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Medical Issues with Anabolic Steroid Use
Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use
This paper is review of the article "Medical Issue Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: are they exaggerated?" The review deals with the medical issues related to the use of anabolic steroids by athletes and bodybuilders. They use such exogenous sources of testosterone in order to attain attributes which would help them in enhancing their performance in sports or other related games. These anabolic steroids provide many advantages like increase in lean body mass, aggression in behavior and maturation of male secondary characteristics. They are taken orally or parenterally and in a cyclic manner. They can also be used along with other drugs to increase efficacy.
Although an athlete may gain all these advantages but he also faces adverse effects of these drugs as they affect multiple systems of our body like heart, liver, brain and…
Angel, P., Chester, N., Green, D. And et al. (2012). Anabolic steroids and cardiovascular risk. Sports medicine, 42, 119-134.
Dhar, R., Stout, C.W., Link, M.S. And et al. (2005) Cardiovascular toxicities of performance enhancing substances in sports. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 80, 1308-1315.
Dickerman, R.D., Pertusi, R.M., Zachariah and et al. (1999) Anabolic steroid-induced hepatotoxicity: Is it overstated? Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 9, 34-39.
Maravelias, C., Dona, A.M., Stefanidou, C. And et al. (2005). Adverse effects of anabolic steroids in athletes. A constant threat. Toxicology Letters, 158, 167-175.
Athletes should also be concerned about their lives after they retire from athletics; if they continue using anabolic steroid there are many harmful implications that comes as aftermaths of the practices that have been discussed in the essay. The athletic body on its part should strengthen its drug screening systems to ensure only right athletes are allowed to participate in tournaments.
Beckett a., Cowan D. (2003). Misuse of drugs in sport. Br J. Sports Med, 12, 185-194.
Collins, . (2003). Performance-Enhancing Drugs. San Diego: Green haven Press.
Gladwell, M. (2003). Performance-Enhancing Drugs Should Be egulated, Not Prohibited.
Performance-Enhancing Drugs. San Diego: Green haven Press.
Goldberg, L., Elliot, D., Clarke, G.N., MacKinnon, D.P., Moe, E., Zoref, L., Green, C., Wolf,
S.L., GreffrathE., Miller, D.J., and Lapin, a. (1996). Effects of a multidimensional anabolic steroid prevention intervention: The adolescents training and learning to avoid steroids (ATLAS) program. JAMA,276 (19):1555-1562.
Beckett a., Cowan D. (2003). Misuse of drugs in sport. Br J. Sports Med, 12, 185-194.
Collins, R. (2003). Performance-Enhancing Drugs. San Diego: Green haven Press.
Gladwell, M. (2003). Performance-Enhancing Drugs Should Be Regulated, Not Prohibited.
Performance-Enhancing Drugs. San Diego: Green haven Press.
anabolic-steroids-psychological-effects-1 / http://thinksteroids./articles/Demonization-anabolic-steroids-01/.
Summary of an original research article
Darkes, Jack. (2000). The psychological effects of anabolic steroids (Part 1).
Steroids have been one of the most demonized substances in modern pharmaceutical science. When discussed in relationship to baseball, the most common word which arose was 'cheating' in the media, reflecting the idea that taking steroids was a betrayal of fans' trust. Much has also been written about so-called 'roid rage,' or the psychological effects of the drugs. Jack Darkes' article on the psychological effects of steroids attempts to provide some rational medical context to the often heated rhetoric surrounding the drug. Psychological effects due to heighted testosterone are the most-cited reasons that steroid use by ordinary people is 'bad.' Darkes believes that negative psychological case studies are more often the exception rather than the rule, although these exceptions understandably gain more media attention. "There is, however, a lack…
Darkes, Jack. (2000). The psychological effects of anabolic steroids (Part 1).
Williams, John. (2000). The demonization of anabolic steroids (Part 1).
