American Slavery Essays (Examples)

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Slavery in the United States

Words: 348 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82578306

However, the opposite was true in the south. As the slave trade continued, the two halves of the continent grew in very different ways, setting up the ultimate confrontation of the Civil War.

The result of the Civil War and the outlawing of slavery resulted in the crashing of the Southern economy, thus leading to a further divide, this time economically, between the North and the South. Since the southern economy depended on slaves, when this factor was removed the economy collapsed while the north's continued to grow. The effects of this are still felt today.


Garraty, J.A. And M.C. Carnes. (2001): A Short History of the American Nation. (8th ed.). oston: Longman.

Howe, Daniel Walker. (2007): What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kolchin, Peter and Fritz Metsch. (2003): American Slavery, 1619-1877. New York: Hill and Wang.

Williams, a.A. (1999): The…… [Read More]


Garraty, J.A. And M.C. Carnes. (2001): A Short History of the American Nation. (8th ed.). Boston: Longman.

Howe, Daniel Walker. (2007): What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815-1848. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kolchin, Peter and Fritz Metsch. (2003): American Slavery, 1619-1877. New York: Hill and Wang.

Williams, a.A. (1999): The South in the History of the Nation: A Reader, Volume One: Through Reconstruction. New York: St. Martin's.
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Slavery an Examination on American

Words: 930 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67320197

S. Supreme Court. As to religion, slaves were allowed to worship in segregated sections of white churches, but with the advent of Reconstruction around 1867, freed slaves left the white churches and formed their own aptist and Methodist congregations.

The governments which were set up by the North during the Reconstruction period often mandated that segregation remain in place which affected the ability of freed slaves to attend and seek assistance in many local and state-level social institutions, such as colleges, hospitals and welfare facilities. For example, in the state of Georgia, there was no existing system for the care of disenfranchised former slaves and those who suffered from diseases and many physical ailments until the early 1880's. Also during this time, former slaves were forced to live in very inadequate housing, especially in southern cities like Atlanta, Richmond and Charleston. efore the Civil War, black American slaves had it…… [Read More]


Du Bois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. Intro. Henry Louis Gates, Jr. New York: Bantam Classics, 1989.
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Words: 1678 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47466276


According to the Concise Oxford English Dictionary, a slave is a 'person who is the legal property of another or others and is bound to absolute obedience' (Blackburn 262).

To be very concise, slavery is the opposite of freedom. A 'liberated' individual possesses all the freedom to enjoy basic human rights of citizenship, profession choice and lifestyle. Not only this, he has all the rights of security of self and property. On the contrary, the slave is a hereditary chattel who can be legally punished, sold or transferred, controlled and separated from the loved ones. Both his productive and reproductive capacities are exploited by the master. Thus, a slave doesn't have any right that a 'free' individual holds. Slaves belong to a different economic group; totally separated with the 'independent' working class (Campbell viii).

Slavery can be described as an institution that is founded on a relationship of control…… [Read More]


Blackburn, Robin. "Eighteen Defining Slavery -- its Special Features and Social Role."Slavery and Other Forms of Unfree Labour. Ed. LEonie J. Archer. London: Routledge, 1988. 262-276. Questia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

Campbell, Gwyn, ed. The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. London: Frank Cass, 2004. Questia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.

"Historic Timeline of Slavery and the Underground Railroad." National Underground Railroad Freedom Center. U.S. Department of Education Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural (URR) Program, n.d. Web. 6 Dec 2011. .

"History of Man from the Start Is Blighted by Slavery." South Wales Echo (Cardiff, Wales) 18 Sept. 2006: 10. Questia. Web. 6 Dec. 2011.
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Slavery the Civil War and the Preservation

Words: 2726 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76629825

Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union

In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. 14 December 2002.

Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. 14 December 2002.

Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. 14 December 2002.

The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002. .
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American Life Is All About the Fight

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17087246

American life is all about the fight towards becoming upwardly mobile and making life better. Ellen oster by Kaye Gibbons and the Narrative of the Life of rederick Douglass, an American Slave written by himself tell the story of struggle and hardship that leads to change and reflection. These two stories although differing in setting and protagonists, share the same level of pain that are universal regardless of race, gender, and age.

Both protagonists are bound by the chains of their existence. The differences are based on age and racial inequality. In terms of style and content, because the two novels were written during different time periods, they will have differences, especially in perspective since Douglass wrote it about himself where as Kaye Gibbons wrote about a made up character. In this essay these differences will be explained along with the universal themes that bring the two together.

Ellen oster…… [Read More]

Freedom is something both the protagonists of the two stories crave and need. Ellen needs to be free of her abusive father and finds it through his death and Douglass wants to be free of slavery and finds it through his escape. These pursuits not only illustrate the universal need for liberty and the pursuit of pleasure, but the human need to exist and exist well. It is through books such as these, that people can begin to understand things on a deeper level and realize the struggles everyone goes through at one point in their lives.

In conclusion the readings of Ellen Foster and Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave illustrate the plight and struggle of people in different times and periods. Ellen had to deal with poverty and abuse in 1970's American south and Douglass had to deal with existing during the period of American slavery. To compare the stories, one had to look at the subject matter. They were very different protagonists, one a black man, another a white girl, but they both determined to succeed and prevail against all odds and obstacles.

In regards to differences, the writing styles were the opposite of each other. One sought to create depth and mystery, the other to analyse and explain. Douglass wanted people to understand the plight of African-Americans were as Gibbons wanted to create a rich and deep character. Two great stories, two great characters, and one universal themese of suffering is what this essay offers.
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American Revolution Slavery in the United Stated

Words: 1499 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59313942

American Revolution

Slavery in the United Stated lasted as an endorsed organization until the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1865. In 1619 twenty Africans were brought by a Dutch soldier and sold to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia as indentured servants.

This would be the first of many visits up and down the American eastern seaboard. At this time, most slaves were being purchased by white men, though some Native Americans and free blacks were also detained. Slavery was spread to the areas where there was a high-quality soil for large plantations of important crops, such as cotton, sugar, coffee and most prominently tobacco. Even though the endorsed practice of enslaving blacks occurred in all of the original thirteen colonies, more than half of all African-Americans lived in Virginia and Maryland. The three highest-ranking North American zones of importation throughout most of the…… [Read More]

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American History

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37725339

American History

Northwest Passage- 1492-1600 when Europeans encountered the new world

After the Portuguese and Spanish took control of the South's sea pathways, the English and French began seeking a northwestern route to Asia. However, by the 17th century, they lost hope of ever making their way across North America's northern part after many generations of sailors failed to find a way. Nevertheless, early 15th and 16th century explorations and colonization increased knowledge regarding the world by a significant amount. Cornelius Wytfliet, the cartographer from Flanders created a world map that continued to depict the mythical "Straits of Anian" -- a province in China connecting the Atlantic and the legendary Northwest Passage, which finds mention in the edition of traveler, Marco Polo's work dated 1559. European powers' endeavors to make their homes in the Americas succeeded, ultimately, in the 17th century, when the English and the French successfully contested the…… [Read More]


Concepcion Saenz-Cambra. (2012). The Atlantic World, 1492 -- 1600. Concepcion.

David W. Galenson. (1984). The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis. Economic History Association, 1-26.

weli, R. v. (2008). Slave Trading and Slavery in the Dutch Colonial Empi. In Rik van weli. New West Indian Guide.
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Slavery A Problem in American

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12247324

Finally, the two works have different purposes, so it is difficult to rate them to the same standards. McPherson has more on his mind than the institution of slavery; he is discussing an entire war and its aftermath, while Elkins is solely concerned with slavery in America and why it occurred. While the authors do share many similar views, many simply do not apply to each other.

In conclusion, both of these books play a vital role in understanding the complexities of the Civil War and race relations during and after the Civil War. One takes a more scholarly approach, while the other takes a more storytelling approach. Both use intensive research and knowledge of the Civil War period to make their cases, and both belong on the bookshelf of any serious Civil War historian. McPherson's work is a bit easier to read, simply because he gears it to a…… [Read More]


Elkins, S.M. (1976). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Roberts, K. African-Virginian extended kin: The prevalence of West African family forms among slaves in Virginia, 1740-1870. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the Virginia Tech Web site:
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Slavery in American History Specifically

Words: 2557 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35859154

33). Slavery was an institution, and as such, it had become outmoded in modern society of the time. Elkins feels slavery could have been viewed less emotionally and more realistically as an institution, rather than an ethical or moral dilemma, and this is one of the most important arguments in his book, which sets the stage for the rest of his writing.

