Ancient Egypt's Economic Growth
Ancient Egypt became renowned as a major export / import region and a major center of trade. Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt as well as Thutmose III's trades for loot in outhwest Asia and the Mediterranean Region caused Egypt to become a highly attractive country amongst its neighbors for much of the Ancient period.
Ancient Egypt had its up and downs with trading during its successive string of Dynasties. Apparently, when the country was most secured under a strong and stable dominion of its own pharaohs, the country showed prosperity and was able to cement friendly dealings with its neighbors and exploit its own wealth for its country's prosperity. Ancient Egypt's decline over and again occurred due to internal, rather than external pressures, where clergy and noblemen became too powerful and caused the royal family to splinter and move in two directions.
History showed that whenever the…… [Read More]
Ancient Egypt to Present: Costume & Culture
This paper discusses widely various aspects of life in Egypt from ancient times to the present. Ideally, daily life for common citizens as well as life for royalty in Egypt will be compared with the different methods of dress and textiles used for Egyptian peoples. Also, a great deal of focus will be brought onto the culture, laws, and rights of the people. A significant portion of this paper will discuss various items of jewelry, adornments such as headdresses and tattoos; as well as various wigs and hairstyles, along with other methods of body care and treatments.
Although ancient Egyptians had very little variety to the style and type of clothing worn, the exception to this rule was Egyptian royalty (sptimes.com). However, in modern Egypt, since the acceptation of the Muslim faith, a small percentage of women choose to wear the traditional hijab…… [Read More]
Two figurines from ancient Egypt illustrate the changes in Egyptian art that occurred between the Second Intermediate Period (1630-1539 BCE) and the Third Intermediate Period (1075-656 BCE). Both pieces, which appear as part of the Smithsonian Institute's Freer Sackler Gallery, are relatively small: the older piece is 16.3 centimeters in height and the younger is only 10.3 centimeters tall. Several features link the two figurines in terms of geographic place of origin, as both depict a female body in a stiff stance, typical of ancient Egyptian art. However, the latter piece, which is an amulet of the leonine goddess Sakhmet, appears far more relaxed than the earlier figurine. The older female figurine, which is not technically classified as an amulet, is almost geometric in its severity: the woman's shoulders are exaggeratedly broad and her long arms form a triangular image with her long and stiff legs. The Sakhmet…… [Read More]
Ancient Egypt was a long-lasting and at times powerful civilization. Though there were groupings of Egyptians before and after Ancient Egypt, it is generally thought to span the period from circa 3050 BC to circa 332 BC. Describing daily life across approximately 3,000 years would be practically impossible, so the period during the reign of Ramses II, around 1280 BC, is chosen.
Classes and Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
There were basically five classes in Ancient Egypt, excluding slaves and the Pharaoh: farmers, who made up the majority of society and are the most like "Blue Collar" America; artisans and craftsmen, who were a little higher in the social order; nobles, who were basically landowners; priests, physicians, and engineers, who were the second highest class; scribes, religious leaders, and administrators, who were the highest class. Some aspects of Ancient Egyptian life crossed class lines; for example, Egyptians were polytheistic, believing…… [Read More]
Art and music of Ancient Egypt
The music and art of the Egyptians have been an integral part of their society, their culture and their worship systems from the times immemorial. It is apparent that the music of Egyptians existed from the prehistoric period but the evidence of it became preserved in writing just during the historical period also referred to as the pharaonic or dynastic periods after the 3100 BC. The musicians in Egypt took up various positions in the society and music was held in high esteem in various places like the temples, farms, workshops, the tombs and even the battlefields. The religious worship held music very close to the occasion more than any other sector hence there were gods that were associated with music like the Bes and Hathor (Minneapolis Institute of Art, n.d).
