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Drugs and Addiction
Prolonged drug use produces compulsive seeking of the drugs. Drugs affect the functioning of the brains' functioning, and that has behavioral implications on the drug addict. Drug addiction leads to chronic relapses, which may lead a person to face problems of disconnection. Prescription drugs are becoming the most abused drug types regardless of the negative influences they produce to the lives and behavior of users. University students in America adapt to illegal use of prescription drugs like Adderall, piracetam and modafinil in search of increased intelligence.
The controversy behind the use of drugs like Adderall is based on the ethical influence on others with relation to effects its use has on addicts. The controversy behind Adderall use comes from the fact that it helps users in enhancing their concentration, while at the same time; it produces negative characteristics on users. As this paper discusses the addictive use…… [Read More]
A room in a house or a basement can become manufacturing laboratory for methamphetamine easier than a closet in a city apartment. Similarly, access to cocaine and other illicit substances may be easier in inner cities, which are usually ports of entry for foreign and regional cartels. Demand for methamphetamine may be linked to the availability of other substances in urban centers.
If access to cocaine, heroin, and other drugs is limited in rural areas then it is also likely that the prevalence of methamphetamine in rural regions is linked to consumer demand. Manufacturing methamphetamine is relatively simple, and in some ways easier than traveling to a distant city to procure drugs. The drug is also fairly inexpensive to make yet can supplement incomes through its sale on the black market. Drug and alcohol abuse is relatively common in rural areas, even those with few cocaine or heroin problems ("Meth…… [Read More]
The government regulating of drugs use is one of those elements which are somewhat affected by such an approach. The government regulates both illegal and legal drugs in order to both maximize profits for American companies and minimize profits for foreign capitol. There are strict regulations on pharmaceuticals within the country. Also, many people posit money leaving American hands as a major underlying cause of the government's regulations of what is know known as illegal substances. If such narcotics such as marijuana and opium were to be legalized within the United States, it would not be the government who was making the biggest chunk of profit of sales. Because the majority of these drugs are grown overseas, that money would also therefore go overseas. In order to keep a monopoly on legal drugs, the government may have had a hidden agenda while drafting legislation which deemed other drugs illegal.
2b.…… [Read More]
Drugs, ock Music and Developing Countries
Examining the effects of imported rock music on developing countries and its impact on violence and drug abuse is by no means a simple or straightforward task. One important factor is that this type of music overwhelmingly appeals to young people under age 30, and these are often the majority of the population in many developing nations, especially the Middle East and North Africa. To be sure, because of poor social and economic conditions, many of them cannot speak English and are not able to afford imported music or other cultural products. These types of imports most affect urban upper and middle class youth, who are also most likely to use the new Internet, social media and satellite TV technology. They have a great deal in common with their Western counterparts in that they are attracted to the rebellious nature of this musical form,…… [Read More]
"he program offers a unique advantage over many traditional surveys of drug use through its collection and testing1 of a urine sample from respondents to verify answers about recent drug use (Abt Associates Inc., 2009))."
Fry, Smith, Bruno, O'Keefe & Miller (2007). Benzodiazepine And Pharmaceutical Opioid Misuse And heir Relationship o Crime. Retrieved from http://www.ndlerf.gov.au/pub/Monograph_21.pdf
his source details the relationship between the prescription drugs benzodiazepine and pharmacological opioid use and crime. It gives particular detail to the selling of these drugs on the black market, and is based on information from informants, law enforcement and health practitioners in Australia. his is an excellent source for illustrating how even legalized drugs can contribute to the development of criminal activity. he purpose of this publication was to aid in the understanding and edification for law enforcement officials in this specialized area of illicit drug activity, and was financed by the Australian Government…… [Read More]
Abusing illegal drugs can give rise to crime and violence, even if they are used in an allegedly positive way to 'open up' and 'free' the mind. Even overusing antibiotics, and insisting upon taking them even though one's disease is likely caused by a virus can cause a rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and can impact general human health. However, refusing to take certain medical treatments, such as refusing to vaccinate one's child, can have negative social fallout, as can be seen in the increase of diseases that were once thought to be eradicated, such as mumps and measles. An untreated mental illness can have a profoundly deleterious effect for the sufferer and his or her family.
When antidepressants became popular during the 1990s, some questions were raised regarding the morality of taking them, as it was said that this could fundamentally change the personality, and even ran the risk of…… [Read More]
According to the FBI, LSD can be classified as a club drug. However, club drugs refer to a broad category of drugs that are used primarily by club goers to enhance their perceptual and cognitive experience. The category includes MDMA (ecstasy), ketamine (vitamin K), and ohypnol (roofies, or the date rape drug).
LSD is a powerful hallucinogenic, which lasts a long time. Most other club drugs do not last as long and most do not cause the same type of psychedelic experiences such as hallucinations.
esearch shows that about 628,000 individuals aged 12 or older use ecstasy each month (National Criminal Justice eference Service, 2013). These drugs account for about half of all drug-related E visits. The use of most drugs has remained steady or decreased, but the use of club drugs may have increased, depending on the set of statistics that is used (National Criminal Justice eference Service,…… [Read More]
The legalization of cocaine in any field would only make it easier to get, and therefore raise levels of illicit use. Cocaine should continue to be a fully illegal substance.
