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Drugs and Addiction
Prolonged drug use produces compulsive seeking of the drugs. Drugs affect the functioning of the brains' functioning, and that has behavioral implications on the drug addict. Drug addiction leads to chronic relapses, which may lead a person to face problems of disconnection. Prescription drugs are becoming the most abused drug types regardless of the negative influences they produce to the lives and behavior of users. University students in America adapt to illegal use of prescription drugs like Adderall, piracetam and modafinil in search of increased intelligence.
The controversy behind the use of drugs like Adderall is based on the ethical influence on others with relation to effects its use has on addicts. The controversy behind Adderall use comes from the fact that it helps users in enhancing their concentration, while at the same time; it produces negative characteristics on users. As this paper discusses the addictive use…
A room in a house or a basement can become manufacturing laboratory for methamphetamine easier than a closet in a city apartment. Similarly, access to cocaine and other illicit substances may be easier in inner cities, which are usually ports of entry for foreign and regional cartels. Demand for methamphetamine may be linked to the availability of other substances in urban centers.
If access to cocaine, heroin, and other drugs is limited in rural areas then it is also likely that the prevalence of methamphetamine in rural regions is linked to consumer demand. Manufacturing methamphetamine is relatively simple, and in some ways easier than traveling to a distant city to procure drugs. The drug is also fairly inexpensive to make yet can supplement incomes through its sale on the black market. Drug and alcohol abuse is relatively common in rural areas, even those with few cocaine or heroin problems ("Meth…
Brain, PF & Coward, GA (1989). A review of the history, actions, and legitimate uses of cocaine. J Subst Abuse 1(4):431-51. Retrieved Feb 1, 2009 at http://www.cocaine.org/history/review.html
Brecher, E.M. (1972). Nineteenth-century America - a "dope fiend's paradise." The Consumers Union Report on Licit and Illicit Drugs. Retrieved Feb 1, 2009 at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/Library/studies/cu/cu1.html
Burnett, L.B. & Adler, J. (2008). Toxicity, cocaine. Retrieved Feb 1, 2009 at http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/813959-overview
Cauchon, D. (1999). Zero-tolerance policies lack flexibility. USA Today. Retrieved Feb 1, 2009 at http://www.usatoday.com/educate/ednews3.htm
The government regulating of drugs use is one of those elements which are somewhat affected by such an approach. The government regulates both illegal and legal drugs in order to both maximize profits for American companies and minimize profits for foreign capitol. There are strict regulations on pharmaceuticals within the country. Also, many people posit money leaving American hands as a major underlying cause of the government's regulations of what is know known as illegal substances. If such narcotics such as marijuana and opium were to be legalized within the United States, it would not be the government who was making the biggest chunk of profit of sales. Because the majority of these drugs are grown overseas, that money would also therefore go overseas. In order to keep a monopoly on legal drugs, the government may have had a hidden agenda while drafting legislation which deemed other drugs illegal.
Ksir, Charles, Hart, Carl L., Ray, Oakley. Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior.
McGraw-Hill. Boston. 2008.
Ksir, Charles. Drug Use in Modern Society. McGraw-Hill.com. Retrieved April 6, 2008. http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/0072972262/230135/ksir11e_ch01.pdf
Drugs, ock Music and Developing Countries
Examining the effects of imported rock music on developing countries and its impact on violence and drug abuse is by no means a simple or straightforward task. One important factor is that this type of music overwhelmingly appeals to young people under age 30, and these are often the majority of the population in many developing nations, especially the Middle East and North Africa. To be sure, because of poor social and economic conditions, many of them cannot speak English and are not able to afford imported music or other cultural products. These types of imports most affect urban upper and middle class youth, who are also most likely to use the new Internet, social media and satellite TV technology. They have a great deal in common with their Western counterparts in that they are attracted to the rebellious nature of this musical form,…
Carovino, K. (1995). "Women and Substance Abuse: Issues and Implication" in Kirsch, H.W. (Ed) Drug Lessons and Education Programs in Developing Countries. Transaction Publishers, pp. 153-70.
Chouvy, P.A. And J. Meissonnier (2004). Yaa Baa: Production, Traffic, and Consumption of Methamphetamine in Mainland Southeast Asia. Singapore University Press.
Corwin, P. (2003). Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. Rutgers University Press.
Gerbner, G. (2001). "Drugs in Television, Movies and Music Videos" in Kalimpour and Rampal, pp. 69-76.
"he program offers a unique advantage over many traditional surveys of drug use through its collection and testing1 of a urine sample from respondents to verify answers about recent drug use (Abt Associates Inc., 2009))."
Fry, Smith, Bruno, O'Keefe & Miller (2007). Benzodiazepine And Pharmaceutical Opioid Misuse And heir Relationship o Crime. Retrieved from http://www.ndlerf.gov.au/pub/Monograph_21.pdf
his source details the relationship between the prescription drugs benzodiazepine and pharmacological opioid use and crime. It gives particular detail to the selling of these drugs on the black market, and is based on information from informants, law enforcement and health practitioners in Australia. his is an excellent source for illustrating how even legalized drugs can contribute to the development of criminal activity. he purpose of this publication was to aid in the understanding and edification for law enforcement officials in this specialized area of illicit drug activity, and was financed by the Australian Government…
This source details the relationship between the prescription drugs benzodiazepine and pharmacological opioid use and crime. It gives particular detail to the selling of these drugs on the black market, and is based on information from informants, law enforcement and health practitioners in Australia. This is an excellent source for illustrating how even legalized drugs can contribute to the development of criminal activity. The purpose of this publication was to aid in the understanding and edification for law enforcement officials in this specialized area of illicit drug activity, and was financed by the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing as part of its support of the National Drug Strategy. "The purpose of this study was to contribute to the law enforcement sector's understanding of the relationship between benzodiazepine and pharmaceutical opioid use and crime, and the impact of this in three select Australian jurisdictions (Fry, Smith, Bruno, Okeefe, Miller, 2007)."
Klein, A.R. (2009). Practical Implications of Current Domestic Violence Research: For Law Enforcement, Prosecutors and Judges. Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/nij/topics/crime/intimate-partner-violence/practical-implications-research/ch3/drug-alcohol-abusers.htm
This ePub from the National Institute of Justice focuses on domestic violence and common characteristics of both victims and perpetrators. Of particular interest to the relationship between drugs and crimes can be found in Chapter't 3's description of drug and alcohol abusers and their proclivities to domestic violence. This publication also present information regarding substance abuse as a risk factor as well as findings linking substance abuse and domestic violence to other crimes, for both the abused and their abusers. This publication underpins the relationship between illegal drugs and criminal activity by citing pertinent statistics which can be of use for examples to prove this inherent link between drugs and crime, as the following quotation demonstrates. "…a California study found alcohol or drugs, or both, were involved in 38% of the domestic violence incident arrests (Klein, 2009)." It was written by Andrew R. Klein (the Paul E. Beam Professor of Law at Indiana University's School of Law at Indianapolis) for the purpose of providing research to practitioners regarding the daily activities of domestic violence law enforcement officers, attorneys and judges.
Abusing illegal drugs can give rise to crime and violence, even if they are used in an allegedly positive way to 'open up' and 'free' the mind. Even overusing antibiotics, and insisting upon taking them even though one's disease is likely caused by a virus can cause a rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and can impact general human health. However, refusing to take certain medical treatments, such as refusing to vaccinate one's child, can have negative social fallout, as can be seen in the increase of diseases that were once thought to be eradicated, such as mumps and measles. An untreated mental illness can have a profoundly deleterious effect for the sufferer and his or her family.
