Anabolic Steroids Essays (Examples)

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Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Words: 3144 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41892521

Anabolic Steroid and Performance Enhancing Drug Use

Among High School Athletes

Anabolic steroid use has, at least in the past, been prevalent among major college and, especially, professional sports. Major League Baseball implemented a drug testing regimen very recently after backlash from fans made it an issue that the sport believed it had to listen to. The National Football League has a testing program that has been in place since 1989, and other sports have also begun programs to test for anabolic steroids and other performance enhancing drugs (PED) to ensure that there is a level playing field among all of their athletes. Unfortunately this testing has led to consequences for some athletes.

Some notable case of athletes being either stripped of honors or not being selected for honors because they acknowledged PED or steroid use have occurred in recent times. Lance Armstrong was recently stripped of all of his…… [Read More]

References

Denham, BE. (2006). Effects of mass communication on attitudes toward anabolic steroids: An analysis of high school seniors. Journal of Drug Issues, 36(4), 809- 823.

Green, G.A. (2007). The prevalence of anabolic steroid use by Southern California high school athletes. LA84 Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.la84foundation.org/3 CE/AnabolicSteroidsSouthernCaliforniaHighScho ol.pdf

Liberatore, S. (2009). Q: I have a lot of competitive athletes in my classes. If they decide to use steroids, what effect will this have on their health? The Science Teacher, 76(1), 70.

Martin, J., & Govender, K. (2011). Making muscle junkies: Investigating traditional masculine ideology, body image discrepancy, and the pursuit of muscularity in adolescent males. International Journal of Men's Health, 10(3), 220-233.
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Steroid Use Controversies of the

Words: 5176 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32219224

e., their use of anabolic steroids (and whether they had ever been offered steroids), their involvement in power sports, appearance and eating problems, and problem behavior. Background information about the participants included their degree of urbanization, parental socioeconomic status and the region to which they belonged.

Analyses of the study's results show that the prevalence of steroid use among Norwegian youth was lower (lifetime use was 0.8% and 12 months prevalence was 0.3%) than in several other Western societies such as the U.S. (2.5% to 7%) and in Australia, Canada, Sweden and South Africa (2% to 3.5%). It also showed that AAS use was first and foremost associated with problem behavior (i.e., drug [marijuana] involvement and aggressive-type conduct problems). Its relation with power sports and appearance came in at second and third place respectively.

The study is, therefore, significant in highlighting the hitherto largely ignored area of problem behavior in…… [Read More]

References

Admissions before BALCO grand jury detailed." (2004, December). ESPN.com. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=1936592

Anabolic Steroid Abuse." (2000, April). National Institute on Drug Abuse: Research Report Series. Retrieved on November 1, 2005 at http://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/RRSteroi.pdf

Langone, J. (1995). Tough Choices A Book about Substance Abuse. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Miller, R.W. (1987, November). Athletes and Steroids: Playing a Deadly Game. FDA Consumer, 21, 16+.
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Steroid Use in High School

Words: 1695 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56345261

Bonds than his fellow African-Americans."

Recently, it has come to the attention of the media and others that the drug called, "human growth hormone" (HGH) is being used by some major league baseball players. An article in USA Today (Nightengale, 2007) points out through secondary reporting of data that Rick Ankiel (St. Louis Cardinals), Jay Gibbons (Baltimore Orioles) and Troy Glaus (Blue Jays) have been implicated in the use of HGH. This information was made available because an investigation of a Florida pharmacy by the federal government (reported by Sports Illustrated and the New York Daily News) turned up receipts detailing transactions between those players and the pharmacy.

According to the article, a quantitative piece, by taking HGH (another performance-enhancing substance) players may be able to "avert positive steroid tests." How can they do that? "Taking HGH enables you to take lower doses of anabolic steroids," journalist Bob Nightengale quotes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dowshen, Steven. (2007). Steroids. KidsHealth. Retrieved September 14, 2007, at  http://kidshealth.org .

Economist. (2007). Curb your enthusiasm. 384(8541), p. 28.

Kopkowski, Cynthia. (2007). Home Field Disadvantages. NEA Today, 25(6), p. 23.