There were several categories of musical instruments like the wind, percussion…… [Read More]
The most exact data he was able to collect is on the ration of fish available to necropolis workmen in Deir el-Medina. At a certain period a workman was allowed to receive for himself and his family 92 deben (18.5 pounds) of fish every month. Janssen further notes: "There are also references to a similar quantity of vegetables, but since they are throughout measured in 'bundles' of an unknown size, and it is never stated what kind of vegetables are meant, the implications of the figures are uncertain" (166). For other periods or regions, the materials available may be even less.
Not only the amount but also the kind of food given to workers in wages reflected the receivers' social status. hile some workers were paid in fish, others were paid in oil, and they could also be paid in bread, beer, and various fruits and vegetables. Members of higher…… [Read More]
This river provided reliable and predictable water supplies that allowed for agriculture and commercial settlements to develop. Ancient Egyptians learned the flooding of the Nile predictably occurred each year between June and September. They learned to partially control this event by means of irrigation.
The Egyptians would prepare for the annual flooding by safely removing anything of value from the banks of the river and then wait for the waters to recede. The floods brought good rich soil up onto the land good for growing barley and other grains. After the water level went back down they would quickly plant their new crops (Challen, 2005). Animal husbandry was also a key to successful farming. The Egyptians domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys and poultry. Cattle and donkeys were used for pulling plows as well as threshing. Cattle were also used for milk and meat while sheep and goats provided wool, milk,…… [Read More]
"Silent Images: Women in Pharaonic Egypt" By Zahi Hawas looks at the daily life of the ancient Egyptian woman from the perspective of modern Egypt, but this book also focuses on the average woman.
Joyce Tyldesley's "Nefertiti: Egypt's Sun Queen" is a historical biography and covers only the life of Nefertiti.
A work with a similar title, "ady of Two ands" by Elizabeth Delisi is about Hattie Williams, an artist, who is transported back to the time of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt, a time when women had no rights or power. Hatshepsut persuades her to masquerade as queen and help protect Egypt. The story plays off the true facts of the female pharaoh's reign and the suspected romance between her and Senemut. Ms. Delisi writes an intriguing book, but it is based on loosely woven facts, and the historical accuracy is in doubt.
Five Queens of Ancient Egypt is…… [Read More]
Howard Carter's Discovery Of The Tomb Of Tutankhamen In 1922
For many years, the lives of the ancient Egyptians have been shrouded in mystery to us. Ancient Egypt is a shadowy place of pharaohs, hieroglyphics and strange gods. Today, we come a little closer to unraveling that mystery as we enter the long-sealed tomb of Tutankhamen. Although the tomb may be small, it is rich as a potential source of knowledge. Little is still known about Egyptian funerary rites and when it is opened we can see what types of implements the dead king was equipped with as he was prepared to enter into the next world.
Ancient Egyptian society is a paradox in many ways to us. On one hand, its political system seems very primitive. Kings such as Tutankhamen ruled like gods, although given the boy king's young age, it is likely that the major decisions of his…… [Read More]
For the most part, he appears to make the most of the sources of evidence that are existent and available to scholars today to reach his findings regarding aspects of Egyptian communal life. Still, the most convincing aspects of that identity are the external ones that exist in relation to tangible markers of culture. The many illustrations, hieroglyphic text, and analyses of Egyptian architecture allows for some relatively simple conclusions to be drawn regarding concepts of Egyptian religion such as themes of rebirth, death, and the individual roles that gods and goddesses play in such a cycle.
The author appears to be on less stable ground when analyzing ancient Egyptian architecture. For the most part, he makes far too many assumptions and presumptions that are not supported by substantial, factual evidence. This is through no fault of the author himself, as there is a definite lack of such factual evidence…… [Read More]
Ancient Egyptian History
Ancient Egypt is one of the very first societies that is taught in most elementary history (or social studies) classes. It has become so familiar, in many ways because it is both the example of how ancient cultures relate to modern ones and how they are unique. Egypt, like any other world power, rose to great heights, but it also sank to devastating lows. This civilization had periods of wealth, as can be seen through its amazing architecture in temples and burial places, but also periods of poverty such as when the country became the vassal of first the Greeks and then the omans. This paper take Mann's IEMP model and examines the periods when this ancient civilization was at its highest points and its lowest.