When antidepressants became popular during the 1990s, some questions were raised regarding the morality of taking them, as it was said that this could fundamentally change the personality, and even ran the risk of…
Antonuccio, David O., William G. Danton, Garland Y. DeNelsky, Roger P. Greenberg, James S.
Gordon. (1999). Raising questions about antidepressants. Psychotherapy Psychosomatic
68:3 -- 14. Retrieved May 15, 2011 at http://psychrights.org/Research/Digest/AntiDepressants/Questions.pdf
Berridge, Virginia. (1988). The origins of the English drug 'scene' 1899-1930. Medical History,
According to the FBI, LSD can be classified as a club drug. However, club drugs refer to a broad category of drugs that are used primarily by club goers to enhance their perceptual and cognitive experience. The category includes MDMA (ecstasy), ketamine (vitamin K), and ohypnol (roofies, or the date rape drug).
LSD is a powerful hallucinogenic, which lasts a long time. Most other club drugs do not last as long and most do not cause the same type of psychedelic experiences such as hallucinations.
esearch shows that about 628,000 individuals aged 12 or older use ecstasy each month (National Criminal Justice eference Service, 2013). These drugs account for about half of all drug-related E visits. The use of most drugs has remained steady or decreased, but the use of club drugs may have increased, depending on the set of statistics that is used (National Criminal Justice eference Service,…
FBI (2013). Tips for parents: truth about club drugs. Retrieved online: http://www.fbi.gov/scams-safety/clubdrugs
National Criminal Justice Reference Service (2013). In the spotlight. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/spotlight/club_drugs/facts.html
Partnership for a Drug Free America (2013). Drug Guide. Retrieved online: http://www.drugfree.org/drug-guide/methamphetamine
The legalization of cocaine in any field would only make it easier to get, and therefore raise levels of illicit use. Cocaine should continue to be a fully illegal substance.
2a. Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are usually administered at first in smaller dosages. Whether their use is legal or illegal, users usually begin with smaller amounts due the heavy risk of overdose. Because they are sedatives, there is always an increased risk of overdose with really no way to help oneself. These low doses eventually become less than what the user needs in order to maintain a certain level of intoxication. Therefore, the user then begins to slower bump up dosages in order to reach that previous level of intoxication. This then leads to higher and higher doses. Because this process takes so much time, the user may not even know he or she has become addicted to the substance. They…
Ksir, Charles, Hart, Carl L., & Ray, Oakley. (2008). Drugs, Society, and Human
Behavior, 12th ed. Boston-McGraw Hill.
Ksir, Charles. (2007). Drug Use in Modern Society. Boston-McGraw Hill.
How Poverty Contributes to Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
There is a serious problem in the United States today with irresponsible use of alcohol and drugs. Hundreds of people die on a daily basis from drug and alcohol consumption, or from the effects of that consumption. For every direct victim, there are many others who suffer -- their friends and families. In order for society to overcome this problem, we must make an effort to understand the societal problems that contribute to it. This paper will discuss how poverty contributes to drug use in American adults.
The United States has a reputation as a rich country, yet approximately 1 in every 10 Americans lives below the national poverty line. People who live in poverty survive on incomes that the government deems too low to buy food, clothes, shelter and other basic needs. Many types of people live in poverty, including…
IREX. (2003). Poverty. International Research & Exchanges Board Newsletter.
Massing, Michael. (September 20, 1999). A forum -- Beyond legalization: New ideas for ending the war on drugs. The Nation; Volume: 269; Issue: 8; p. 11-20
Ovenden, Kevin. (2002). Treating the real problem. Socialist Worker: p. 8.
Drugs and Alcohol's Influence On Crime ates
There is a growing problem here in the United States, as well as around the world. Drug and alcohol use is skyrocketing out of control. On the one hand, many within modern society claim that it is their right to decide what they put in their own bodies and how they can behave. Yet, on the other, there is the much older view that alcohol and drugs can lead ordinary people to do unintended things that often lead to the commencement of a crime. In order to explore this issue further, this research begs the question: what is the relationship between drugs / alcohol and crime?
There is a large body of research on the topic of alcohol / drugs and how it impacts our behavior in negative ways. Within this research are studies examining the relationship between drugs / alcohol and crime?…
Brochu, S.; Cournoyer, L.G.; Motiuk, L.; & Pernanen, K. (1999). Drugs, alcohol and crime: Patterns among Canadian federal inmates. Bulletin on Narcotics, L1(1). Web. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/data-and-analysis/bulletin/bulletin_1999-01-01_1_page006.html
Hart, Timothy C. & Rennison, Callie. (2003). Reporting crime to the police, 1992-2000. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report. U.S. Department of Justice. Web. http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/rcp00.pdf
Parker, Robert Nash & Auerhahn, Kathleen. (1998). Alcohol, drugs, and violence. Annual Review of Sociology, (24), 291-311.
Drugs Past and Current
Substance abuse is not new; throughout human history human beings have used and abused everything from alcohol to food to chemical and pharmaceutical substances. In fact, one of the main reasons for the nineteenth century progressivism movement to enact prohibition laws was to preserve the public health and to curtail the alcoholism problems rampant throughout the nation and especially on the estern frontier. Only a prohibition on narcotics remains, but these attempts to limit the sale and distribution of mind-altering substances has not at all limited use and abuse of those substances. In fact, recent substance abuse statistics and trends in the United States have become particularly severe. It seems that substance abuse is entrenched in North American society. Especially among adolescents, substance abuse can cause terrible mental and physical health problems and in many cases leads to accidental or deliberate drug-related deaths. In some cases,…
'High School and Youth Trends." (2004). National Institute on Drug Abuse. .
'Nationwide Trends." (2004). National Institute on Drug Abuse. .
"The War on Drugs." (2000). Salon.com. .
What argument can you make for either the prohibition of or the continued legalization of caffeine and nicotine? What are some of the implications of either move?
Both caffeine and nicotine are legal drugs, and they should remain legal just as all drugs of all types should be legal. Caffeine is a "psychoactive stimulant drug," and it can be found in common foods and beverages such as coffee and soft drinks (p. 274). Nicotine is described as a "toxic, dependence-producing psychoactive drug found exclusively in tobacco," (p. 254). Although caffeine and especially nicotine are not necessarily healthy substances, using these drugs is a matter of personal choice. Similarly, using alcohol, cannabis, and doctor-prescribed medications is also a matter of personal choice and should be so. The implications of keeping caffeine and nicotine legal include allowing people to enjoy delicious beverages like coffee, which has a long and entrenched cultural…
Levinthal, C.F. (2012). Drugs, Behavior, and Modern Society. 7th ed. Pearson.
Drugs in Holland, Canada, and the U.S.
Drugs in Holland
There are many misunderstandings about the use of drugs in the Netherlands, also known as Holland. The truth is that drugs as rule are not legal in Holland. According to the Government of the Netherlands, the sale of "soft drugs' in coffee shops is "tolerated"; in those coffee shops no alcohol may be sold or consumed. So the country allows people of age to come to coffee shops and buy and smoke marijuana (or hashish), but the smoking of marijuana is not permitted in public places like bars or restaurants.