National Institute of Drug Addiction. (2007). NIDA InfoFacts: Steroids (Anabolic-Androgenic)
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Difference between'steroids and HGH

Words: 1792 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90713221

Ergogenic Aid

When discussing and pondering the broader subject of steroids and other substances that aid the body in getting stronger and healthier, one word or term that is likely to come to mind is “anabolic”. However, the use and employment of steroids and supplements has multiple layers and types that must be considered. One of the other terms to consider is ergogenic. Regardless of the type of steroid or body aid, there is an intended and desired effect on performance. There is also the related, yet different, use of what is known as human growth hormone, or HGH. As with all medicines and treatments, there are medical risks when it comes to the use or abuse of steroids of any type, which would include ergogenic. While some people are prone to disavow and condemn the use of steroids and/or supplements across the board, here are a number of findings…… [Read More]

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English Topic Steroid I Specific Details Topic

Words: 2834 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40751721

english topic Steroid. I specific details topic Steroid Use Sports. steroid ? famous types steroid sport function type. good bad effective steroid athletes steroid ? steroid affect short-term long-term.

Steroids: are they a necessary evil?

Society traditionally encouraged people to experience progress in any field that they possibly could and this made it difficult for some to keep up with the fact that the world was constantly changing. In their struggle to keep up and even to be recognized for their contributions, some individuals have turned to using controversial methods. Athletes are provided with difficult choices as they feel the need to satisfy the needs of their fans. Society is indirectly responsible for the fact that some athletes use steroids because of the pressure that it puts on their shoulders. Many athletes today use steroids at the expense of their own health because they know that this is one of…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Dilingham, Michael, "Steroids, Sports and the Ethics of Winning," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the Santa Clara University Website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/ethicalperspectives/steriods-ethics.html

Dodgshon, Robert, The Age of the Clans: The Highlands from Somerled to the Clearances (Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2002)

Hecht, Annabel, "Anabolic Steroids: Pumping Trouble," FDA Consumer Sept. 1984

Sender Aaron J. "Anabolic Steroids for non-therapeutic use," Retrieved December 4, 2011, from the New York University Website: http://www.nyu.edu/classes/jaeger/anabolic_steroids.htm
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Legal Implications of Steroid Use

Words: 1711 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88637779

, 2003, p. 3).

Conclusion

The research showed that the use of various performance-enhancing substances is not new, but the controversies associated with the use of anabolic steroids, particularly by young athletes, has assumed increasing importance in recent years. More and more studies have shown that the use of these substances typically begins during the formative adolescent years, a practice that can have lifelong consequences in terms of physical problems and growth constraints. Moreover, there are profound moral and legal issues involved in the use of such performance enhancers, and while many observers might question that legality of such testing programs at the high school and collegiate level, the high incidence of use in recent years clearly indicates that more needs to be at all levels to help prevent young athletes from beginning to use these substances, and to help those who have already started to stop.

eferences

Allison, P.C.,…… [Read More]

References

Allison, P.C., Diacin, M.J., & Parks, J.B. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1), 1.

Hill v. National Collegiate Athletic Association, 865 P. 2d 633 (1994).

NCAA. (1998, November). NCAA drug-testing protocol, 1998-99. Overland Park, KS, in Allison, Diacin, & Parks, 2003, p. 3.

Pedersen, W., & Wichstrom, L. (2001). Use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in adolescence: Winning, looking good or being bad? Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 62(1), 5.
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Depression Caused by Steroid Use

Words: 2383 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9044167

The affects of precursory steroidal compounds is difficult to determine due to differences in how adolescent bodies process them, but they may have an impact on social behavior similar to steroidal compounds, therefore, use of these substances will be included in this study as well.

A key area of research focused on treatment of the symptoms of depression and aggression caused by steroid use. Effective treatment was achieved through the use of common antidepressants (Schule, et. al, 2003). This is an important body of research, as it provides the guidance counselor with choices in treating students found to be affected by steroid use. Knowing that there are treatment options available through mental health channels will help in the development of treatment strategies for students whose social lives are being negatively influenced by steroid use.

The literature revealed many facets of academic research that will have an impact on the conduct…… [Read More]

References

Fish, L., Goldberg, L., and Spratt, D. (2005). Supplements, Steroid Precursors and Adolescent Heatlh. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 90 (9).

Gober, S, Klein, M., Berger, T., Vindigni, C., and Paul McCabe (2006). Steroids in Adolescence: the Cost of Achieving the Physical Ideal. NASP Communique, 34 (7). Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.nasponline.org/publications/cq/cq347steroids.aspx.

Goodyer, I. (2002). Social adversity and mental functions in adolescents at high risk of psychopathology, the British Journal of Psychiatry 18, 383-386.

