entail contact, such as in the case of genital exposure, verbal force for sex, and sexual abuse for purposes of prostitution or pornography.
For efinitions propose four main types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and child neglect), but seldom if ever does one form of abuse happen alone. The suggestion in itself is illogical. Physical abuse and sexual…
Diagnostic and Treatment Guidelines on Mental Health Effects of Family Violence. American Medical Association Web Site.
McClendon, Patricia D. November (1991). MSSW candidate. Incest/sexual abuse of children. Internet. p.23. Available: http://www.clinicalsocialwork.com/incest.html
National Association of Social Worker News. (1997, February). States eye domestic abuse welfare option. NASW News, Volume 42, #7, pp11.
The MLA style offers a consistent method for students and scholars within a discipline to cite their sources and make their citation method comprehensible to everyone reading their works. It allows the reader to easily find what part of the source that was used to write the paper and to "help your reader to distinguish between your ideas and reasoning and those you derive from other sources" ("Style: The MLA ay," Rutgers University, 2010).
hat MLA resources are available to help students?
A number of online websites, such as Easy Bib offer templates for compiling MLA bibliographies (Easy Bib, Official ebsite, 2010). The MLA website itself is a resource, as is the published, book version of its style guide (MLA Official ebsite, 2010). And teachers and classmates are also resources, whenever there is confusion about the correct way to cite different materials.
Easy Bib. Official ebsite. October 19,…
American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).
Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:
Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile
(Source: Binkin, p.94)
How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…
Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL
Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.
Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Film
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by the American Psychiatric Association (AMA), involves excessive worry and anxiety for a six-month period or longer (AMA 429). GAD is not typically associated with the more intense expressions of anxiety, such as panic attacks or panic disorder (Shelton S2), yet the degree of worry and anxiety experienced is easily recognized as disproportionate for the reality of the situation (AMA 473-475). A diagnosis depends in part on eliminating contributions from an underlying medical condition or the effects of a substance such as drugs or excessive caffeine, and the focus of the anxiety is not limited to a single concern, such as experiencing a panic attack or becoming deathly ill. The anxiety experienced therefore involves wide swaths of the patient's life.
Patients often report experiencing muscle tension, trembling, twitching, feeling shaky, muscle aches, soreness, sudden fatigue, irritability, and difficulty concentrating…
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. New York: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.
Analyze this. Dir. Harold Ramis. Perf. Robert De Niro, Billy Crystal, and Lisa Kudrow. Warner Brothers, 1999. Film.
Shelton, Charles I. Diagnosis and Management of Anxiety Disorders. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 104.3 (2004): S2-S5. Web.
Psychological and Socio-Cultural Theories of isk
Definition of isk
The term "risk" is often defined differently depending on the particular paradigm. For example, risk is economics is typically defined in terms of differences in possible monetary outcomes and individuals/corporations involved in risk -- seeking behavior are typically seeking higher monetary payoffs (Markowitz 1952). When clinical psychologists, sociologists, law enforcement officials, and lay individuals identify "risky behaviors" they are referring to a broader meaning of the term "risk." In this context behaviors and involve risk are typically defined as behaviors that can be of potential harm to the person performing them or to other people (Steinberg 2008). In this sense the term "risk" is typically viewed in terms of possible negative outcomes as opposed to some other positive outcome such as the potential monetary gain.
This particular paper will assume that the definition of risky behavior includes some type of a…
Aristotle .1998. Aristotle: The Nicomachean ethics. In Ackrill J. et al. eds. Oxford World' s
Classics. York: Oxford, pp. 229-301.
Beck, U. 1992. Risk society: Towards a new modernity. New Delhi: Sage.
Boholm, A. 1996. Risk perception and social anthropology: Critique of cultural Theory. Ethnos 61, pp. 64-84.
Many colonists had come to the new world in search of a lifestyle infused with greater freedom. The colonists' ideas about government differed greatly from their English counterparts. hile the English still focused on the power of the monarchy, the colonists had been holding popular assemblies since 1763 ("The American Revolution: First Phase"). They began to believe in rights that they saw the English and their stationed guards as there to violate. In addition, they believed that they, not a country across the ocean, should have the right to control or at least have a say in the political decisions that would affect their lives.
In addition to these highly popularized economic and ideological causes of the revolution, social causes also added fuel to the fire of revolution. As the 1700s wore on, More and more Americans came from European countries other than England. As these people began to immigrate…
American Revolution," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
The American Revolution: The First Phase." 2005. 9 December 2008. The American
Psychological Influence of Diabetes
The National Diabetes Educational Program is under the sponsorship of the Disease control and prevention and the National institutes of health. The purpose of this joint interaction is to reduce the effects of diabetes and delay the onset of diabetes. The target audience for this program is children, Adults, families, caregivers, healthcare professionals, promoters and peers.