However, in spite of the controversy and the impact of drug testing on these athletes, studies that have been conducted of the athletes' opinions regarding performance-enhancing and recreational drugs, as well as drug testing, are seen to be somewhat rare, and these include studies that examine the psychological effects. Also, studies that have actually been conducted approach the topic of steroid use or other drug use from many different perspectives, with mixed results. As a consequence, there is still very little known regarding these athletes' perceptions of performance-enhancing drug use and the drug testing policies in sports, with even less being known regarding the psychological effects that these athletes experience from the use of performance-enhancing drugs (Kindlundh, Hagekull, Isacson, & Nyberg, 2001).
A large majority of the student-athletes that have been studied and surveyed regarding drug use have been shown to have very negative attitudes toward the use of drugs…
Kindlundh, Anna M.S., Hagekull, Berit, Isacson, Dag G.L., & Nyberg, Fred. 2001. Adolescent use of anabolic-androgenic steroids and relations to self-reports of social, personality and health aspects. European Journal of Public Health, 11(3), 322-328. Retrieved 15 September 2007 at http://eurpub.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/11/3/322
1017). Not only will the usage of steroids and strength training have the tendency to produce aggression and hostility that can lead to a number of complications, but the usage of other drugs such as cocaine has the potential to make such a teenager addicted to that substance. The combination can lead to impair judgment rash decisions, and a host of negative consequences.
Of course, there is also evidence that suggests that steroids can produce some positive effects, particularly for athletes who are looking to gain a competitive advantage. The usage of steroids has been linked to increased thresholds for pain and confidence (International Society of Sports Psychology 4). In this respect, steroids appear to positively influence the mind and body relationship. Yet these effects merely indicate that steroids actually do affect the mind and the body, and that despite these positive effects in performance, the mental and emotional side…
Becker, Amy, Scheufele, Dietram. "Public Perceptions of Steroid Use in Sport: Contextualizing Communication Efforts." International Journal of Sports Communication. 2008: 444-457. Print. This resource explains the effect of rampant steroid use on the American public and explains how the media can cope with this public outcry.
Cheatham, Seth, Hosey, Robert, Johnson, Darren. Performance-Enhancing Drugs and today's Athlete: A Growing Concern." Orthopedics. 2008: 1014-1017. This analyzes the prevalence of steroid use among younger, non-professional athletes and discuss its harmful effects.
Durant, Robert, Middleman, Amy, Faulkner, Annie, Emans, S. Jean, Woods, Elizabeth. "Adolescent Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Use, Multiple Drug Use, and High School Sports Participation." Pediatric Exercise Science. 1997: 150-158. This source draws parallels between high school steroid use and that of illegal recreational drugs between athletes and non-athletes.
Haff, Gregory. "Roundtable Discussion: Anabolic Androgenic Steroids: Part I." National Strength and Conditioning Association. 2006: 42-55. Print. This source provides a roundtable discussion with conflicting viewpoints to determine basic fact regarding steroid use.
Summary: An attached handout
From all the data and evidences provided above it is evident that all these anabolic drugs are very harmful for health as:
These drugs not only affect you mentally but also physically and the long-term use of these drugs can cause some irreversible damage.
These drugs may improve the performance of the athletes for a very short period of time but in the long run they can cause life threatening damages.
The use of these drugs under the proper instructions of the experts hasn't been observed to cause any harm however, when taken without proper supervision these drugs can lead to their addiction, dependent symptoms along with mood swings etc.
The anabolic drugs, even with all their side effects, are still legal and widely available in a lot of countries. However, the countries like U.S., Australia and Canada have made the use of these…
Grace F, Sculthorpe N, Baker J, Davies B (2003). "Blood pressure and rate pressure product response in males using high-dose anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS)." J Sci Med Sport 6 (3): 307 -- 12.
Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA (June 1, 2006). "Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are they Exaggerated?" (PDF). Journal of Sports Science and Medicine.
Kanayama G, Hudson JI, Pope HG (November 2008). "Long-Term Psychiatric and Medical Consequences of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Abuse: A Looming Public Health Concern?." Drug Alcohol Depend 98 (1 -- 2): 1 -- 12.