Melloni, R. (2006). Animal Models Show That Anabolic Steroids Flip the Adolescent Brain's Switch for Aggressive Behavior. American Psychological Association. Retrieved April 18, 2008 at http://www.apa.org/releases/steroids0226.html.
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Clinical Problem of Interest

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98420570

Clinical Problem of Interest

Anabolic Steroids and Their Effects on the Body

Even though governing bodies and media reports may have a person thinking otherwise, the use of anabolic steroids by athletes is nothing new or unique. The use of these drugs has been going on for some time throughout many different kinds of sports, and there is no reason to think that it will stop, despite the illegality of it and the dangers that are seen when athletes engage in the use of anabolic steroids and other drugs believed to enhance performance. The biological and psychological effects can be very strong, and can include an increase in desire for sex, aggressiveness, and an increase in behaviors that are typically considered to be masculine (Graham, et al., 2008). These behaviors can also include sleep disorders, paranoia, euphoria, confusion, hallucinations, and anxiety (Graham, et al., 2008). Naturally, these are the kinds…… [Read More]

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Bdd in Men Various Problems

Words: 2572 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64723294

"

In addition, to media images that bombard men there are also biological factors that influence the development of BDD in men.

According to an article entitled "Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men" the most severe cases of muscle dysmorphia involve a biological predisposition for the disease (Bartlett 2001). The author explains that from a biological standpoint the man suffering with the disease has a form of obsessive-compulsive disorder (Bartlett 2001). For instance someone who washes his hands 10 times per day is normal, however washing your hands one hundred times per day to the point that it hampers with the rest of your life is a symptom of a greater problem (Bartlett 2001). According to the article this example is used to illustrate "there isn't anything pathological about going to the gym regularly or dieting," but there is a problem when "a huge number of boys…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartlett J. (2001) Bigger Isn't Always Better - muscle dysmorphia in men

American Fitness. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0675/is_1_19/ai_69651755

First Controlled Study of Muscle Dysmorphia Published, 2005. Retrieved July 8, 2005 from; http://www.driesen.com/muscle_dysmorphia.htm

Grieve F.G., Lorenzen L.A., Thomas a. (2004) Exposure to Muscular Male Models Decreases Men's Body Satisfaction.Sex Roles: A Journal of Research. Volume: 51: 743+.
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Public Affairs Management MLB and

Words: 732 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42183883

The critics of the drug testing policies argue, however, that the policies work to unfairly single out specific athletes for close scrutiny, tempts many of these same athletes to find ways to cheat the test, and that testing also violates the Constitutional right of privacy (McCabe & icciardelli, 2001).

Analysis

Both arguments are significant, but the main point is that these testing policies and the steroid use that they are involved with have to be dealt with by those that handle public relations, both involving the players and the media/public. Without these public relations individuals, the players could have serious problems with the way that they were viewed by the public, and those that want or do not want the testing could also be viewed rather harshly, so it is important that they have good public relations. This is not always easy, as there are many issues that must be…… [Read More]

References

Diacin, M.J., Parks, J.B., & Allison, P.C. (2003). Voices of male athletes on drug use, drug testing, and the existing order in intercollegiate athletics. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26(1): 1-16

McCabe, M.P., & Ricciardelli, L.A. (2001). Parent, peer, and media influences on body image and strategies to both increase and decrease body size among adolescent boys and girls. Adolescence, 36: 225-240.

Yesalis, C.E., Kennedy, N.J., Kopstein, A.N., & Bahrke, M.S. (1993). Anabolic-androgenic steroid use in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:1217-1221.
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Drug Abuse in the Society

Words: 1185 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93981014

predict anabolic steroids on the controversial forefront of drugs that enhance performance. Halfway through the period, no attempt has been met from the governing bodies of sports towards the control of its use. It is only recent that North America's major governing bodies of sport came to an agreement of punishing and banning anabolic-steroids involved athletes from participating in any competition. The strict punitive measures have a primary development concern of promoting fair play and doing away with nagging health risks that are associates to androgenic-anabolic steroids. However, controversy is still in play as to whether the use of anabolic steroids is deterred by these programs in question (Hoffman & Ratamess, 2006).