Diabetes as a health related issue has diverse effects on the psychological aspects of people infected. Diabetes as a disease falls into two categories: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 Diabetes mellitus also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes is as a result of destruction of insulin producing cells of the pancreas. The lack of insulin results to an increased urine or blood glucose (Penckofer et. al., 2007). If left untreated the disease may turn out being fatal. The illness may, however, be treated by administration…
Penckofer, S., Ferrans, C.E., Velsor-Friedrich, B., & Savoy, S. (2007). The psychological impact of living with diabetes women's day-to-day experiences. The Diabetes
Educator, 33(4), 680-690.
Sepa, A., Frodi, A., Vaarala, O., & Ludvigsson, J. (2005). Diabetes-related autoimmunity in infancy Psychological stress . Diabetes care, 28(2), 290-295.
Funnell, M.M., Brown, T.L., Childs, B.P., Haas, L.B., Hosey, G.M., Jensen, B., ... & Weiss, M.A. (2009). Self-management education and National standards for diabetes. Diabetes care, 32 (1), 87-94.
In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.
1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.
2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.
3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.
4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
Jaguars and Were-Jaguars:
Conceptions and Misconceptions in Olmec Culture
There is not a question that jaguars were important to Mesoamerican religion and culture. The Olmecs were no exception to this rule. However, it seems that previous interpretations of Olmec art and architecture have erroneously placed more emphasis on the jaguar than is actually due. While a significant part of Mesoamerican culture, the jaguar did not play quite the all-encompassing role that many archaeologists have attributed to it. Specifically, the so-called "were-jaguar" motif might be representative of something other than a jaguar, or at least, contain elements of other animals in addition to the feline. Among others, it has been suggested that the "were-jaguar" babies were, instead, crocodilians, toads, deformed human children, snakes, or iguanas. This essay will look at the most convincing of these arguments, in particular, the possibility of the "were-jaguar" actually representing congenitally deformed babies, were-crocodilians,…
1969 Olmec Society. In The Olmec World, pp.86-106. University of California Press, Berkeley.
2002 Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs. Thames and Hudson, New York.
The combination of these factors established a basic foundation for looking at the entire impact of specific ideas and events on the individual's cognitive system. (James, 2005, pp. 45 -- 132)
John Dewey was able to take these ideas and theorized that the social environment will have an impact on: the activities of the mind and ultimately individual behavior. At the heart of his beliefs, was the view that psychologists should move away from stimulus-based responses and towards understanding the entire neural pathway. This is when psychologists can comprehend how certain thoughts are impacting the behavior of the person. These principles are illustrating how Dewey was building off of the ideas from James to expand the role of functionalism. (James, 2005, pp. 179 -- 268)
James Angell took the ideas of Dewey and expanded upon them. Under this philosophy, he identified three major points of functionalism to include: studying the…
Functionalism. (2006). Stanford University. Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/functionalism/
James, W. (2005). James and Dewey. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.
Simon, L. (1996). William James Remembered. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…
Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.
Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.
Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.
Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
present this article in a scholarly fashion, which lends credibility to the authors -- an issue that is extremely crucial considering their audience. hile Germano et al. cite nearly no evidence for their argument, Lehr's article is packed with research regarding not only how students see revision and the writing process, but also about how teachers can address the problem. The information is specific, pointing to certain grade levels, activities, etc.
A closer look at these two articles, then, reveals that they have more similarities than differences. In fact, the only major difference between the two is the audience and factual information contained in the articles. In addition, these differences are warranted given the articles' different purposes. Germano et al.' s article can almost be seen as an extension of Lehr's -- encouraging professionals to take the same advice that they give their students. In fact, it is expressly because…
Germano William et al. "Revision as Writing, Writing as Revision." Modern Language
Association. 2007. 15 May 2009.
Lehr, Fran. "Revision in the Writing Process." B. NET. n.d. 15 May 2009.
Thus instrumental condition would rely on the notion that a person generates a response rather than an environmental stimulus. I have found that both people and stimulus may elicit certain behaviors both in and outside of the classroom.
Instrumental conditioning is modeled after animal experiments which showed that the individual's environment can reinforce response controls, thus the best responses occur when reinforcement of a particular behavior is given. This I have learned to be the case in the classroom most assuredly, where students are more likely to exhibit positive behaviors more frequently when they are reinforced immediately for demonstrating positive behaviors. Generally the patterns that emerge from such conditioning are self-directed, meaning that I have found that most students engage in behaviors and continue to engage in behaviors which they find result in a positive response regardless of the environment they are placed in.