Mann's IEMP Model
Many methods for examining cultures exist, but very few are as complete as Mann's IEMP Model…… [Read More]
Of the hundreds of Pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt for three thousand years, only a few are considered truly great and well- remembered (ible History Online 2011, Alchin 2009). The second ruler of the 20th dynasty, Ramesses III, is among these few and was the last to rule. He was born at a time of turbulence in the Mediterranean during the Trojan War, the fall of Mycenae and the massive displacement of people throughout the region that toppled even some empires. His name meant "Re has fashioned him" and his throne name was Usermaatre Meryamun, which meant "Powerful is the justice of Re, beloved of Amun." His father, Ramesses II, was his immediate predecessor Setnakhte. Some Egyptologists believe he originated the 20th dynasty. His mother was Queen Tiy-merenese (Alchin, ible History Online).
Ramesses III had many wives and sons, among them were his successors, Ramesses IV, V and…… [Read More]
Ancient Egyptian Attitudes Towards Foreigners
Author Bruce Trigger, a professor of anthropology at McGill University, explains that during the Late Period of Egyptian history foreigners accounted for "a sizeable proportion of the population of Egypt" (Trigger, 1983, 316). Included in the list of foreigners that were living in Egypt (anyone that could not speak Egyptian was considered a foreigner) were "…merchants, mercenaries, travelers, students, allies and conquerors" (Trigger, 316). hat was the Egyptian response to the presence of foreigners? According to the literature researched by Trigger, there was a "complex interplay of prejudice, ideology, pride and self-interest" -- and pride and self-interest were the attitudes that had the biggest influence.
In terms of Egyptian ethnicity and the authenticity therein, Trigger references Herodotus' writings that pointed out every one was Egyptian "…who lived north of Elephantine and drank the waters of the Nile" (316). Further, Herodotus' descriptions of foreigners did not…… [Read More]
Ancient Egyptian Religion
The creation of the world from an Ancient Egyptian perspective
Egyptian tradition relates to the creation of the world as being the result of the universe emerging from an amalgam of chaos and darkness. Before the creation of the world, everything consisted out of dark water that had no form and that could not be described by trying to use concepts that mankind is accustomed to. Egyptian tradition promotes a wide range of stories concerning the moment of creation and with the culture being very complex it is difficult to verify particular accounts. There is a widely accepted form of the story of the creation of the world and by identifying common elements in several accounts one can get a better understanding of Egyptian history.
The idea of Maat is meant to address the order in the universe as an essential concept keeping society together. Maat made…… [Read More]
Egyptian civilization lasted for almost three thousand years, far longer than any of its counterparts in the ancient world. A combination of factors including geography, resource management, economic and political institutions, and social and cultural variables came together to enable the flourishing and longevity of Egypt. Once a collection of city-states scattered along the Nile River, Egypt unified itself into a singular political entity in about 3100 BCE (“Ancient Egypt,” n.d., Tyldesley, 2011). Concurrent with the unification of Egypt was also the transition towards agriculture and the production of surplus goods, as well as a rich tradition of art and design. The unification of Egypt also enabled it to consolidate and centralize political power on a massive scale, and through bureaucratic organization also command vast economic resources instrumental for maintaining regional dominance. Elites in Egyptian society also maintained social control via institutions like religion. Social, economic, and political forces…… [Read More]
ancient Egyptian civilization modern world.
The contribution of ancient Egyptian civilization to the modern world:
Architecture, medicine, and agriculture 'The grandeur that was Greece, the glory that was Rome.' The legacy of Greece and Rome to modern civilization has been well-documented, but the contributions of the ancient Egyptians have often been forgotten. Perhaps it is because their hieroglyphic language is less accessible than that of Greek and Latin or the government and structure of the civilization seems more foreign and autocratic. Regardless, it is important to remember the major influences Egypt had upon Greece, Rome, and other civilizations which shaped the modern world.