2a. Barbiturates and benzodiazepines are usually administered at first in smaller dosages. Whether their use is legal or illegal, users usually begin with smaller amounts due the heavy risk of overdose. Because they are sedatives, there is always an increased risk of overdose with really no way to help oneself. These low doses eventually become less than what the user needs in order to maintain a certain level of intoxication. Therefore, the user then begins to slower bump up dosages in order to reach that previous level of intoxication. This then leads to higher and higher doses. Because this process takes so much time, the user may not even know he or she has become addicted to the substance. They…… [Read More]
How Poverty Contributes to Drugs and Alcohol Abuse
There is a serious problem in the United States today with irresponsible use of alcohol and drugs. Hundreds of people die on a daily basis from drug and alcohol consumption, or from the effects of that consumption. For every direct victim, there are many others who suffer -- their friends and families. In order for society to overcome this problem, we must make an effort to understand the societal problems that contribute to it. This paper will discuss how poverty contributes to drug use in American adults.
The United States has a reputation as a rich country, yet approximately 1 in every 10 Americans lives below the national poverty line. People who live in poverty survive on incomes that the government deems too low to buy food, clothes, shelter and other basic needs. Many types of people live in poverty, including…… [Read More]
Drugs and Alcohol's Influence On Crime ates
There is a growing problem here in the United States, as well as around the world. Drug and alcohol use is skyrocketing out of control. On the one hand, many within modern society claim that it is their right to decide what they put in their own bodies and how they can behave. Yet, on the other, there is the much older view that alcohol and drugs can lead ordinary people to do unintended things that often lead to the commencement of a crime. In order to explore this issue further, this research begs the question: what is the relationship between drugs / alcohol and crime?
There is a large body of research on the topic of alcohol / drugs and how it impacts our behavior in negative ways. Within this research are studies examining the relationship between drugs / alcohol and crime?…… [Read More]
Drugs Past and Current
Substance abuse is not new; throughout human history human beings have used and abused everything from alcohol to food to chemical and pharmaceutical substances. In fact, one of the main reasons for the nineteenth century progressivism movement to enact prohibition laws was to preserve the public health and to curtail the alcoholism problems rampant throughout the nation and especially on the estern frontier. Only a prohibition on narcotics remains, but these attempts to limit the sale and distribution of mind-altering substances has not at all limited use and abuse of those substances. In fact, recent substance abuse statistics and trends in the United States have become particularly severe. It seems that substance abuse is entrenched in North American society. Especially among adolescents, substance abuse can cause terrible mental and physical health problems and in many cases leads to accidental or deliberate drug-related deaths. In some cases,…… [Read More]
What argument can you make for either the prohibition of or the continued legalization of caffeine and nicotine? What are some of the implications of either move?
Both caffeine and nicotine are legal drugs, and they should remain legal just as all drugs of all types should be legal. Caffeine is a "psychoactive stimulant drug," and it can be found in common foods and beverages such as coffee and soft drinks (p. 274). Nicotine is described as a "toxic, dependence-producing psychoactive drug found exclusively in tobacco," (p. 254). Although caffeine and especially nicotine are not necessarily healthy substances, using these drugs is a matter of personal choice. Similarly, using alcohol, cannabis, and doctor-prescribed medications is also a matter of personal choice and should be so. The implications of keeping caffeine and nicotine legal include allowing people to enjoy delicious beverages like coffee, which has a long and entrenched cultural…… [Read More]
Drugs in Holland, Canada, and the U.S.
Drugs in Holland
There are many misunderstandings about the use of drugs in the Netherlands, also known as Holland. The truth is that drugs as rule are not legal in Holland. According to the Government of the Netherlands, the sale of "soft drugs' in coffee shops is "tolerated"; in those coffee shops no alcohol may be sold or consumed. So the country allows people of age to come to coffee shops and buy and smoke marijuana (or hashish), but the smoking of marijuana is not permitted in public places like bars or restaurants.
Moreover, members of the public are not prosecuted "…for possession or use of small quantities of soft drugs," the Government of the Netherlands explains on the government's website. hat does the government consider "soft drugs"? The "Opium Act" sets the record straight as to what soft drugs are juxtaposed with…… [Read More]
The euphoric cocaine high is very addictive and in experiments on laboratory animals, mice and chimpanzees given the choice between food and cocaine typically prefer cocaine to such an extent that they will ignore the lever rewarding them with food and continually select the lever that provides cocaine until they die of starvation. In the 1970s and 1980s, cocaine became an extremely popular recreational drug in the U.S. partly because of the social perception that it was the drug choice of the wealthy elite. It was sold and consumed by club goers and was available at upscale parties about the same way that ecstasy has become a popular club drug today. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a new from of cocaine was introduced that produced an even more powerful and more addictive high. "Free base" cocaine is the product of a chemical process in which certain molecules of…… [Read More]
Your Thoughts/Feelings About Giving Something Up & What You Learned and How it Applies to the Overall Concept of Addicition
It is quite amazing to think about the freedoms and opportunities each person really has, regardless of his or her situation. For instance, many people often complain about being forced to stay at work or required to show up for a certain meeting. While these people may be recognize that they must stay at the job or they will be fired or they are required to show up for a meeting if they do not want to face adverse career circumstances, people are not really forced to do many things. In frustrating situations, it is well within most people's power to simply walk out of the door. But something else compels people to stay in many situations that are less than perfect.