With regard to controlling adverse behavior,…
Chang, Min-Yu S. (1998). "Learning Theory and Advertising." CIA Advertising. 23,
October 2004, Available: http://www.ciadvertising.org/studies/student/98_spring/theory/learning.html
Klein, S.B. (2002). "Principles and Applications of Appetitive Conditioning." Mississippi
State University. McGraw Hill. Education. 22, October, 2004, Available:
Edgar Hoover, makes public its continuing investigation into the activities of black nationalist organizations, singling out the Black Panther Party in particular, Hoover viewing the group as a national security threat.
January 05, 1970
Blacks Move Out of Inner Cities: The Bureau of Census statistics show as the quality of life in poverty-stricken urban communities worsens, a continuous stream of middle-class blacks escape to higher-income neighborhoods and suburbs.
February 13, 1970
First Black Member of the New York Stock Exchange: Joseph L. Searles III becomes the first African-American to become a member of the New York Stock Exchange, starting his training as a floor partner with the firm of Newberger, Leob & Company.
June 16, 1970
Gibson Elected Mayor of Newark, New Jersey: Kenneth A. Gibson was elected mayor of Newark, New Jersey on this date. He also became the first Black president of the Conference of U.S. Mayors during…
African-American male unemployment: Robert Carmona. (2007). Congressional Testimony.
Retrieved May 12, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P135839035.html
Algernon Austin. (2008, January 18). What a recession means for black America. EPI Issue Brief
#241. Retrieved May 13, 2009 from http://www.epi.org/publications/entry/ib241/
However, psychology, even scientific psychology, presents falsifiability challenges not evident in the natural scientists. Some scientists might argue that Freud has been shown to be a poor theorist, given what has been revealed about the brain since Popper's day. If a depressive shows no improvement after years of Freudian therapy, but does show improvement after taking Prozac, that could be said to prove Freud wrong. Unfortunately, so many other external factors can affect a person's mood it is hard to attribute a single cause to a person's remission. It could be the drug or other conditions in the individual's environment. While large drug trials try to use large sample sizes as a way of reducing the influence of extraneous variables as well as use control groups who receive a placebo, the less observable and testable the phenomenon, the more difficult it is to measure. Even attempts to demonstrate improvement of…
Cohen, Patricia. (2007). Freud is widely taught at universities, except in the psychology department. The New York Times. Retrieved April 3, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com /2007/11/25/weekinreview/25cohen.htm
Good and bad theories. (2007, April 27). On Philosophy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://onphilosophy.wordpress.com/2007/04/27/good-and-bad-theories/
Lutus, Paul. (2009, May 12). Is psychology a science? Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://www.arachnoid.com/psychology/
Marian, Lucian. (2008). Falsifiability. Debunking primal therapy. Retrieved April 2, 2010 at http://debunkingprimaltherapy.com/3_falsifiability-testable/
Figue 1. Demogaphic composition of the United States (2003 estimate).
Souce: Based on tabula data in Wold Factbook, 2007 (no sepaate listing is maintained fo Hispanics).
Fom a stictly pecentage pespective, it would seem that Asian-Ameicans do not epesent much of a theat at all to mainsteam Ameican society, but these mee numbes do not tell the whole stoy of couse. Fo one thing, Asian-Ameicans ae one of the most divese and fastest gowing goups in the United States today (Hong, Kim & Wolfe, 2005). Accoding to Alvaez and Kimua (2001), studies have documented time and again that, consistent with thei histoical teatment, Asian-Ameicans continue to be the tagets of acially motivated popety vandalism, vebal haassment, theft, physical assaults, and in some instances, homicide; futhemoe, othe studies have confimed that a pesistent patten diving anti-Asian violence is the peception of Asian-Ameicans as foeignes who pesent an economic, academic, social, and/o…
Due to skills and abilities
4. Based on what you know and believe, would you agree or disagree with the following statements?
Racism in America is no longer a problem for Chinese-Americans.
Racism in America is no longer a problem for women and minorities
Native American elder discussed on page 13 in the text is a peculiar one. However, the employment of the five-axis diagnosis provided in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders provides a good deal of information about what sort of issues this elderly man is dealing with. One of the facets of this manual that I would readily utilize is the capacity to use a provisional diagnosis and defer full diagnosis until later, so that I could properly gather more information than that which is provided in the text regarding his ailments.