Perhaps the most enduring symbol of ancient Egyptian civilization is the pyramids. "The original pyramids serve as a testament to the mathematical skill of the Egyptians, a skill that stimulated Greek mathematicians, including Pythagoras, to perfect their work" (Tyldesley, "Ancient Egypt"). Although Hollywood has often depicted slaves…… [Read More]
At first glance, the presence of the desert might seem like a curse, not a blessing for the Egyptians. Yet it was the desert "that protected Egypt on two sides. These deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighboring countries and invading armies" ("Geography," Ancient Egypt: The British Museum, 2009). The desert "also provided the ancient Egyptians with a source for precious metals and semi-precious stones," that enriched its leaders and further enabled the creation of a massive and thriving cultural landscape ("Geography," Ancient Egypt: The British Museum, 2009).
The cycles of the Inundations clearly enabled the construction of the Pyramids. "During the inundation, though, there was nothing to do for the Egyptian farmer. Rather than doing nothing for a whole season, the Egyptians would do other tasks rather than paying tax. (Tax was usually taken out of the crops that the farmers grew, and during inundation, the farmland was covered by…… [Read More]
The cultures shifted from a primarily agrarian economic base to one that used metal as a means to craft practical and ritual objects. In addition to the ritual cauldrons that were emblematic of the Xia dynasty, other uses of advanced metallurgical techniques include the manufacturing of "jue," vessels used to hold a grain alcohol beverage commonly translated as "wine," (Class unit: 12). In fact, bronze objects were cast en masse during the Xia and Shang dynasties (Class unit: 12). Warfare over metals, especially tin and copper, transformed the balance of power in the region (Class unit: 12). Commoners were frequently conscripted for military service during the Shang dynasty ("The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,": 446). Bronze casting allowed Shang rulers to have access to advanced weaponry. Their bronze weapons, their centralized leadership, and their control over a large number of peasant soldiers enabled the Shang to become the first…… [Read More]
their political systems were far less developed too, and although Egyptian religion had taken root in most of the communities of Upper and Lower Egypt temples had yet to reach their characteristic grandiose size until the pharaonic period. The rise of the great pharaohs meant an enormous boost in wealth and political power to the demigod/kings who could commission the large architectural projects that epitomize dynastic Egypt. During the Old Kingdom, massive pyramids flanked the Giza plateau, and later tombs and temples proved the might of pharaonic wealth and power. Egypt was therefore easier than Mesopotamia to manage and control under one centralized government because prior to the first King Menes, Egypt was comprised of relatively small and simple agricultural villages. Mesopotamia, on the other hand, was made up of city-states that had substantial wealth and power bases as well as centers of learning and technology. It is naturally easier…… [Read More]
3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?
The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.
4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.
The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.
1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…… [Read More]
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…… [Read More]
At the same time, the presentation of his work, the lives of the community in which he lived and the way in which he succeeded in forming a family must be relevant for the actual depiction of the historical background, the environment, and the customs of the time. For instance, the fact that he was given to marry the elder daughter of the ruler of the land he had chosen as his next home, Amunenshi, represented indeed an appreciation of his qualities and virtues as an Egyptian. Therefore, it can be said that the piece of writing is also an important source of history of the Near East.
Another important perspective of the story is the historical one which offers a view on the current situation of the time in Egypt. Therefore, the story focuses on the way in which king Sesostris was involved in political actions and maneuvers that…… [Read More]
Egyptian history is clouded in doubt and mystery. e do recognize however that the contributions from this great and ancient culture to estern Civilization are numerous and profound. The purpose of this essay is to explore one of the greatest and perhaps least knows rules of Ancient Ruler, Taharka. The purpose of this essay is to explore Taharka's life in an attempt to become more familiarized with his accomplishments in influencing today's world. By examining his life, we may be able to understand more about today's current situation, not only in the Near and Middle East but all around the world.
