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Amphetamine is a stimulant drug mainly used in the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy (sleeping disorder). Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has classified amphetamine as a schedule II drug, which means that they can be used for medication and has a high potential for abuse (Drug Enforcement Administration, n.d.). Common prescription drugs include Ritalin, Adderall, and Dexedrine. Amphetamine is also used for recreation purposes and popular street names include Crank, Black Beauties, Uppers, Bennies, Ice, and Speed (Drug Enforcement Administration, n.d.).
In 2016, approximately 34.2 million people had used amphetamine and its derivatives - MDMA (ecstasy) and methamphetamine hydrochloride (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, 2019). Amphetamines are mostly taken orally as capsules or tablets (Tablets can either be crushed or injected). Crystal methamphetamine hydrochloride is smoked or inhaled. Methamphetamine powder dissolves in water and can be injected intravenously (Drug Enforcement Administration, n.d.). Studies indicate that amphetamine addiction…
Drug Enforcement Administration. (n.d.). Drugs of Abuse. Retrieved from https://www.dea.gov/sites/default/files/sites/getsmartaboutdrugs.com/files/publications/DoA_2017Ed_Updated_6.16.17.pdf#page=50
Massah, O., Effatpanah, M., & Shishehgar, S. (2017). Matrix Model for Methamphetamine Dependence among Iranian Female Methadone Patients: The First Report from the Most Populated Persian Gulf Country. Iranian Rehabilitation Journal, 15(3), 193-198. doi:10.29252/nrip.irj.15.3.193
Rawson, R. A., Marinelli-Casey, P., Anglin, M. D., Dickow, A., Frazier, Y., & Gallagher, C. (2004). A multi-site comparison of psychosocial approaches for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence. Addiction, 99(6), 708-717. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00707.x
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2019). Treatment OF Stimulant Use Disorders: Current Practices and Promising Perspectives. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/documents/drug-prevention-and-treatment/Treatment_of_PSUD_for_print_1X_09.03.19.pdf
Consequence and Benefits to Society of the Use, Abuse, Misuse, and Overuse of Amphetamines
Used by the armed forces during World War II and U.S. Air Force pilots today to help them remain alert on long missions as well as in various legitimate medical applications such as treating attention deficit disorder in children, amphetamines have been shown to be a definite benefit to modern society. Conversely, when this drug is abused, misused or overused, the health consequences can be severe, including death. To determine the facts, this paper reviews the relevant literature a brief history of amphetamines, their licit and illicit pathways, and the impact of their use, abuse, misuse and overuse on individuals, families, and society. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning amphetamines and modern society are provided in the conclusion.
Brief History of Amphetamines
Amphetamine was first synthesized in a laboratory in 1887 by…
History of amphetamines. (2015). Amphetamines.com. Retrieved from http://amphetamines. com/history/.
Newton, D.E. (2010). Substance abuse: A reference handbook. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio.
Nicosia, N. (2010). The economic cost of methamphetamine use in the United States. Rand Corporation.
and, it seems to be getting more dangerous as the years go on. According to the Utah Department of Human Services, a 2002 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) study showed that "PCP mentions in emergency departments increased 28% from 1995 to 2002. There was a 42% increase from the 5,404 mentions in 2000 to 7,648 in 2002."
So why do people use PCP when the risks are so high? According to Landry (1994) "the sought-after effects of PCP intoxication include increased sensitivity to external stimuli, stimulation of mood and behavior, and a sense of intoxication. PCP intoxication invariably involves distortions of sensory perceptions, such as visual distortions, illusions, pseudohallucinations, and hallucinations. PCP intoxication often involves ego boundary distortions, especially a dissociation of the mind from the body and 'out of body' experiences" (p. 103). While this may not sound like much fun to most people, apparently the feelings of disconnection…
"PCP Use Statistics" (n.d.) Erowid.org. Retrieved from http://www.erowid.org/chemicals/pcp/pcp_stats.shtml
Rivers, P. & Shore, E.R. (1997) Substance abuse on campus: A handbook for college and university personnel. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press
"Substance abuse and mental health" (2009) Utah Department of Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hsdsa.utah.gov/pcpuses.htm
The word "ergogenic" means having a tendency to increase work. In the perspective or setting of sports, this term encompasses processes employed to enhance the production as well as the performance of physiological energy. Nutritional ergogenic aids can be defined as dietary and nutritive supplements that purportedly increase the level of performance beyond the expected levels under normal circumstances and conditions (Coleman). A supplement can be defined to be a substance that is added to the everyday diet of an individual in order to redress the balance of a nutritional deficiency. More often than not athletes anticipate that ergogenic aids will offer them an added or competitive advantage in their events as they uniformly do not aspire to lose. Taking into the consideration the fact that sporting races and competing events are won by small differences and disparity of as little as one hundredth of a second, it…
Applegate, L. (2005). Nutritional Ergogenic Aids. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 82 no. 3 710-711.
Coleman, E. (2000). Ergogenic Aids. Retrieved 13 June from: http://health.csusb.edu/dchen/sports%20nutrition/ergogenic_aids%20chapter.htm
Dmitry V Zaretsky, Mary Beth Brown, Maria V Zaretskaia, Pamela J. Durant & Daniel E. Rusyniak (2014). The ergogenic effect of amphetamine, Temperature, 1:3, 242-247, DOI: 10.4161/23328940.2014.987564
Harnish, C. (2015). Caffeine, the Ergogenic Aid. Retrieved 13 June from: http://www.active.com/nutrition/articles/caffeine-the-ergogenic-aid
Even without any arrest, the officer could conceivably have conducted an external pat-down or Terry search of the subjects' outer garments to detect any weapons under the doctrine of officer safety (Schmalleger, 2008; Zalman, 2008).
However, even a Terry search would not have permitted to officer to further investigate or search any soft lumps or other contents of pockets not indicative of possession of a plausible weapon (Dershowitz, 2002). Furthermore, absent evidence that Terry and Kim were jointly engaged in criminal conduct, even a valid search of Terry pursuant to a valid arrest that yielded a small amount of marijuana in his pocket would not have justified a separate search of Kim (Schmalleger, 2008).
In this case, the search of both subjects was improper because it was conducted incident to an invalid arrest. Therefore, either Kim or Terry may challenge the introduction of any contraband retrieved from their personal possession.…
Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:
Friedman, A. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Schmalleger, F. (2008). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
American Academy Pediatrics publication a critique a media portrayal substance, links made AAP statement material. The password EBook: apusstudent I uploaded rest material.
American Academy of Pediatrics' Policy Statement concerning media portrayal of substance abuse touches upon several important issues that arise along with the media products' influence on America's young population at large. The article's targeted list of open-access channels associated with messages of noxious substance use include advertisements, television shows, motion pictures, social websites and music. Attention is directed specifically towards the findings of broadly conducted research in the matter of harm inflicted on children and adolescents as a result of the entertainment industry's depictions of legal and illegal substances, such as alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and heroin. Based on these findings, Pediatrics proposes a set of familial, institutional and legislative measures designed to minimize or abolish the destructive influence that media effects on a child's and teenager's development…
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2010, October). Policy Statement -- Children, Adolescents, Substance Abuse and the Media. Pediatrics, Vol. 126, No. 4, pp. 791-799.
Levinthal, C.F. (2012). Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society, Seventh Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Macdonald, A. (Producer), & Boyle, D. (Director). (1996). Trainspotting [Motion picture]. United Kingdom: Channel Four Films.