Moreover, members of the public are not prosecuted "…for possession or use of small quantities of soft drugs," the Government of the Netherlands explains on the government's website. hat does the government consider "soft drugs"? The "Opium Act" sets the record straight as to what soft drugs are juxtaposed with…
Governing. (2015). State Marijuana Laws Map. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.governing.com .
Government of the Netherlands. (2014). Drugs / Difference between hard and soft drugs.
Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.government.nl .
Government of the UK. (2012). Drugs penalties. Retrieved May 19, 2015, from http://www.gov.uk .
The euphoric cocaine high is very addictive and in experiments on laboratory animals, mice and chimpanzees given the choice between food and cocaine typically prefer cocaine to such an extent that they will ignore the lever rewarding them with food and continually select the lever that provides cocaine until they die of starvation. In the 1970s and 1980s, cocaine became an extremely popular recreational drug in the U.S. partly because of the social perception that it was the drug choice of the wealthy elite. It was sold and consumed by club goers and was available at upscale parties about the same way that ecstasy has become a popular club drug today. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a new from of cocaine was introduced that produced an even more powerful and more addictive high. "Free base" cocaine is the product of a chemical process in which certain molecules of…
References Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
Your Thoughts/Feelings About Giving Something Up & What You Learned and How it Applies to the Overall Concept of Addicition
It is quite amazing to think about the freedoms and opportunities each person really has, regardless of his or her situation. For instance, many people often complain about being forced to stay at work or required to show up for a certain meeting. While these people may be recognize that they must stay at the job or they will be fired or they are required to show up for a meeting if they do not want to face adverse career circumstances, people are not really forced to do many things. In frustrating situations, it is well within most people's power to simply walk out of the door. But something else compels people to stay in many situations that are less than perfect.
By giving something up, I know now how…
Pavlina, Steve. (2005). How to Give Up Coffee. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.stevepavlina.com/blog/2005/05/how-to-give-up-coffee/ .
Di Justo, Patrick. (2007). What's Inside: Red Bull. Retrieved June 24, 2008, at http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/magazine/15-07/st_redbull .
Griffiths, R.R., Juliano, L.M., & Chausmer, a.L. (2003). Caffeine pharmacology and clinical effects. in: Graham a.W., Schultz T.K., Mayo-Smith M.F., Ries R.K. & Wilford, B.B. (eds.) Principles of Addiction Medicine, Third Edition (pp. 193-224). Chevy Chase, MD: American Society of Addiction.
Stockton, Trent. (2004). Caffeine Withdrawal Recognized as a Disorder. Retrieved June 24, 2008 at http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/Press_releases/2004/09_29_04.html .
The Orphan Drug Act is an extension of these ethics, but veers away from utilitarianism. The principle at work with orphan drugs is more deontological in its nature because it uses massive amounts of taxpayer money to provide drugs for relatively few individuals, under the idea that all Americans deserve their ailments to be treated, not just Americans with common ailments.
From this analysis, Vertex appears to be operating with poor ethics. From a utilitarian perspective, the American taxpayer has underwritten the development of this drug so that CF sufferers can also receive treatment, yet Vertex in charging such a price for Kalydeco is rejecting the bargain that it has with its backers. From a utilitarian perspective, this betrayal of the American taxpayer represents harm done to the masses for the benefit of a few (Vertex shareholders). That this behavior runs directly contrary to the spirit of the system places…
FDA.gov. (2012). Designating an orphan product: Drugs and biologics. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from http://www.fda.gov/ForIndustry/DevelopingProductsforRareDiseasesConditions/HowtoapplyforOrphanProductDesignation/default.htm
Stein, R. (2012). Cystic Fibrosis drug wins approval. NPR. Retrieved March 19, 2012 from http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2012/02/01/146166743/cystic-fibrosis-drug-wins-fda-approval
Drugs in Rock Music -- 1955-1966
Much is made in the media about rock history and drug involvement by rock stars, particularly in the late 1960s and into the 1970s. The deaths of Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison and others were apparently due to drug overdoses. But illegal drugs and prescription drugs were in use by rock and roll bands and individual stars before the psychedelic era in the late 1960s. This paper reports on some of those drug use situation in rock music between 1955 and 1965.
There was indeed evidence of drug use (and abuse) in rock music between 1955 and 1965 -- notably drug use by Elvis Presley, Ringo Starr, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Bob Dylan.
Elvis Presley, probably the biggest rock music superstar in history, was involved with drugs in the 1950s, according to an article in Rolling Stone magazine. In the…
Heylin, Clinton. (2003). Bob Dylan: Behind the Shades Revisited. New York: HarperCollins.
Rolling Stone. (2012). Elvis Presley. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from http://www.rollingstone.com/music/artists/elvis-presley/biography .
Roylace, Brian, Quance, Julian, Craske, Oliver, and Milisic, Roman. (2000). The Beatles
Anthology. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
The third issue discussed is that of the juvenile justice systems. Most youth when convicted at a young age and put into these juvenile detentions enter a world that they rarely escape from. Once they go into this system, very rarely is there enough support to keep them out. In order to make these programs work, staff need to be better compensated, more professional mentors are needed to encourage youth to make something more of themselves, and better follow-up is needed (Anglin et al., 2009). Youth who are addicted to drugs have to be treated differently and in a different infrastructure for them to actually get help. Putting them into a detention hall with other violent youth, will only make them become more violent and therefore increase crime rates.
The fourth and last issue discussed was the need to have more gender-specific treatment when it comes to women. More than…
Anglin, M.D., Brown, B.S., Dembo, R., & Leukefeld, C. (2009). Criminality and addiction: Selected issues for future policies, practice, & research. Journal of Drug Issues. 39(1): 89-99.
drugs and violence. It also points out the differences between the effects of various drugs and how different kinds of drugs lead towards different types of violent crimes and aggressive actions. This paper also puts light on the usage of drugs by victims and executors of drugs.
Drugs are considered to be related to violence in a number of ways. Many researches have shown that there is a strong and direct relation between drugs and violence. An increase in the usage of drugs always leads towards an increase in violent behavior. The violent behavior, however, varies from drug to drug. Different drugs have been observed to instigate aggressive behavior in different ways. Upon observation it was indicated that alcohol has different effects on the user when compared to the effects of narcotics. ("Alcohol and other,") Drugs and violence are related to each other in three complex ways. (Goldstein) According to…
Atkinson, A., Anderson, Z., Hughes, K., Bellis, M.A., Sumnall, H., & Syed, Q. Liverpool John Moores University, Centre for Public Health. (2009). Interpersonal violence and illicit drugs. Retrieved from Liverpool John Moores University website: http://www.who.int/violenceprevention/interpersonal_violence_and_illicit_drug_use.pdf
Centre for Substance Abuse Prevention, (n.d.). Alcohol and other drugs. Retrieved from Centre for Substance Abuse Prevention website: https://webapps.ou.edu/alcohol/docs/01factsheetonalcoholanddrugs.pdf
Friedman, A.S., Glassman, K., & Terras, A. (2001). Violent behavior as related to use of marijuana and other drugs. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 20(1), 49-72. Retrieved from http://www.csdp.org/research/friedman_mjviolence.pdf
Goldstein, P.J. (n.d.). The drugs/violence nexus: A tripartite conceptual framework. Journal of Drug Issues, 39, 143-174. Retrieved from http://www.drugpolicy.org/docUploads/nexus.pdf
Drugs in the Big Lebowski
Drugs have played a major role in the development of culture and society and have even come to be a topic of interest in cinema. Drugs' influence on cinema has even led to the creation of the sub-genre of drug films, the stoner comedy. A drug film -- in the context of stoner comedies -- can be described as a film in which a drug, such as marijuana, influences a character or in which drugs influence, drive, or contribute to the narrative or plot development. One such film in which characters are influenced by drugs is Joel and Ethan Coen's The Big Lebowski, released in 1998. In the film, The Dude's habitual and recreational drug use help to establish his character and how others around him perceive him, which leads them to believe he can be easily influenced into carrying out their schemes.…
Drugs in the military [...] drug usage in the United States military, and some of the steps the military is taking to combat drugs. Drug usage in the military is beginning to rise again, and the military is attempting to combat illegal drug usage in a variety of ways. However, the military recently reduced waiting times for those who test positive for marijuana usage and want to join the military, so they seem to be sending a mixed message to drug users. Their policies may affect how the military recruits in the future, and how they deal with illegal drug use by military personnel.