Melnik B, Jansen T, Grabbe S (2007). "Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids and bodybuilding acne: an underestimated health problem." Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft: Journal of the German Society of Dermatology.
The long-term use of steroids can lead to a change in the cholesterol profile of the individual and lead to heart disease and myocardial infarction. The drug can also lead to increased serum low-density lipoproteins. (Reeseand Exum 239) These aspects also obviously impact absorption, distribution and bodily regulation of nutritional elements.
Other effect that this substance can have on the healthy balance of the body is that it can lead to increased blood volume and hypertension. This is a result of the "... sodium-, potassium-, and water-retaining properties of anabolic steroids" (Reese, and Exum 239). Other negative aspects include Oligospermia to a decrease in the amount of sperm in semen and decreased levels of circulating hormones.
While all of the above impact on the normal body functions and chemical balance, one of the most worrying aspects noted in the literature with regard to the use of anabolic steroids and nutrition…
BAHRKE, M.S., YESALIS, C.E. And BROWER, K.J. Anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse and performance-enhancing drugs among adolescents. Child Adolesc. Psychiat. Clin. No. Amer. 7: 821-838, 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000217297
Burnett, Kent F., and Mark E. Kleiman. "Psychological Characteristics of Adolescent Steroid Users." Adolescence 29.113 (1994): 81+.
Sallis, Robert E., and Ferdy Massimino, eds. Essentials of Sports Medicine. St. Louis, MO: Mosby, 1997.
Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use
Among High School Athletes
Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.
Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…
Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.
Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf
Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.
Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.
Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.
The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…
Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592
Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf
Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
Bonds than his fellow African-Americans."
Recently, it has come to the attention of the media and others that the drug called, "human growth hormone" (HGH) is being used by some major league baseball players. An article in USA Today (Nightengale, 2007) points out through secondary reporting of data that Rick Ankiel (St. Louis Cardinals), Jay Gibbons (Baltimore Orioles) and Troy Glaus (Blue Jays) have been implicated in the use of HGH. This information was made available because an investigation of a Florida pharmacy by the federal government (reported by Sports Illustrated and the New York Daily News) turned up receipts detailing transactions between those players and the pharmacy.
According to the article, a quantitative piece, by taking HGH (another performance-enhancing substance) players may be able to "avert positive steroid tests." How can they do that? "Taking HGH enables you to take lower doses of anabolic steroids," journalist Bob Nightengale quotes…
Dowshen, Steven. (2007). Steroids. KidsHealth. Retrieved September 14, 2007, at http://kidshealth.org .
Economist. (2007). Curb your enthusiasm. 384(8541), p. 28.
Kopkowski, Cynthia. (2007). Home Field Disadvantages. NEA Today, 25(6), p. 23.
National Institute of Drug Addiction. (2007). NIDA InfoFacts: Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic)
When discussing and pondering the broader subject of steroids and other substances that aid the body in getting stronger and healthier, one word or term that is likely to come to mind is “anabolic”. However, the use and employment of steroids and supplements has multiple layers and types that must be considered. One of the other terms to consider is ergogenic. Regardless of the type of steroid or body aid, there is an intended and desired effect on performance. There is also the related, yet different, use of what is known as human growth hormone, or HGH. As with all medicines and treatments, there are medical risks when it comes to the use or abuse of steroids of any type, which would include ergogenic. While some people are prone to disavow and condemn the use of steroids and/or supplements across the board, here are a number of findings…
english topic Steroid. I specific details topic Steroid Use Sports. steroid ? famous types steroid sport function type. good bad effective steroid athletes steroid ? steroid affect short-term long-term.
Steroids: are they a necessary evil?