Roberts, D.F. et al. (1999). Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music. Office of National Drug Control Policy, Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (U.S.). Retrieved from www.ncjrs.gov
Neuropharmacology & the Military
It is hard to argue with the basic premise -- the U.S. military exists to promote, by means of force or by means of deterrence backed by the threat of force -- American interests. In military situations, winning is the most important thing, and all other factors are secondary. This has always been true of military endeavors, and that has not changed today. Given that, the U.S. military seeks to be the world's best military. It is the best-funded, and it is the largest. It is also the most technologically-advanced. Where on one side of the technology ledger, the U.S. military is looking at robotics as the next innovation in combat, it is also examining the role that neuropharmacology can provide with respect to its human members, especially combatants. The United States military has a keen interest in neuropharmacology and the effects that it can have…
Farah, M., Smith, M., Ilieva, I. & Hamilton, R. (2014). Cognitive enhancement. Wires. Vol. 5 (2014) 95-103.
Forlini, C. (2013). Should physicians prescribe cognitive enhancers to healthy people? Academia.edu. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://www.academia.edu/2534780/Should_physicians_prescribe_cognitive_enhancers_to_healthy_individuals
Giordano, J. & Wurzman, R. (2011). Neurotechnologies as weapons in national intelligence and defense -- an overview. Synesis. Vol. 2011, T55-T71.
Ilieva, I., Boland, J. & Farah, M. (2012). Objective and subjective cognitive enhancing effects of mixed amphetamine salts in healthy people. Neuropharmacology. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from http://www.psych.upenn.edu/~mfarah/pdfs/MAS%20enhancement.pdf
Fortunately, no NC responders have been killed, but around the country every year several first responders are injured or die from job-related exposures to these labs" (efilmgroup, 2009).
The fire department seems to be at the forefront of the risk in many cases, because a significant number of the clan labs are called in as explosions or fires. In other words, often the fire service doesn't know exactly what they are getting into. Calls may report medical aid is needed, or that someone is injured, a structure fire, trash fire, or investigation is required of some suspicious "smoke," a strange odor, or someone dumping illegally, and on. And the actual mix of whatever it really is could be fatally toxic to someone -- like the fire service or police -- who first encounters it. These chemicals are mixes of: acetone, methanol, benzene, ether, hydriodic acid, muriatic acid, sodium hydroxide, and…
Clandestine drug laboratories. (1997, June). Retrieved December 5, 2009, from phoenix.gov: http://www.phoenix.gov/fire/20407.pdf efilmgroup. (2009). Meth labs - a to z hazard for emergency responders. Retrieved December 6, 2009, from efilmgroup.com: http://www.efilmgroup.com/AtoZ.html
IAFF. (2009). The methamphetamine problem: A health and safety overview for firefighters. Retrieved December 6, 2009, from International association of firefighters (IAFF): http://www.iaff.org/HS/Resi/Methamphetamine%20final.htm
IDEM. (n.d.). Indiana department of environmental management (IDEM):Cleanup illegal drug labs. Retrieved December 5, 2009, from in.gov (Indiana): http://www.in.gov/idem/4178.htm
Peterson, D. (n.d.). Hazardous materials - clandestine drug labs. Retrieved December 6, 2009, from State of Minnesota (from Firehouse.com): http://www.health.state.mn.us/divs / the/meth/lab/dpeterson.pdf
Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, FL
Ecstasy, also known as MDMA, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has become popular as a club drug and at techno dance events, such as raves, trance scenes and private parties. Many who attend raves and trances do not use drugs, but those who do, may be attracted to their generally low cost and to the intoxicating highs that are said to deepen the rave or trance experience ("NIDA," 2004). It has gained the reputation as a "hug drug" promoting empathy, relaxation, and sexuality. Studies indicate an increase in abuse of this drug, especially among adolescents and/or teenagers. It is a human-made drug that acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen. It is taken orally, in the form of a capsule or a tablet. It has short-term effects including feelings of mental stimulation, emotional warmth, enhanced sensory perception, and increased physical energy.
Health effects can include,…
Chassin, L., Pitts, S.C., DeLucia, C., Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, pp.106-119
Director's report of the national advisory council on drug abuse. (1999). National
Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://drugabuse.gov/DirReports
Drug facts. (2004). Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved April 21, 2005
One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler…
Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.
Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.
Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.
Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.
Volume 2 Case Number 21
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) affects clients across the lifespan, although it is more common in children. Data from the Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC) indicates that approximately 6.1 million children in the US had ADHD in 2016 (CDC, 2019). In some cases, however, ADHD is not detected early and progresses into adulthood, where it affects an individual’s ability to run a household, maintain employment, and care for children. The presenting client is a 30-year old female diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), poly-substance abuse, and long-standing schizoaffective bipolar-type disorder. The client reports involvement in criminal activity, impulsiveness, hallucinations, difficulty managing anger, persecutory ideation, poor academic performance, and self-mutilatory behavior. This text seeks to develop an individualized treatment plan for the client with co-occurring ADHD and PTSD.
Questions to Ask the Client
Clinical interviews are crucial for effective treatment. A fundamental question to…
APA (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatry Association.
ADDA (2015). Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale: Symptom Checklist Instructions. Attention Deficit Disorder Association. Retrieved from https://add.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/adhd-questionnaire-ASRS111.pdf
CDC (2019). Data and Statistics about ADHD. Center for Diseases Prevention and Control (CDC). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html
CMS (2016). Stimulant and Related Medications: US Food and Drug Administration – Approved Indications and Dosages for Use in Adults. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Retrieved from https://www.cms.gov/Medicare-Medicaid-Coordination/Fraud-Prevention/Medicaid-Integrity-Education/Pharmacy-Education-Materials/Downloads/stim-adult-dosingchart11-14.pdf
Dalgaard, S., Kvist, A., Leckman, F. J., Nielsen, H., & Simonsen, M. (2014). Cardiovascular Safety of Stimulants in Children with Attention –Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: a Nationwide Perspective Cohort Study. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 24(6), 302-10.
Kolar, D., Keller, A., Golfinopoulos, M., Cumyn, L., Syer, C., & Hechtman, L. (2008). Treatment of Adults with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(2), 389-403.
Smucker, W., & Hedayat, M. (2001). Evaluation and Treatment of ADHD. American Family Physician, 64(5), 817-30.
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.
Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
A "drug" is any substance, other than food, that affects our bodies or minds. Since not all drugs are bad, the book uses "substance" to clarify the issue. Substance abuse can cause temporary or long-term problems for the abuser. Dependence, tolerance or addiction can develop.
Depressants: slow the central nervous system (CNS) down. Alcohol is a CNS depressant.
Alcohol: nearly 6% of the U.S. population are heavy drinkers, some as young as 11. Men outnumber women 3:1. Ethyl alcohol is quickly absorbed in stomach and intestine. First it depresses the areas of the brain that control judgments and curbs on behavior. Next, motor control is affected. Alcohol can also interfere with both vision and hearing. As the liver metabolizes the alcohol, the blood levels drop and function gradually returns. Patterns of alcoholism vary among socio-cultural groups and by age. Alcoholism can destroy family life, sink a career, and…
drug-Related terms such as tolerance, withdrawal, rebound, physical and psychological dependence.
Tolerance is a form of physical dependence on a drug. It occurs when the body becomes accustomed to a drug and the nerve cells chemically and structurally counteract the drug's psychoactive effects. As a result, the drug abuser requires ever-increasing amounts of it to achieve the same physical and psychological effects. This condition is worsened when certain drugs are used at high doses for long periods (weeks or months), and may lead to more frequent use of the drug. Drug addicts often have to increase the dose to experience the same level of euphoria or "high" that they experience initially. ("Drug Dependence," Encarta)
hen drug addicts stop the use of a drug too quickly, they may suffer from physical discomfort which is known as "drug withdrawal." Drug withdrawal is frequently characterized by nausea, headaches, restlessness, sweating, and…
"Dependence." Drugscope. 2002. November 22, 2004.
"Drug Dependence." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Perkinson, Dr. Robert R. "Drugs of Abuse." 2003. November 22, 2004.