The United States military has a "zero-tolerance" policy on illicit drug use. However, illegal drug usage in the military seems to be increasing again, after nearly 20 years of a known decrease, and in 2002, newspapers reported "17,000 people have been discharged from the military for…
Author not Available. "Drug Use in Military Increasing." NewsMax.com. 2 Aug. 2002. 25 March 2004. http://www.newsmax.com/showinside.shtml?a=2002/8/2/205708
Bachman, Jerald G. Smoking, Drinking, and Drug Use in Young Adulthood: The Impacts of New Freedoms and New Responsibilities. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1997.
Bray, Robert M., John A. Fairbank, and Mary Ellen Marsden. "Stress and Substance Use among Military Women and Men." American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 25.2 (1999): 239.
Scarborough, Rowan. "Military Loosens Drug Retest Policy." The Washington Times 2 June 2000: 6.
The Problem of Overdosing with Opioids
By definition, any incident of overdosing is a problem, but the problem is especially severe in the case of opioids since these can be life-threatening. Moreover, the United States has experienced a veritable epidemic in opioid abuse in recent years to the point where many police departments across the country routinely furnish their officers with Narcon (Naltrexone), a life-saving drug used for opioid overdoses, as part of their law enforcement equipment. Nevertheless, the number of deaths attributable to opioid overdoses continue to increase, and these trends can be reasonably expected to continue unless and until something is done. To determine how opioid overdoses pose a serious public health threat and a discussion concerning how the problem became so pronounced today is followed by a summary of the research and key findings about these issues in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Innovations in modern…
(1) Dineen, Kelly and DuBois, James M. “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Can Physicians Prescribe Opioids to Treat Pain Adequately While Avoiding Legal Sanction?” American Journal of Law & Medicine, Vol. 42, No. 1, January 2016, pp. 7-11.
(2) “Overdose death rates.” 2018, https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates
(3) “Opioids Drive Increase in Drug Overdose Deaths.” American Nurse, Vol. 45, No. 2, March/April 2001, p. 8.
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…
Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services (CDMHAS). (n.d.). Drugs with addictive potential. Retrieved 08 March 2012 from: http://www.ctclearinghouse.org/topics/customer-files/Drugs-with-Addictive-Potential-071105.pdf
Coon, D., & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A journey. (1st ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Fernandez, G., Rodriguez, O., & Villa, R. (2011). Neuropsychology and drug addiction. Papeles del Psicologo, 32(2), 159-165.
Hyman, S., & Malenka, R. (2001). Addiction and the brain: The neurobiology of compulsion and its persistence. Neuroscience, 2, 695-703.
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…
Blumenson, Eric, and Eva S. Nilsen. How to Construct an Underclass, or How the War on Drugs Became a War on Education. Massachusetts: Drug Policy Forum of Massachusetts, 2002. Print.
Campos, Isaac. "Degeneration and the Origins of Mexico's War on Drugs." Mexican Studies/Estudios Mexicanos 26.2 (2010): 379-408. Print.
Chabat, Jorge. "Mexico's War on Drugs: No Margin for Maneuver." Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 582.ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Cross-National Drug Policy / Full publication date: Jul., 2002 / Copyright © 2002 American Academy of Political and Social Science (2002): 134-48. Print.
Council on Hemispheric Affairs. "Low Taxation Perpetuates Insecurity in Central America." 2011. May 5th 2012. .
Drug Tests and Government Benefits
Recently, there has been discussion regarding government benefits, such as unemployment. This discussion has focused on a new, potential requirement to receive benefits such as welfare: drug testing. People who are applying for benefits like welfare or unemployment would have to be tested for illegal drugs (Alcindor, 2012). If they were found to use drugs, they could be denied benefits. This would seen to make sense, because those who are out of work and needing government assistance should not be spending the money they do receive on illegal drugs or other nefarious activities. However, the American taxpayers are concerned about where the money for the drug tests will come from, and the federal government is already stating that states which pass this drug testing law for benefits will be in violation of federal law. That means these states could lose out on millions of dollars…
Adams, Brooke. (26 March 2012). Guv signs off on welfare recipient drug-screening program. The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved from http://www.sltrib.com/sltrib/politics/53795131-90/cash-continue-drug-guv.html.csp
Alcindor, Yamiche (29 February 2012). States consider drug testing welfare recipients. USA Today. Retrieved from http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/story/2012-02-17/welfare-food-stamps-drug-testing-laws/53306804/1
Hoover, Tim. (29 March 2012). Bill to drug test welfare recipients dies in Colorado House in second reading. Denver Post. Retrieved from http://www.denverpost.com/breakingnews/ci_20283105/drug-test-welfare-bill-dies-colorado-house-second?source=rss
Rivas, Jorge. (25 August 2011). 96% of Florida welfare applicants pass drug test, discredit Tea Party gov. ColorLines. Retrieved from http://colorlines.com/archives/2011/08/98_of_florida_welfare_applicants_pass_newly_implemented_drug_tests_discrediting_governor.html
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…
Downes, D. And Morgan, R. (1992, 1997, 2002, and 2007) in M. Maguire, M. Morgan and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
South, N. (2007) 'Drugs, Alcohol and Crime' in M. Maguire, R. Morgan, and R. Reiner (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology (4th edn). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Drugs and Pregnancy
The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.
The central issues identified during the entire session include…
Reuter (1994).Setting priorities: budget and program choices for drug control. The University of Chicago Legal Forum, pp. 14S 173.
National Institute on Drug Abuse, (2011). Drug Abuse among Pregnant Women in the U.S.
Retrieved June 2, 2013 from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/topics-in-brief/prenatal-exposure-to-drugs-abuse
Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.
From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…
Millhorn, M., Monoghan, M., Montero, D., Reyes, M., Roman, T., Tollasken, R., & Walls, B. (2009). North Americans' attitudes toward illegal drugs. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 19(2), 125-141.
Miron, J.A. (2001). The economics of drug prohibition and drug legalization. Social Research, 68(3), 835-855.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (1998). The economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the United States. National Institute of Health Publication, 98-4327.
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009, April). National household survey on drug abuse main findings, 1998.
What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.
Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…
Alleyne, B.C., P. Stuart, and R. Copes. (1991) Alcohol and other drug use in occupational fatalities. Journal of occupational medicine (Baltimore) 33(4):496-500, 1991.
Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. (2002). An assessment of drug testing within the construction industry. Gerber, J.K. And G.S. Yacoubian, Jr. J Drug Education 32(1):53-68
Koch, K. (1998). "Drug Testing." November 20, 1998
Kelly, T.H., R.W. Foltin, and M.W. Fischman. (1991) Effects of alcohol on human behavior: implications for the workplace. Drugs in the workplace: research and evaluation data. Vol. 11, National Institute on Drug Abuse. Rockville, Maryland 1991. pp. 129-146.
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…
Changeux, Jean-Pierre. (1998 March 22). Drug use and abuse. Daedalus. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Eaves, Lindon J. (2005 July 01). Familial influences on alcohol use in adolescent female twins: testing for genetic and environmental interactions. Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Goldman, Erik. (2005 July 01). Genetic tests could improve future drug abuse treatment. Family Practice News. Retrieved November 06, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Heroin Addiction Cuts Across All Social Boundaries, Caron Foundation Study Reports.
In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.
The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…
Drug Enforcement Division. City of Orlando Police Investigations, Orlando Police Department Website. 6 November, 2006 http://www.cityoforlando.net/police/investigations/ded.htm
Madigan, Lisa, "Strategies for Fighting Meth: Law Enforcement Strategies." Illinois Attorney General. 6 November, 2006 http://www.illinoisattorneygeneral.gov/methnet/fightmeth/law.html#content
National Center on Addition and substance Abuse at Columbia University (CASA) Behind Bars: Substance Abuse and America's Prison Population. New York: Columbia University, 1998.
McCaffrey, Barry R.. The National Drug Control Strategy, 1998: A Ten-Year Plan. Washington, DC: Office of National Drug Control Policy, 1998. p. 58.
he DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on -shirts and bumper stickers (1).
Is D.A.R.E. Effective?
If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any…
The writer highlights that in spite of vast promises, in the past two decades statistics have pointed to a sharp augment in the use of drugs in the United States.
5). Stewart I. Donaldson. 1996. Drug Abuse Prevention Programming, Do we know what content works? Journal of American Behavioral Scientist. (June). Vol 39, no. 7. Pgs. 245-261.
The highlights that if $700 million a year and twenty thousand specifically trained police officers do not effect in the lessening of drug used amid minors, besides giving police something to do, what does it accomplish?
While it is definitely true that these companies spend a great deal of money on research and development, for which they certainly deserve and in fact need to be compensated (not to mention their right to make a profit, and the fact that profit potential is a major driver in innovation), the amount of profit and compensation that comes solely from the United States is inordinate when compared to that provided by other countries. Nearly half of all revenue going to pharmaceutical companies every year comes from United States' consumers (Sawkar, 2005). The argument that drug reimportation would damage companies' innovation and profit potentials implies that it is the United States' sole responsibility to provide funds for these goals; if reimportation were allowed then prices would even out, meaning other countries would start paying a fair share towards research and development costs while the United States would experience a savings.…
Choudhry, N.K., & Detsky, A.S. (2005). A perspective on U.S. drug reimportation. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 293(3). Retrieved from http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/293/3/358
Sawkar, M. (2005, March). High U.S. drug prices: Causes and cures. Paper presented for The Drug Reimportation Debate. Retrieved from www.sawkar.net/blog/high_drug_prices.doc
Wu, M.Y, Kennedy, J., Cohen, L.J., & Wang, C.C. (2009). Coverage of atypical antipsychotics among Medicare drug plans in the state of Washington: Changes between 2007 and 2008. Primary Care Companion Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 11 (6), 316- 321.
Unfortunately, the American government has been looking in the wrong place for these models, especially in Asia and Latin America. For example, the coca plant from which cocaine is derived grows in abundance in many geographical regions of northern South America and in Central America, where growers make huge profits as compared to efforts to force farmers and peasants to grow legal crops which inevitably do not produce enough profits in order to survive.
Of course, over the last twenty years or so, the U.S. federal government has done much and at great expense to attempt to eradicate the growing of coca but these efforts have also failed miserably. As Nadelmann relates, even if foreign supplies of coca and other drugs like heroin could be cut off, "the drug abuse problem in the U.S. would scarcely abate," due to the fact that much if not most of the drugs like…
Nadelmann, Ethan a. (Jan. -- Feb. 1998). Common sense drug policy. Foreign Affairs.
Vol. 77 no. 1, 111-126.
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…
Ammerman, Robert T; Ammerman, Peggy J. Ott; Tarter, Ralph E. (1999) "Prevention and Societal Impact of Drug and Alcohol Abuse" Routledge.
Lala, Shulamith; Straussner, Ashenberg; Fewell, Christine Huff. (2006) "Impact of Substance
Abuse on Children and Families: Research" Haworth Press.
Laufer, William S. The Legacy of Anomie Theory: Advances in Criminological Theory.
One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.
"Prevention is better than cure" is an age-old and time-tested maxim. It has been proved correct in many different situations. None more so than in the area of drug abuse: it being far easier and more cost effective to prevent drug use than drug treatment. This essay explains why drug treatment is far more expensive than drug prevention.
A study by the Lewin Group for the National Institute on Drug Abuse estimated the total economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the U.S. was $245.7 billion for 1992. ("NIDA InfoFacts" 2005) This includes productivity losses (losses from premature death, drug abuse-related illnesses), health costs, and other, primarily crime-related, costs such as losses due to incarceration and criminal careers. If we consider a hypothetical case in which we prevent all alcohol and drug abuse in the United States, we would theoretically save $245.6 billion.
On the other hand,…
"Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) Cost Study." (2004). The DASIS Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://oas.samhsa.gov/2k4/costs/costs.htm
'NIDA InfoFacts: Costs to Society." (2005) National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://www.nida.nih.gov/infofacts/costs.html
Keen, Judy. "Bush Plans Hit on Drug Abuse" (2002). USA Today. Retrieved on August 27, 2005 from http://www.usatoday.com/educate/ondcp/lessons/Activity5.pdf
The 1992 cost estimate had increased 50% over the cost estimate from 1985; hence the current economic cost due to drug abuse must be much higher.
The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).
As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a…
DEA History. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/history.shtml
DEA Mission Statement. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/mission.shtml
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Kleiman, M.A., & Hawdon, J.E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Drug Policy, Volume 1. USA: SAGE.
Therefore, a closer look at what is needed is in order.
Needed Changes, Stakeholders and Barriers to Change
The decades that followed ockefeller and Felony Offender made it clear that these laws were in dire need of change for a variety of reasons. Perhaps most importantly among the reasons for a need for change was the fact that many of those in need of recovery from drug addiction were instead being locked away in prison, burdening the justice system, breaking up families and torturing people with a definite disease. On the other side of the argument, however, barriers to change in these policies was led by staunch conservatives who, not realizing the many facets of drug addiction, were too fast to dismiss addicts as criminals who were only getting what some felt they deserved (nysda.org). In reality, however, there are effective solutions to the debate.
Effective Solutions to the Debate…
Current Developments in the Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.nysda.org/Hot_Topics/Rockefeller_Drug_Laws/rockefeller_drug_laws.html
The Rockefeller Drug Laws. Retrieved November 30, 2007 from the World Wide Web: http://www.drugpolicy.org/statebystate/newyork/rockefellerd/index.cfm
Drug Law Reform (Pro)
According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.
Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:
C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites.…
InfoFacts Nationwide Trends. The National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2003. http://www.drugabuse.gov/Infofax/nationtrends.html .
The Office of National Drug Control Policy. 2003. http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/index.html .
Drug and alcohol abuse is a serious problem among many young people for a variety of reasons. First, statistics show that drugs and alcohol are being abused by a large segment of the teen and young adult population, which can greatly increase their likelihood of a premature death. Secondly, many things can happen to young adults that do not lead to death, but can ruin their lives. Finally, drug and alcohol abuse can have a serious impact on relationships with friends and family.
According to the National Drug Statistics Summary, approximately 14 million Americans used illegal drugs in 2000. Among the teenagers interviewed for the survey, nearly ten percent had used drugs in the month before the interview. The findings for alcohol abuse were even higher. Nearly half of Americans over the age of twelve reported that they drank alcoholic beverages. This is a serious issue. First, the drugs in…
Hafetz, David. Jacqueline and Amadeo: Chasing Hope. Austin American Statesman. 2002 May. February 13, 2010. < http://www.helpjacqui.com/pdf/jacqui.pdf>
National Drug Statistics Summary. Adolescent Substance Abuse Knowledge Base. 2007. February 13, 2010.
In the age group of eighteen to twenty-five, over fifty-five percent reported having used drugs sometime in their lives. In terms of drugs of choice for high school seniors, nearly half of all drug users prefer marijuana, although such drugs as amphetamines, hallucinogens and ecstasy all report surprisingly high numbers also.
What can be concluded from this study is that drug use begins at an early age, most often during one's high school years. However, the statistics show, as the number of regular users drops off as they age, the trend is more towards experimentation and not creating a drug-dependent lifestyle.
National Drug Threat Assessment: Marijuana Update. August 2002. www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs1/1335
Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2006): "Fact Sheet." Executive Office of the President: Drug Policy Information Clearing House. www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov.
National Drug Threat Assessment: Marijuana Update. August 2002. www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs1/1335
Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2006): "Fact Sheet." Executive Office of the President: Drug Policy Information Clearing House. www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov.
" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21(1), 111-35. A research team led by Dr. Michael French gathered to estimate the costs and benefits of residential and publically funded treatment programs for addiction issues. The team was derived from the University of Miami. Program and the client related economic cost estimates were obtained using data collected at the site with the drug abuse treatment cost analysis program (DATCAP). It was concluded that the economic benefit to society was almost four times what the cost of treating residential clients. Short-term follow-up treatment was also beneficial and the economic benefit was even higher.
Hanlon, T.E., Kinlock, T.W., Nurco, D.N. (1991). "Recent research on the relationship between illicit use and crime." Behavioral Sciences & the aw, 9(3), 221-242.
The study reviews previous research on the correlation of drug use and criminal behavior resulting in arrest since 1980. Advances were noted in crime…
Lennings, C.J., Copeland, J., Howard J. (2003). "Substance use patterns of young offenders and violent crime." Aggressive Behavior. 29(5), 414-422. This study's hypothesis was that alcohol use is a significant predictor of violent crime in committed by the youth. Researchers studied 300 juveniles that had been incarcerated in the prison system of New South Wales. Of the 300, more than 70% admitted to having committed violent crimes. Most correlated with the onset of violent crimes was alcohol use followed by cocaine use. The findings accounted for the correlation that exists between the use of substabce and aggressive, violent crime and so, further supported the "Goldstein hypothesis" which believes that substance abuse facilitates violent behavior directly.
White, H.R., Widom, C.S. (1997). "Problem behaviours in abused and neglected children grown up: prevalence and co-occurrence of substance abuse, crime and violence." Criminal Behavior and Mental Health, 7(4), 287-310. The report discussed the correlation of alcohol abuse, drug abuse, non-violent crime and violence concerning children who were abused and neglected during the course of their development through childhood. The study was longitudinal (the subjects were studied over time into adulthood). It was found that abused and neglected females and males have a higher correlation in substance abuse and non-violent arrest. Abused and neglected females were found to be at a higher risk for both drug abuse or dependency diagnosis as well as arrests for violent crime.
Zarkin, G.A., Dunlap, L.J., Hicks, K., Mamo, D. (2005). "Benefits and costs of methadone treatment: results from a lifetime simulation model." Health Economics. 14(11) 1133-1150. Research examined prior studies that included the cost and benefits of methadone abuse treatment. These papers have often been written on single case studies. While valuable to society, the sample size limitation also limits the research because they view heightened problems as being able to be treated in one incident of treatment. A simulation model was created to embody the longitudinal study of the heroine use, criminal behavior, health care and employment of a population between the ages of 18-60. It was found that the model (which takes into account the dynamics of heroine use and views it as a, acute and reoccurring circumstance) finds that the benefits of treatment using this model far outweigh those produced by static models.
Third interesting fact reported in the reported is that looking into this demographic, it was found out that past month illicit drug abuse occurred most commonly among individuals aged 18- to 20-year-old. Among the underaged (not of legal age) group (12-17 years old), marijuana abuse among females lowered this year, while this figure has increased by 0.7% among males. ithin the 12-year-old or older demographic, American Indians or Alaskan Natives have the highest reported illicit drug abuse in the past month, at 13%. Although there were distinct differences in the profile of drug users in terms of age group, gender, race, and even on the type of drug abuse, there were no distinct differences in the geographical locations of users, scattered among the following counties: large metropolitan, small metropolitan, non-metropolitan urbanized, and non-metropolitan less urbanized areas.
Department of Health and Human Services. September 2008. "Results from the 2007…
Department of Health and Human Services. September 2008. "Results from the 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: National Findings." Available at: http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh/2k7nsduh/2k7Results.pdf.
The strongest argument against the thesis of the experiment relies in the fact that a religious mystical experience is placed on a spiritual rather than medical level and that the spirit is not necessarily determined by the actions of the brain, as a human organ. The spirit includes the way the brain act and the way the heart feels or the behavior of other organs in the body.
For many scientists, including those that have performed the scientific experiment and including people like Tom Roberts, who in his book "Psychedelic Horizons" talks about the benefic effects of drugs on the brain in terms of exploring new states and experience new functions of the body otherwise hidden to the general audience.
For myself and numerous other individuals, the mystical experience cannot be related solely to the functionality of the brain or to the way the entire body is operating. If it…
1. Quantifying a Mystical Experience: Hallucinogenic Research Gets to Grips With Spirituality. July 2006. On the Internet at http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/20060611022408data_trunc_sys.shtmlLast retrieved on September 26, 2006
2. Mystical experiences. On the Internet at http://www.themystica.com/mystica/articles/m/mystical_experiences.html.Last retrieved on September 25, 2006
3. Book Review of "Psychedelic Horizons." On the Internet at http://www.stopthedrugwar.org/reader_blogs/2006/sep/06/book_review_of_psychedelic_horiz.Last retrieved on September 25, 2006
Quantifying a Mystical Experience: Hallucinogenic Research Gets to Grips With Spirituality. July 2006. On the Internet at http://www.scienceagogo.com/news/20060611022408data_trunc_sys.shtmlLast retrieved on September 26, 2006
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).
By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).
Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…
1999). Recreational Drug Information. History of Drug Use U.S. Retrieved from the Internet at www.a1b2c3.com/drugs/.