Society traditionally encouraged people to experience progress in any field that they possibly could and this made it difficult for some to keep up with the fact that the world was constantly changing. In their struggle to keep up and even to be recognized for their contributions, some individuals have turned to using controversial methods. Athletes are provided with difficult choices as they feel the need to satisfy the needs of their fans. Society is indirectly responsible for the fact that some athletes use steroids because of the pressure that it puts on their shoulders. Many athletes today use steroids at the expense of their own health because they know that this is one of…
Dilingham, Michael, "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/steriods-ethics.html
Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)
Hecht, Annabel, "Anabolic Steroids: Pumping Trouble," FDA Consumer Sept. 1984
Sender Aaron J. "Anabolic Steroids for non-therapeutic use," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the New York University Website: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jaeger/anabolic_steroids.htm
, 2003, p. 3).
The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.
Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.
Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).
NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.
Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
The affects of precursory steroidal compounds is difficult to determine due to differences in how adolescent bodies process them, but they may have an impact on social behavior similar to steroidal compounds, therefore, use of these substances will be included in this study as well.
A key area of research focused on treatment of the symptoms of depression and aggression caused by steroid use. Effective treatment was achieved through the use of common antidepressants (Schule, et. al, 2003). This is an important body of research, as it provides the guidance counselor with choices in treating students found to be affected by steroid use. Knowing that there are treatment options available through mental health channels will help in the development of treatment strategies for students whose social lives are being negatively influenced by steroid use.
The literature revealed many facets of academic research that will have an impact on the conduct…
Fish, L., Goldberg, L., and Spratt, D. (2005). Supplements, Steroid Precursors and Adolescent Heatlh. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 90 (9).
Gober, S, Klein, M., Berger, T., Vindigni, C., and Paul McCabe (2006). Steroids in Adolescence: the Cost of Achieving the Physical Ideal. NASP Communique, 34 (7). Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq347steroids.aspx .
Goodyer, I. (2002). Social adversity and mental functions in adolescents at high risk of psychopathology, the British Journal of Psychiatry 18, 383-386.
Melloni, R. (2006). Animal Models Show That Anabolic Steroids Flip the Adolescent Brain's Switch for Aggressive Behavior. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.apa.org/releases/steroids0226.html.
Clinical Problem of Interest
Anabolic Steroids and Their Effects on the Body
Even though governing bodies and media reports may have a person thinking otherwise, the use of anabolic steroids by athletes is nothing new or unique. The use of these drugs has been going on for some time throughout many different kinds of sports, and there is no reason to think that it will stop, despite the illegality of it and the dangers that are seen when athletes engage in the use of anabolic steroids and other drugs believed to enhance performance. The biological and psychological effects can be very strong, and can include an increase in desire for sex, aggressiveness, and an increase in behaviors that are typically considered to be masculine (Graham, et al., 2008). These behaviors can also include sleep disorders, paranoia, euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, and anxiety (Graham, et al., 2008). Naturally, these are the kinds…
In addition, to media images that bombard men there are also biological factors that influence the development of BDD in men.
According to an article entitled "Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men" the most severe cases of muscle dysmorphia involve a biological predisposition for the disease (Bartlett 2001). The author explains that from a biological standpoint the man suffering with the disease has a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bartlett 2001). For instance someone who washes his hands 10 times per day is normal, however washing your hands one hundred times per day to the point that it hampers with the rest of your life is a symptom of a greater problem (Bartlett 2001). According to the article this example is used to illustrate "there isn't anything pathological about going to the gym regularly or dieting," but there is a problem when "a huge number of boys…
Bartlett J. (2001) Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men
American Fitness. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0675/is_1_19/ai_69651755
First Controlled Study of Muscle Dysmorphia Published, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.driesen.com/muscle_dysmorphia.htm
Grieve F.G., Lorenzen L.A., Thomas a. (2004) Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction.Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 51: 743+.
The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & icciardelli, 2001).
Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be…
Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16
McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.
Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).
The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…
Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T.J., Tricker, R., hirazi, A. And Casaburi, R. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in men. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 1-7.
Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L. And Storer T.W. (2001) Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. Journal of Endocrinology 170, 27-38.