The steroids, Anabolic-androgenic, are a derivation of the male sex hormone; testosterone, that is man-made. Physiologically speaking, an increase in the concentration of testosterone will stimulate the synthesis of protein with effective results in strength, body mass, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bhasin, S., Storer, T.W., Berman, N., Callegari, C., Clevenger, B., Phillips, J., Bunnell, T.J., Tricker, R., hirazi, A. And Casaburi, R. (1996). The effects of supraphysiologic doses of testosterone on muscle size and strength in men. New England Journal of Medicine 335, 1-7.

Bhasin, S., Woodhouse, L. And Storer T.W. (2001) Proof of the effect of testosterone on skeletal muscle. Journal of Endocrinology 170, 27-38.

Hoffman, J., & Ratamess, N. (2006 ). Medical Issues Associated with Anabolic Steroid Use: Are They Exaggerated? NCBI, 182 -- 193. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3827559/

Karila T. Adverse effects of anabolic androgenic steroids on the cardiovascular, metabolic and reproductive systems of anabolic substance abusers. http://ethesis.helsinki.fi/julkaisut/laa/biola/vk/karila/adversee.pdf.
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Drug Abuse Scenario Analysis

Words: 1958 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41487760

drives under the influence of alcohol, it is a criminal offense abbreviated as driving under the influence (DUI). However alcohol is but one of the many substances that can interfere with one's driving capability. DUI charges can also be pressed against individuals who are driving under the influence of other kinds of drugs, including illegal drugs and even prescription medication. Taking drugs and driving at the same time, whether the drugs are just prescription muscle relaxers or medicinal marijuana is illegal and a DUI offense. The argument that one took drugs because of doctor's orders is not a defense to DUI charges. Various drugs have different effects on drivers. The drugs that impair concentration, judgment, alertness and/or motor skills are regarded as dangerous and in several cases even more dangerous than alcohol. Driving while having a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of more than 0.08% or higher is illegal in the…… [Read More]

References

African-Americans, Substance Abuse and Spirituality - Minority Nurse. (2013, March 29). Retrieved from http://minoritynurse.com/african-americans-substance-abuse-and-spirituality/

Cohagan, A., Worthington, R., & Krause, R. (2013, July 3). Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation . Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805084-overview#aw2aab6b3

FindLaw. (n.d.). Driving Under the Influence of Drugs - FindLaw. Retrieved from http://dui.findlaw.com/dui-charges/driving-under-the-influence-of- drugs.html

MedlinePlus. (n.d.). Steroids: MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/steroids.html
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Reinvention Identity of Code

Words: 933 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20251792

confusing gender roles in our society. ith women putting in as many hours at the office as men and 'take your daughter to work day' now implying bring a son if you have 'em -- gender roles in America continue to become blurry and obsolete lines in the sand. For example, I can not believe the number of professional athletes in Football and Baseball who have been caught abusing illegal steroids. I am sure that the recent media hype, the pressure from congress and the disgust from fans was meant to curb illegal use of anabolic steroids by younger boys, teens and men. And hopefully the message is getting through to the male population. Ah -- but, did we, ah, forget to tell the girls? "An alarming number of American girls, some as young as 9, are using bodybuilding steroids -- not necessarily to get an edge on the playing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Girls are abusing steroids too, experts say. Ed. MSNBC. April 25, 2005. MSNBC.com. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from http://msnbc.msn.com/id/7633384

Maasik, Sonia, and Jack Solomon. Signs Of Life In The U.S.A. ADD CITY: ADD PUBLISHER, ADD YEAR.

The Associated Press. "Girls Are Abusing Steroids Too -- Often To Get That Toned Look" USA Today 25 Apr. 2005, Online. Retrieved on 29 Apr. 2005, from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2005-04-25-girls-steroids_x.htm?POE=NEWISVA
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Androstenedione in the Major League Baseball Season

Words: 1582 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84928160

Androstenedione

In the Major League aseball season of 1998, Mark McGwire became famous for breaking Roger Maris' home run record. Later it was found out that McGwire's power hitting came from a muscle building synthetic hormone called Androstenedione or Androstenediol. This supplement, nicknamed "Andro" became the first in a list of performance-enhancing substances called pro-hormones. The scrutiny of McGwire's performance was overshadowed by the fact that many professional athletes were using it. Also, this substance was not banned by the aseball Commission. This compound is called a pro-hormone because it is a precursor to testosterone. It metabolizes directly into testosterone.

There are some differences between the -dione and the -diol version. In the former, there are two carbonyl (-C=O) groups. These groups are replaced by alcohol (-C-OH) groups in the diol. For the purpose of this work, which involves really understanding the post-chemical positive and negative side effects, we can…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ruzicka, L., and A. Wettstein. "The Crystalline Production of the Testicle Hormone Testosterone." Helvetica Chimica Acta 18 (1935): 1264-75.