Silverman (1997) described the region before Taharka's birth around 880 BC, as a "fragmented condition where Egypt began to fall under the influence of a state that had once been its colony, " the Nubian kingdom of Kush. Taharka's father Piye. Kush had become a great power and…… [Read More]
Battle of Kadesh
It is difficult for us to understand the concept of war in ancient days. In our era of modern warfare, computer guided munitions and instant communication with troops on the other side of a city of on the other side of the globe; our ideas of war have significantly changed over the past few decades. Even a war such as World War Two will likely never be fought again. During WWII, it was possible to hide troop movements, and move faster than enemy intelligence. However, today, the presence of airborne and waterborne weapon platforms allows individual nations to be positioned in the event of battle before the first shot is fired.
However, such was not the case in ancient times. Armies of stronger forces and overwhelming numbers could be defeated because of simple tactical mistakes. A single unknown troop could distract a superior force long enough to…… [Read More]
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…… [Read More]
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were also the first to use iron, They recovered the metal from meteorites and used it for spear tips and ornaments. Later smelting techniques developed in the area to purify the iron, and these spread to Europe via trade routes. By the Middle Ages, large foundries existed for smelting and forging iron into the many things it was used for. Basic trade rules and organization also passed from the Sumerians to Europe; methods of keeping accounts and even early guilds and merchant groups were part of Sumer, and passed est with trade (Airmet).
Airmet. "The History of Iron orking." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html… [Read More]
The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…… [Read More]
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…… [Read More]
History Of Egypt
Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3
The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4
ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5
Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6
Conclusion & Suggestions
Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…… [Read More]
Comparison of Modern and Ancient Mythology
Imagination is still an inseparable aspect of his nature regardless of the claims on rationality and logic. Human beings are mythmakers. They have a tendency to imagine worlds that don't immediately exist which gives rise to mythology and religion (Armstong). Since the age of enlightenment; men began to believe in philosophy as the only method of disclosing world and nature. It can be shown that even philosophy stands on myth (Muszynski). Therefore, mythology still exists both at a personal level and a public level, in the form of religion. Mythology arises to explain ideas which cannot be explained with rationality alone - nature, the origin of people, and the existence of the universe. The root and grounds of development of mythology has not changed since the ancient times, therefore, mythology in the new world shares many similarities with the ancient mythology. Nevertheless,…… [Read More]
Social Systems (Egypt, Aksum, and Inland Niger Delta)
This paper makes comparisons between the early social systems of Egypt, Aksum, and the Inland Niger Delta.
Society in early Egyptian history was more structured than either of the other two societies to be reviewed in this paper. Egyptian society was structured like a pyramid, according to U.S. History's pages on Ancient Civilizations. At the top of the pyramid the gods were placed; Isis, Ra, Osiris and other Egyptian gods were most revered and respected because Egyptians believed that gods had control of the universe. They could "make the Nile overflow, cause famine, or even bring death" (U.S. History). Leaders called "pharaohs" were also considered gods (in human form), and they had a huge amount of power to enact laws and lead the military, so they were high on the pyramid. In fact the pyramids in Egypt were built specifically to…… [Read More]
Cairo Egypt.... I elementary
Egypt is largely considered to be one of the cradles of civilization when considering its history, its culture, and the numerous notable figures that it is responsible for holding throughout history. Even with this, its current capital, Cairo, does not have a significant connection to Ancient Egypt. Cairo's greatest connection to the area it is located in when considering the context of Ancient Egypt is the fact that it is located in the vicinity of the ancient of Memphis, an Egyptian inhabitance built by the first Pharaoh, Menes. The city's name originates from the Arabic expression Al-Q-hirah, which means the triumphant or the victorious. Cairo is the largest city on the African continent and is largely a center of cultural life and politics when considering the African region it is located in as a whole.