In his arguments for his theses, Elkins continues, "To the Northern reformer, every other concrete fact concerning slavery was dwarfed by its character as a moral evil - as an obscenity condemned of God and universally offensive to humanity" (Elkins, 1959, p. 36). Slavery was a moral evil, and it is still seen as such. Elkins indicates society was becoming disillusioned with it at the time (at least Northern society), and that the institution needed to change or disappear.

Another of the important points Elkins attempts to make…… [Read More]


Elkins, S.M. (1959). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Raboteau, a.B. (1978). Slave religion: The 'invisible institution' in the Antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Slavery Colonialism and Imperialism to Inclusion and Exclusion

Words: 2169 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10697586

Inclusion Exclusion

Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.

The most overt explanation of the author's research problem is when he states: "To argue, as some scholars have, that the first slaves suffered greatly from the enslavement process because it contradicted their 'heroic' warrior tradition, or that it was easier for them because Africans were docile in nature and submissive, is to substitute mythology for history," (p. 4).

The struggles of African slaves are the topic for Blassingame's entire book, and it is impossible to indicate one page number describing all the travails that are detailed in the tome. However, the first chapter of the book does provide examples of the suffering of slaves in Africa, during the transatlantic voyages, and in the New World. Pages 6 and 7 describe in some detail the brutality of the slave boat…… [Read More]


Blassingame, John W. 1979. The slave community: plantation life in the antebellum South. New York: Oxford University Press.

Center of the American West. "About Patty Limerick." Retrieved online: 

Duke University Libraries (n.d). Biography of John Hope Franklin. Retrieved online:

Franklin, John Hope, and Alfred A. Moss. 2000. From slavery to freedom: a history of African-Americans. New York: A.A Knopf
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Slavery and Race Relations Slavery

Words: 1838 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29591358

But tat doesn't really cange te istory or te reality of any event. Emancipation sould ave been our first concern but fortunately it was not even one of te main concerns let alone te first one. Lincoln along wit oter political eavyweigts were more interested in appeasing te Sout and various efforts were made to please te Soutern elite since secession was an imminent possibility.

So for various political and economic interests, te ugly practice of slavery was allowed to continue in te country tat claimed to be te campion of democracy. Te blacks and Americans will forever remember Abraam Lincoln as te man wo emancipated te slaves and abolised tis abominable practice once and for all, but te trut is tat Lincoln did tis only for political reasons. As researc indicates: "Despite te common perception to te contrary, te Civil War was not fougt primarily on te slavery issue.…… [Read More]

Abraham Lincoln: Inaugural address:
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Slavery and Capitalism in Nineteenth

Words: 2009 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11240996

The slaveholder was the "father" who needed to take care of his slaves spiritual and material needs, and to protect him or her.

Early in the nineteenth century, slaveholders began to view their slaves as property that needed protecting. Conditions improved slightly and slaves were given better food, clothing and housing. This was not done out of kindness, but because of a need to protect their property. Eventually laws were passed in southern states that limited the physical punishment that slaveholders could inflict upon slaves, and set the age at which slaves could be separated from their mothers.

Slavery needed to be protected from capitalism and democracy because these forces were inherently in opposition to slavery. Democracy declared all men equal before the law, but Paternalism provided the basis for a justification by saying these were not men, but some inferior being that needed to be ruled by whites. Slavery…… [Read More]

White northerners of all classes were opposed to slavery, but were overwhelmingly not abolitionists. Only about one percent of the white population would have called for an end to slavery by 1850. In the 1840s, the term anti-slavery came to mean opposition to expansion of slavery, but not abolition in states where it already existed.

White northern workers viewed slaves as a threat. How could they sell their services for wages when slaves worked for free? Equating them with slaves also diminished their social standing. White capitalists were opposed to slavery because they saw that the capital resources devoted to slavery could be better used elsewhere. Northerners of all classes wanted the western states to be Free because they needed the support of the west in expanding the power of the federal government, something that would not happen if the western states became Slave states.

Most northerners realized that the South would never give up slavery willingly. They knew that unless the South would accept an arrangement to pay for slaves (which would have been very costly), it would take armed conflict to remove slavery, and they were unwilling to resort to that. They just did not want to pay the costs necessary to end slavery. The North also had a vested interest in continuing slavery in the South. The cotton plantations provided ample amounts of cheap cotton for northern mills. Without slavery, this might not have been available, and northern industrialists would have had to look elsewhere for more costly alternatives. Northern wage earners also feared that the end of slavery in the South would mean a large influx of southern blacks to northern cities (which did eventually happen), providing competition for jobs and lowering wages. Farmers also were opposed to ending slavery. They did not want to compete with blacks for free land. So, while northerners did not want to see slavery expanded any further, they also did not want it to go away.
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Americans Are Reminded Incessantly These Days That

Words: 1507 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48516272

Americans are reminded incessantly these days that slavery was a terrible thing. In today's politically correct society, some blacks are challenging reparations for slavery because their remote ancestors were slaves. Slavery is routinely used to bash the South, although the slave trade began in the North, and slavery was once used in every state in the Union. Today's historians assure people of America that the War for Southern Independence was fought first and foremost if not exclusively over slavery, and that by winning that war, the North put an end to the peculiar institution once and for all. However, in today's modern society, if people are legally bound to hand a certain percentage of their income (the fruits of their labors) over to federal, state and local governments, then from the legal standpoint they only have some percentage ownership of their person and labor which could be considered a form…… [Read More]

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Slavery in the Cotton Kingdom Slavery During

Words: 1097 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91779353

Slavery in the Cotton Kingdom


During the American evolution and the civil war, the North and the South experienced development of different socio-political and cultural environmental conditions. The North became an industrial and manufacturing powerhouse as a result of rise of movements like abolitionism and women's right while the South became a cotton kingdom whose labor was sourced from slavery (Spark notes, 2011).

The distinct feature of cotton kingdom is that her activities were empowered by slave labor. The cotton kingdom thus means a cotton producing region of the United States until the period of civil war.

The reason why slavery spread into the cotton kingdom after revolution is because the tobacco income plummeted as white setters from Virginia and Carolinas forcing the original Native Americans inhabitants farther and farther west where they established plantations. The wide spread use of the cotton gin invented by Eli Whitney in 1793,…… [Read More]


Cliff notes, (2011). Slave Society and Culture. Retrieved on October 12, 2011 from,articleId-25051.html

Eric Foner,(2008). The Master and the Mistress. Retrieved on October 12, 2011 from

John Wiley, (2011). Slavery, the Economy, and Society. Retrieved October 12, 2011 from,articleId-25050.html

Spark notes, (2011). The North and South Diverge. Retrieved on October 12, 2011 from
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American War for Independence Wars Are Fought

Words: 602 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19743910

American ar for Independence

ars are fought for many reasons, but freedom from oppression is by far the noblest. The Colonial States of America were British ruled until the year 1776, when the Declaration of Independence called for a complete withdrawal of the King's forces from the American colonies. (Decl. Of Indep. Entire.) The American ar for Independence was a revolutionary war by every definition of the word; the ruling British Empire was cast off permanently, the separation and equality of the various states was guaranteed, and sufficient support for the Constitution and the Bill of Rights completed the newly created United States of America.

The drafting of the Declaration of Independence created a precedent for freedom that the United States had been waiting for decades, and it addressed directly the oppressions beset upon the American colonies by King George III. The Articles of Confederation were a result of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Articles of Conf. 2.

Articles of Conf. 3.

Decl. Of Indep. Entire.

Knight, F. (2000). Retrieved from
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Slavery Is a Dark Stain

Words: 1341 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38197560

The first Great Awakening in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries became a harbinger of the later, more vocal and radical abolitionist movements. The Maryland Abolition Society was another early abolitionist group. Some abolitionist movements espoused violent means to obtain full freedom for slaves, and John Brown is one of the most notorious advocates of radical means.

In 1817, a group of wealthy white males founded the American Colonization Society (ACS). The ACS had an abolitionist platform but a fundamentally racist agenda. hile the main objective of the ACS was to eventually free the slaves, members also wanted to deport all blacks to an African colony. Called Liberia after the Latin word for "free," the colony was created by the ACS for the express purpose of creating a second exodus of freed slaves, many of whom were born on American soil. Some members of the ACS might have been…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alvarez, Carlos. "Antislavery Movement: American Colonization Society." Online at

Becker, Eddie. "Chronology on the History of Slavery and Racism." 1999. Online at

Free Blacks in the Antebellum Period." African-American Odyssey. Online at .

History of Slavery in the United States." Online at
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Slavery Was the Major Force in the 19th Century American Politics

Words: 1813 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40536244


The so-called peculiar institution of slavery would come to define America in the 19th century, and set the stage for effects that until the current day. It was a critical, destructive error to leave the issue of slavery unresolved at the time of American independence.