By giving something up, I know now how…… [Read More]
The Orphan Drug Act is an extension of these ethics, but veers away from utilitarianism. The principle at work with orphan drugs is more deontological in its nature because it uses massive amounts of taxpayer money to provide drugs for relatively few individuals, under the idea that all Americans deserve their ailments to be treated, not just Americans with common ailments.
From this analysis, Vertex appears to be operating with poor ethics. From a utilitarian perspective, the American taxpayer has underwritten the development of this drug so that CF sufferers can also receive treatment, yet Vertex in charging such a price for Kalydeco is rejecting the bargain that it has with its backers. From a utilitarian perspective, this betrayal of the American taxpayer represents harm done to the masses for the benefit of a few (Vertex shareholders). That this behavior runs directly contrary to the spirit of the system places…… [Read More]
Drugs in Rock Music -- 1955-1966
Much is made in the media about rock history and drug involvement by rock stars, particularly in the late 1960s and into the 1970s. The deaths of Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison and others were apparently due to drug overdoses. But illegal drugs and prescription drugs were in use by rock and roll bands and individual stars before the psychedelic era in the late 1960s. This paper reports on some of those drug use situation in rock music between 1955 and 1965.
There was indeed evidence of drug use (and abuse) in rock music between 1955 and 1965 -- notably drug use by Elvis Presley, Ringo Starr, John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Bob Dylan.
Elvis Presley, probably the biggest rock music superstar in history, was involved with drugs in the 1950s, according to an article in Rolling Stone magazine. In the…… [Read More]
The third issue discussed is that of the juvenile justice systems. Most youth when convicted at a young age and put into these juvenile detentions enter a world that they rarely escape from. Once they go into this system, very rarely is there enough support to keep them out. In order to make these programs work, staff need to be better compensated, more professional mentors are needed to encourage youth to make something more of themselves, and better follow-up is needed (Anglin et al., 2009). Youth who are addicted to drugs have to be treated differently and in a different infrastructure for them to actually get help. Putting them into a detention hall with other violent youth, will only make them become more violent and therefore increase crime rates.
The fourth and last issue discussed was the need to have more gender-specific treatment when it comes to women. More than…… [Read More]
drugs and violence. It also points out the differences between the effects of various drugs and how different kinds of drugs lead towards different types of violent crimes and aggressive actions. This paper also puts light on the usage of drugs by victims and executors of drugs.
Drugs are considered to be related to violence in a number of ways. Many researches have shown that there is a strong and direct relation between drugs and violence. An increase in the usage of drugs always leads towards an increase in violent behavior. The violent behavior, however, varies from drug to drug. Different drugs have been observed to instigate aggressive behavior in different ways. Upon observation it was indicated that alcohol has different effects on the user when compared to the effects of narcotics. ("Alcohol and other,") Drugs and violence are related to each other in three complex ways. (Goldstein) According to…… [Read More]
Drugs in the Big Lebowski
Drugs have played a major role in the development of culture and society and have even come to be a topic of interest in cinema. Drugs' influence on cinema has even led to the creation of the sub-genre of drug films, the stoner comedy. A drug film -- in the context of stoner comedies -- can be described as a film in which a drug, such as marijuana, influences a character or in which drugs influence, drive, or contribute to the narrative or plot development. One such film in which characters are influenced by drugs is Joel and Ethan Coen's The Big Lebowski, released in 1998. In the film, The Dude's habitual and recreational drug use help to establish his character and how others around him perceive him, which leads them to believe he can be easily influenced into carrying out their schemes.…… [Read More]
Drugs in the military [...] drug usage in the United States military, and some of the steps the military is taking to combat drugs. Drug usage in the military is beginning to rise again, and the military is attempting to combat illegal drug usage in a variety of ways. However, the military recently reduced waiting times for those who test positive for marijuana usage and want to join the military, so they seem to be sending a mixed message to drug users. Their policies may affect how the military recruits in the future, and how they deal with illegal drug use by military personnel.