Kochakian, C.D., and J.R. Murlin. "Relationship of Synthetic Male Hormone Androstenedione to the Protein and Energy Metabolism of Castrated Dogs and the Protein Metabolism of a Normal Dog." Amer J. Physiol 117 (1936): 642-57.

Hacker, R., and C. Mattern. "Androstenedione." Arrowdeen Ltd. Germany: DE 42 14953 A1, 1995.

Stalheim-Smith, Ann, and Greg K. Fitch. Understanding Human Anatomy and Physiology. Minneapolis/St. Paul: West Pub. Co., 1993.pp. 1 v. (various pagings)
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Salary Cap Now Please The

Words: 1935 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95661831

Salary Cap ? Now Please !

The Steroid era is over, hooray! Now what? Well, Major League aseball, time to catch up with the world of sports. It is time for a salary cap on player earnings. America is in the middle of a recession, unemployment continues to rise and Major League aseball must change with the times. Without shrewd decision making, now, on the part of aseballs' owners, baseball will lose fans. Fans of the game, too long disenfranchised, by eight work stoppages, the most recent nullifying an entire playoffs and World Series. Fans subjected, no matter how willingly, to widespread abuse of steroids, Human Growth Hormone and amphetamines. These same fans will not continue to pour their increasingly slim entertainment budgets into a sport dominated by the few, big spenders, only occasionally challenged by a lesser market. A product of this ilk is ultimately unsustainable. When a fans'…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Erowid. Federal Definition of Anabolic Steroids (2005). .

Maske, Mark. "After the Strike, Baseball's Disgusted Fans Decide to Strike Back." Washington post 30 April 1995: A01.

Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .

-- . Wikipedia. 12 November 2010. 12 November 2010 .
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Police Force to Diffuse Tense

Words: 2390 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45966480

Though women constitute only 12.7% of the sworn police force they are implicated in only 5% of the total cases registered against the use of excessive force. Statistics further indicate that women officers account for only 6% of the total dollars paid out for court settlements for The Use of Police Force 4

police abuse related cases. [DR. Kim Lonsway, 2002] It is clear that a women police officer is less likely to resort to excessive force use compared with a male police officer and this presents a clear case for more representation of women in the police force. Inducting more women would therefore be a positive step.

Another study by the University of California compared the effects of race, gender, and experience of the officer and the link to the possibility of the officer being investigated by Internal affairs for the use of excessive force. For the study, the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Amnesty International, (2008) ' Less than Lethal'? The use of Stun weapons in U.S. Law Enforcement', Accessed 14th July 2009, Available at, http://www.amnestyusa.org/uploads/LessThanLethal.pdf

2) Anthony J. Micucci & Ian M. Gomme (Oct 2005), 'American Police and Subcultural Support for the use of Excessive Force', Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol 33, Issue 5

3) BJS, (June 25, 2006) 'Citizens Complained more than 26,000 times in 2002 about Excessive Police Force', Available at, http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/press/ccpufpr.htm

4) DR. Kim Lonsway, Michelle Wood & Megan Fickling et.al (2002), ' Men, Women and Police Excessive Force: A Tale of two Genders', Accessed July 13th 2009, Available at,  http://www.womenandpolicing.org/PDF/2002_Excessive_Force.pdf
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Hormones Within the Cattle Industry

Words: 3296 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62949426

The implant is inserted into the ear and is discarded at slaughter, thus, it does not enter the human food chain (Primer pp). The hormone in the implant is released into the bloodstream very slowly ensuring the concentration of the hormone remains relatively constant and very low (Primer pp). Moreover, the prescribed dosage is the level "which produces the maximum economic response in the animal -- the law of diminishing returns -- so that there is no economic incentive for a farmer to use additional implants," and ensures that the animals taken to slaughter have normal hormone levels (Primer pp). According to the Primer, beef from a bull contains testosterone levels over ten times higher than the amount in beef from a steer that has received hormones for growth promotion (Primer pp). Therefore, since the European beef market is predominately bull-sourced, while the American meat is steer-sourced, American hormone treated…… [Read More]

Work Cited

"Battle Over Beef Hormones." BBC News Online. 13 May 1999; pp.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/the_economy/342310.stm

"EU asks for end to beef sanctions.(European Policy News)"