Withdrawal symptom of heroin is also known as "cold turkey"
Each of the children received one of four possible treatments over a fourteen-month period - behavioral treatment, medication management, combination of the two, or usual community care. The results of this study showed that children who were treated with medication alone, which was carefully managed and individually tailored, and children who received both medication management and behavioral treatment had the best outcomes with respect to improvement of ADHD symptoms. The best results in terms of the proportion of children showing excellent response regarding were provided by ADHD combination treatment and oppositional symptoms, and in other areas of functioning. Overall, those who received closely monitored medical management had greater improvement in their ADHD symptoms than children who received either intensive behavioral treatment without medication or community care with less carefully monitored medication.
Treatment for ADHD is not without controversy. For most children with the disorder, medication is an integral part of…
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)." Center for Disease Control. 28 June 2005. 27 July 2005 http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/default.htm .
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Overview)." National Institue of Mental Health. 2001. 28 July 2005 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/helpchild.cfm .
Barkley, R. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorders: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press, 1998.
Bateman, B, JO Warner, E Hutchinson, T Dean, P Rowlandson, C Gant, J Grundy, C Fitzgerald and J. Stevenson. "The effects of a double blind, placebo controlled, artificial food colourings and benzoate preservative challenge on hyperactivity in a general population sample of preschool children." BMJ Publishing Group & Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. 14 September 2003. 28 July 2005 http://adc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/89/6/506 .
(Illicit Drugs or Nutritional Supplements?) It is more likely that some illegal gratification was sought and not received and that led to this action. Since this was also a case for medicines, one should also be careful of the problems that may come up.
What has been stated earlier is that it would be better to leave the enterprise to operations by South Africans and in that case, they will determine most of the staffing. It is not advisable clearly that many ozambicans be depended on for operations at least due to their ability. An example of this has just been stated.
2. Training and Development
When we are talking about a business and a possible collaboration with an existing business owner, they would have completed the training in an operating business. This would be helpful as the culture of South Africa and ozambique would be similar.…
Mozambique- people and society. Retrieved at http://www.oxfam.org.uk/coolplanet/kidsweb/world/mozambique/mozpeop.htm . Accessed 11 October, 2005
Mozambique-South Africa - Investment climate generally favorable, new report. 2 June 2004.
Retrieved at http://www.irinnews.org/report.asp?ReportID=41385 . Accessed 11 October, 2005
When the Truth Takes a Stretching Class
Maria Bailey clearly and blatantly misrepresented the size of her start-up business, but shrugged it off saying she knew what she was "capable of doing" and just wanted to show potential clients "what we were going to be," rather than tell them the truth about how fledgling her business actually was at that time.
Was it immoral for Mary Bailey to misrepresent her company?
Looking at the "consequential" side of her decision to fudge the truth about her company, moral decisions are made based upon what the consequences of the action will be. The results of her action actually could have several consequences. The one first and pivotal consequence Maria hopes will happen, of course, is that the fact of her deciding to embellish the truth about the size of her company will bring potential customers into her business start-up Web…
Australasian Business Intelligence. (2004, May 4). Guilty plea follows workplace death.
Bauman, Margaret. (2004). Alaska leads nation in workplace death rate, report says.
Alaska Journal of Commerce.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999). Improvements in workplace safety
Neuropharmacology and the Military
Modafinil is particularly promising for its ability to improve cognitive function and combat sleep deprivation. When one's circadian rhythm is at a low ebb, this challenges cognitive function, and cognitive performance can decline significantly during these periods. The military has not just researched this on its own, but has been able to borrow from other research on the subject. The medical profession, for example, has examined modafinil, and managing the sleep patterns of shift workers is one of the drug's approved uses. Military personnel can be shift workers, but more often they experience sleep disruptions, especially during combat situations, and modafinil essentially stabilizes cognitive function during these times (Westcott, 2005).
One of the caveats to the use of modafinil is that some cognitive performance tests are subjective -- self-reported results from users with respect to their cognitive function. Modafinil in particular was found to have a…
Baranski, J. & Pigeau, R. (1997). Self-monitoring for cognitive performance during sleep deprivation: Effects of modafinil, d-amphetamine and placebo. Journal of Sleep Research. Vol. 6 (1997) 84-91.
Cain, C., Maynard, G. & Kehne, J. (2012). Targeting memory processes with drugs to prevent or cure PTSD. Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. Vol. 21 (9) 1323-1350.
Raskind, M. (2013). A placebo-controlled augmentation trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD. Seattle Institute for Biomedical and clinical research.
Raskind, M., Peterson, K., Williams, T., Hoff, D., Hart, K., Holmes, H., Homas, D., Hill, J., Daniels, C., Calohan, J., Millard, S., Rohde, K., O'Connell, J., Pritzl, D., Feiszli, K. (2013). A trial of prazosin for combat trauma PTSD with nightmares in active-duty soldiers returned from Iraq and Afghanistan. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 170 (2013) 1003-1010.
drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…
African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/
Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3
FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of - drugs.html
MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
Phenylethylamine naturally occurs as a trace amine in the brain. It releases dopamine in the mesolimbic pleasure-centers and peaks during orgasm. In the laboratory, and in unnaturally high doses it can produce stereotyped behavior more prominently than even than amphetamine (ibid).
Phenylethylamine has very distinct binding sites but not specific neurons. It helps mediate feelings of attraction, excitement, giddiness, apprehension and euphoria; but it has also been described as an endogenous anxiogen. One of its metabolites is high in subjects with paranoid schizophrenia (ibid).
Phenylethylamine has been theorized to cause depression. Monoamine oxidase type-b is equated as phenylethylaminase. The use of a selective MAO-b inhibitor, such as selegiline (l-deprenyl, Eldepryl) or rasagiline (Azilect) can accentuate the effects of chocolate (ibid).
In not just sex, but in all addictive behaviors, dopamine is released . Dopamine is released following high levels of addictive activity. e are not really addicted to the activity,…
Caston, John. (2010). Before you buy oxytocin nasal sprays are you aware of the effects and mechanism of oxytocin?. Retrieved from http://ezinearticles.com/?Before-You-Buy-Oxytocin-Nasal-Sprays-Are-You-Aware-of-the-Effects-and-Mechanism-of-Oxytocin?&id=201718 .
Chocalate. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.chocolate.org/.
The molecular biology of paradise. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.oxytocin.org/
Oxytocin . (2010, July 12). Retrieved from http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/hypopit/oxytocin.html .
247). Further, Jones began preaching about "revolutionary suicide" which was a kind of "collective suicide" as an "outcome of being attacked by forces" against Jonestown.
These facts that are generally supported by other sources can easily lead an alert reader to assume that Jones started with an idealistic spiritual movement and gradually he apparently became obsessed with power - and paranoid that some group would try to wipe him out - and turned his church into a cult. The PBS research claims that prior to the mass deaths Jones "confiscated medicines from every resident" and kept himself "medicated" on barbiturates and amphetamines. It doesn't take a doctor or psychiatrist to project that being on amphetamines (speed) and barbiturates (downers) could induce wild highs and lows, radical mood shifts which could certainly lead to paranoia, fear, hostility, and violence. "Hard physical labor" was forced on members six days a week -…
Metcalf, Bill. "David Chidester. Salvation and Suicide: Jim Jones, The People's Temple,
And Jonestown." Utopian Studies 16.2 (2005): 335-338.
Public Broadcasting Service. "Race and the Peoples Temple." Retrieved March 2, 2009, at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/jonestown/peopleevents/e_guyana.html .
Richardson, James T. "People's Temple and Jonestown: A Corrective Comparison and Critique." Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 19.3 (2001): 239-255.
The envelope contained a small plastic bag, which contained an amphetamine and a partially-consumed marijuana cigarette.