The United States military has a "zero-tolerance" policy on illicit drug use. However, illegal drug usage in the military seems to be increasing again, after nearly 20 years of a known decrease, and in 2002, newspapers reported "17,000 people have been discharged from the military for…… [Read More]
The Problem of Overdosing with Opioids
By definition, any incident of overdosing is a problem, but the problem is especially severe in the case of opioids since these can be life-threatening. Moreover, the United States has experienced a veritable epidemic in opioid abuse in recent years to the point where many police departments across the country routinely furnish their officers with Narcon (Naltrexone), a life-saving drug used for opioid overdoses, as part of their law enforcement equipment. Nevertheless, the number of deaths attributable to opioid overdoses continue to increase, and these trends can be reasonably expected to continue unless and until something is done. To determine how opioid overdoses pose a serious public health threat and a discussion concerning how the problem became so pronounced today is followed by a summary of the research and key findings about these issues in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Innovations in modern…… [Read More]
Drug addiction is a human issue that cultivates biological, psychological, and social consequences, among others. The manifestation of addiction itself is characterized by physical dependence, and is defined by the uncontrollable, compulsive urge to seek and use drugs despite harmful repercussions (Fernandez, odriguez & Villa, 2011). Philologically, drug use affects the reward center, where dopamine receptors are over-stimulated. Ultimately, the repetition of drug use is encouraged to achieve the same, heightened, pleasure response (U.S. DHHS, 2007). Psychological responses to drug use may reflect motivations caused by positive pleasure, anxiety, or protection. The bodily effects of drugs often reflect the drug's class: stimulants, depressants, narcotics, hallucinogen, and cannabis. Each class represents various drugs and causes distinct biochemical responses. In addition to illicit drugs, prescription drugs are also highly abused and are categorized within the drug classes. Drug addiction does not discriminate between gender, race, sexual orientation or creed, and…… [Read More]
"As a case in point we may take the known fact of the prevalence of reefer and dope addiction in Negro areas. This is essentially explained in terms of poverty, slum living, and broken families, yet it would be easy to show the lack of drug addiction among other ethnic groups where the same conditions apply." Inciardi 248()
Legalizing drugs has been deemed to have many socio-economic effects. A study that was conducted by Jeffrey a. Miron, who was a Harvard economist estimated that by legalizing drugs, this would inject about $76.8 billion in to the U.S. every year. 44.1 billion dollars would come from savings made from the law enforcement measures and 32.7 billion would be from tax revenue. This revenue can be thought to be broken down as follows: 6.7 billion dollars from marijuana, 22.5 billion from heroin and cocaine and the rest from the other…… [Read More]
Drug Tests and Government Benefits
Recently, there has been discussion regarding government benefits, such as unemployment. This discussion has focused on a new, potential requirement to receive benefits such as welfare: drug testing. People who are applying for benefits like welfare or unemployment would have to be tested for illegal drugs (Alcindor, 2012). If they were found to use drugs, they could be denied benefits. This would seen to make sense, because those who are out of work and needing government assistance should not be spending the money they do receive on illegal drugs or other nefarious activities. However, the American taxpayers are concerned about where the money for the drug tests will come from, and the federal government is already stating that states which pass this drug testing law for benefits will be in violation of federal law. That means these states could lose out on millions of dollars…… [Read More]
Drug Culture Midterm
Prior to this course, I had a very narrow interpretation of drug culture in regards to film. The films I was most familiar with were those that focused on marijuana such as Cheech and Chong films, Pineapple Express, Half-Baked, and the Harold and Kumar trilogy among others. Additionally, the only other heroin-centric film I was aware of was Trainspotting, and the only other cocaine-centric film that had made an impression on me was Blow. However, as the term progressed, I became aware of how the general public perceived these drugs and how addiction was depicted in films.
Additionally, my definition of drug culture expanded to include things that are not necessarily consumed but that still alter a person's perceptions or contribute to addiction. These different types of addictions and mind-altering phenomena are most evident in Videodrome and The Social Network.
There are several films that…… [Read More]
Does research evidence suggest that current policies on drugs and crime are still appropriate?
While "tough" policies designed to curb drug use and distribution are attractive politically, and look good on paper, research shows that such policies are no longer appropriate. Instead of responding to drug use as a public health problem, governments like that of the United States and the United Kingdom still regards criminalization as "the sine qua non-of responsible policy-making," (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212). Unfortunately, the criminalization approach happens to also be irresponsible policy making based on emotion rather than fact. Governments with criminalization policies like the United States and Great Britain show a disturbing "state of denial" about the way criminalization creates and enhances organized crime, and may have even exacerbated some types of substance abuse (Downes and Morgan, 2007, p. 212).
Drug use patterns have also changed dramatically, requiring an intelligent…… [Read More]
Drugs and Pregnancy
The habit of taking drugs continually well into the pregnancy stages of a woman has been associated with several effects that the drugs may have on the fetus. There have been several arguments posited by various groups depending on their standpoint about the issue of drug abuse and pregnancy. There have also been attempts, as seen in this session, to classify the drugs into those that do not arm the fetus and those that can in some way hurt the fetus. Having gone through the entire course and getting exposed to numerous materials, there is one thing that stands out clear and I came to understand with insurmountable evidence, the fetus is adversely affected by the drugs that the mother takes. This is true bearing that the fetus depends on the mother for entirely everything for its survival.
The central issues identified during the entire session include…… [Read More]
Brick and Cutter's Way can be categorized as both thrillers and films noir due to the fact that the narratives of these films revolve around an investigation into the mysterious deaths of young women at the hands of power-hungry men. While the investigation in Brick is fueled by a desire to expose a drug trafficking ring at a high school, thus making drugs a central issue, drugs in Cutter's Way are not a factor that contributed to the deaths of the individuals Cutter was looking into. However, that is not to say that drugs to not play a major role, as Cutter is heavily addicted to alcohol, which causes him to be discredited despite the fact that he is able to solve not only the crime at hand, but also reveal why his father was targeted by the same murderer years before.