Attempts to econcile the Slavery Issue

3/5 Compromise

What was the 3/5 Compromise?

elevance of the 3/5 Compromise

Significance of the 3/5 Compromise for the issue of slavery

Missouri Compromise of 1820

Define (MO as slave state, ME as free state)

Louisiana territory

Significance of the 1820 compromise

3.Compromise of 1850

Define the compromise of 1850

Significance of this compromise iii. Fugitive Slave Act and DC

Shift in power dynamic on the issue

Nebraska-Kansas Act

Define the Nebraska-Kansas Act

Describe the bleeding of Kansas iii. Show how the violence was a precursor to the Civil War

Dred Scot

What was the Dred Scott case?…… [Read More]


Foner, E. (1974). The causes of the American Civil War: recent interpretations and new directions. Civil War History. Vol. 20 (3) 197-214. (2015). What was the three-fifths compromise? Retrieved November 11, 2015 from

Library of Congress (2015). Primary documents in American history. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from

Library of Congress (2015, 2). Kansas-Nebraska Act. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 11, 2015 from
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Slavery Pattern in North America Took a

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96948140

Slavery pattern in North America took a funny trend since initially the blacks had some social positions and had a voice in the running of the community. his however later changed and the North also started to own slaves at a higher rate. here are several factors that led to this change in events in the north that made it to fancy slavery just as much as the South was with its plantations.

It is worth noting the background of the slavery trend in order to fully comprehend the drastic shift in slavery from the class servitude to racial slavery which was predominantly in the late 17th century and early 18th century. he black laborers and white laborers from the working class used to work on the same level and the Europeans used to be allowed to have slaves from the non-Christians population regardless of the color. he class determined…… [Read More]

The Emancipation Proclamation was a categorical document that sought to spell out the status of the U.S.A. As concerns slavery. It was to declare the people who had hitherto been held as slaves, free and forever would remain free and be protected by the executive and the military and the naval authority of the U.S.A., as well as being granted the freedom and not suppressed just like any other American who was not a slave there before. It however had the exemption states in the south where the slaves were not immediately emancipated but the proclamation was a beginning to the quest for the freedom of the slaves.

The South and their leaders believed that each state had a right just like the nation to manage its domestic affairs without external influence and one of these is the issue of slavery, that each state must be given the chance to decide whether slavery is good for their state or not, actually he advocated for the autonomy of each state to decide their internal matters independently without external influences, (National Park Service, (2007).

4. From the early colonial period to the Civil War, enslaved people -- who were descended from many African nationalities and ethnicities -- managed to construct a broadly common culture and ethnic identity of their own. Explain how they did this, what cultural resources they drew on, and what the main forms of this culture were. Evaluate the importance of the emergence of African-American culture under slavery to the history of African-Americans and to the U.S.
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Slavery in the American South

Words: 1709 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42495412

Many see slavery as the cause of the Civil ar but like with many other wars, it simply is not that simple. ars are never simple and rarely are they clear-cut. Slavery is a black eye on the history of the United States but within that turmoil, there is much to glean about a nation and a people. hile slavery is not unique to America, it is connected to the Civil ar. The struggle up until that time demonstrates how society and culture influence behavior and beliefs. Slavery was painful and freedom was not a perfect answer for those who suddenly found themselves free with nowhere to go. The pain of the Civil ar lead to the birth of Civil Rights and from such pain, individuals find release through perseverance. Unfortunately, slavery is a part of the history of man and while we read the pages of history, it is…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David. The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.

Bailey, Ronald. The Bloodiest Day. Alexandria: Time Life Books. 1984.

Davis, Pohanka, Troini. Civil War Journal: The Battles. Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press. 1998.

Norton, Mary Beth, ed. A People and a Nation: Third Edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
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American Civil Liberties Union

Words: 2200 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 118782

American Civil Liberties Union

(Friend or Foe)

America was founded on the astute principles of democracy and the potential benefits of freedom it derives. America, unlike many of its foreign counterparts has long recognized the benefits of individual rights, freedoms and privileges and has fought to the death to protect them. Currently, America aims to spread these principles of democracy around the globe in an effort to create a better quality of life for all mankind. Even with these lofty and ambitious goals, America, on occasion fails to uphold these principles within its own borders. Too often, America has overlooked the problems prevalent within its own country while criticizing other nations about their own circumstances. Many of these overlooked issues including slavery, discrimination, women's rights and others have left an unfavorable image in American history. In such instances, the American Civil Liberties Union has become the beacon of hope for…… [Read More]


1) " American Civil Liberties Union." Social Welfare History Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .

2) "ACLU History | American Civil Liberties Union." American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .

3) "ACLU: Accomplishments." Action Center | American Civil Liberties Union. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011. .

4) "American Civil Liberties Union - New World Encyclopedia." Info:Main Page - New World Encyclopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2011.
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Slavery the Institution of Slavery

Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22369193

By 1861 the political and economic disagreement concerning the issue of slavery came to a head and the civil war began. During the civil war slaves fought in both the confederate and union armies.

In 1862 and 1863 respectively President Lincoln issued executive orders referred to as the emancipation proclamation. These proclamations basically set slaves in the southern states free.

By 1865 the civil war came to an end and by July of 1865 most slaves were freed.

As it relates to economics, it is important to understand that the establishment and perpetuation of slavery was always about monetary benefit. Slaves provided land owners with access to abundant and free labor. Not having to pay people for labor results in increased profitability. During the 1600's colonist first began to understand the economic benefits associated with slavery and slaves became more valuable than indentured servants (Boskin). The value of slaves increased…… [Read More]


Boskin J. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony J.B. Lippincott Company Philadelphia: 1976.

Reconstruction and its Aftermath. 9 Dec. 2007.
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Slavery in 1619 a Year

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31318448

The kind of work a slave did depended on where he/she ended up. In the Chesapeake region, for instance, Africans cut and burned brush, split rails, and built fences with axes and hatchets. They cut down trees and squared logs. They were wheelwrights, carpenters, shingle cutters, boat builders, cabinetmakers, and barrel makers. They built wagons, worked as blacksmiths, made saddles and harnesses. In South Carolina they built dugout canoes and boats that carried rice to Charleston. A law there required all slaves to work as ditch diggers when the growing season was over. Slaves built roads and dug waterways. In North Carolina slaves made tar and pitch from pinecones for use on English boats. In Georgia, black slaves wove fishing nets and were shrimpers. In Africa they had killed and eaten crocodiles, so they knew how to deal with alligators in the South. The women worked in the fields and…… [Read More]

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Slavery in the 19th Century

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32712571

Regardless, slaves worked hard, often beginning with small tasks as children, and took on large responsibilities within their community. Women were charged with more tasks in addition to the fieldwork they had to do; they were also charged with cooking, cleaning, and child rearing. Slaves adapted to their lives through the development of their own culture. By the early 19th century, most African-Americans were Christians, with some converting to Christianity voluntarily and others being coerced. Though autonomous black churches were banned blacks throughout the South developed their own version of Christianity that was often considered more emotional than its white counterpart and influenced by African customs, traditions, and practices.

The development of the abolition movement arose from the revivalist movement in the North and the desire to create a perfect society in Christ's image and thereby perfect themselves. The abolitionists faced many obstacles including politics and unexpected racism in the…… [Read More]

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American Versions of Modernalisim the

Words: 1234 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25063287

Some writers had been overwhelmed by the sudden changes brought by the Harlem Renaissance and they preferred writing about certain things which didn't involve it. Sometimes they chose to write about a place in the U.S. which had a special effect on them at some point of their lives.

3. Black people had not been the only ones struggling to receive credit for their writings during the 1920s, as it had been also hard for women to become appreciated in a majority of men writers. Despite having to fight the severe gender discrimination which existed during the period, many American women writers managed to become successful.

Bess Streeter Aldrich is one of the women who succeeded in getting a positive feed-back from a public that had not been accustomed with women writers. Aldrich's writing "A Lantern in Her Hand" had won her international recognition for having created a great literary…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Laurie Champion, Emmanuel S. Nelson, "American Women Writers, 1900-1945: A Bio-Bibliographical Critical Sourcebook," Greenwood Press, 2000.
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American History Slave Revolts Although

Words: 6354 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54831518

Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.

Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
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American Presidents the United States

Words: 791 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78380521

His accomplishments included simplifying government jobs, and helping create the Democratic Party. He is most remembered as a great general and for defying Congress. Martin Van Buren served from 1837 to 1841. He was married to Hannah, and he died in 1862. His vice-president was ichard Johnson, and his nickname was the "Little Magician." His accomplishments included regulating banks and federal funds, and creating an independent treasury. He is most remembered for the Panic of 1837, and for being opposed to slavery. William Henry Harrison served in 1841 and died after only one month in office. He was married to Anna. His vice-president was John Tyler. He is most remembered for being the first president to die in office. John Tyler served from 1841 to 1845. He was married to Letitia and then Julia and he died in 1862. His nickname was "Old Tippecanoe." His accomplishments included annexing Texas and…… [Read More]


Editors. "Biographies." 2006. 22. Sept. 2006.