Hoffman, J., & Ratamess, N. (2006 ). Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated? NCBI, 182 -- 193. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827559/
Karila T. Adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on the cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive systems of anabolic substance abusers. http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/laa/biola/vk/karila/adversee.pdf .
drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…
African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/
Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3
FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of - drugs.html
MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
confusing gender roles in our society. ith women putting in as many hours at the office as men and 'take your daughter to work day' now implying bring a son if you have 'em -- gender roles in America continue to become blurry and obsolete lines in the sand. For example, I can not believe the number of professional athletes in Football and Baseball who have been caught abusing illegal steroids. I am sure that the recent media hype, the pressure from congress and the disgust from fans was meant to curb illegal use of anabolic steroids by younger boys, teens and men. And hopefully the message is getting through to the male population. Ah -- but, did we, ah, forget to tell the girls? "An alarming number of American girls, some as young as 9, are using bodybuilding steroids -- not necessarily to get an edge on the playing…
Girls are abusing steroids too, experts say. Ed. MSNBC. April 25, 2005. MSNBC.com. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from http://msnbc.msn.com/id/7633384
Maasik, Sonia, and Jack Solomon. Signs Of Life In The U.S.A. ADD CITY: ADD PUBLISHER, ADD YEAR.
The Associated Press. "Girls Are Abusing Steroids Too -- Often To Get That Toned Look" USA Today 25 Apr. 2005, Online. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-04-25-girls-steroids_x.htm?POE=NEWISVA
In the Major League aseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the aseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.
There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can…
Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.
Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.
Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.
Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)
Salary Cap ? Now Please !
The Steroid era is over, hooray! Now what? Well, Major League aseball, time to catch up with the world of sports. It is time for a salary cap on player earnings. America is in the middle of a recession, unemployment continues to rise and Major League aseball must change with the times. Without shrewd decision making, now, on the part of aseballs' owners, baseball will lose fans. Fans of the game, too long disenfranchised, by eight work stoppages, the most recent nullifying an entire playoffs and World Series. Fans subjected, no matter how willingly, to widespread abuse of steroids, Human Growth Hormone and amphetamines. These same fans will not continue to pour their increasingly slim entertainment budgets into a sport dominated by the few, big spenders, only occasionally challenged by a lesser market. A product of this ilk is ultimately unsustainable. When a fans'…
Erowid. Federal Definition of Anabolic Steroids (2005). .
Maske, Mark. "After the Strike, Baseball's Disgusted Fans Decide to Strike Back." Washington post 30 April 1995: A01.
Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .
-- . Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .
Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4
police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.
Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…
1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf
2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5
3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm
4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at, http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
The implant is inserted into the ear and is discarded at slaughter, thus, it does not enter the human food chain (Primer pp). The hormone in the implant is released into the bloodstream very slowly ensuring the concentration of the hormone remains relatively constant and very low (Primer pp). Moreover, the prescribed dosage is the level "which produces the maximum economic response in the animal -- the law of diminishing returns -- so that there is no economic incentive for a farmer to use additional implants," and ensures that the animals taken to slaughter have normal hormone levels (Primer pp). According to the Primer, beef from a bull contains testosterone levels over ten times higher than the amount in beef from a steer that has received hormones for growth promotion (Primer pp). Therefore, since the European beef market is predominately bull-sourced, while the American meat is steer-sourced, American hormone treated…
"Battle Over Beef Hormones." BBC News Online. 13 May 1999; pp.
"EU asks for end to beef sanctions.(European Policy News)"
Agra Europe; 17 October 2003; pp.
Scandal/Controversy in Sports
The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.
Background of Sports Industry and Scandals
Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.
Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…
Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/
Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball
Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract
Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.
Best Practice Program
From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.