Regarding the consent issue, the government's burden is to prove that "consent was, in fact, freely and voluntarily given." The government stated that Knoll was warned in advance that he would be searched at the ticket booth, it was alleged that and he still had time to refuse. Both the District Court and the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit found that this did not constitute consent a meaningful sense, as forcing the defendant to choose between exercising his Fourth Amendment rights to refuse to be searched and his right to travel constituted coercion.
Regarding the extraordinary nature of the circumstances, there was no evidence that Knoll showed any reason to give the suspicion he might carrying explosives or weapons, although the court did state that the inspection of the attache…
United States v. Kroll. United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. 481 F.2d 884
July 10, 1973. http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/462836
In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.
Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…
Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.
Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.
Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008.
They were not informed of the reason for the code. They were asked "(a) How similar do you think this person is to you? (1 _ not at all similar to 11 _ very similar) and (b) How much do you think this person will like you? (1 _ not at all to 11 _ very much)" and other like preliminary questions to see if subliminal likes were noticed and present (Jones, p. 672).
Students were then asked to remember their "partner's" code number and dismissed.
First, the birthday-association manipulation was modestly associated with anticipated liking, _ _.15, t (107) _ 1.64, p _.10. Second, a multiple regression analysis showed that anticipated liking did predict partner liking, even after controlling for birthday association, _ _.61, t (107) _ 8.23, p _.001. Finally, the same regression analysis showed that the birthday-association effect was eliminated after controlling for anticipated liking, _ _.04,…
Berg, J.H. And McQuinn, R.D. (1986). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 50, No. 5.
Fry, R. (1999). Biology of love. The Health Report. 6 Sep 1999. The effect of love on the chemical state of our brains. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s49793.htm.
Emanuele, E. Polliti, P, Bianchi, M. Minoretti, P. Bertona, M., & Geroldi, D. (2005). Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love. www.biopsychiatry.comAbstract. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Nov. 09.
Geher, G. (2005). Motivational underpinnings of romantic partner perceptions: Psychological and physiological evidence. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, Vol. 22, No. 2, 255-281.
Studies suggest that 98% of users of marijuana and other illicit drugs also binge drink.
I am prepared for the temptations that smoking marijuana might present as I go through college and will not be easily swayed by the lures of friendship and comaraderie that participating in such behavior might afford me. I can see the dangers and risks that it would expose me to and am not willing to risk a good education for something as dangerous as illicit drug use.
Fenzel, L. Mickey. "Multivariate Analysis of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students." Journal of College Students Development, Vol. 46, 2, March/Apr 2005.
Larimer, Mary, Kilmer, Jason and Lee, Christine. "College Student Drug Prevention: A Review of Individually Oriented Prevention Strategies." Journal of Drug Issues, Spring 2005. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3733/is_200504/ai_n14681915.
Rumstein, Regina. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations. March, 1978. Non-Journal Paper presented at the Annual…
Fenzel, L. Mickey. "Multivariate Analysis of Predictors of Heavy Episodic Drinking and Drinking-Related Problems among College Students." Journal of College Students Development, Vol. 46, 2, March/Apr 2005.
Larimer, Mary, Kilmer, Jason and Lee, Christine. "College Student Drug Prevention: A Review of Individually Oriented Prevention Strategies." Journal of Drug Issues, Spring 2005. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3733/is_200504/ai_n14681915 .
Rumstein, Regina. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations. March, 1978. Non-Journal Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association (49th, Washington, D.C., March 29-April 1, 1978). http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED165065&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&objectId=0900000b8010b16e .
Rumstein, Regina. "Marijuana: College Students' Expectations." Journal of College Student Personnel, v21 n2 p135-40 Mar 1980. http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/Home.portal?_nfpb=true&_pageLabel=RecordDetails&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ220962&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&objectId=0900000b800abb0b .
Clandestine Drug Laboratories and Fire Service
The menace of clandestine drug labs has been in existence for decades now and is a widespread issue over all the states across the country. The labs are established in homes, backyards, stores, apartments, hotel rooms, covered boats and even trunk homes.
The police departments and the concerned authorities do invade on intelligence information, several of these clandestine drug labs but the worrying this is the contamination that remains once the found equipment and substance is confiscated.
These materials that remain behind can contaminate porous walls and floor covers, the house heating vents as well as the air conditioning system, let alone the furniture that is daily exposed to the elements. Lots of times the next occupants are not aware of the activities of the previous occupants and even if they are aware, they may not know the dangers that lie therein.
Asia & Pacific Amphetamine-Type stimulants Information Centre, (2009). Clandestine
Labs. Retrieved March 9, 2011 from http://www.apaic.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=70&Itemid=85
David P, (2011). Clandestine Drug Labs. Retrieved March 9, 2011 from http://cms.firehouse.com/content/article/article.jsp?id=12333§ionId=18EmerEgency Film Group, (2011). Meth Labs -- A to Z. Hazards for Emergency Responders.
Retrieved March 9, 2011 from http://www.efilmgroup.com/AtoZ.html
Methylphenidate is part of a therapy regimen for the control of the symptoms of Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD in adults and children (Ogbru 2013, Medline Plus 2012). It stimulates the central nervous system similarly as amphetamines but more mildly. The effects of methylphenidate are also more noticeable on mental activities than in physical movements. It also is used in treating narcolepsy and Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD. Stimulants control these symptoms by changing the amount of natural substances in the brain responsible for the conditions. ut both classes of stimulants are carefully used because of their potential abuse. They calm the patient, reduce their hyperactivity and increase attention span. FDA approved methylphenidate in 1955 (Ogbru, MedlinePlus).
Generic and Trade Names
Generic names -- methylphenidate, Methylphenidylacetate hydrochloride
Trade names -- Concerta, Metadate, Methylin, Ritalin, Adderall
Toxicity and Side Effects
It is to be used with cause on patients with…
Medline Plus. Methylphenidate. National Library of Medicine: National Institute
Health, 2012. Retrieved on August 24, 2013 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682188.html
NIDA. Drug Facts. National Institute on Drug Abuse: National Institute of Health,
2009. Retrieved on August 24, 2013 from http://www, drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/stiulant-adhd-medications-methylpheidate-amphetamines
Mandatory Drug Testing
In certain professional occupations, mandatory drug testing is not only a good idea, it is very important to public safety. There are good arguments on both sides as to whether all professional athletes should be tested for drugs -- or whether high school athletes should be tested. And in the business world, one could argue that drug testing is an invasion of privacy, and unless an employee is acting irresponsibly and clearly is ineffective, there is no good reason to require regular (or even sporadic) drug testing. But this paper takes the position that employees in certain professions -- airline pilots, bus drivers and heavy equipment operators -- should accept that mandatory drug testing is part of the job. The public safety is vastly more important than concerns over personal privacy issues, hence, the need for mandatory drug testing.
The Literature on Mandatory Drug Testing -- Airline…
Ahlers, Mike M. (2011). FAA: United Airline's drug testing protocols flawed. CNN Travel.
Retrieved February 5, 2013, from http://articles.cnn.com.
Central Lakes College. (2008). Heavy Equipment Operations & Maintenance. Retrieved February 5, 2013, from http://www.clcmn.edu .
DiMaggio, Charles, Baker, Susan, McCarthy, Melissa, and Rebok, George. (2009). Mandatory
THE CACAO TREE (THEOBROMA CACAO)
WHAT IS IN THE COCOA BEAN?
MAKING AND EATING CHOCOLATE
State of the At of Cocoa
Is Cocoa good fo you?
Buden of Poof
CHOCOLATE AS A FAT
EFFECTS ON BLOOD LIPIDS
WHAT IS OK
CHOCOLATE AND HEALTH AND DISEASE
H. Immune Function
J. Othe Disodes
N. Dental Caies
K. Heat Health
Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…
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Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.