Editors. "The Presidents of the United States." 2006. 22 Sept. 2006.
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American Cities Just as American

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 413236

The development of the American automobile industry is one of the best examples of this interplay: "Unlike European manufacturers, who concentrated on expensive motorcars for the rich, American entrepreneurs early turned to economical vehicles that could be mass-produced," (Jackson 159). The fact that so many Americans then became capable of purchasing a car both fed the notion of the American dream, and also served to expand American cities and suburbs; people who could afford to commute were not forced to live in the stifling and often impoverished inner-city. This trend tended to make inner cities in America decreasingly desirable places to live. Yet, in places like New York, with the creation of central park, wealthy neighborhoods came to crowd around such desirable locations and push the impoverished sects of society away: "By the time the park's founding generation passed away, the political, aesthetic, and cultural unity they valued had already…… [Read More]


Cronon, William. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the great West. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.

Kenneth M. Jackson. 1985. Crabgrass Frontier: The suburbanization of the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rosenzweig, Roy and Elizabeth Blackmar. 1992. The park and the people: A history of Central Park. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
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Slavery in Texas Randolph Campbell in His

Words: 608 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11802777

Slavery in Texas

andolph Campbell, in his book "An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas," said that "protecting slavery was not he primary cause of the Texas evolution, but it certainly was a major result." (Campbell, 1989, pp. 48-49) The role slavery played in Texas, and the decision by the Anglos to rebel against the Mexican government has long been a tale that is not well-known in American history. Slavery was an institution that many who had emigrated from the United States to Texas either opposed, or were willing to restrict, but what many in Texas were not willing to accept was the high-handedness by which restrictions on slavery were imposed. Over time, many have viewed the Mexican government's interference in the economic foundations of Texan life the cause of the Texas evolution, but what really caused the revolution was the attempt to restrict, and then outlaw, the…… [Read More]


Campbell, Randolph. (1989). An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas.

United States: Louisiana State UP.
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American History in Their Considerations

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3825697

Webster appears to be in agreement with Calhoun regarding the North's part in damaging the relationship between the North and the South. According to Webster however, the main culprit in this dynamic is the rhetoric of the abolition societies. While the author acknowledges that these societies include mostly honorable and just people who believe in their cause, he also holds that their rhetoric has become unacceptably emotional and their tactics, such as spreading anti-slavery literature to the South, essentially dishonorable. According to the author, such tactics ironically lead only to strengthen the Southern cause and increase enmity and violence.


William Henry Seward believes that the abolishment of slavery is inevitable as the economy and humanitarian institutions grow. According to this author, the institution is simply an "accidental" institution that came into being as a result of a combination of certain factors at a certain time. As times are changing,…… [Read More]

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Slavery vs The New Deal Slavery vs

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16024481

Slavery vs. The New Deal

Slavery vs. New Deal

Two influential events that occurred over the course of American history were slavery and the New Deal. In both situations, they were result of some kind of changes that were taking place and created tremendous amounts of debate about the legality / effectiveness of these ideas. To fully understand their impact on the nation requires comparing the two with one another. Together, these elements will offer specific insights which are highlighting how both shaped economics, politics and the basic freedoms everyone enjoys to this day. (Freidman) (Powel) (Zinn)

Slavery was considered to be a vital part of the Southern states economy. This is because a tradition had been established where large plantations were developed with this being used as a form of cheap labor. Politically, many people were divided about if this practice was considered to be legal, its morality and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freidman, Lawrence. American Law and Constitutional Order. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.


Powel, Jim. Greatest Emancipations. New York: McMillan, 2008. Print.

Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
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Slavery Art Robert Calvin Martha and William

Words: 1196 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18849111

Slavery Art

Robert, Calvin, Martha, and illiam Scott and Mila ended up in the Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco because its owner, Rev. illiam Anderson Scott, was the minister at Calvary Presbyterian Church there in 1853-61. He was originally from the South and because of his sympathy for the Confederate cause in the Civil ar, including offering public prayers for Jefferson Davis, he "had to leave the city for his safety and that of his family" (Smylie 89-90). His son Robert, depicted on the far left of the painting, became a Union Army officer in 1862, although Rev. Scott regretted that he was "on the wrong side" (Acker 79). Mila was a gift to his wife Ann from her father in 1830, and was in charge of caring for the four children. In the painting, the Scott's wished to be depicted as "relatively well-heeled members of Sothern society" even…… [Read More]


Acker, Emma. "Black, White and Shades of Gray: Picturing Identity in Robert, Calvin, Martha and William Scoot and Mila." Fine Arts Museum of San Francisco, 2010.

Manigault Plantation Journal. Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina

Smylie, James Hutchinson. A Brief History of the Presbyterians. Geneva Press, 1996.
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Slavery Was an Essential Element of the

Words: 1424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83769121

Slavery was an essential element of the society of Ancient Greece. Social life, in numerous ways -- family, commerce, politics, was heavily dependent on a class of people who fulfilled tasks their masters saw as degrading. Although, the concept of slavery represented a fundamental aspect of the practical construction of democracy, it is not the only factor that has lead to the development of this complex political institution which is currently the basis of modern constitutional systems. Other issues that need to be considered are the developments in philosophy, the urbanization of Greece and the extremely large interest that the population manifested towards politics. (After all, the Greeks were as interested in philosophy and politics as much as the omans were interested in law). Each of this factors was essentially predetermined by slavery, which as a firm establishment, made possible the development of all political systems in ancient Greece, and…… [Read More]


1. Ancient Greek Slavery and its Relationship to Democracy

2. Charles A. Ellwood, Aristotle As A Sociologist.

Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, volume 19 (1902)

3. ClassicNote on Aristotle's Politics
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American & God's Dream the

Words: 2814 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23912517

Marx's interpretation of Twentieth-Century Capitalism, as described by Miller, describes the changes in the American dream. The American dream was initially one linked to the idea of land ownership. Immigrants came from Europe, where land ownership had been a privilege of the wealthy. However, when America was relatively unsettled, almost anyone could theoretically come to America and claim land, and many people did just that. Of course, some of these early Americans did so in a grand way, traveling westward from the cities and establishing homesteads in the wilderness. The idea of home ownership, however, was not limited to those frontiersmen. Instead, only 100 years ago, someone could come to America and, because of the cheap price of land, afford to build his own home if he worked hard enough to do so. However, the nature of the home, itself, was different. Those homes were centers of production: at the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Medaille, John. The Vocation of Business: Social Justice in the Marketplace. New York:

Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007

Miller, Vincent Jude. Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture.

New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
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American Colonialism Opportunity in Colonial

Words: 1853 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54310205

William Penn, a Quaker whose father had been an Admiral in the King's oyal Navy, was given a large piece of land as payment for a debt owed by the Crown to his father. Penn had suggested naming the new territory Sylvania, meaning wood, but the King added his surname, Penn, as a tribute to William's father (Uden). Penn considered his venture a "Holy Experiment" and sought to establish a society based on religious freedom and separation between religious and governmental authorities,

Under Penn's governorship, Pennsylvania became a safe haven for all persecuted religious groups like the Quakers. He instituted a ballot system that intended to allow all members of Pennsylvania to have an equal say in their own governance. Some of the provisions of equality and religious tolerance in the charter that he drafted for Pennsylvania would eventually be incorporated into other charters, including the U.S.

Constitution (Uden). Perhaps…… [Read More]


Bower, J. (1997) the Oxford Dictionary of World Religions

Fenton, E. (1969) a New History of the United States. Holt: New York.

Furlong, P., Margaret, S., Sharkey, D. (1966) America Yesterday: A New Nation (Revised). Sadlier: New York.

Nevins, a., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States 9th Ed.
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American Preference to Local Government and Americans Traditional Distrust of Centralized Government

Words: 3968 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76038063

American Mistrust of Centralized Government

This is a paper written in APA style that examines the traditional preference that Americans have for local government, the traditional distrust they have of centralized government, and the reasons behind these phenomena.

Local Government: A Traditional American Preference

There is a strong traditional preference for local government over centralized government in this country. This preference goes back all the way to the beginnings of our nation and can be plainly seen in the debates between the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists over the ratification of the Constitution. It can still be seen going strong today in the never-ending cry of politicians to put an end to "big government." There is an obvious distrust for centralized government in this country, and our political history and current political climate proves this time and time again. Yet what are the reasons for this preference for local government and…… [Read More]


Articles of Confederation. Philadelphia, PA. 1782.