Brecher, E. (1986). Drug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement: A Review and Evaluation Based on 111 Years of Experience,' Drugs and Society 1:1.
Drucker, Ernest. (1999). Harm Reduction: A Public Health Strategy. Current Issues in Public Health, 1: pp. 64-70.
Drug Policy Alliance. (February 17, 2005). Harm Reduction: Options that Work. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.drugpolicy.org/news/021705harm.cfm .
Drug Abuse in Long Island, New York
With more than seven and a half million residents, Long Island, New York is a major center of commerce and education, but like many other densely populated large urban centers, this city also has a significant drug abuse problem. To determine the facts about the problem, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide epidemiological evidence concerning the incidence of drug abuse in Long Island, and what community-based resources are available to its resident. Finally, a review of a recent research study article concerning these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning drug abuse in Long Island in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Epidemiological evidence concerning drug abuse in Long Island
Like many other major American urban centers, all types of drugs are abuse in Long Island, but heroin abuse in particular has become a serious problem…
About Long Island Addiction Resources. (2017). Long Island Addiction Resources. Retrieved from http://liaddictionresources.com/.
About Long Island Center for Recovery. (2017). Long Island Center for Recovery. Retrieved from http://www.longislandcenterrecovery.com/ .
About Outreach House. (2017). Outreach House. Retrieved from http://www.opiny.org/ outreach-treatment/adolescent-residential-svcs/brentwood-long-island.
About Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. (2017). Seafield Center Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment. Retrieved from http://www.seafieldcenter.com/ about_us.
In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.
Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…
Dickinson, Casey J. "New Vision Gets Results Before Employers Hire." The Central New York Businesss Journal (10 Dec 2004), 5.
Finkel, Kevin W. "Water Intoxication Presenting as a Suspected Contaminated Urine Sample for Drug Testing." Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 6 (June 2004), 611-613.
Fitzpatrick, Jr., John J. "State Labor Legislation Enacted in 2006: Minimum Wages, Workplace Security, Prevailing Wages, Equal Employment Opportunity, Wages Paid, Time off, Drug and Alcohol Testing, Child Labor, Human Trafficking, and Immigrant Protections Were among the Most Active Areas in Which Legislation Was Enacted or Revised during the Year." Monthly Labor Review, Volume 130, Issue 1 (2007). March 16, 2008. http://www.questia.com/read/5020677401?title=State%20Labor%20Legislation%20Enacted%20in%202006%3a%20Minimum%20Wages%2c%20Workplace%20Security%2c%20Prevailing%20Wages%2c%20Equal%20Employment%20Opportunity%2c%20Wages%20Paid%2c%20Time%20off%2c%20Drug%20and%20Alcohol%20Testing%2c%20Child%20Labor%2c%20Human%20Trafficking%2c%20and%20Immigrant%20Protections%20Were%20among%20the%20Most%20Active%20Areas%20in%20Which%20Legislation%20Was%20Enacted%20or%20Revised%20during%20the%20Year .
French, Michael T., M. Christopher Roebuck, and Pierre Kebreau Alexandre. "To Test or Not to Test: Do Workplace Drug Testing Programs Discourage Employee Drug Use?" Social Science Research (March 2004), 45-63.
All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person to the Colombian community. The police even call him now, when they find the body of a mule. One way in which to deprive criminals of their unsuspecting dupes is by eliminating backbreaking poverty, by giving individuals a chance to pull themselves up by the bootstraps without having to resort to illegal measures. In the meantime, mules are a different sort of criminal than the ringleaders of these drug trafficking organizations, and so therefore ought to be tried in a court of law differently.
1. PBS (2009). The Border
Accompanying website Last accessed March 2010: http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/
2. -. Drug Trafficking in the United States DEA Fact Sheet.
Last accessed April 2010: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/state_factsheets.html
3. Altschuler, David & Brounstein, Paul. (1992) Patterns of…
6. Sesin, Carmen. (2004, May 25). Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job. MSNBC.
Last accessed March 2010: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5050399/
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…
Reference: PDR Network LLC.
Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.pdr.net/drugpages/concisemonograph.aspx?concise=688
Most of the arguments for legalization of drugs are based on the pragmatic realities that it is difficult or impossible to legislate morality. Drug use has always been part of society and even though it may not be socially desirable there are many benefits that can be gained through legalization. One primary benefit is definitely financial. In a study by the Cato Institute, the report estimates that drug legalization would reduce government expenditure about $41.3 billion annually; roughly $25.7 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, and roughly $15.6 billion to the federal government; about $8.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana, $20 billion from legalization of cocaine and heroin, and $12.6 billion from legalization of all other drugs (Miron & aldock, 2010).
There are many other benefits beyond money as well. The United States has an expensive and…
Ghosh, P. (2010, October 19). The pros and cons of drug legalization in the U.S. . Retrieved from International Business Times: http://www.ibtimes.com/pros-cons-drug-legalization-us-246712
Lowy, J. (2014, September 1). Driving stoned? States prep for marijuana DUI. Retrieved from The Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Latest-News-Wires/2014/0901/Driving-stoned-States-prep-for-marijuana-DUI
Miron, J., & Waldock, K. (2010, October 3). Making an Economic Case for Legalizing Drugs. Retrieved from CATO Institute: http://www.cato.org/publications/commentary/making-economic-case-legalizing-drugs
Drug legalization is a highly controversial issue, which has been given top priority in political agenda. Many oppose legalization of cocaine but there are just as many people favoring legalization on various grounds. It is important to study both sides of the problem to see if legalization is practical or not. Those who oppose legalization of drugs maintain that cocaine is a dangerous drug which if legalized will send the wrong message that "it is OK to try such drugs" (Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea: 17 A). Opponents maintain that it is the responsibility of law enforcement agencies and other authorities to maintain stricter control over drug use in order to maintain "a delicate balance on drug initiatives." (Hemenway, 2002)
Drug legalization is a sensitive issue that many regard as problematic and believe that it is not in the jurisdiction of United States to allow or disallow legalization…
Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea., USA Today, 10-11-1999, pp 17A
HEMENWAY, D. Alexandria Arguments against states legalizing drugs, Arguments against states legalizing drugs., The Washington Times, 11-08-2002.
Drug Sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System
The objective of the research proposed in this document is to examine the issue of drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System in order to determine if the sentencing used is effective in bringing about a reduction in drug offenses and the rehabilitation of prisoners in successful return to society following incarceration.
(1) Is drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System effective in reducing repeat offenses?
(2) Are individuals successful returned to society following incarceration and rehabilitation programs?
(3) Is the U.S. Criminal Justice system succeeding or failing and are drug sentencing laws negatively or impacting the success of the U.S. Criminal Justice system in regards to drug sentencing laws?
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing knowledge base in this area of study.