On the other hand, Cabin in the Woods,…… [Read More]
Economists are concerned with the impact that the sale of drugs has on both individual and economic freedoms and frame their argument from this perspective. Others argue that reliance on the criminal justice system has not produced significant results and that it is time to reframe the argument to focus on the education, prevention, and treatment of drugs.
From the economic perspective, there are apparent differences between government prohibition and legalization of drugs. It has been estimated that total government expenditures devoted to the enforcement of drug laws is well in excess of $26 billion. These figures are also significant in state and local law enforcement agencies with drug related incidents making up one fifth of the total investigative resources and drug enforcement activities. Approximately 25% of the total prison population, municipal, state and federal, is made up of drug law violators. In fact, ten percent of all arrests are…… [Read More]
What further makes interpretation of results difficult to precisely define quantify is that the amount of drug stores depends on the nature of the drug itself, the duration of the ingestion of the drug, and the composition of the tissue holding the drug and the frequency of use. The greater the incidence of drug use the more permanent the level of toxins and chemicals in tissues throughout the body, and therefore the greater the probability of catching chronic drug users in drug testing. Thea difficult part of using drug tests periodically is the longitudinally there may be peaks and valleys to the incidence of drug abuse. Companies have begun surprise inspections of their workers in the most potentially dangerous occupations including forklift workers, construction workers, airline pilots, and heavy equipment workers.
Despite these shortcomings of tests, the advances made in drug testing technologies are gradually overcoming these obstacles related to…… [Read More]
One example of the kind of policy change that is being suggested by some in the particular war on Meth is the reduction of the ability of meth makers, especially large scale makers to realize the supplies of a small number of raw materials used to make the drug pseudoephedrine is quaaludes, as this drug was successfully removed from the radar screen by the banning of the chemicals used to make it, and this may be an option for all synthetic drugs.
Boulard, Garry. "The Meth Menace: Battling the Fast-Paced Spread of Methamphetamine May Mean Attacking It from Several Fronts." State Legislatures May 2005: 14.
Boyum, David, and Mark A.R. Kleiman. "Breaking the Drug-Crime Link." Public Interest Summer 2003: 19.
Organized Crime." The Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2004.
Hanson, Gayle M.B. "Drug Crime Doesn't Pay, or Does It?." Insight on the News 19 June 1995: 16.…… [Read More]
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…… [Read More]
In jails, not one of the violent criminals was under the influence of heroin at the time their crime was committed. Twenty-one percent of state inmates incarcerated for violent crime were under the influence of alcohol alone at the time they committed their crime. The number of those under the influence of marijuana alone was too small to be recorded statistically. (National 1998) These facts indicate that it is not the drug users that are committing the crimes, but the people who deal with drugs. If there was no money to be gained from dealing with drugs, these criminals would have to find legitimate jobs and the police would only have to worry about traffic.
The efforts to target youth with drug education in the ar on Drugs has fallen far short of its original goals. The ONDCP is budgeting less than 12% of the $100 million it was planning…… [Read More]
he DARE program, whose short form is derived from "Drug Abuse Resistance Education," has developed so quickly, from the time since its commencement 18 years ago, that it is at the present being educated in 75% of school districts all over the country, as well as in 54 other countries. Particularly, in the lives of elementary school students, skilled and qualified police officers who educate and lecture the program have turned out to be vital figures; in addition to that, in thousands of communities, the program's red symbol has taken on symbolic status on -shirts and bumper stickers (1).
Is D.A.R.E. Effective?
If the evaluation and measurement for the accomplishment of D.A.R.E. is fame and recognition amongst the masses, then yes: D.A.R.E. has been extremely successful in magnetizing extensive admiration, as well as monetary support. Furthermore, D.A.R.E. has accomplished a point of observation unmatched and unequalled by any…… [Read More]
While it is definitely true that these companies spend a great deal of money on research and development, for which they certainly deserve and in fact need to be compensated (not to mention their right to make a profit, and the fact that profit potential is a major driver in innovation), the amount of profit and compensation that comes solely from the United States is inordinate when compared to that provided by other countries. Nearly half of all revenue going to pharmaceutical companies every year comes from United States' consumers (Sawkar, 2005). The argument that drug reimportation would damage companies' innovation and profit potentials implies that it is the United States' sole responsibility to provide funds for these goals; if reimportation were allowed then prices would even out, meaning other countries would start paying a fair share towards research and development costs while the United States would experience a savings.…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, the American government has been looking in the wrong place for these models, especially in Asia and Latin America. For example, the coca plant from which cocaine is derived grows in abundance in many geographical regions of northern South America and in Central America, where growers make huge profits as compared to efforts to force farmers and peasants to grow legal crops which inevitably do not produce enough profits in order to survive.