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Aung San Suu Kyi
comparison between Aung San Suu Kyi and Rosa Parks
Both Aung San Suu Kyi and Rosa Parks have become enduring and vivacious symbols of the civil rights movements in their respective countries. By refusing to give up her seat to a white person and to move to the back of the bus, Parks ignited a firestorm of race-related protests that galvanized civil rights crusades of later leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. And Malcolm X In the beginning, Parks was not a civil rights leader. She was a citizen who had decided to take a stand against the social oppression that was predominant against African-American people.
Like Parks, Suu Kyi did not start out as a leader of the Burmese people. Though she had an influential father, Suu Kyi was living in England with her family prior being involved in Burma's fight against the military regime.…
We are still prisoners in our own country: An interview with Aung San Suu Kyi." The Humanist. Nov/Dec 1997. 57(6). Proquest Database.
Kurlantzick, Joshua. "Can Burma Reform?" Foreign Affairs. Nov/Dec 2002. 81(6). Proquest Database.
Myoe, Maung Aung. "The national reconciliation process in Myanmar." Contemporary Southeat Asia. 2002. 24(2). Proquest Database.
Substance Induced Insanity
Psychosis is a psychiatric state that can either be enduring or temporary. A person suffering from the condition may experience memory lapses, incoherent speech or thoughts, lack of concentration, delusions and/or hallucinations. Other symptoms that may manifest when one is suffering from psychosis include changes in personality and exhibition of unusual behaviors. It has been established that psychosis can be caused by various substances such as marijuana, methamphetamine and alcohol. Substance induced psychosis typically occurs when an individual has been continually using stimulants over a long period of time. The two most common substances or stimulants known to induce psychosis are methamphetamine and amphetamine. Apart from these drugs, the 'designer' drugs have also been found to induce the condition. Individuals suffering from substance-induced psychosis may exhibit loss of contact with reality and they may also become fixated on a certain action or place and may engage in…
Alcoholrehab. (2016). Psychosis and substance abuse. Retrieved from http://alcoholrehab.com/drug-addiction/psychosis-and-substance-abuse/
Bal, B. S. (2009). An introduction to medical malpractice in the United States. Clin Orthop Relat, 467(2): 339-347.
Beck, M. (2011). Confusing medical ailments with medical illness. Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424053111904480904576496271983911668
Bourget, D. (2013). Forensic Considerations of Substance-Induced Psychosis. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law, 41(2), 168-173
The claim has been made that chocolate operates upon the brain in much the same way as an antidepressant drug. Generate specific predictions based on this general hypothesis and provide operational definitions of the variables involved.
Chocolate releases a unique neurotransmitter called phenylethylamine or chocolate amphetamine, which fluctuate the blood and sugar levels, causing euphoria and attentiveness. Unlike amphetamines, however, it doesn't cause addiction to the consumer, but it does act as an anti-depressant by lightening the mood of a person. According to Coveleskie (2004), phenylethylamine in chocolate gives you the same feeling you get when you're in love and therefore, it's also called a love drug.
Chocolate also releases the lipid anandamide, similar to the chemical THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) which is found in the drug, marijuana. The THC as well as the lipid anandamide produce the neurotransmitter 'dopamine' which makes people happy and high. The chemical anandamide is already…
Bernard, T. J. (1991). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
Coveleskie, K. (2004). Chocolate on the Brain. Serendib. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro04/web1/kcoveleskie.html on 26 May 2016
Flaherty, M. G. (1983). The national incidence of juvenile suicide in adult jails and juvenile detention centres. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour, 13(2), 85-94.
Hlavaty, Joel R. (1983). Hypnosis in Our Legal System: The Status of its Acceptance in the Trial Setting, Akron Law Review: Vol. 16: Iss. 3, Article 6
By adding our understanding of the human complexity to these experimental models, the explanatory power may increase. Collaborating and identifying human subjects that are suitable candidates based on environmental factors will allow for hypotheses to become testable.
The study of pair bonding has gone from rodents to primates. The next question is when will it move from primates to humans?
Aragona, Brandon J., Jacqueline M. Detwiler, and Zuoxin Wang. (2007). Amphetamine reward in the monogamous prairie vole. Neuroscience Letters, 418, 190-194.
Bales, Karen L., William A. Mason, Ciprian Catana, Simon . Cherry, and Sally P. Mendoza. (2007). Brain
esearch, 1184, 245-253.
Curtis, J. Thomas, Yan Liu, Brandon J. Aragona, Zuoxin Wang. (2006). Dopamine and monogamy. Brain esearch, 1126, 76-90.
Gobrogge, Kyle L., Yan Liu, and Zuoxin Wang.(2008). Dopamine egulation of Pair Bonding in Monogamous Prairie Voles. Neurobiology of the Parental Brain, Elsevier: 347-360
Lederhendler, Israel, and Jay Schulkin.(2000). Behavioral…
Aragona, Brandon J., Jacqueline M. Detwiler, and Zuoxin Wang. (2007). Amphetamine reward in the monogamous prairie vole. Neuroscience Letters, 418, 190-194.
Bales, Karen L., William A. Mason, Ciprian Catana, Simon R. Cherry, and Sally P. Mendoza. (2007). Brain
Research, 1184, 245-253.
Curtis, J. Thomas, Yan Liu, Brandon J. Aragona, Zuoxin Wang. (2006). Dopamine and monogamy. Brain Research, 1126, 76-90.
Particularly, many democrats and republicans expressed their dismay about the fact that the ush administration did not notify or seek congressional input while the policy was being developed. However, as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Roberta Jacobson, who actually drafted the 'Merida initiative' says, "Although it [Merida] was proposed by a Republican administration, it was passed by a Democratic [party-controlled] Congress." [Jim Fischer, 2009]
Some policy analysts from Mexico have expressed their concern that controlling drug trafficking in Mexico would be better achieved if the U.S. takes active measures to control the arms trafficking from across its borders into Mexico. Gen. Javier del Real Magallanes, who is in command of the northeastern states such as Nuevo Leon, Tamaulipas, and San Luis Potosi says, "If there are no weapons, there's no violence. These arms aren't from Mexico; they're from the other side." [Laura Starr, 2007]. Sharing…
1) Colleen W. Cook, Oct 2007, 'CRS Report for Congress: Mexico's Drug Cartels', retrieved Apr 22nd, 2010, from, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf
2) Bernd Debussman, 'Latin America: Mexico Drug War Update', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from, http://stopthedrugwar.org/chronicle/604/mexico_drug_war_update
3) Manuel Roig-Franzia, 'U.S. Guns Behind Cartel Killings In Mexico', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/28/AR2007102801654.html
4) Inside USA, 'Mexico's Drug', retrieved Apr 22nd 2010, from, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hyDHNeJxazU
Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.
From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…
Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.
Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
The inclusion of alcohol and drug education is a vital component of most drug and alcohol abuse interventions, for both the users and non-user. (Montagne et al., 1992). This education can be offered as a preventive measure to beginners of abuse of substances of to the vulnerable group to save the future generations from the menace and the whole society from the drug's association with crime. Alternatively, it should be offered to be taught as part of the educational curriculum in schools
ecent literature reviews have not found enough evidence to convince many researchers that drug and alcohol awareness programs have great impact on changing substance and drug use, attitude and behavior (Eliany et al., 1993). Although it is of great effort, it has been observed that education alone is not enough to change the actual behavior of alcohol and drug use (Tobler et al1976), in the actual examination of…
ADAM (1998) Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program):1998 Annual Report on Adult and Juvenile Arrestees. Addiction Research Foundation ( 1994). Alcohol and Drug Treatment in Ontario, Toronto:
BUREAU of JUSTICE STATISTICS (1998). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
Burrell, N. And K. English. 2006. "Successful completion rates from Community Corrections in Colorado decreased for the first time in many years." Elements of Change: Highlighting Trends & Issues in the Criminal Justice System. Colorado Division of Criminal Justice, Office of Research and Statistics. Vol. 10, No.1. Viewed December 26, 2007 at http://dcj.state.co.us/ors/pdf/docs/EOC_No1_071906.pdf .