Clickman, Rubin (2011) Sentencing Guidelines in the American Justice System. FindLaw. Retrieved from: http://knowledgebase.findlaw.com/kb/2010/Nov/203582.html
Kansal, T. And Mauer, M. (2005) RACIAL DISPARITY IN SENTENCING: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. JANUARY 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.prisonpolicy.org/scans/sp/disparity.pdf
Stevens, John Paul CJ (2011) Our Broken System of Criminal Justice. The New York Review of Books. Retrieved from: http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2011/nov/10/our-broken-system-criminal-justice/?pagination=false
And they can often escape into substance abuse and addiction" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
One of the most important ways in which an increasing rate of drug and alcohol abuse and addiction affects the economy is the spiraling cost of healthcare and rehabilitation. The increase in addictions also creates a gap between the need for treatment and rehabilitation and available resources. This in turn places economic pressure on state and local government. This is especially difficult to maintain in a recessionary economic climate. "States, local governments, and non-profits are all facing tremendous budget shortfalls -- and they are cutting the resources to help this growing group of addicts in trouble, just when they need it the most" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
The following illustrations provide a clear indication of the amounts that have been spent on alcohol and…
Allen J. ( 2006) Drugs a Factor in Many Sexual Assaults, Study Says. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.redorbit.com/news/health/501383/drugs_a_factor_in_many_sexual_assaults_study_says/
Bennet W. (1999) the Index of Leading Cultural Indicators. New York: Broadway
Drug addiction. Retrieved September 27, 2009, from http://www.economicexpert.com/a/Drug:addiction.htm
Pharmacokinetics explains the process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body. These processes are dependent on the amount of the drug administered, the method of administration (which affects the rate of absorption, biotransformation, and even excretion), and how the drug binds in the tissues. In essence, a drug's ability to transverse the cellular membranes depends on its solubility and molecular size and shape. The passive diffusion of the drug across cellular membranes depends on its lipid solubility as well as concentration gradients outside and inside the cellular membrane and the pH differences across the membrane. Active transport of the drug occurs when the drug is actually moved by components of the membrane. This can allow a drug move against concentration and electrochemical gradients but it requires energy, can be selective, and can be inhibited by similar molecules. The absorption rate is influenced…
Newspapers and magazines, if they picked up the story, could spread a large amount of information very rapidly, and whether this information was accurate or not it would still cause problems for the drug company that marketed the particular drug (Hilgartner & osk, 1988).
The media, however, is not the only problem where panic resulting from a drug is concerned. Attorneys could also add to the concern by advertising for lawsuits regarding a specific drug. Some of this is already seen with Paxil and other antidepressants, but even a new drug could easily be the object of paranoia if enough attorneys felt that class actions lawsuits were necessary to get the attention of individuals within the medical community. This much of an uproar would also get the attention of the media which would then become involved through the aforementioned news programs and other venues.
If one wanted to generate public…
Goode, Erich. (19900. "The American drug panic of the 1980s: social construction or objective threat?" The International 3 rournal of the Addictions, 25(9): 1083-98
Haines, Herbert H. (1979). "Cognitive claims-making, enclosure, and the depoliticization of social problems." The Sociological Quarterly, 20 (Winter): 119-30
Hilgartner, Stephen, & Bosk, Charles L. (1988). "The rise and fall of social problems: a public arenas model." American Journal of Sociology, 94 (July): 53-78
Levine, Harry G. & Reinarman, Craig. (1988). "The politics of America's latest drug scare." In R. Curry (ed.), Freedom at Risk: Secrecy, Censorship, and Repression in the 1980s. Philadelphia. Temple University Press, pp. 251-8
Drug Free Workplace
Substance abuse in the workplace is a serious issue. Employees who are under the influence of a drug on the job compromise an employer's interests, endanger their own health and safety and the health and safety of others, and can cause a number of other work-related problems, including absenteeism and tardiness, substandard job performance, increased work loads for co-workers, behavior that disrupts other employees, delays in the completion of jobs, inferior quality in products or services, and disruption of customer relations (Drug-free workplace policy, 2004). These reasons explain why it is so important for an employer to support a drug free workplace. Key components of this initiative are to publish clearly defined policies, establish a drug awareness and education program, train supervisors to detect and manage substance abuse issues and offer an Employee Assistance Program (EAP).
Clearly defined written policies lay the groundwork for a drug free…
Drug-free workplace policy. (2004, January) SDSU Foundation Human Resources. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.foundation.sdsu.edu/hrpage/pol_form/polform_notice_drug.html
elaws -- drug free workplace advisor. U.S. Department of Labor. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.dol.gov/elaws/asp/drugfree/drugs/screen16b.asp?selection_list=
The role and responsibilities of supervisors. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://workplace.samhsa.gov/DrugFreeWP/suptrng.html
Utah Valley State College policies and procedures. (1992, June 18) Retrieved January 22, 2005 from Web site: http://www.uvsc.edu/policies/hr/c-3_08.html
) (adhwa, Rissing, Gereffi, Trumpbour and Engardio, 2008).
Clearly, it is important to have standards for all pharmaceuticals. Perhaps the HO or TO could monitor the quality control of this globally, adding a few cents per dose to help defray the cost, or utilizing a United Nations budget to oversee this program. It is just as important, though, to realize that until the Developed Countries share in their own resources, whether that be intellectual property or certain types of manufacturing, there will remain a large inequity and thus, an inability for globalization to really work (See: Globalization, Patents and Drugs, 2001).
Drug companies like Pfizer do have a utilitarian and moral responsibility to their stakeholders and, conversely, to patients in emerging markets. If there is a drug that will help alleviate suffering, it is not moral to keep it only for the rich countries. Conversely, there is an argument to…
Globalization, Patents and Drugs. (2001, March). Retrieved November 2010, from World Health Organization: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js2251e/
Wadhwa, Rissing, Gereffi, Trumpbour and Engardio. (2008, June 18). The Globalization of Innovation: Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved November 2010, from Social Science Research Network: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1143472
However, not all facilities are prohibitively costly. Serenity Lane in Eugene, Oregon, proclaims as part of its marketing and advertising plan that it accepts almost all insurance plans, and trumpets the fact that it offers value deals like the "ExSL (Long-Term Program)" that requires only a relatively modest fee of $6,495 per 30 day period, with a 60 day recommended minimum stay" and "partial financing available and a $500 discount for paying cash up front" (Treatment Costs at Serenity Lane," Official ebsite, 2007). In contrast, a stay of the same duration at the more famous Betty Ford Center is $23,000 ("Programs," the Betty Ford Center, 2007).
Quality forms of rehabilitative assistance exist for individuals in a variety of income brackets. Also, for individuals who qualify, there are Medicaid assistance programs provided by the federal government. However, less costly programs often have longer waiting lists and offer less comprehensive, quality, and…
Health Insurers Block Mental Health Parity Bill." Drug Rehabs.com. 23 Sept 2007. http://www.drug-rehabs.com/health-insurers-block.htm
How Do I pay for a Drug Rehab?" Therapist Unlimited. 23 Sept 2007. http://therapistunlimited.com/rehabs/Articles/Drug+Rehabs/How+Do+I+pay+for+a+Drug+Rehab
Oregonians Gain Benefit of Parity MH Coverage." Psychiatric News.
40(19): 2. 7 Oct 2005. APA Website. http://pn.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/40/19/12
The benefits of ending the cycle of drug and alcohol abuse far outweigh the pain and hard work involved. Living a clean and sober lifestyle allows people to make their own decisions, not decisions based on their physical need for drugs or alcohol. They will regain their self-respect, and find happiness in the things they were neglecting during their use and abuse. Finally, their body will be free of the physical tolls of alcohol and drugs.
For someone like Jared, working to end his alcohol abuse will improve his life in many ways. First, working toward change will show his wife, his mother, and the rest of the people who love him that he does not want to hurt them and wants to change. While other problems may exist in Jared's marriage and life, he owes it to himself and those that he loves to try. He might spend more…