Of course, over the last twenty years or so, the U.S. federal government has done much and at great expense to attempt to eradicate the growing of coca but these efforts have also failed miserably. As Nadelmann relates, even if foreign supplies of coca and other drugs like heroin could be cut off, "the drug abuse problem in the U.S. would scarcely abate," due to the fact that much if not most of the drugs like…… [Read More]
Substance use is frequently associated with child abuse and domestic violence. It also is a leading contributor to marital dissatisfaction, family breakups and rejection of family members. The importance of the family in understanding alcohol and drug use and abuse is underlined by these highly destructive consequences of alcohol and drug dependency on the abuser and the family. (Lala; Straussner; Fewell, 17)
Peer Group plays an important part in resolving the problem as they are able to take the drug or alcohol abuser more into confidence compared to others since most people associate themselves with their respective peer group in terms of habits, tastes and concerns. It has been demonstrated that a drug abuser will definitely abide by a member of the peer group to which he belongs and obey requests of abstinence more than anyone else. Educational system also plays an important role in tackling the prevalence of the…… [Read More]
"Prevention is better than cure" is an age-old and time-tested maxim. It has been proved correct in many different situations. None more so than in the area of drug abuse: it being far easier and more cost effective to prevent drug use than drug treatment. This essay explains why drug treatment is far more expensive than drug prevention.
A study by the Lewin Group for the National Institute on Drug Abuse estimated the total economic cost of alcohol and drug abuse in the U.S. was $245.7 billion for 1992. ("NIDA InfoFacts" 2005) This includes productivity losses (losses from premature death, drug abuse-related illnesses), health costs, and other, primarily crime-related, costs such as losses due to incarceration and criminal careers. If we consider a hypothetical case in which we prevent all alcohol and drug abuse in the United States, we would theoretically save $245.6 billion.
On the other hand,…… [Read More]
The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).
As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a…… [Read More]
Therefore, a closer look at what is needed is in order.
Needed Changes, Stakeholders and Barriers to Change
The decades that followed ockefeller and Felony Offender made it clear that these laws were in dire need of change for a variety of reasons. Perhaps most importantly among the reasons for a need for change was the fact that many of those in need of recovery from drug addiction were instead being locked away in prison, burdening the justice system, breaking up families and torturing people with a definite disease. On the other side of the argument, however, barriers to change in these policies was led by staunch conservatives who, not realizing the many facets of drug addiction, were too fast to dismiss addicts as criminals who were only getting what some felt they deserved (nysda.org). In reality, however, there are effective solutions to the debate.
Effective Solutions to the Debate…… [Read More]
Drug culture at Temple U
Transitioning from high school to college may be shocking to some individuals, but as they begin to get more comfortable with their environment, classes, and fellow students, one may realize that there are many similarities that carry over from their previous academic environment. One social structure that carries over from high school to college are the formation of social groups and cliques. The groups are usually formed because the individuals have common interests -- curricular or extracurricular -- or they are in the same academic program or share classes. Some social groups are also formed based on a shared interest in drugs. While drug use is not something that is openly discussed on campus, nor are drugs consumed openly, there is still evidence that supports the argument that students sometimes engage in recreational drug use.
One of the more widely accepted illegal drugs is marijuana.…… [Read More]
Drug Law Reform (Pro)
According to the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP), the United States' policy on illegal drugs is threefold: stopping drug use before it starts, healing the country's drug users, and disrupting the market. The United States' war on drugs has been going on for at least the last three decades. Given the duration of this war, some have questioned the effectiveness of it, wondering if the money spent is really making a difference and bringing about results.
Actually, the effects of this policy on illegal drugs have been mixed. According to a study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) covering current and emerging trends in drug abuse for 21 major U.S. metropolitan areas, some drugs are decreasing in use while others are increasing. For example:
C]rack accounted for a substantially greater percentage of primary admissions than powder cocaine in all [surveyed] sites.…… [Read More]
Drug and alcohol abuse is a serious problem among many young people for a variety of reasons. First, statistics show that drugs and alcohol are being abused by a large segment of the teen and young adult population, which can greatly increase their likelihood of a premature death. Secondly, many things can happen to young adults that do not lead to death, but can ruin their lives. Finally, drug and alcohol abuse can have a serious impact on relationships with friends and family.
According to the National Drug Statistics Summary, approximately 14 million Americans used illegal drugs in 2000. Among the teenagers interviewed for the survey, nearly ten percent had used drugs in the month before the interview. The findings for alcohol abuse were even higher. Nearly half of Americans over the age of twelve reported that they drank alcoholic beverages. This is a serious issue. First, the drugs in…… [Read More]
In the age group of eighteen to twenty-five, over fifty-five percent reported having used drugs sometime in their lives. In terms of drugs of choice for high school seniors, nearly half of all drug users prefer marijuana, although such drugs as amphetamines, hallucinogens and ecstasy all report surprisingly high numbers also.
What can be concluded from this study is that drug use begins at an early age, most often during one's high school years. However, the statistics show, as the number of regular users drops off as they age, the trend is more towards experimentation and not creating a drug-dependent lifestyle.