Colonial Charters." (2000). Kuyper Institute. Retrieved on December 3, 2003 at

Colonial Government." (2000). USGenNet. Retrieved on December 3, 2003 at

Colonial Government." (2001). USA History. Retrieved on December 3, 2003 at .
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American Social Thought on Women's Rights

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26207473

American Social hought on Women's Rights

his paper compares and contrasts the arguments in favor of women's rights made by three pioneering American feminists: Judith Sargent Murray, Sarah Grimke, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. his analysis reveals the centrality of religious argumentation to the feminism of all three. Murray and Grimke were both converts to varieties of evangelical Protestantism who drew considerable intellectual and emotional nourishment from strands of Christianity, which encouraged, or at least did not discourage, their personal development. Unlike Murray and Grimke, however, Stanton did not convert to evangelicalism. Instead, she launched upon a secularizing trajectory that took her beyond Christianity to Comtean Positivism and rationalism. Unlike Murray and Grimke, moreover, she acknowledged the problems inherent in any attempt to square Christianity with feminism. However, she never rejected the Bible completely, and she is appropriately viewed with respect today as a pioneer of feminist biblical criticism. he paper…… [Read More]

This was a striking argument that made the development of female intellectual potential inseparable from the worship of God. But while this is certainly useful as an argument for elevating the standard of female education, it falls far short of a cry for female emancipation.

Religion's relationship to feminism is more thoroughly explored in Sarah Moore Grimke's more ambitious Letters on the Equality of the Sexes, and the Condition of Woman (1838). What had changed in the fifty years since Murray's entitled "On the Equality of the Sexes" was published was that the battle for the liberation of women's intellectual abilities appeared to have been won. By the 1830s, well-educated women existed. But the shift that was occurring at the time - precipitated by the antislavery movement - was toward the use of female abilities to intervene in debates of social importance. Like other feminist antislavery advocates, Sarah Grimke gained notoriety as an outspoken female advocate of the antislavery cause. In 1838, Grimke, who had converted to Quakerism around 1818 - apparently because it was compatible with her passionate commitment to antislavery (Lerner 8) - found herself vilified by the press and rebuked by the Congregationalist ministerial association of Massachusetts for her participation in an abolitionist lecture tour of New England in 1837-38.

What was controversial, however, was not so much her antipathy to slavery - although the Congregationalist clergy had long sought to stifle criticism of slavery - than the idea that a woman should dare to speak out publicly on a matter of such importance (Behnke 20; Lerner 19). Grimke responded to her critics by publishing a work, which forcefully defended her right to speak. Addressed to Mary S. Parker, president of the Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society, Grimke's Letters dwelt at length on the Bible, which was the ultimately source of the conservative view that women were commanded by God to restrict their endeavors to the domestic sphere. Grimke shared Murray's conviction that the meaning of scripture had been 'perverted' in the interests of men. Almost everything that has been written about 'the sphere of woman,' she argued, 'has been the result of a misconception of the simple truths revealed in the Scriptures.' She cited, in particular, erroneous translations, and professed a low opinion of the 1611 King James Bible (221). In an examination of the creation narrative, she discerned no grounds to believe that God had created woman as an inferior creature. Both genders
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American Urban History-Public Health Public

Words: 3719 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79796999

Without a public health system in place these elements were left in the street to be breathed in and walked through daily.

In addition there engineering advances that built large high rise slums that were quickly filled to capacity even though they offered no fresh water or waste disposal areas.

The 1870's became the decade for urban public health reform as Congress made the move to reorganize the Marine Hospital Service. It was also at that time the Surgeon General position was created and still exists today.

The Surgeon General was charged with overseeing public health issues and providing advice, guidelines and mandates as to how they would be best handled.

During the 1880's the movement toward public health moved away from the political arena and into the laboratories around the nation.

It was at this time scientists began to learn how to isolate disease producing organisms for communicable diseases.…… [Read More]


History Lesson: Contaminated Water Makes a Deadly Drink

Kathy Jesperson on Tap Editor (accessed 4-20-07)

Apostles of cleanliness (accessed 4-23-07)
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American Government How Does a Bill Become

Words: 1905 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48169227

American Government

How does a bill become a law? Please explain where bills originate and how they go through the process. Also include information about the role of interest groups and political parties in bill formation.

Before a piece of legislation can become a law, the initial proposal, called a bill, must go through a process of debate and approval by both houses of the United States Congress. The initial step is for the individual who comes up with the idea for a new law must present his or her suggestion to their colleagues (Egan 6). This person becomes the sponsor for that law as he or she was the initial supporter of that idea. More than one person can become the sponsor of a bill, showing their additional support of that bill. The proposed bill is then placed in the hopper. Once the bill is read and officially proposed…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Camarota, Steven A. "The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal

Budget." 2004. Print.

Egan, Tracie (2004). How a Bill Becomes a Law. Rosen: New York, NY.

Ehrenberg, Steven (2011). "What's a Primary Election?" Scholastic.
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American History the Greatest Change

Words: 949 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59402187

Even after the Emancipation Proclamation, the Supreme Court held that separate but equal was a legitimate stance under American law, essentially codifying human beings into different racial categories like a caste system, until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. In short, America was a nation founded upon a paradox. It idealized freedom and personal choice, yet it also was based upon a system that did not allow a substantial percentage of the population to exercise that freedom and enjoy in their liberties.

The Civil Rights movement was so radical, because it demanded that the promise of American freedom finally be truly realized and granted to Black Americans, which America was unwilling to do, until African-Americans demanded their rights through this eloquent and articulate protest movement. Sadly, the damage of hundreds of years of slavery had taken their psychological and economic toll upon some Black Americans. One of the saddest…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Major Problems in American History Since 1945. Third Edition.

New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
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American and Asian Music as

Words: 2888 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63747129

This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.

Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…… [Read More]


Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007.

Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007.

Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007.

Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007.
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American History Although the Early

Words: 857 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75111246

British reactions to the colonies wavered throughout the colonial era, from the policy of salutary neglect to the tightened controls of King George III. The Crown faced a dilemma: to allow the colonies to develop thriving commercial enterprises in the hopes of a trickle-down benefit for Great Britain; or to tighten the leash on the colonial governments to demand more regular tax revenues. In light of the thriving colonial economies in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Maryland, King George III opted for the latter, imposing tariffs on the colonies. Britain's policies toward the New World colonies remained, therefore, primarily economic: the Stamp and Sugar Acts exemplify the Crown's interest not so much in the development of colonial culture as in the colonial economy.

Friction between English settlers and Native Americans also impacted the development of colonial life and of Crown policies. Infiltration into lands inhabited by the indigenous Americans led to numerous…… [Read More]


An Outline of American History." Embassy of the United States, Stockholm. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at

Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763." The Library of Congress. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at

From Revolution to Reconstruction." Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at
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Slavery and Its Negative and Positive Effects

Words: 1485 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87489324

Slavery, and its negative (and positive) effects on society, is not nearly as pervasive in today's modern world as it has been in previous centuries. One expert writes "early Christians repeatedly conceived of sin and salvation in terms of slavery and freedom" (DeWet, 2010, p. 27) and that "in fact, slavery had become so embedded in the ancient conceptual reality that it played an integral part in the cosmologies and theories of politics of even the most prominent of thinkers" (p. 27). A society such as the one described by the prominent thinkers of those days was a society that was far more advanced than most people like to imagine, and much of the overall growth of the society was a direct result of the slavery environment. A vast majority of the citizens owned slaves (while the remaining individuals were likely to be slaves).

Slaves could be bought and sold,…… [Read More]


De Wet, C.L.; (2010) Sin as slavery and/or slavery as sin? On the relationship between slavery and Christian hamartiology in late ancient Christianity, Religion & Theology, Vol. 17, Issue 1/2, pp. 26-39

Martin, B.; (201) Slavery's invisible engine: Mortgaging human property, Journal of Southern History, Vol.76, No. 4, pp. 817 -- 866

Rush, D.; (2011) In remembrance of slavery, African Arts, Vol. 44, Issue 1, pp. 40-51

Traylor, R.D.; (2011) Liberty and slavery: The peculiar institution in Liberty (and Chambers) County, Texas, East Texas Historical Journal, Vol. 49, Issue 1, pp. 109-134
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Slavery in the Bible in Modern Western

Words: 3008 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54622671

Slavery in the Bible

In modern estern countries, many Christians and Jews may wish to portray God as the comfortable deity of a middle-class consumer society like the United States, but the Bible demonstrates that nothing could be further from the truth. In the Bible, the God of history from the story of Cain and Abel, through Abraham, Joseph, Moses and the Prophets and of course the ministry of Jesus Christ in the New Testament. Repeatedly, God intervenes on the side of the poor, the weak, the lowly and the outcast, and against the rich and powerful. He has mercy on Joseph when his brothers sell him into slavery in Egypt and elevates him about all others. God takes the side of a young shepherd boy David against the thuggish giant Goliath and then against the evil and corrupt King Saul. ith Jesus, the constant messages is that God shows…… [Read More]


Anderson, Bernard W. The Unfolding Drama of the Bible, 4th Edition. Augsburg Fortress Publishing, 2006.

Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the Way Everyone Thinks and Feels. Anchor Books, 1998.
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American Government Question One Interest

Words: 5843 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2621651

" Then there are the "...5 million employees of the federal bureaucracy and the military" at his disposal.

Also, the president runs the executive branch of government; Cummings writes that he is "chief of state" - the "ceremonial and symbolic head of state as well as head of government" (391) - as well as being "chief executive" of the government. He has the power to "grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States" (394), he has the power to declare war, and as Franklin Roosevelt showed during II (397), the president can "exercise extraordinary power over food rationing and the economy, only partly with congressional authorization." The president is the "Chief Diplomat" (Cummings, 398), the president has "sole power to negotiate and sign treaties" (399), the president "has the sole power to recognize or not recognize foreign governments" (400), and both the "arrows and the olive branch depicted…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burns, James MacGregor, & Peltason, Jack Walter. (1963). Government by the People: The Dynamics of American National, State, and Local Government. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.:

Prentice-Hall. (2005). Report details FBI's missed opportunities before 9/11. Retrieved June 19, 2005 at .

Cummings, Milton C. Jr., & Wise, David. (1985). Democracy Under Pressure: An Introduction
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American Politics Development of Political

Words: 1557 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36586772

This rule is applicable to all states except North Dakota which does not require registration. Absentee ballots and mail ballot options are also available for voters who could not make it to the election booth. This is the election process in the United States.

Problems of the local governments

Local governments have a vital role to play in the country because they are the closest government body for the citizens. Despite this close association, the role of local governments is under-estimated due to a variety of reasons. They face many problems in reaching out to the public and in creating a better community for its residents. The primary problem is finance. Though the community gets a certain amount directly through taxes from the state government, it sometimes, may not be enough to bring about a real change in the community. This is more prevalent in communities that have a large…… [Read More]

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Slavery Narratives Basing Their Arguments

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64502446

Both religion and the law purport to advocate human rights, freedoms, and liberties. Yet neither religion nor the law can offer any justification for the dichotomy of slavery. No logic can sustain the argument that slavery is humane or just, and the brilliance of Jacobs' and Douglass' lsave narratives is their mutual ability to expose the fallacies in both religion and the law. The optimism with which the authors express their views does not negate their overt critiques. For instance, Jacobs and Douglass are both deeply religious. They do not criticize Christianity but only the way Christian doctrine is distorted to support slavery. Neither author criticizes the United States but only the way American law and values are distorted to support slavery. Their incredible ability to overcome a lack of formal education to write their stories bears witness to the power of the individual to transform defunct social norms and…… [Read More]

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American Women's History There Were

Words: 1529 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48783405

Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.

orks Cited

"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. eb. 14

Oct. 2011.

2000. Print.

"Laws…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 14

Oct. 2011.                     

2000. Print.

"Laws on Indentured Servants." Virtual Jamestown. Web. 14 Oct. 2011.
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American Fears and Bigotry Toward

Words: 741 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47362742

This sort of behavior and scapegoating was the intellectual and cultural "easy way out" for many Americans looking for solace from the events taking place thousands of miles away, affecting the entire country. In the fog of war, as writer Barbre (2000) puts it, mistakes are made and generalizations are easily placed into existence. hen Americans were confused and scared, they looked to the easiest form of comfort, the alienation of the outsider or the "other."

Sexual Projection and the Internment of the Japanese-Americans

riter Renteln (1995) explores the role that sexual projection had in the dealing with Japanese-Americans in internment camps during II. This can be directly related to the themes within the book Snow Falling of Cedars due to the fact that Americans used their fear of the outsider (Japanese and Japanese-Americans) to project their own fears and misgivings about their sexuality and feelings of inadequacy. As author…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barbre, C. (2000). "Review: Films: The Straight Story, Snow Falling on Cedars."

Journal of Religion and Health. Vol. 39, No. 4. pp. 383-385.

Renteln, A.D. (1995). "A Psychohistorical Analysis of the Japanese-American

Internment." Human Rights Quarterly. Vol. 17, No. 4 pp. 618-648.
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American Political Development America's Political

Words: 1985 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87954252

American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…… [Read More]

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History of Slavery

Words: 3408 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66576323

Abolitionist Movement

Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…… [Read More]


Greene, Meg. Slave Young, Slave Long: The American Slave Experience. Minneapolis, Minn.: Lerner Publications Co., c1999.

Haskins, James. Bound for America: The Forced Migration of Africans to the New World. New York: Lothrop, Lee & Shepard Books, 1999.

Lisa Vox, (2012). The Start of Slavery in North America." Accessed April 29, 2012 from

Morgan Edmund, (2003). American Slavery, American Freedom: The Ordeal of Colonial Virginia W.W. Norton & Company, 2003.
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Looking Into Origination of Chattel Slavery

Words: 1951 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37808158

Origination of Chattel Slavery

Traditional slavery, mostly referred to as chattel slavery, is almost certainly the least common among all forms of traditional slavery. In the words of the American Anti-Slavery Group, in Mauritania-where a ban was legally placed on slavery in 1980-about 90,000 dark-skinned Africans were still owned by the Muslim Berber communities. Though the Mauritanian Africans became Moslems over 100 years ago, and the Qur'an prohibits enslaving fellow Moslems, race in Mauritania seems to be a more influential factor than the religious doctrines. The main uses of such chattel slaves were for sex, labor, and breeding, and they were often exchanged for trucks, guns, camels, and money. The offspring of these chattel slaves remain owned by their masters. And even the community of free slaves, a tribute is mostly paid to their former masters, who equally maintain some inheritance rights over their freed slaves' properties (Singh, n.d). In…… [Read More]


Black History Resources Working Group, (1997). Slavery: An Introduction to the African Holocaust, Liverpool.

Ewald, J. (1992). Slavery in Africa and the Slave Trades from Africa: Review Article, American Historical Review, 97 (2): 465-85

Hening, W.W. (l819). The Statutes at Large, Being a Collection of All the Laws of Virginia from the Frist Session of the Legislature in the Year 1619. 13 volumes. Richmond: W. Gray Printers, 3:252

Hochschild, A. (2005). Bury the Chains, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. P. 64.
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Slave by Soloman Northup Slavery

Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67702298

The women are especially vulnerable because their children can be sent away from them, they can be the brunt of a cruel master's sexual encounters, and they often have to serve the master's family, which can make them targets of abuse.

Most of the southern women in the book are portrayed as kinder than their husbands. He writes of the wife of Mr. Epp "She had been well educated at some institution this side the Mississippi; was beautiful, accomplished, and usually good-humored. She was kind to all of us but Patsey -- frequently, in the absence of her husband, sending out to us some little dainty from her own table" (Northup 198-199). They are sometimes jealous of the slave women, as Mrs. Epp is, but for the most part, they are the gentler part of the slave experience, and they are not as cruel or vindictive as their husbands are.…… [Read More]


Northup, Soloman. Twelve Years a Slave. 1997. University of North Carolina. 15 Nov. 2010.


Roark, James L. Johnson, Michael P. And Cohen, Patricia Cline. Reading the American Past.
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Thomas R Dew Defends Slavery 1852

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39852383

Thomas R. Dew Defends Slavery (1852)

In his 1852 argument, Thomas R. Dew outlined what he believed to be a logical justification for the continuation of the noxious institution of American Slavery that precipitated the Civil War a decade after its writing. In retrospect, it stands as a remarkable demonstration of myopic, self-centered, immoral rationalization that is breathtaking in the presumptuousness of its purported rationale.

Dew's first point is that however wrong the institution of slavery was to establish in the first place, the moral responsibility for that wrong does not rest in the hands of later generations who had nothing to do with that decision originally. He suggests that slavery "once introduced" is an entirely different matter than the decision to introduce it in the first place. According to Dew, neither the Old Testament nor the New Testament prohibits slavery; the former provides numerous examples of slavery while the…… [Read More]

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The Idea of Slavery in America

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83259268

constitution had been written with the abolishment of slavery included, the nation would not have benefitted much from such an act. Unfortunately, the United States was built on slave labor. This was especially true in the south. The colonists in colonial America would not have expanded the way they did. They would have not done well in crops like cotton and tobacco had they not employed slave labor. History states the conditions that existed back in the colonial era was deadly to most but African slaves. Although Europeans used indentured servants and Native Americans, they quickly died in those conditions.