The first axis is for clinical disorders except those pertaining to personality disorders and mental retardation (APA, 2013, p. 28). Again, based on the information at hand, I would make a provisional diagnosis that the client is suffering from clinical depression, perhaps in some part due to the fact that he was previously an alcoholic. In John…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Marszalek, J. (No date). DSM. Diagnosis and Assessment.
Court records also stick on, whether the charges are dropped or followed by a conviction. People of color or ethnic minorities, such as African-Americans and Hispanics, have come to accept that they cannot avoid acquiring a criminal record. The 1990 Washington DC-based sentencing project found that one in every four African-Americans aged 20 to 29 was in prison, in jail or on probation or parole. A research conducted by the National Center on Institutions and Alternatives had a comparable finding. In a decade, the figure decreased to one out of three or 76% of 18-year-old African-Americans in the urban areas who can expect arrest and imprisonment before age 36. The racial gap became evident at the approach of the millennium. In 1926, 79% of inmates in state and federal prisons were whites and only 21% were lacks. ut in 1999, African-Americans made up 55-60% of new admissions. Including Latino inmates,…
1. Bates, D. (2006). Policy Makers Working to Find a Solution for Increased Incarceration. Falls Church News Press. http://www.fcnp.com/432/parole.htm
2. Beck, A.R.. (2001). Jail Bloating: a Common but Unnecessary Cause of Jail Overcrowding. http://www.justiceconcepts.com/jail%20overcrowding.pdf
3. ISECUREtrac. (2004). Reducing Prison Overcrowding. ISECUREtrac Corporation. http://www.isecuretrac.com/sa_po.asp
4. Joel, D. (1989). Time to Deal with America's Prison Crisis. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.otg/Research/Criminalbg735.cfm
However, as male children transition into late childhood and adolescence, they tend to withdraw from their mothers and confide much more in their fathers. In fatherless households, the male child often withdraws from the mother in much the same way, but without the option of shifting emotional connection to the father. As a result, fatherless male adolescents exhibit substantially higher rates of delinquency, alcoholism, illegal activity, and perform worse academically (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 226).
The Importance of Fatherhood for Female Children:
In female children, absentee fathers predispose them either to negative expectations or to unrealistic idealized expectations in their dating relationships with men that ultimately increase the likelihood of disappointment and by virtue of multiple mechanisms that undermine those relationships (annon & Southern, 22-3). Typically, females raised without their fathers select emotionally unavailable partners who will allow them to reenact the male abandonment they experienced as children. Alternately, they may…
Bannon, Jill a. And Southern, Mara L. "Father-absent women: Self-concept and modes of relating to men" Sex Roles, February, 1980. Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam (1999).
Gerrig, Richard J. And Phillip G. Zimbardo. Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon (2005).
Kasl, Charlotte Davis. Women, Sex, and Addiction. New York: Harper & Row (1998).
Wen, Ming. "Single-Parent Family Structure, Child Development, and Child's Well- being" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005.
American Academy Pediatrics publication a critique a media portrayal substance, links made AAP statement material. The password EBook: apusstudent I uploaded rest material.
American Academy of Pediatrics' Policy Statement concerning media portrayal of substance abuse touches upon several important issues that arise along with the media products' influence on America's young population at large. The article's targeted list of open-access channels associated with messages of noxious substance use include advertisements, television shows, motion pictures, social websites and music. Attention is directed specifically towards the findings of broadly conducted research in the matter of harm inflicted on children and adolescents as a result of the entertainment industry's depictions of legal and illegal substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and heroin. Based on these findings, Pediatrics proposes a set of familial, institutional and legislative measures designed to minimize or abolish the destructive influence that media effects on a child's and teenager's development…
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2010, October). Policy Statement -- Children, Adolescents, Substance Abuse and the Media. Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 4, pp. 791-799.
Levinthal, C.F. (2012). Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society, Seventh Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Macdonald, A. (Producer), & Boyle, D. (Director). (1996). Trainspotting [Motion picture]. United Kingdom: Channel Four Films.
Roberts, D.F. et al. (1999). Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music. Office of National Drug Control Policy, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (U.S.). Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov
ports and popular culture (NFL/NBA)
Popular culture entails all forms of mass communication such as:
Books and Cartoons and comics
It is somewhat different compared to higher forms of cultural art such as:
In terms of mass communication, popular culture means messages which are intellectually and artistically limited primarily designed to entertain and humor the viewers (Hollander, 2014). Following the industrial revolution, the people had a lot of time to spare which led to a huge demand for entertainment and amusement and gave height to media. The increasing supply of goods also made it necessary for the advertisers to attract the consumers and mass media could reach a large number of audiences at the same time (Hollander, 2014).