National Drug Threat Assessment: Marijuana Update. August 2002. www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs1/1335
Office of National Drug Control Policy. (2006): "Fact Sheet." Executive Office of the President: Drug Policy Information Clearing House. www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov.… [Read More]
" American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21(1), 111-35. A research team led by Dr. Michael French gathered to estimate the costs and benefits of residential and publically funded treatment programs for addiction issues. The team was derived from the University of Miami. Program and the client related economic cost estimates were obtained using data collected at the site with the drug abuse treatment cost analysis program (DATCAP). It was concluded that the economic benefit to society was almost four times what the cost of treating residential clients. Short-term follow-up treatment was also beneficial and the economic benefit was even higher.
Hanlon, T.E., Kinlock, T.W., Nurco, D.N. (1991). "Recent research on the relationship between illicit use and crime." Behavioral Sciences & the aw, 9(3), 221-242.
The study reviews previous research on the correlation of drug use and criminal behavior resulting in arrest since 1980. Advances were noted in crime…… [Read More]
Third interesting fact reported in the reported is that looking into this demographic, it was found out that past month illicit drug abuse occurred most commonly among individuals aged 18- to 20-year-old. Among the underaged (not of legal age) group (12-17 years old), marijuana abuse among females lowered this year, while this figure has increased by 0.7% among males. ithin the 12-year-old or older demographic, American Indians or Alaskan Natives have the highest reported illicit drug abuse in the past month, at 13%. Although there were distinct differences in the profile of drug users in terms of age group, gender, race, and even on the type of drug abuse, there were no distinct differences in the geographical locations of users, scattered among the following counties: large metropolitan, small metropolitan, non-metropolitan urbanized, and non-metropolitan less urbanized areas.
Department of Health and Human Services. September 2008. "Results from the 2007…… [Read More]
The strongest argument against the thesis of the experiment relies in the fact that a religious mystical experience is placed on a spiritual rather than medical level and that the spirit is not necessarily determined by the actions of the brain, as a human organ. The spirit includes the way the brain act and the way the heart feels or the behavior of other organs in the body.
For many scientists, including those that have performed the scientific experiment and including people like Tom Roberts, who in his book "Psychedelic Horizons" talks about the benefic effects of drugs on the brain in terms of exploring new states and experience new functions of the body otherwise hidden to the general audience.
For myself and numerous other individuals, the mystical experience cannot be related solely to the functionality of the brain or to the way the entire body is operating. If it…… [Read More]
14). Soon, Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act, which was signed into law in 1937. Like the Harrison Act, the Marijuana Tax Act placed marijuana into the same category as the cocaine and opium drugs. It was now illegal to import marijuana into the United States (McWilliams, 1991). However, this law was ineffective in curbing marijuana use (Brecher, 1986, p. 14).
By the early 1940s narcotic addiction had significantly reduced in the United States (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999). However, this was not the result of legislative initiatives. Instead, it was because World War II was cutting off the "supplies of opium from Asia and interrupt the trafficking routes from Europe" (Inciardi, 1992, p. 24).
Several other legislative efforts in the supply reduction department served to establish more severe penalties for violations of drug laws, and tighten controls and restrictions over legally manufactured narcotic drugs (Harrison, Backenheimer and Inciardi, 1999).…… [Read More]
In some cases, these issues or problems stem from different cultural views and beliefs. While at other times, these issues will affect someone who lives in an environment with: parental drug/alcohol related problems, disruptions to the family, social deprivations, the lack of economic opportunities, physical/sexual abuse, peer pressure and stress. The question I will try to determine is whether or not ethnicity and economic factors play a major influence in determining who will be the most likely to abuse drugs and alcohol?
This will highlight the primary reasons as to why someone will begin using these stimulants on a regular basis. Once this is determined, one can provide specific insights that will illustrate the root causes of the problem and their lasting effect on society.
Describe the data collection method (Research Method)
The basic approach that will be used for collecting and analyzing the data is evaluation research. This is…… [Read More]
Drug Abuse in Long Island, New York
With more than seven and a half million residents, Long Island, New York is a major center of commerce and education, but like many other densely populated large urban centers, this city also has a significant drug abuse problem. To determine the facts about the problem, this paper reviews the relevant literature to provide epidemiological evidence concerning the incidence of drug abuse in Long Island, and what community-based resources are available to its resident. Finally, a review of a recent research study article concerning these issues is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning drug abuse in Long Island in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Epidemiological evidence concerning drug abuse in Long Island
Like many other major American urban centers, all types of drugs are abuse in Long Island, but heroin abuse in particular has become a serious problem…… [Read More]
In most cases, recreational drug use is seen as a victimless crime and a harmless activity. This attitude changes in the workplace if the drug use impairs performance to the detriment of other workers or if the work involves public safety, in which case tolerance for drug use drops significantly. Another reason why tolerance for some drug use is so high is because the attitude is a reaction to the apocalyptic warnings emanating from law enforcement and government, given that people know that mild marijuana use, for instance, is not the mind- and life-bending experience often claimed. Many do not see the problem as being as dire as it is made out to be, and so they do not see it in the way earlier generations did.