Bloom, B.E., and Covington, S.S. (2001) "Effective gender-responsive interventions in juvenile
Drug and alcohol abuse is a serious problem among many young people for a variety of reasons. First, statistics show that drugs and alcohol are being abused by a large segment of the teen and young adult population, which can greatly increase their likelihood of a premature death. Secondly, many things can happen to young adults that do not lead to death, but can ruin their lives. Finally, drug and alcohol abuse can have a serious impact on relationships with friends and family.
According to the National Drug Statistics Summary, approximately 14 million Americans used illegal drugs in 2000. Among the teenagers interviewed for the survey, nearly ten percent had used drugs in the month before the interview. The findings for alcohol abuse were even higher. Nearly half of Americans over the age of twelve reported that they drank alcoholic beverages. This is a serious issue. First, the drugs in…
Hafetz, David. Jacqueline and Amadeo: Chasing Hope. Austin American Statesman. 2002 May. February 13, 2010. < http://www.helpjacqui.com/pdf/jacqui.pdf>
National Drug Statistics Summary. Adolescent Substance Abuse Knowledge Base. 2007. February 13, 2010.
Unfortunately, the American government has been looking in the wrong place for these models, especially in Asia and Latin America. For example, the coca plant from which cocaine is derived grows in abundance in many geographical regions of northern South America and in Central America, where growers make huge profits as compared to efforts to force farmers and peasants to grow legal crops which inevitably do not produce enough profits in order to survive.
Of course, over the last twenty years or so, the U.S. federal government has done much and at great expense to attempt to eradicate the growing of coca but these efforts have also failed miserably. As Nadelmann relates, even if foreign supplies of coca and other drugs like heroin could be cut off, "the drug abuse problem in the U.S. would scarcely abate," due to the fact that much if not most of the drugs like…
Nadelmann, Ethan a. (Jan. -- Feb. 1998). Common sense drug policy. Foreign Affairs.
Vol. 77 no. 1, 111-126.
Swanson, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, CA 92715
Age: ____ Grade:
Ethnicity (circle one which best applies): African-American Asian Caucasian Hispanic
Completed by:____ Type of Class:
For each item, check the column which best describes this child:
Not at Just a Quite
1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork or tasks
2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities
3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly
4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties
5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities
6. Often avoids, dislikes, or reluctantly engages in tasks requiring sustained mental effort
7. Often loses things necessary for activities (e.g., toys, school assignments, pencils, or books)
8. Often is distracted by extraneous stimuli
9. Often is forgetful in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.bartleby.com/66/3/33503.html
Cloward, Janessa. "ADHD drugs pose heart risks, federal panel says," University Wire, February 15, 2006. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P1118518952.html
DeMarle, Daniel J.;Denk, Larry;Ernsthausen, Catherine S.. "Working with the family of a child with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.(Family Matters)," Pediatric Nursing, July 1, 2003. Retrieved April 16, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1107215868.html
Edwards, Jason H.. "Evidenced-based treatment for child ADHD: "real-world" practice implications." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, April 1, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2008, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-87015306.html
One of the most frequent injuries is represented by the traumatic brain ones.. amongst other symptoms, one can mention anxiety, severe depression. Headaches and the difficulty to reason clearly. PTSD, post traumatic stress disorder is also manifested through depression, insomnia, flashback.
It is important to underline that these psychological disorders are usually associated with drug abuse. Taking this into consideration, it can be underlined that we are dealing with a social phenomenon. Most soldiers do not have the psychological training needed in order to do what they need to do once in combat. War has never been and could never be a pretty things, so the atrocities that these young men witness or are forced to do, shake them up psychologically. The use of drugs is to be understood in close connection to this factor.
Depression is not a factor that can be ignored. And there is no time for…
Allen, T., the Iraq war-on drugs, 2006, March 20, 2008 http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/2670/
Alcohol and other drugs plague soldiers in Iraq, March 20, 2008 http://www.jointogether.org/news/research/summaries/2005/alcohol-and-other-drugs-in.html
Kelly, R., U.S. soldiers in Iraq suffer horrific brain and mental injuries, 2004, March 20, 2008 http://www.wsws.org/articles/2004/nov2004/sold-n20.shtml
Millitary Drug Programs, March 20, 2008 www.jackson.army.mil/Directorates/Asap.htm
Most doctors that prescribe italin today caution patients to talk with them prior to discontinuation, and most will use a tapering system to wean patients from the medication so they do not experience withdrawal symptoms.
What I would like to see presented in the DSM-V work group committee members is a change in language so that italin is classified as an agent that can result in dependency, misuse and abuse. This is especially true given the fact that it is often used as a street "drug" that has an amphetamine like reaction in individuals that use it without the need for it. People that use italin that have a justified need for it may feel nothing except they are better able to concentrate, if the medication is working properly; however the medication is not tolerated the same in all people that use it. The work group committee members need simply…
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Text Revision.
Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington, DC:
American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
This allows the client to place their level of behavior on the continuum and assess the levels of risk associated with their behaviors. The continuum also allows the client to assess the ways in which their behaviors over time, by examining the ways in which their behaviors are now different to past behaviors. This may allow clients to recognize that they have already made some progress toward less harmful behaviors, or may allow them to identify specific events which led to developing more risky behaviors. The harm reduction model allows the client to assess their current situation and plan the actions which they wish to take to change their future behaviors.
Applications of the model
The harm reduction model has been applied predominantly to drug misuse issues, however it is also appropriate to apply the model for a wide range of social and health behavior changes. The model has been…
Amato, L., Davoli, M.A., Perucci, C., Ferri, M., Faggiano, F.P. And Mattick, R. (2005) an overview of systematic reviews of the effectiveness of opiate maintenance therapies: Available evidence to inform clinical practice and research. Journal Substitutes Abuse Treatment, 28, 321-329.
Bluthenthal, R.N., Kral, a.H., Erringer, E.A. And Edlin, B.R. (1998) Use of an illegal syringe exchange and injection-related risk behaviors among street-recruited injection drug users in Oakland, California, 1992 to 1995. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Human Retrovirology, 18, 505-511.
Bradley-Springer, L. (1996) Patient education for behavior change: Help from the transtheoretical and harm reduction models. JANAC, 7(1), 23-33.
Des Jarlais, D.C. (1995) Harm reduction: A framework for incorporating science into drug policy. American Journal of Public Health, 85, 10-12.
What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.
Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…
Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.
Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68
Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998
Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders.
Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs.
Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people. As an example, in 2002, Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), by $50 million, in order to increase drug user treatment studies at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Kumpfer,…
Bilchik, S. (1997). From the administrator. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/167251.pdf .
Juvenile detention as a disposition. (2005). Journal of Juvenile Justice Services, 20(2). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. (Jul 2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11-13). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Lexcen, F. & Redding, R. (2000). Substance abuse and dependence in juvenile offenders. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ilppp.virginia.edu/Juvenile_Forensic_Fact_Sheets/SubAbuse.html .
In the age group of eighteen to twenty-five, over fifty-five percent reported having used drugs sometime in their lives. In terms of drugs of choice for high school seniors, nearly half of all drug users prefer marijuana, although such drugs as amphetamines, hallucinogens and ecstasy all report surprisingly high numbers also.
What can be concluded from this study is that drug use begins at an early age, most often during one's high school years. However, the statistics show, as the number of regular users drops off as they age, the trend is more towards experimentation and not creating a drug-dependent lifestyle.