The physical activities have always been in the life of human beings in the form of different leisure…
Sports have played a huge role in the American society on the whole as they have become a necessary part of the popular culture. American football is quite a popular game which brings NFL (National Football League) in limelight. NFL is same to same as other sports have an off season too when they are on a season break. Leagues such as NBA (National Basketball Association), MLB (Major League Baseball) and NHL (National Hockey League) follow the same pattern which builds the hype for them (Lee, 2012). It enables the public to forget all about sports for a while until it swings back in action again. The off season usually consists of training sessions, gym, trading players, NFL Combine and NFL Draft. These activities are heavily kept watch of by loyal fans followed by intense discussions (House, 2012).
Super Bowl is intensely popular in United States. Even the non-followers are somehow influenced by it as they hear news about it or by viewing it. The news channels mention regularly and social media is definitely on fire with news and updates. A famous band plays during halftime while a draw exists for watching the advertisements during the game and halftime (Lee, 2012). Companies are compelled to dish out loads of cash to display advertise themselves as the Super Bowl progresses. These ads are usually creative and funny and sometimes mixed. People for the sake of fun choose a particular team and cheer it till the end or otherwise friends pick a team and contend that it will win the title. It's sort of a public gathering event where food is enjoyed and drinks are taken in huge quantities. Tostitos and Doritos are chips found mostly at super Bowl parties while in case of drinks Coke, Pepsi and Budweiser. For the sports fans, it's their day off as they spend the entire day in front of a TV or mocking the opponent's team for fun. TV shows often give reference to Super Bowl just as Christmas and Halloween. Betting on a high level is also involved for the winning team, people are cut some slack from office, schools and colleges as it's the biggest event of the year (Hollander, 2014).
In 'Popular culture and the rituals of American Football' by Mark Axelrod, several cultural practices in America regarding football are mentioned. Before the ports went global, there were a lot of rituals and myths
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…
David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002
Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996
Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991
Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
a) Changes in APA Public Policy
According to several changes made in APA Public policy with relation to the role of psychologists in the interrogations session, APA has prohibited its psychologists from taking part in the varied torture or cruel, inhuman or degrading interrogation techniques by stating, "No psychiatrist should participate directly in the interrogation of persons held in custody by military or civilian investigative or law enforcement authorities, whether in the United States or elsewhere. Direct participation includes being present in the interrogation room, asking or suggesting questions, or advising authorities on the use of specific techniques of interrogation with particular detainees (Pope, 2008, Psychologists at the Center of the Controversy)." urthermore, it was asserted through referendum which took place in 2008 that psychologists must not operate outside territories which are under the jurisdiction of international law such as Guantanamo, Bagram, or the CIA or JSOC "black site" prisons,…
Furthermore, since APA complies with United Nations definition of human rights, it can be implied that APA's definition of human rights includes universality and inalienability. The principle of universality of human rights is the cornerstone of international human rights law. This principle, as first emphasized in the Universal Declaration on Human Rights in 1948, has been reiterated in numerous international human rights conventions, declarations, and resolutions (UNHR, 1996). Hence, APA recognizes humans to have rights which cannot be taken away (APA, 1987).
Impact of U.S. Policies on Detainees
Where treaties like Geneva Convention and convention against torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, prohibit any inhumane behavior resulting into physical and mental distress, there are no governing bodies to supervise the law and order agencies as an organization like APA has been
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…
Frame, M.W., Flanagan, C.D, Frederick, J., Gold, R., Harris, S.(1997). You're in the hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students. Simulation and Gaming, March Vol. 28, No. No. 1, 107-115
Ahronovitz, Miha, Amrhein, Dustin, Anderson, Patrick, & de Andrade, Andrew. (2010).
Cloud computing use cases white paper. Cloud Computing Use Case Discussion Group. Web. Retrieved February 3, 2014 from http://opencloudmanifesto.org/Cloud_Computing_Use_Cases_Whitepaper-4_0.pdf
his source is the ultimate guide to cloud computing. It breaks down the technology very thoroughly, with how it can be used in a wide number of scenarios, from giant enterprise systems to private use. It introduces elements of hybrid cloud systems. Most importantly, it discusses how businesses can use cloud computing from a practical sense, working it in to their strategies and explaining it to their customers. It is an amazing reference to all aspects of this new and continuingly developing technology.
American Psychological Association (2010). Publication Manual of the American
Psychological Association 6th edition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
his book is crucial for researching and writing in a professional, modern context. It provides the…
This book collects a number of very useful case studies which show modern businesses working with information systems challenges. It is designed to help guide the new business professional into the ever-changing world of information technology in order to keep competitive and reach their strategic and operational business objectives. It discusses themes relevant for managers and IT professionals alike. It helps professionals in making the best strategic decisions in an ever evolving world. The latest edition has advanced to include new adaptations to the latest innovations in technology. Additionally, there are five new comprehensive case studies to help model strategy for both business and IT professionals.