Examining it in a positive way, the nation would have learned to exist and trade using other methods. They may have learned to cooperate with native populations and perhaps focus more on trade and developing skills versus farming and slave trading. The nation would have also remained unified. One of…… [Read More]


Kelly, A., Harbison, W., & Belz, H. (1983). The American Constitution. New York: Norton.

Kolchin, P. (1993). American slavery, 1619-1877. New York: Hill and Wang.,. (2015). Slavery in New York. Retrieved 11 September 2015, from
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History Anti-Slavery Movement

Words: 1654 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52821052

Anti-Slavery Movement of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas, an American Slave"

Frederick Douglass' biography entitled, "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Life" is a literary work that does not only discuss slavery in broader terms incorporated into a literary work during the 19th century, but the narrative is also a social study of the life of black Americans during the black American slavery period (19th century). Being a social study of the American society during the 19th century, the Douglass biography illustrates the injustices and inequality among black Americans during the black slavery period through vivid and descriptive narrations of the author's experiences as a young black American slave who tried to free himself from the slave bondage. Douglass' biography is also an example of a literary work that focuses on the theme of anti-slavery movement, similar to the objectives of famous black American writers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave." 14 May 1997. Berkeley Digital Library SunSITE. 11 November 2002
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Reparations of Slavery Review of

Words: 3149 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14392799

There are approximately 60 million Americans of Irish descent, and most of their ancestors arrived in America as refugees from an Ireland colonized and exploited in the harshest ways by the then-contemporary government of Britain. Should Americans of Irish descent (or Irish people still living in Ireland for that matter) demand reparations for the hardships suffered by their ancestors at the hands of colonial British "masters?"

Irish immigrants to the United States during the 1800s faced apartheid-like discrimination by the majority groups at the time - mostly people of English and German descent. An oft-observed sign at factories and construction sites was "Help Wanted - Irish Need Not Apply." Should modern Irish-Americans demand reparations for the discrimination suffered by their immigrant ancestors upon arrival here?

Should Armenians demand reparations for the suffering of their ancestors at the hands of the Ottoman Turks prior to the First World War? Should the…… [Read More]


Adebajo, Adekeye (Spring, 2004) Africa, African-Americans, and the Avuncular Sam. Africa Today. 50(3). 92-110.

Andrews, Vernon L. (2003). Self-Reflection and the Reflected Self: African-American Double Consciousness and the Social (Psychological) Mirror. Journal of African-American Studies. 7(3). 59-79.

Baets, Antoon. (2004). A Declaration of the Responsibilities of Present Generations Toward Past Generations. History & Theory. 43(4). 130-164.

Benatar, Solomon R. (2003). Bioethics: Power and Injustice: IAB Presidential Address. Bioethics. 17(5-6). 387-399.
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Pro- and Anti-Slavery Movement in the 19th

Words: 751 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63683091

Pro- and Anti-Slavery Movement in the 19th Century American Society

The history of black slavery movement in the American society during the 19th century has become a common theme of debate and discussion between Americans for and against black slavery movement. There have been numerous literary works, essays, and other written works that discuss this primary issue of black American slavery in America during the 1800s. An example of these literary works is an essay by Thomas Jefferson entitled, "Notes on the State of Virginia," and an autobiography by Frederick Douglass entitled, "Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave." These two written works discuss the issue of black American slavery in America, with Jefferson defending and justifying the black slavery movement, while Douglass calls for a radical change and opposition against the said movement. These two written works will be critically analyzed in this paper, and by…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. E-text of "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave." In Berkeley Digital Library Sun site [online]. Available from World Wide Web:

Jefferson, Thomas. E- text of "Notes on the State of Virginia." In Electronic Text Center [online]. University of Virginia Library [cited 11 November 2002]. Available from World Wide Web:
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Forced Labor and Slavery Develop in Tropical

Words: 786 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 977252

forced labor and slavery develop in tropical colonies? How was slavery in the Americas different from slavery in earlier societies?

Forced labor in the tropical colonies was created to support the production of 'cash crops' such as sugar cane. The harvesting of these crops was hard, back-breaking work. "Sugar was far more difficult work than cultivating cotton, tobacco, or rice. So many slaves died within a few years of their arrival in the sugar islands, sometimes only months, that a steady fresh supply was always needed" (Davis 2012). Only slavery could provide an efficient means to render such crops profitable. "Before long, British and French plantations in the West Indies began to dominate. British west coast ports such as Bristol and Liverpool thrived on the sugar cane industry and refineries and packaging factories were set up" (Sugar cane and the slave trade, 2012, Plant Cultures). The slave trade was called…… [Read More]


Davis, Ronald. "Slavery in America." [8 Jun 2012]

Sugar cane and the slave trade. Plant Cultures. [8 Jun 2012]
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African-American Culture

Words: 1064 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56579495

connect the African cultural roots and the Black experience in America. hat experience would you gain from viewing a traditional African community in modern America that retains strong cultural roots? (South Carolina!)

To view a traditional African community, such as exists in South Carolina, within the context of an America environment, is not simply to see a remnant in what is, to many African-Americans, a lost part of their past or a foreign culture. Rather it is an illustration to the culture at large, given the profound cultural differences of this community, that 'black' that is experience of color is not a seamless cloth. The African-American experience of slavery is a unique and profound one, of history and the overcoming of struggle. However, unlike, for instance, the experience of American Jews, or Africans, as illustrated at the Museum of Tolerance, Los Angeles, the experience of a cohesive immigrant group, however…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The African-American Museum of Philadelphia: Exploring Africa." Temporary Exhibit, Feb. 2004. 

The National Afro-American Museum Wilberforce, OH: Permanent Exhibit: From Victory To Freedom: Afro-American Life in the Fifties and Temporary Exhibit: The Legacy of American Slavery." August 2004.

Seminole Reservation (Ah-Tah-Thi-Ki Museum) Museum: Hollywood Florida. 

Simon Weisenthal Center for Tolerance. 2004.
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African-Americans History and Culture the False and

Words: 987 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17793718

African-Americans History And Culture

The false and misleading notion that "African-Americans created themselves" completely ignores and invalidates the rich history of those whose ancestry lies in the great African continent. While African-Americans have adopted and incorporated many cultures into their own (not unlike any other cultural group in America) that in no way signifies that African-American's have no culture or history of their own.

"Black people have no history, no heroes, no great moments," this was told to a young Arthur Schomburg by his 5th grade teacher. Schomburg, with both African and Puerto ican ancestry went on to become a great historian and curator of African-American history; helping to dispel the very "truth" that his teacher tried to feed him about his own history and culture many years prior. The statement that "African-Americans created themselves" simply means that the Black American is devoid of history and a culture to call…… [Read More]


Bascom, L.C. (1999). A renaissance in Harlem: Lost voices of an American community. New York, NY: Bard.

Painter, N.I. (2006). Creating Black Americans: African-American history and its meanings, 1619 to the present. London: Oxford University Press.
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Mexican Sexual Slavery There Are

Words: 2246 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28192952

Unlike the transatlantic slave trade, they are not being recruited to work in any specific geographical area or any clearly defined industry or economy. True, many of the women are sold as prostitutes or concubines, and the children as labourers, but there are relatively few established and stable routes and markets. hile the transatlantic slave trade was legal and carried on as a form of legitimate commerce, the modern slave trade is illegal. Records of these underground business transactions are largely hidden from public view; so are the human beings who are bought and sold in this twenty-first-century slave trafficking. The pervasiveness and the relatively invisible nature of this illegal trafficking make it difficult to define and develop a strategy for abolishing it.

Dodson 28)

Actions of Mexico:

As this work has previously stated there are several innate problems associated with ideology surrounding prostitution, as well as illegal immigration with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Andrews, Sara K. "U.S. Domestic Prosecution of the American International Sex Tourist: Efforts to Protect Children from Sexual Exploitation." Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology 94.2 (2004): 415.

Barr, Juliana. "Captives and Cousins: Slavery, Kinship, and Community in the Southwest Borderlands." Journal of Southern History 70.3 (2004): 639.

Dodson, Howard. "Slavery in the Twenty-First Century." UN Chronicle Sept.-Nov. 2005: 28.

Eldridge, Philip J. The Politics of Human Rights in Southeast Asia. London: Routledge, 2002.
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African-Americans the History of African-Americans

Words: 2442 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32058656

S. news magazines between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1998. They concluded that the images of the poor in these news magazines "do not capture the reality of poverty, but instead provide a stereotypical and inaccurate picture of poverty that results in a misconception of beliefs about the poor, antipathy toward blacks and lack of support for welfare programs.