Agra Europe; 17 October 2003; pp.
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Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments 10-Year Critical

Words: 14685 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28105173

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments: 10-Year Critical eview of the esearch Literature

Over ten million teenagers in the United States admit in a national survey that they drink alcohol, although it is illegal under the age of 21 in all states. In some studies, nearly one-quarter of school-age children both smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Over four thousand adolescents every day try marijuana for the first time. The dangers of use, abuse and dependency on each of these substances have been established. When we also consider that these three substances are considered gateway drugs, that is, drugs whose use is likely to lead to experimentation with "hard" drugs, the potential problem of such widespread use is even more severe. Additionally, use of these substances is known to co-occur with a number of other psychiatric conditions as well as health issues such as the incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies and…… [Read More]

References

Aarons, Gregory A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hough, Richard L.; Garland, Ann F.; Wood, Patricia A. Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders Across Five Sectors of Care (Statistical Data Included). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 2001 v40 i4 p419

Adger, Hoover Jr.; Werner, Mark J. The pediatrician (role in treatment of alcohol-related disorders). Alcohol Health and Research World, Spring 1994 v18 n2 p121 (6)

Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Symptoms of Adolescents. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence of the San Fernando Valley, Inc. [Online]. Retrieved January 20, 2003 from http:/ / www.ncadd-sfv.org/symptoms/teen_symptoms.html

Alcohol use and abuse: a pediatric concern (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse). Pediatrics, March 1995 v95 n3 p439 (4)
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Analyzing Scandal and Controversy in Sports

Words: 2629 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23260718

Scandal/Controversy in Sports

The following will take a look to see if scandal and controversy benefit sports.

Background of Sports Industry and Scandals

Sports in the U.S. is a multi-billion-dollar industry. Companies try to engage with clients by aligning the services and products they offer with this well-known industry via sports funding and endorsement. The benefit of this involvement has been well-recorded in the sports marketing literature (Hughes and Shank, 2005). The effect on business brands in case a scandal surfaces regarding an athletic supporter like a player, coach, or a team however, is less well-known. Several sports scandals, for instance, the rape case surrounding Kobe Bryant and the University of Colorado recruitment scandal raise very serious questions regarding the effect of sports scandals on amateur and professional athletic institutions, participants, sponsors, as well as other stakeholders.

Whereas conventional corporate sports supporters like Nike maintain omnipresence, several other different kinds…… [Read More]

References

Alessi. (2014). TheRichest - The World's Most Entertaining Site. Top 10 Sports Betting Scandals and Controversies - TheRichest. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.therichest.com/sports/top-10-sports-betting-scandals-and-controversies/

Doorty, A. (2016). Odyssey. Is Scandal Good for Baseball? Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.theodysseyonline.com/are-scandals-good-for-baseball

Fisher, R., & Wakefield, K. (1998). Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers. Psychology & Marketing, 15(1). Retrieved, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1%3C23::AID-MAR3%3E3.0.CO;2-P/abstract

Garg. (2010). The Hoya. Scandals Show Need to Pay College Athletes. Retrieved June 21, 2016, from http://www.thehoya.com/scandals-show-need-to-pay-college-athletes/
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Decline of the American Diet

Words: 5127 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39593950

The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."

The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our

World. Boston: Conari Press.

Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:

Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Community Prevention Drug Use Among

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3917255

The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.

Best Practice Program

From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.

The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…… [Read More]

Sources

CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program

http://casat.unr.edu/bestpractices/view.php?program=7

Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
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Ladies and Gentlemen There Is a Saying

Words: 693 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64118690

ladies and gentlemen! There is a saying that goes, "Vice seen is better than vice unseen." I mentioned this to relate to a problem we have had with regards to our major league sports players -- the use of performance enhancing drugs "such as anabolic steroids, androstenedione, human growth hormone, erythropoietin, diuretics, creatine and stimulants (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2010)." The problem is not new and has been a challenge because of the gravity of the situation. There is no lack of cases and statistics that show how many major league players have been caught using these performance enhancing drugs, which by the way is banned and illegal. ut my issue is how come these drugs are not allowed? Those who oppose the use of steroids and other performance-enhancing drugs say that the athletes who use them are breaking the rules and getting an unfair advantage over others (Katz, 2008). In…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Balko, R. (2008, January 23). Should we allow performance enhancing drugs in sports? One argument in favor. Reason Magazine. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from  http://reason.com/archives/2008/01/23/should-we-allow-performance-en 

Katz, J. (2008, January 23). Should we accept steroid use in sports? NPR. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=18299098

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2010, November 5). Performance-enhancing drugs: Know the risks. Retrieved May 11, 2011 from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/performance-enhancing-drugs/HQ01105
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Protein Intake in High School

Words: 813 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61914688

85 grams per 1 kilogram of protein intake is recommended (chilling 2008). Protein intake in this amount is not normally a problem for high school athletes, however female athletes tend to have a harder time making decisions for proper protein nutrition due to the perception that the additional calories will affect their body image (Elliott et al. 2008).