Locke, L., Silverman, S., & Spirduso, W.W. (2009). Reading and Understanding Research 3rd edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
This book is a thorough guide and model for modern research. The sheer range of the audience is helpful to people in all stages of research, whether they be student, just beginning, or professional researchers. The book really takes a thorough investigation of quantitative and qualitative research methods in an easy to understand format, with step-by-step outlines for popular research methods. Even better, the text provides readers with practice research scenarios as tests for their skills working with various formats. Finally, the work does give advice and guidance for critically analyzing others' research as well. Overall, the work is a thorough guide to modern research practices that is beneficial for any researcher.
Ian J. And Dr., Geoff (2005). Reaction time explains IQ's association with death, Psychological Science. American Psychological Association, 16:1, 64-69
As all learning, on the basis of one's composite mental ability structure, can be thought of as a puzzle that is intricately formatted on the basis of one's neurological, physiological, psychological, and sociological parts, and, when blended together, produce a healthy functioning individual. Therefore, before an understanding is garnered as to how learning comes about, or the variables that affect its outcome, one must first understand the concept of intelligence. Most individuals, professional or lay, have an almost intuitive idea of what constitutes that which we call intelligence. Broadly defined intelligence is an individual's total ability to solve problems. The more complex the problem the more it is thought that the individual possess a higher level of intelligence. Unfortunately, however, most definitions do not differentiate intelligence as general ability or…
Among the factors which this article elucidates are necessary to be considered, Hetherington et al. indicate that "the long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se." (Hetherington et al., 303)
From a clinical treatment perspective, the article by Konstam (2009) is particularly useful. This presents the view that for those verging on adulthood who experience the divorce of parents, there is a more sophisticated and thus more complex sense of loss which is difficult to interpret. This is experienced differently than the dissolution of a marriage for young children who may lack the wherewithal to have observed clear warning signs. Here, Konstam suggests that clinical assistance can be a valuable resource for contending with issues…
Amato, P. (2000). The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 11-26.
Amato, P. & Cheadle, J.(2008). Parental divorce, marital conflict and children's behavior problems: A comparison of adopted and biological children. Social Forces, 83
Baker, a. (2005). The Long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children:
Tragically, it harms the most vulnerable among us -- children. This must stop
Please, send Senate Bill 1172 to the Assembly floor for a vote. It is the right thing to do. Thank you. (Domi,, 2012 ).
Advocates of conversion therapy are correct in maintaining that as long as the therapy helps a quantifiable amount of people, and these people voluntarily choose that theory, it should be maintained. The question is, however, how many other people has it harmed, and what is the extent and intensity of this harm... As in every other aspect, an approach that is harmful needs to be curtailed by the government. The government restricts smoking and drugs since harmful to the person. Advocates label this system as 'therapy', and therefore, say that a patient can choose the type of therapy that he or she wishes. However, the Ninth Circuit addressed this point in…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Domi, T (June 26, 2012 ) UPDATE: Prop 8 Witness Ryan Kendall Testifies on Conversion Therapy; Committee Approves 5-2
For most of U.S. history up to the time of the Community Mental Health Act of 1963, the mentally ill were generally warehoused in state and local mental institutions on a long-term basis. Most had been involuntarily committed by orders from courts or physicians, and the discharge rate was very low. Before the 1950s and 1960s, there were few effective treatments for mental illnesses like depression, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia, which were commonly considered incurable. Only with the psycho-pharmacological revolution in recent decades and new anti-depressant and anti-psychotic medications has it been possible for the severely mentally ill to be treated on an outpatient basis through community mental health centers. Of course, as the old state hospitals have emptied many of the mentally ill have ended up homeless, since they are unable to hold maintain regular employment or continue on a medication regimen without supervision. According to present-day…
Bacon. H. "Book Review: Jonathan Willows, Moving On after Childhood Sexual Abuse: Understanding the Effects and Preparing for Therapy in Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. (15)1 January 2010, pp. 141-42.
Bartels, S.J., A.D. van Citters and T. Crenshaw (2010). "Older Adults" in Levin, B.L., J. Petrila and K. Hennessy Mental Health Services: A Public Health Perspective. Oxford University Presss: 261-82.