National Drug Threat Assessment: Marijuana Update. August 2002. www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs1/1335
Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2006): "Fact Sheet." Executive Office of the President: Drug Policy Information Clearing House. www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov.
National Drug Threat Assessment: Marijuana Update. August 2002. www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs1/1335
Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2006): "Fact Sheet." Executive Office of the President: Drug Policy Information Clearing House. www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov.
Jones relates that statement of Corrigan: "Our work suggests that the biggest factor changing stigma is contact between people with mental illness and the rest of the population. The public needs to understand that many people with mental illness are functioning, fully contributing members of society." (Jones, 2006) Jones states that "the social cost of stigma associated with mental illness is high because it translates into huge numbers of people with treatable mental illness not getting help." Jones relates the fact that the National Alliance of Mental Illness (NAMI) is a group of advocates that works toward fighting the "inaccurate, hurtful representations of mental illness" that are found in the media. Jang (2002) states that the National Health Law Program has a priority to access of healthcare. In fact, the Executive Order (EO 13166) was focused toward the implementation of guidelines in overcoming the language barriers. Jang states that LEP…
Anderson, S.K. & Middleton, V.A.
Explorations in privilege, oppression and DiversityBrooks Cole 2005. ISBN0-534-51742-0
Barber, J.G. (1995). Politically progressive casework. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 76(1), 30-37.
Children Who Can't Pay Attention/ADHD (2004) Facts for Families. Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Online available at http://www.aacap.org/page.ww?section=Facts+for+Families&name=Children+Who+Can%27t+Pay+Attention%2FADHD
She attends Catholic church service with her family and friends on special occasions like Easter and Christmas as this seems to please her mother.
Her favorite hobby is reading novels.
The act of cutting her wrist frightens her. She has no transportation problem; therefore her Initial Diagnostic Interview with Dr. Philips is scheduled for 12/1/11.
The 28-year-old female demonstrates a high level of depression as well as anxiety as indicated by the symptoms of flashbacks, repetitive nightmares, insomnia, poor appetite as well as a general feeling of emptiness. Her behavior of self-harm (cutting) has also increased. She has a physical and sexual abuse history all of which affect her current mood.
The client was diagnosed with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression and migraines.
Master problem list
Client: Grace Manchester
Date of Identification
Date of esolution
The client has a chronic medical problem…
Nemade, R., Reiss, NS and Dombeck, M (2007)Psychotherapy - Evidence-Based Treatments for Major Depression.
Whitfield, G and Williams, C (2003)The evidence base for cognitive -- behavioral therapy in depression: delivery in busy clinical settings. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2003) 9: 21-30 doi: 10.1192/apt.9.1.21
Chemical Addiction Progress More apidly in Young People than Adults?
Chemical dependency is the obsessive use of chemicals like drugs, alcohol, and tobacco and the incapacity to stop using them, in spite of all the troubles caused by their use. People with a chemical dependency can stop using for a while but find it hard to start all together. This is where professional help is needed to stop it for life. Those who quit without professional help, typically overcome with an agonizing desire to resume alcohol, tobacco or drug use. Alcohol and drug addiction are progressive diseases. In most, addictions begin gradually and grow until one's life becomes increasingly uncontrollable. As recurring efforts to gain control over the addiction are unsuccessful, life for the person who has developed a chemical dependency begins to fall apart (Chemical dependency, n.d.).
Drug addictions in young people have been found to progresses more quickly…
Chapter 2 -- The Role of PPC in a Managed Care Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://kap.samhsa.gov/products/manuals/tips/13b.htm
Chemical Dependency. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.aboutdrugtreatment.org/chemical_dependency.htm
Chemical Dependency. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.galaxrecovery.com/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
Drug and Alcohol Information. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/chemical_dependency_treatment.asp
Help her to realize that having a child may interfere with her future career, but that many mothers have successful home and job lives. There are an infinite number of options, and a determined teenager can find a way to success. Do not skirt around the issues of danger, however, as teenagers are more likely to miscarry or have other complications with their pregnancy such as premature labor and low birth weight of the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to need bedrest during the late stages of pregnancy, and a cesarian section during birthing, and the child is at greater risk for any number of complications.
Of course, while supporting a pregnant teen is vital, the key to solving the problems faced by teenagers dealing with pregnancy is to stop it before it happens.
Provide accurate and unashamed information about sex and pregnancy to children and teenagers, and encourage…
Adolescent Anger and Aggression." Psychiatric Institute of Washington. 2001. http://www.psychinstitute.com/mental_illness/adol_anger.html
Combat Teenage Sexual Abuse." NSPCC. 2001. http://www.nspcc.org.uk/html/home/informationresources/combatteenagesexualabuse.htm
Getting a Sexually Transmitted Disease." Frequently Asked Questions. American Social Health Association. http://www.iwannaknow.org/faqs/getting.html
Lamprecht, Catherine. "Talking to your Child about STDs." KidsHealth. Nemours Foundation. 2001. http://kidshealth.org/PageManager.jsp?dn=KidsHealth&lic=1&ps=107&cat_id=171&article_set=23006
Shrouded in myth and mystery, John F. Kennedy is usually presented as a leader who could make a difference. He is seen as a man of character who wanted equal civil rights for blacks, effectively dealt with Cuban missile crisis, was a good father and had a perfect wife. Kennedy is even touted as the man who could direct the country to more prosperity had he not died in office. But this is just a mythical image of Kennedy. The real Kennedy was shockingly less pious and anything but a good leader. What he promised he never delivered and was consistently unfaithful to his very devoted wife.
Let us start with his political undertakings. As much as we would love to believe that Kennedy was a great political leader, the truth is that he was anything but that. President Kennedy used the political system to his advantage only…
1) Bruce Miroff, Pragmatic Illusions: The Presidential Politics of John F. Kennedy (New York: David McKay, 1976), p. 31
2) Thomas E. Cronin, Michael A. Genovese: The Paradoxes of the American Presidency. Oxford University Press. New York. 1998
3) Thomas C. Reeves, John F. Kennedy. A Life of John F. Kennedy: A Question of Character, New York, The Free Press, 1991
Drugs on the Economy
History of drugs in the United States
How drugs affect the United States Economy both positively and negatively
How decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stand to lessen the burden on tax-payers
Wonder drugs like morphine, heroine, and cocaine to mention but a few pose a lot of problems to the entire American society. Americans have had to grapple with the deleterious effects of drug abuse and addiction. estrictions were imposed at the beginning of the 20th Century through domestic and overseas law enforcement to contain the drugs epidemic. Such enforcements were initiated to limit opium and cocoa crops (Drug Enforcement Administration, 2012). This term paper seeks to give a brief history of drugs in the United States of America and subsequently outline how drug use affects the American economy both positively and negatively. The paper also endeavors to list how decriminalization of drugs like marijuana stands…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2011). Prisoners in 2010 (revised). Retrieved June 22, 2012 from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=pbdetail&iid=2230
Drug Enforcement Administration. (2012). Illegal drugs in America: A modern
History. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.deamuseum.org/museum_ida.html
Easton, S. (2009). Legalize Marijuana for Tax Revenue. Retrieved June 22, from http://www.businessweek.com/debateroom/archives/2010/03/legalize_mariju.html
All veteran therapists know that religious differences are the main causes for incongruity and sadness. (Dating and Marrying Nonmembers) Hence achel needs to understand that it is not a wise decision to marry a person of a different race.