The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…
CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program
Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
ladies and gentlemen! There is a saying that goes, "Vice seen is better than vice unseen." I mentioned this to relate to a problem we have had with regards to our major league sports players -- the use of performance enhancing drugs "such as anabolic steroids, androstenedione, human growth hormone, erythropoietin, diuretics, creatine and stimulants (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010)." The problem is not new and has been a challenge because of the gravity of the situation. There is no lack of cases and statistics that show how many major league players have been caught using these performance enhancing drugs, which by the way is banned and illegal. ut my issue is how come these drugs are not allowed? Those who oppose the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs say that the athletes who use them are breaking the rules and getting an unfair advantage over others (Katz, 2008). In…
Balko, R. (2008, January 23). Should we allow performance enhancing drugs in sports? One argument in favor. Reason Magazine. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://reason.com/archives/2008/01/23/should-we-allow-performance-en
Katz, J. (2008, January 23). Should we accept steroid use in sports? NPR. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18299098
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2010, November 5). Performance-enhancing drugs: Know the risks. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/performance-enhancing-drugs/HQ01105
85 grams per 1 kilogram of protein intake is recommended (chilling 2008). Protein intake in this amount is not normally a problem for high school athletes, however female athletes tend to have a harder time making decisions for proper protein nutrition due to the perception that the additional calories will affect their body image (Elliott et al. 2008).
A proper balance of protein and carbohydrates is essential to performing at peak swimming condition, thus some athletes have turned to protein supplements and recovery drinks as ways of hitting their targeted intake levels (Hoffman et al. 2007; Petroczi et al. 2008; Rees 2007). Protein recovery drinks for post-workout recovery are a fairly benign source of protein for high school athletes, however in the critical stage of adolescent development it is vitally important that high school athletes maintain proper nutrition with whole foods prior to turning to supplements (Johnson 2008). Oftentimes the…
Schilling, L. 2008. What Coaches Need to Know About the Nutrition of Female High
School Athletes: A Dietitian's Perspective. Strength and Conditioning Journal:
High School Corner. 30:5. pgs. 16-17
Young men opting for plastic surgery for example has dramatically increased over the last decade, and hair dye for men has also increased its sales. These vain trends are not only true of the United States, but also in other countries such as the UK. Increasingly men are becoming aware of their bodies and their looks; some are even buying skin care products as inspired by the media to remain young, strong and good-looking for as long as possible.
Problems that could arise from media pressures to look as much as possible like Vin Diesel or The Rock, include not only eating disorders in men, but also addiction to exercise and anabolic steroids (Rood). Exercise addiction is especially problematic with the youth. Exercise, while being a healthy element in the everyday routine, should not be habit forming. It is furthermore not healthy to be perpetually dissatisfied with one's body. The…
Ltc. Online. "Man as Hero." 2004. http://www.ltcconline.net/lukas/gender/manashero/manashero.htm
Men in Control Roles." 2004.
Polce-Lynch, Mary. "Gender and age patterns in emotional expression, body image, and self-esteem: a qualitative analysis." Sex Roles: A journal of research, June 1998.
Rood, David. "Boys Succumb to Image Ideal." In National News, March 27, 2003. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/03/26/1048653747604.html?from=storyrhs&oneclick=true
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…
Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.
Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.
Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Alcohol and/or Drug Users for HIV / AIDS Infection
People abuse/use a number of both legal and illegal substances, recreationally. Of these, the most commonly abused substance is alcohol. Drugs include cocaine (which includes crack), pot or marijuana, amphetamines (speed), ecstasy, and heroin. Drugs have the potential to intensify risks of an individual contracting HIV infection, and are capable of giving rise to special issues in already-infected individuals (University of California, 2011).