Behar, E.S. And T.D. Borkovec. (2003). "Psychotherapy Outcome Research" in I.B. Weiner et al., eds. Handbook of Psychology: Research Methods in Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Carron, V.G. And K. Hull. (2009). "Treatment Manual for Trauma-Exposed Youth: Case Studies." Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry 15(1) 13 November 2009, pp. 27-38.
However, individuals who exhibit a "high level of aggression and antisocial behavior" are more likely to commit hate crimes, especially when fueled by drugs or alcohol," (Brehm 2007).
Research plainly shows that race matters, and that racism is still an important topic for psychologists and sociologists. Psychologists can help initiate race-related discussions in group counseling settings to help participants share their views, as well as in one-on-one counseling settings. Similarly, psychologists can work with schools to encourage open communications among students.
Brehm, S.S. (2007). OpEd: Understanding and preventing hate crimes. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/releases/opedhatecrimes.html
DeAngelis, T. (2009). Changing the way we see one another. onitor on Psychology 40(3). Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/03/diverse.html
"Hate Crimes Today: An Age-Old Foe in odern Dress" Position Paper of the American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/releases/hate.html
ills, K.I. (2009). Race relations in a new…
Mills, K.I. (2009). Race relations in a new age. Monitor on Psychology 40(4). Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/04/race-relations.html
"Psychological Research Reveals Fallacies in a Color-Blind Response to Racism." (2009). APA Public Policy Office. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/ppo/issues/pcolorblind.html
"Seeing Race and Seeming Racist? Whites Go Out of Their Way to Avoid Talking About Race." Press Release from the American Psychological Association. Oct 6, 2008. Retrieved April 15, 2009 from http://www.apa.org/releases/colorblind1008.html
Forensic and Clinical oles and Assessment
While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.
Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
1. The dilemma of Obesity
Mokdad et al., (1999) in his study found that the issue of unhealthy weight, overweight and obesity are perhaps one of the rising concerns for the Americans in the 21st century as more and more U.S. citizens become vulnerable to the circumstantial risks and dangers of the phenomenon (Mokdad et al., 1999). It is usually the body mass indexes (BMI) that indicate whether a person is actually overweight or not. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) carried out a study for the years 1999 to 2002 using the BMI phenomenon and concluded that about 65% of U.S. citizens in the adulthood years were categorized under the overweight group because of their BMI (Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2005).
To understand the phenomenon of obesity and its rise, it's important to understand…
Adam Drewnowski and S.E. Specter (2004), Poverty and Obesity: The Role of Energy Density and Energy Costs, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, no. 1: 6-16.
Akande, a. & Akande, B.E. (1994). On becoming a person: Activities to help children with their anger. Early Child Development and Care, 102, 31-62.
Akande, a. Wyk, C.D.WV. And Osagie, J.E. (2000). Importance of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Illness and the Enchancement of Health. Education. 120: 4.
Alexander, M.A., & Blank, J.J. (1988). Factors related to obesity in Mexican-American preschool children. Image, 20(2), 79-82.
Human esources Literature eview
In an article titled "Management Derailment: Personality Assessment and Mitigation," which was published in the American Psychological Association Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in 2010, the research team of Joyce Hogan, obert Hogan and obert B. Kaiser conduct a thorough literature review on the subject of management derailment. By examining over 100 scholarly articles and case studies, the reviewers sought to determine why a curious phenomenon within the study of human resource practices has consistently emerged. As the authors of the literature review observe in their Introduction, although "the economic literature clearly shows that good management enhances organizational performance and that some managers are better than others & #8230; there is little consensus in the psychological literature regarding the characteristics of good managers & #8230; (while) the research on bad managers converges rather well" (Hogan, Hogan & Kaiser, 2010). The thrust of the authors' research…
Hogan, J., Hogan, R., & Kaiser, R.B. (2010). Management derailment: Personality assessment and mitigation. American Psychological Association Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 3, 555-575.
Social Work Practice Within Aboriginal
Building attached case study Lisa, describe discuss social work practice approach aboriginal innovative practice modalities a cultural context. This assignment refining approach practice integrating theories practices learned required readings.
ABOIGINAL AND INNOVATIVE SOCIAL WOK PACTICE APPOACH
Concepts in Social Work Practice within Aboriginal and Cultural Framework
In trying to attend to a client's challenges in psychology, it is imperative to provide an environment that is sufficiently safe where a client can talk and explore their problems (Brave Heart, 2004). This measure is adequate for many clients but not sufficient for all especially so when it comes to cases involving aboriginal persons. For the aboriginal clients, an understanding of adaptation difficulties and the inter-generation aspects is necessary to provide a wholesome resolution to the challenges at hand. This paper presents a discussion on the ideal approach in social work for the case of Lisa, who had…
Brave Heart, M.Y.H. (2004). The historical trauma response among Natives and its relationship to substance abuse: A Lakota illustration. In E. Nebelkopf, & M. Phillips (Eds.), Healing and mental health for Native Americans: Speaking in red. Lanham, MD: AltaMira Press.