A proper balance of protein and carbohydrates is essential to performing at peak swimming condition, thus some athletes have turned to protein supplements and recovery drinks as ways of hitting their targeted intake levels (Hoffman et al. 2007; Petroczi et al. 2008; Rees 2007). Protein recovery drinks for post-workout recovery are a fairly benign source of protein for high school athletes, however in the critical stage of adolescent development it is vitally important that high school athletes maintain proper nutrition with whole foods prior to turning to supplements (Johnson 2008). Oftentimes the…… [Read More]

Schilling, L. 2008. What Coaches Need to Know About the Nutrition of Female High

School Athletes: A Dietitian's Perspective. Strength and Conditioning Journal:

High School Corner. 30:5. pgs. 16-17
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Devoted to the Way in

Words: 1627 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23042974

Young men opting for plastic surgery for example has dramatically increased over the last decade, and hair dye for men has also increased its sales. These vain trends are not only true of the United States, but also in other countries such as the UK. Increasingly men are becoming aware of their bodies and their looks; some are even buying skin care products as inspired by the media to remain young, strong and good-looking for as long as possible.

Problems that could arise from media pressures to look as much as possible like Vin Diesel or The Rock, include not only eating disorders in men, but also addiction to exercise and anabolic steroids (Rood). Exercise addiction is especially problematic with the youth. Exercise, while being a healthy element in the everyday routine, should not be habit forming. It is furthermore not healthy to be perpetually dissatisfied with one's body. The…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ltc. Online. "Man as Hero." 2004. http://www.ltcconline.net/lukas/gender/manashero/manashero.htm

Men in Control Roles." 2004.

Polce-Lynch, Mary. "Gender and age patterns in emotional expression, body image, and self-esteem: a qualitative analysis." Sex Roles: A journal of research, June 1998.

Rood, David. "Boys Succumb to Image Ideal." In National News, March 27, 2003. http://www.theage.com.au/articles/2003/03/26/1048653747604.html?from=storyrhs&oneclick=true
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Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes

Words: 9197 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69293543

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes

Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.

This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.

Introduction

With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
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Analyzing Prevalence Among Alcohol and or Drug Users for HIV AIDS Infection

Words: 670 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98994622

Alcohol and/or Drug Users for HIV / AIDS Infection

People abuse/use a number of both legal and illegal substances, recreationally. Of these, the most commonly abused substance is alcohol. Drugs include cocaine (which includes crack), pot or marijuana, amphetamines (speed), ecstasy, and heroin. Drugs have the potential to intensify risks of an individual contracting HIV infection, and are capable of giving rise to special issues in already-infected individuals (University of California, 2011).

Substance abuse is associated with innumerable risk factors. One factor that serves to hamper efforts towards preventing HIV spread and proper treatment of those who are infected is alcohol use or misuse by infected or at-risk populations. esearchers are now gaining deeper insights into the multifaceted link between HIV infection and consumption of alcohol. Drug/alcohol abuse may impair an individual's judgment, causing him/her to participate in sexual activities that put him/her at risk (Bryant, Nelson, Braithwaite & oach,…… [Read More]

References

Bryant, K. J., Nelson, S., Braithwaite, R., & Roach, D. (2010). Integrating HIV / AIDS and alcohol research. Alcohol Health & Research World, 33(3), 167-178

Substance Abuse Issues (2014). Retrieved June 20, 2016 from https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/staying-healthy-with-hiv-aids/taking-care-of-yourself/substance-abuse-issues/

University of California (2011). What is the connection between alcohol, other drugs, and HIV? Retrieved June 20, 2016 from http://hivinsite.ucsf.edu/hiv?page=basics-00-16
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Asthma and Stepwise Management