In a love life, when parents object and when the partner is not understandable the person in question would face enormous depression. So what is meant by depression? The loss of an essential life aim without accusing anybody is depression. This loss disturbs our behavior, our temper or personal feelings, our talent, our outlook or inspiration, and our physical functioning and health. The outcomes of depression are "behavioral extremes, poor memory, confusion, loneliness, lack of care, going away from home, disobedient, violence gripped with guiltiness and fear about doing mistakes, about being reckless, crying, suicidal pressures." (History and Gender factors in Depression)
Over 18 million Americans are miserable. Of these…
Ambord, Teresa. 2004. "Teen Dating: Is it Love or Infatuation?" 28 May. Retrieved at http://www.preferredconsumer.com/front_page/publish/Teens_Dating_Love_Infatutation.html . Accessed on 14 April 2005
Biblical Answers for Depressed Teens!" retrieved at http://www.wolfeborobible.com/depression.html. Accessed on 14 April 2005
Chandrasekher, Lily. "Forbidden Love: Dating Outside Your Race or Ethnicity" retrieved at http://www.sxetc.org/index.php?topic=Stories&sub_topic=Love+and+Relationships&content_id=1430Accessed on 14 April 2005
Child and Adolescent Depression: Diagnosis and Treatment" retrieved at http://www.baltimorepsych.com/cadepress.htm. Accessed on 14 April 2005
Domestic Drug Trafficking
The illegal drug market in the United States is one of the most profitable in the world, and attracts the most sophisticated and aggressive drug traffickers (Drug pp). According to U.S. Customs Service, sixty million people enter the United States on more than 675,000 commercial and private flights, and another 6 million enter by sea, and some 370 million by land (Drug pp). Moreover, 116 million vehicles enter by crossing the Canadian and Mexican borders, and more than 90, 000 merchant and passenger ships dock at U.S. ports carrying more than 9 million shipping containers and 400 million tons of cargo, with an additional 157,000 smaller vessels docking at various coastal towns (Drug pp).
Amid all this trade, drug traffickers conceal cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and methamphetamine shipments for distribution into U.S. neighborhoods (Drug pp).
The traffic and distribution of illegal drugs involves diverse groups (Drug pp). Criminal…
Sesin, Carmen. Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job: Colombian aids forgotten victims. NBC News. May 25, 2994. Accessed from MSNBC.com web site on May 05, 2005.
Humbles, Andy. Dealers get creative when hiding their drugs. The Tennessean.
February 15, 2004. Accessed from The Tennessean web site on May 05, 2005.
A brief overview of some prominent theoretical models relating to behavior modification is felt to be a pertinent starting point for his study, as many of these aspects can be compared to the actual interviews and case studies of the subjects. Research suggests that the recovery from drug and alcohol addictions is commonly a long-term process and can involve relapses before sustained and permanent rehabilitation is achieved. ehavioral theories have been shown to be effective in this process. Theories such as cognitive behavioral relapse prevention are a method that has been proven to have a sustained success rate. This theory relates specifically to the formations of behavioral changes in that patients are taught ways of acting and thinking that will assist them in avoiding previous addictions.
For example, patients are urged to avoid situations that lead to drug use and to practice drug refusal skills. They…
An Analysis of Behavioral Change and Addiction Recovery. Retrieved April 30, 2005.Web site: http://www.coursework.info/i/67785.html
Borges, G., Cherpitel, C.J., Macdonald, S., Giesbrecht, N., Stockwell, T., & Wilcox, H.C. (2004). A Case-Crossover Study of Acute Alcohol Use and Suicide Attempt. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65(6), 708+. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Cisler, R., Holder, H.D., Longabaugh, R., Stout, R.L., & Zweben, A. (1998). Actual and Estimated Replication Costs for Alcohol Treatment Modalities: Case Study from Project MATCH. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 59(5), 503+. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from Questia database,
, 2003, p. 3).
The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.
Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.
Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).
NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.
Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.
According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…
Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.
Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.
Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.
Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
The first is the actors in the setting. The researcher will collect variables such as age and gender so as not to interfere with the natural setting of the revelers. The second category is the behaviors being carried out by these actors. These will be recorded as acts which are small units of behavior, activities which are a set of related acts and events which are a set of related acts in a sequence. The third category is the space that is occupied by these actors. This will essentially be an understanding of the setting of the underground rave. Information on ventilation, lighting, cleanliness, and setting of the underground rave will be collected. The fourth category is the arrangement of objects in the space. This will seek to collect information regarding the arrangement of tables, chairs, bars, and other items in the underground rave. The next category is the time…
Anderson, Tammy L. "Understanding the Alteration and Decline of a Music Scene: Observations from Rave Culture." Sociological Forum 24.2 (2009): 307-36. Print.
Aronson, E., T.D. Wilson, and M. Brewer. "Experimental Methods." The Handbook of Social Psychology. Eds. Gilbert, D., S. Fiske and G. Lindzey. 4th ed. Vol. 1. New York: Random House, 1998. 99-142. Print.
Creswell, J.W. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications, 2002. Print.
Demers, Joanna. "Dancing Machines: 'Dance Revolution', Cybernetic Dance, and Musical Taste." Popular Music 25.3 (2006): 401-14. Print.
Genetic Influence of MDMA Neurotoxicity
Ecstasy [(±)-3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, MDMA, XTC, X, E] is one of the most popular drugs of abuse in the world (Capela et al., 2009, p. 211). Often used in social settings, such as the so-called 'raves' or all night dance parties, ecstasy has been reported to lower barriers to intimacy, increase the pleasure derived from friendships, enhance social interactions, and increase energy (euphoria) (Peters and Kok, 2009, p. 242).
In the U.S., MDMA is classified as a schedule 1 drug due its addictive potential, lack of therapeutic utility, dubious safety profile, and neurotoxic potential (Capela et al., 2009, p. 212) and its use has been illegal since 1985. The safety concerns of MDMA include the potential for a negative therapeutic outcome (Parrott, 2007) and its neurotoxicity (Capela et al., 2009). Apparently, the use of MDMA in a psychotherapy setting can produce a negative outcome that…
Capela, Joao P., Carmo, Helena, Remiao, Fernando, Bastos, Maria L., Meisel, Andreas, and Carvalho, F. (2009). Molecular and cellular mechanisms of ecstasy-induced neurotoxicity: An overview. Molecular Neurobiology, 39, 210-271.
Carmo, Helena, Brulport, Marc, Hermes, Matthias, Oesch, Franz, Silva, Renata, Ferreira, Luisa M. et al. (2006). Influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('ecstasy') cytotoxicity. Pharmakogenetics and Genomics, 16, 789-799.
Esse, Katherine, Fossati-Bellani, Marco, Traylor, Angela, and Martin-Schild, Sheryl. (2011). Epidemic of illicit drug use, mechanisms of action/addiction and stroke as a health hazard. Brain and Behavior, 1, 44-54.
Parrott, A.C. (2007). The psychotherapeutic potential of MDMA (3.4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine): An evidence-based review. Psychopharmacology, 191, 181-93.
In international relations theory, realists generally follow the rational choice or national actor with the assumption that states and their leaders make policy on the basis of calculated self-interest. They follow a utilitarian and pragmatic philosophy in which "decision makers set goals, evaluate their relative importance, calculate the costs and benefits of each possible course of action, then choose the one with the highest benefits and lowest costs" (Goldstein and Pevehouse 127). Individual leaders will have their unique personalities, experiences and psychological makeups, and some will be more averse to risk than others, but essentially they all follow a rational model of policymaking. American presidents are generally skilled politicians as well or they would never have achieved such high office in this first place, and this means that their rational calculations will always include public opinion, the needs of their electoral coalitions and the wishes of various interest…
Goldstein, Joshua and Jon C. Pevehouse. International Relations, 10th Editon. Longman, 2002.
Heinrichs, Waldo, "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
McDermott, Rose. Presidential Leadership, Illness, and Decision Making. Cambridge, 2008.
Waite, Robert G.L. The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler. De Capo Press, 1993.