Similarly, Dixon and Linz (2000) researched the content of a random sample of local TV news programming in Los Angeles and Orange counties to determine representations of blacks, Latinos, and whites as lawbreakers and law defenders. "Intergroup" comparisons of perpetrators found that blacks and Latinos are significantly more apt than whites to be shown as lawbreakers. "Interrole" comparisons, lawbreakers vs. law defenders, similarly found that blacks and Latinos are more likely to be shown as lawbreakers than as defenders, whereas whites are significantly more apt to be portrayed as defenders…… [Read More]

References Cited.

Chavous, T.M., Green, L., Harris, a, Lumas, H., and Rivas, D. (2004). Racial Stereotypes and Gender in Context: African-Americans at Predominantly Black and Predominantly White Sex Roles. A Journal of Research. 51(1-2), 1.

Clawson, R.T., (2000) Poverty as we know it; Media portrayals of the poor. Public Opinion Quarterly 64(1) 53-65

Dixon, T., and Linz, D.(2000) Overrepresentation and Under representation of African-Americans and Latinos as Lawbreakers on Television. Journal of Communication. 50 (2), 131

Fogel, R.W. (1989).Without Consent or Contract: The Rise and Fall of American Slavery New York W.W. Norton.
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Ameican Slavery and Russian Serfdom How They Compare

Words: 937 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32393822

Kolchin's Unfree Labor

Kolchin uses primarily "printed primary materials" as his sources -- material that was either printed and published at the time of the events which he chronicles or collected by historians later (377). The fact that these materials are not hard to find and that they exist quite abundantly is what made this possible. Thus, what Kolchin does in his comparative history is to simply "order" the information and make sense of it: he has no difficulty gathering it; on the contrary, putting the pieces together to form a coherent whole or a convincing picture is his goal.

For example, Kolchin utilizes "records left by the masters (and their allies)" as sources as well as other records such as "diaries and reminiscences, plantation and estate records, and correspondence between owners and their administrative subordinates" as he builds his foundation of historical data (377). This is a solid foundation…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kolchin, Peter. Unfree Labor: American Slavery and Russian Serfdom. MA: Harvard

University Press, 1987. Print.
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American Foreign Policy Change From 1940 to

Words: 2017 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75317844

American foreign policy change from 1940 to the present?

Before the 20th century, the U.S. had a strong tradition of isolationism and non-interventionism. Beginning with American participation in World War I and continuing with its involvement in World War II after the invasion of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. increasingly began to conceive of itself as not only a player on the international stage, but also the ideological promoter and protector of democracy. When World War II ended with the U.S. bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it was clear that America had taken a position of power in the world, both militarily and politically.

In the decade that followed World War II, American foreign policy pitted itself against Soviet Communism through the pursuit of "containment:" limiting the expansion of Soviet power and Communist ideology to other nations. This policy of containment was the primary driving force behind the "Cold War" and…… [Read More]

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American Constitution A Living Evolving Document --

Words: 1824 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93247708

American Constitution: A living, evolving document -- from guaranteeing the right to enslavement in the 18th century to modifications in favor of freedom in the 19th century

Constitution today protects the rights of all in its language, but this was not always the case in its text and spirit. As a political tactic as well as out of personal conviction and experience, Frederick Douglass' characterization of the American Constitution as an anti-slavery document is certainly an admirable piece of rhetoric. Douglass stated that although the America he spoke to at the time of his autobiography My Bondage and My Freedom, was a nation divided between free and slave states and territories, fundamentally America was and "is in its letter and spirit, an anti-slavery instrument, demanding the abolition of slavery as a condition of its own existence" (396)

Slavery, Douglass stated, deprives an individual of his or her dignity, deprives an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. Available in full text online at new2?id=DouMybo.sgm& images=images/modeng& data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed& tag=public& part=6& division=div2[29 Jan 2005].

Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address: Monday, March 4, 1861." From Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs, U.S.G.P.O., 1989., 2001. [29 Jan 2005].

Madison, James. "Federalist No. 10." The Federalist Papers. Available in full text online ( ) [29 Jan 2005].

"The United States Constitution." Available in full text online [29 Jan 2005].
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American History Prior 1877 Signed Start

Words: 1764 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29208802

American History prior 1877 signed . Start introduction paragraph discuss historical events / people occurances, devote approximately page topic chosen.

"Unimportant" American Events

In spite of the fact that they had a decisive influence on the American society, particular historic events are likely to be forgotten by the masses. Little people know something regarding Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" pamphlet or about the influence that it had on colonists during the ar of Independence. The Three-fifths compromise made it possible for Southerners to increase their power in the U.S. through exploiting the fact that they had slaves. The Fugitive Slave Clause of 1793 was among the first legislations issued with the purpose of allowing slaveholders to get their slaves back. The ar of 1812 played an essential role in shaping U.S. history, but received little attention from the public across time. The Land Act of 1820 prohibited the acquisition of public…… [Read More]

Works cited:

"Common Sense," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website:

"Land Act of 1820," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University of Oklahoma Website:

"The Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University at Buffalo Website: 

"The Presidency of Andrew Jackson," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website:
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American National Character

Words: 3200 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37432127

American National Character

America can almost be thought of as a massive experiment in culture. Here we have a nation inhabited almost entirely by immigrants; all with different languages, customs, beliefs, and appearances who are forced to somehow reach a common understanding and identity. Through the over two hundred years of American history many differences have threatened to unravel our diverse nation, but still, many commonalities have ultimately held it together. Amidst such a range of economic, political, and racial mixtures it is a daunting task to identify what characteristics are uniquely American.

Yet, what can be considered "American" can also be traced to the roots of the nation. The place now called the United States was founded by puritan settlers who valued the notion of all men's equality in the eyes of God. Accordingly, the authors of the U.S. Constitution included equality under the law as one of its…… [Read More]


Bellah, Robert N., et al., eds. Habits of the Heart. Los Angeles, California: University of California, 1985.

Cochran, Thomas C. The Puerto Rican Businessman: A Study in Cultural Change. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1959.

Hacker, Andrew. The End of the American Era. New York, New York: Atheneum, 1968.

Klausner, Samuel Z. "A Professor's-Eye View of the Egyptian Academy." The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 57, No. 4 (Jul.-Aug., 1986): 345-369.
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American History Books

Words: 2790 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40432867

American History

Battle Cry of Freedom by James M. McPherson is probably the most successful symbol of historiography's advancement. There are two concepts that are reflected in the book: that the main cause of war was the slavery of black people and it was not a pleasant experience. Looking at the title, it is evident that McPherson understands that black people's status was the core of the war in regard to cause and effect. egardless of the ineptness and faultiness of the trial, freedom was in jeopardy. The author therefore rejects the tacitly racist explanations that try to make the issue seem less significant in favour of explanations that were economically and culturally favourable. He places black people as the main characters, emphasizing their military role and how they contributed towards the Union's abolition and survival (Nolan, 1989).

A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn -- published…… [Read More]


(n.d.). Waterstones.

Allbery, R. (2005). A People's History of the United States - Review.

Battle cry of freedom: the Civil War era - Review. (1988). Retrieved from Buffalo and Erie County Public Library:

Book Review: A People's History Of The United States. (2010, October 25). Retrieved from Grub Street:
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American History Between the Years

Words: 2433 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51687593

As is often the case, these good times could not last forever. Just like our modern day governmental debt being financed by foreign investment, Andrew Jackson and the nation faced reality when in 1837 foreign investors came to banks to collect. The speculative bubble of 1837 burst in what historians accurately termed the Panic of 1837. English and other European bankers called in the many outstanding loans the states had out as well as many private investors. Paying back these loans instantly crushed the nation's gold supplies which created a ripple affect where many local and state banks could not pay their debts, investors or the governmental reserves. These events lead to many forced bank failures and a national recession ensued.

The Missouri Compromise

In hindsight, we as a nation know now that the southern states who were in favor of slavery were prepared to defend their right to own…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brulatour, Meg. Transcendental Ideas: Reform: Social and Political Changes in the Time of Emerson and Thoreau: The 19th Century at a Glance. Ed. Meg Brulatour. VCU. Retrieved on 21 Nov. 2004, from

Lorence, James J. Enduring Voices: To 1877 the Enduring Voices, a History of the American People. 4th ed., vol. 1. ADD CITY: Houghton Mifflin Company, ADD YEAR.

Pessen, Edward. The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New Interpretations. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 1977.

Welter, Rush. The Mind of America, 1820-1860. New York: Columbia UP, 1975.