Words: 754 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73974137

Asthma and Stepwise Management

Long-term control and quick relief treatment, and the effect on patients

Health care comprises of giving treatment for acute asthmatic incidents and management of persistent symptoms, which includes exercise-provoked and nocturnal asthmatic symptoms. Pharmacological controls entail the application of management mechanisms: inhaled corticosteroids, theophylline, long-acting bronchodilators (anticholinergics and beta-agonists), leukotriene transformers and the more current tactics for example the utilization of Ige, that is, anti-immunoglobulin E. antibodies (Omalizumab), and the use of anti-IL-5 antibodies in the case of selected patients. Considering all and especially the most severely affected patients, the crucial objective is to minimize symptoms, reduce morbidity experienced from acute instances and negate psychological and functional morbidity to give a healthy or near normal life expected of a child's age (Morris, 2016).

Majority of the population with asthma have to depend on long-term control medications on a daily basis to aid prevent the symptoms. Most…… [Read More]

References

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.). (2007). Stepwise Approach for Managing Asthma in Youths ≥12 Years of Age and Adults. In T. E. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program, Expert Panel Report 3: Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethseda (MD): National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.).

Morris, M. J. (2016). Asthma Treatment & Management. Retrieved from Medscape: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/296301-treatment

National Institutes of Health. (2014, August 4). How Is Asthma Treated and Controlled? Retrieved from National Institutes of Health: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/asthma/treatment
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Beef Hormones Are Naturally Produced

Words: 3695 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66250221

http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1)

There is no credible evidence about this statement. It must be noted that it is extremely illegal, not only in the U.S. But also to other or even milk-producing countries, for penicillin to be used specifically in low-level doses in the feed. In fact, penicillin is only use via injection, in concentrated doses, and only if the animals to be injected are sick or with high fever. Penicillin doses are usually once or twice only and the particular animal which has been injected with such medication is separated from other animals and would not be harvested within a certain period. This is to ensure that there is no penicillin residues left in any system or body parts of the animal http://www.maverickranch.com/beef-hormones-mdirf5.htm,2006 para 1).

Moreover, as of latest survey, only 1% (or even less) of the cattle have recorded to ever had any doses of penicillin. Cattleman's Beef…… [Read More]

WTO Dispute Panel Report 1997. European Communities -- Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones): Complaint by the United States, Wr/DS26/R, August 18, 1997.

WTO Appellate Body Report 1998. European Communities Measures Concerning Meat and Meat Products (Hormones), Wr/DS26/AB/R, January 16, 1998.

Zekos, Georgios I. An Examination of GATT/WTO Arbitration Procedures. Dispute Resolution Journal, 54(November): 72-74. 1999.
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Galectin-1 in the Regulation of

Words: 4060 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10094274



The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible. (Leppanen et al. p5549-65) At the same time, the mice survived for several weeks longer than their untreated counterparts and also developed a healthy appetite again. (Mantovani, p296) The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. (Bruera et al. p857)

Muscle atrophy

Muscle atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in the size of skeletal muscle, losing muscle strength because of the strength of muscle is related to its mass. (Burnfoot, p323-34)

All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More]

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Speaking Outline Full Text Follows

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1718261

Memorable Closing:

More than any phrase, memorable quote, or image, let me leave you with these statistics: 14,000 routine killings committed in 2005 with guns, to which must be added 16,000 suicides by firearm and 650 fatal accidents. The NRA says that 'guns don't kill, people kill.' Perhaps this is true, but guns certainly make it much, much easier ("America's tragedy," the Economist, 2007).

Full text of speech

General Subject: Gun Control

Specific Subject: Problem/Solution

General Purpose: To persuade my audience to support the strengthening of gun control laws

Specific Audience-centered Purpose: After hearing my speech, members of the audience will support the passage of gun control laws, including stricter background checks and limits upon the type of weapons that can be purchased by civilians.

I. Introduction

A. Attention Step:

One sunny day in March, at a gun store in Virginia, a young man named Cho Seung-hui walked into a…… [Read More]

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Psychology to Me the Most

Words: 339 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47227130

This does not mean that I do not think I would learn a lot from the introductory course. I just believe that there has to be a foundation for knowledge, and that is what the beginning psychology course is generally designed for. By getting a good foundation it would then be easier to learn about any and all of the important issues that will likely be addressed within more advanced courses as the curriculum becomes more difficult.

Based on the experience that you have and what you have done, my question to you would be this: Do you believe that alcohol and substance abuse problems are psychological in and of themselves, or are they merely physical manifestations or reactions to these problems?… [Read More]