Substance abuse is associated with innumerable risk factors. One factor that serves to hamper efforts towards preventing HIV spread and proper treatment of those who are infected is alcohol use or misuse by infected or at-risk populations. esearchers are now gaining deeper insights into the multifaceted link between HIV infection and consumption of alcohol. Drug/alcohol abuse may impair an individual's judgment, causing him/her to participate in sexual activities that put him/her at risk (Bryant, Nelson, Braithwaite & oach,…
Bryant, K. J., Nelson, S., Braithwaite, R., & Roach, D. (2010). Integrating HIV / AIDS and alcohol research. Alcohol Health & Research World, 33(3), 167-178
Substance Abuse Issues (2014). Retrieved June 20, 2016 from https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/staying-healthy-with-hiv-aids/taking-care-of-yourself/substance-abuse-issues/
University of California (2011). What is the connection between alcohol, other drugs, and HIV? Retrieved June 20, 2016 from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/hiv?page=basics-00-16
Asthma and Stepwise Management
Long-term control and quick relief treatment, and the effect on patients
Health care comprises of giving treatment for acute asthmatic incidents and management of persistent symptoms, which includes exercise-provoked and nocturnal asthmatic symptoms. Pharmacological controls entail the application of management mechanisms: inhaled corticosteroids, theophylline, long-acting bronchodilators (anticholinergics and beta-agonists), leukotriene transformers and the more current tactics for example the utilization of Ige, that is, anti-immunoglobulin E. antibodies (Omalizumab), and the use of anti-IL-5 antibodies in the case of selected patients. Considering all and especially the most severely affected patients, the crucial objective is to minimize symptoms, reduce morbidity experienced from acute instances and negate psychological and functional morbidity to give a healthy or near normal life expected of a child's age (Morris, 2016).
Majority of the population with asthma have to depend on long-term control medications on a daily basis to aid prevent the symptoms. Most…
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.). (2007). Stepwise Approach for Managing Asthma in Youths ≥12 Years of Age and Adults. In T. E. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethseda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.).
Morris, M. J. (2016). Asthma Treatment & Management. Retrieved from Medscape: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/296301-treatment
National Institutes of Health. (2014, August 4). How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled? Retrieved from National Institutes of Health: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/asthma/treatment
http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1)
There is no credible evidence about this statement. It must be noted that it is extremely illegal, not only in the U.S. But also to other or even milk-producing countries, for penicillin to be used specifically in low-level doses in the feed. In fact, penicillin is only use via injection, in concentrated doses, and only if the animals to be injected are sick or with high fever. Penicillin doses are usually once or twice only and the particular animal which has been injected with such medication is separated from other animals and would not be harvested within a certain period. This is to ensure that there is no penicillin residues left in any system or body parts of the animal http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1).
Moreover, as of latest survey, only 1% (or even less) of the cattle have recorded to ever had any doses of penicillin. Cattleman's Beef…
WTO Dispute Panel Report 1997. European Communities -- Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones): Complaint by the United States, Wr/DS26/R, August 18, 1997.
WTO Appellate Body Report 1998. European Communities Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), Wr/DS26/AB/R, January 16, 1998.
Zekos, Georgios I. An Examination of GATT/WTO Arbitration Procedures. Dispute Resolution Journal, 54(November): 72-74. 1999.
The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)
Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)
All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…
More than any phrase, memorable quote, or image, let me leave you with these statistics: 14,000 routine killings committed in 2005 with guns, to which must be added 16,000 suicides by firearm and 650 fatal accidents. The NRA says that 'guns don't kill, people kill.' Perhaps this is true, but guns certainly make it much, much easier ("America's tragedy," the Economist, 2007).
Full text of speech
General Subject: Gun Control
Specific Subject: Problem/Solution
General Purpose: To persuade my audience to support the strengthening of gun control laws
Specific Audience-centered Purpose: After hearing my speech, members of the audience will support the passage of gun control laws, including stricter background checks and limits upon the type of weapons that can be purchased by civilians.
A. Attention Step:
One sunny day in March, at a gun store in Virginia, a young man named Cho Seung-hui walked into a…
This does not mean that I do not think I would learn a lot from the introductory course. I just believe that there has to be a foundation for knowledge, and that is what the beginning psychology course is generally designed for. By getting a good foundation it would then be easier to learn about any and all of the important issues that will likely be addressed within more advanced courses as the curriculum becomes more difficult.
Based on the experience that you have and what you have done, my question to you would be this: Do you believe that alcohol and substance abuse problems are psychological in and of themselves, or are they merely physical manifestations or reactions to these problems?