Briere, J. (2002). Treating adult survivors of severe childhood abuse and neglect: Further development of an integrative model. In J.E.B. Myers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C.T. Hendrix, T. Reid, & C. Jenny (Eds.). The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment, 2nd Edition. . Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Burns, D. (1999). The feeling good handbook. United Kingdom: Penguin Group.
Burton, L., Westen, D., & Kowalski, R.M. (2012). Psychology. Milton, Qld. Australia: John Wiley and Sons.
motional labor is an important aspect of what people do in their jobs, as Grandey rightly points out. Also considered, though, is the regulation of emotion within the workplace, because there have been workplace shootings, cases of rage, rapes, killings, and all kinds of problems. These are rare, but they do happen, and it is believed that they will become more common in the future because society is going more global and workers are under increasing pressures today.
Grandey, a., Fisk, G.M., & Steiner, D.D. (2005). Must "service with a smile" be stressful? The moderating role of personal control for American and French employees. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 893-904.
Having control is an important concept in the business world. People must be able to maintain control over themselves when they deal with other employees and with customers that may or may not be happy. As Grandey, Fisk, and…
Emotional labor and the discomfort that it can bring are discussed by Tracy. The idea of emotional labor is a relatively new one, and a lot of people still try to overlook or ignore it. However, it is not something that can be wished away. It is important to understand this discomfort so that people who need help with the work that they do and the way that they feel about that work can get some assistance. Without getting help, individuals can spiral out of control emotionally, which is an unfortunate consequence of too much dissonance and discord in a person's life. It was originally thought that these kinds of dissonance problems only happened in social and personal lives, but the business world has changed so much that these issues are starting to appear there, as well.
Tracy, S.J., & Tretheway, a. (2005). Fracturing the real-self, fake-self dichotomy: Moving toward "crystallized" discourses and identities. Communications Theory, 15, 168-195.
For most people in the business world, there is a fake self and a real self. The real self is who a person is when he or she is completely alone. The fake self is who that same person is when he or she is out there in the world, trying to cope with work, other people, and the hustle and bustle of life that so many people both loathe and take for granted at the same time. There is a way, say Tracy and Tretheway, to take the fake self and the real self, and merge them into a self that is 'real' in the larger picture of things. By doing this, there is less of a problem with feeling fake around others or feeling as though he or she has to perform in a certain way, and this can help a person feel much more meaningful and real overall, both in the business world and in his or her personal life.
A worldview essentially denotes the framework of beliefs, ideas, philosophies, or ideologies that shapes how an individual or a group of individuals make sense of the world (Cosgrove, 2006). For instance, a three-year-old child believes that the world revolves around them. Equally, a secular humanist’s life is driven by the belief that only the material world exists. In essence, everyone has a worldview – whether conscious or unconscious. For Christians, the Bible is the ultimate influencer of their worldview. Christians believe that the sole reason for human existence is to serve God. This means that every action, decision, and emotion is driven by the desire to serve God. That is the fundamental attribute of a worldview – it influences every aspect of an individual’s life. It affects how an individual interprets the character of the world, human nature, and the purpose of life (Hiles & Smith, n.d.). Christians have their…
" (Halpin and urt, 1998) Duois states: "The history of the American Negro is the history of this strife -- this longing to attain self-conscious manhood, to merge his double self into a better and truer self. In this merging he wishes neither of the older selves to be lost. He would not Africanize America, for America has too much to teach the world and Africa. He would not bleach his Negro soul in a flood of White Americanism, for he knows that Negro blood has a message for the world. He simply wishes to make it possible for a man to be both a Negro and an American, without being cursed and spit upon by his fellows, without having the doors of Opportunity closed roughly in his face. (Duois, 1903)
The work of Pope (1998) conducted a study to make examination of the relationship between psychosocial development and racial…
Alessandria, Kathryn P. And Nelson, Eileen S. (2005) Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study. Project Muse January/February 2005 Vol. 46 No. 1 Online available at http://muse.jhu.edu/demo/journal_of_college_student_development/v046/46.1alessandria.pdf
ARMY ROTC: The John Hopkins University (nd) Training and Curriculum. Online available at http://www.jhu.edu/rotc/training.htm
Astin, a.W. (1984). Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education. Journal of College Student Personnel, 25, 297-308.
Astin, a.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.