Casey J. Dickinson notes the increasing use of pre-testing for applicants as a way not assuring that the person hired does not use…… [Read More]
All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person to the Colombian community. The police even call him now, when they find the body of a mule. One way in which to deprive criminals of their unsuspecting dupes is by eliminating backbreaking poverty, by giving individuals a chance to pull themselves up by the bootstraps without having to resort to illegal measures. In the meantime, mules are a different sort of criminal than the ringleaders of these drug trafficking organizations, and so therefore ought to be tried in a court of law differently.
1. PBS (2009). The Border
Accompanying website Last accessed March 2010: http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/
2. -. Drug Trafficking in the United States DEA Fact Sheet.
Last accessed April 2010: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/state_factsheets.html
3. Altschuler, David & Brounstein, Paul. (1992) Patterns of…… [Read More]
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]
Most of the arguments for legalization of drugs are based on the pragmatic realities that it is difficult or impossible to legislate morality. Drug use has always been part of society and even though it may not be socially desirable there are many benefits that can be gained through legalization. One primary benefit is definitely financial. In a study by the Cato Institute, the report estimates that drug legalization would reduce government expenditure about $41.3 billion annually; roughly $25.7 billion of this savings would accrue to state and local governments, and roughly $15.6 billion to the federal government; about $8.7 billion of the savings would result from legalization of marijuana, $20 billion from legalization of cocaine and heroin, and $12.6 billion from legalization of all other drugs (Miron & aldock, 2010).
There are many other benefits beyond money as well. The United States has an expensive and…… [Read More]
Drug legalization is a highly controversial issue, which has been given top priority in political agenda. Many oppose legalization of cocaine but there are just as many people favoring legalization on various grounds. It is important to study both sides of the problem to see if legalization is practical or not. Those who oppose legalization of drugs maintain that cocaine is a dangerous drug which if legalized will send the wrong message that "it is OK to try such drugs" (Legalizing drugs may not be bad idea: 17 A). Opponents maintain that it is the responsibility of law enforcement agencies and other authorities to maintain stricter control over drug use in order to maintain "a delicate balance on drug initiatives." (Hemenway, 2002)
Drug legalization is a sensitive issue that many regard as problematic and believe that it is not in the jurisdiction of United States to allow or disallow legalization…… [Read More]
Drug Sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System
The objective of the research proposed in this document is to examine the issue of drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System in order to determine if the sentencing used is effective in bringing about a reduction in drug offenses and the rehabilitation of prisoners in successful return to society following incarceration.
(1) Is drug sentencing in the U.S. Criminal Justice System effective in reducing repeat offenses?
(2) Are individuals successful returned to society following incarceration and rehabilitation programs?
(3) Is the U.S. Criminal Justice system succeeding or failing and are drug sentencing laws negatively or impacting the success of the U.S. Criminal Justice system in regards to drug sentencing laws?
Significance of the Study
The significance of the study is the additional knowledge that will be added to the already existing knowledge base in this area of study.
The…… [Read More]
And they can often escape into substance abuse and addiction" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
One of the most important ways in which an increasing rate of drug and alcohol abuse and addiction affects the economy is the spiraling cost of healthcare and rehabilitation. The increase in addictions also creates a gap between the need for treatment and rehabilitation and available resources. This in turn places economic pressure on state and local government. This is especially difficult to maintain in a recessionary economic climate. "States, local governments, and non-profits are all facing tremendous budget shortfalls -- and they are cutting the resources to help this growing group of addicts in trouble, just when they need it the most" (Study reveals rise in drug, alcohol abuse during economic downturn).
The following illustrations provide a clear indication of the amounts that have been spent on alcohol and…… [Read More]
Pharmacokinetics explains the process by which a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated from the body. These processes are dependent on the amount of the drug administered, the method of administration (which affects the rate of absorption, biotransformation, and even excretion), and how the drug binds in the tissues. In essence, a drug's ability to transverse the cellular membranes depends on its solubility and molecular size and shape. The passive diffusion of the drug across cellular membranes depends on its lipid solubility as well as concentration gradients outside and inside the cellular membrane and the pH differences across the membrane. Active transport of the drug occurs when the drug is actually moved by components of the membrane. This can allow a drug move against concentration and electrochemical gradients but it requires energy, can be selective, and can be inhibited by similar molecules. The absorption rate is influenced…… [Read More]
While Jacob's Ladder is a horror film, Jacob Singer, played by Tim Robbins, is haunted by hallucinations, which he is convinced are a result of secret government chemical or drug testing carried out on him during the Vietnam War. In this regard, Jacob's Ladder comments on the countless unknown substances that are secretly administered to unwilling subjects. This aspect of the film, although ultimately proving to be untrue as Jacob's hallucinations are a desperate attempt to cling to life and he really dies in Vietnam, focuses on a different aspect of drug culture: drug testing and manufacture. In Jacob's Ladder, Jacob and his fellow soldiers, serve as ersatz lab rats, considered to be disposable by the U.S. government.
On the other hand, the Insider, directed by Michael Mann, focuses on the power held by drug corporations and their ability to influence the media and public perceptions of individuals. The Insider…… [Read More]