It would be safe to say that Cairo is both a…… [Read More]
Old Kingdom Egypt
Egypt is known for its cultural and intellectual developments, because the Egyptians were focused on the afterlife. This paper will discuss the religious and cultural role of the pyramids. Funerals were very important to old kingdom Egypt and its conception of immortality. Immortality was the most important goal in the life of an Egyptian, whether they were rich or poor. Old kingdom Egypt began around 2686 BC, when King Menes united lower and upper Egypt and ran unbroken for nearly 3000 years (Koeller, 1999). It was generally run by approximately 30 family dynasties (Underwood, 2004). During this time, many pyramids were built for the rulers when they died. Although the pyramids were spectacular feats of architecture, they were also built for cultural and religious reasons. It was believed that the rulers of old kingdom Egypt were god-kings, and they would ascend from the pyramid after death and…… [Read More]
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]
Ever since the time when the Muslims raided the city, it became obvious that Christians would lose their influence in the territory, even with the fact that the latter were given permission to keep most of their churches. During the years in which I stood witnessing the Christian population being assimilated into the more powerful Muslim population, I observed that people belonging to both religions came to the church to worship God. Regardless of their personal convictions, people were united through religion and through their dedication to believing in God.
The finances spent for building such an architectural colossus are surely mind-blowing, taking into account that the structure's magnitude expresses magnificence. However, because the Muslim population thrived during the period, it is not surprising that they were willing to support such a spending, especially given that they too were aware of the consequences such a building would have on their…… [Read More]
The masses have always had the tendency to differentiate individuals on account of their particularities. According to Sternberg, it would be irrational for the modern society to continue to discriminate people as a result of their skin color. This would apparently be irrelevant because race is simply a social construct, considering that biology is not important in this matter. People need to understand that they are basically responsible for associating stereotypes with racial concepts and that it is wrong for them to discriminate others because they perceive them as being predisposed to performing certain errors. The diversity present in the contemporary society makes it possible for individuals to acknowledge that variety is present in all environments, regardless of people's backgrounds. It is unethical to generalize and the fact that the modern-day public has access to numerous information regarding the idea of diversity enables these people to hesitate when they have…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast the religious belief systems that existed in the Ancient Near East, the Indian subcontinent and China. Indeed, there will be a recitation of what they have in common and how they differ. The religions in question would include ones like Judaism, those of ancient Egypt and others like Mesopotamia and beyond. The more Eastern religions like Confucianism and Daoism is also in the discussion. hile the religions in the regions cited are alike and similar in many ways, there are still absolutely differences and variations that exist.
Some of the religions in question are Taoism/Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism are often collected in a set that is known as the "three teachings. All of the religions in question date back about fourteen centuries. One thing that they absolutely have in common is that…… [Read More]
mythology and ancient beliefs. Specifically it will compare the myths of heroism in the myth of Achilles to the modern film "Troy." The film "Troy," from 2004, is a remake of the Homer classic "The Iliad," which recounts the legend of the Greek warrior Achilles. In the film, actor Brad Pitt plays Achilles, giving him a larger than life, heroic quality. Achilles is the child of a mortal and a nymph, and his parents attempt to give him immortality by dipping him in the iver Styx, but they miss a tiny spot on his heel, and this leads to his downfall.
Both of these myths center around the idea of the hero in mythology, and in fact, they show the importance of heroes in the Greek society 3500 years ago. The translator of the Iliad writes, "Heroes are born into positions of prominence, which they also reaffirm by their public…… [Read More]
Political History Of Egypt
Examining the History of an Ancient Land:
The country of Egypt has been ever developing. The reason why it is so important and interesting to study this country now is in light of the recent political events that the country has undergone. Needless to say, Egypt has always been a fodder for change. Without wasting too much time, thus, this paper will undertake one of the changing aspects of the country, namely, its political arena. The paper will begin by examining the development of politics in Egypt, and will continue this political history through to the present, including the recent and important events that have taken place in Egypt as part of the Arab Spring.
In order to truly understand a country and how it functions and develops, it is necessary to examine its history. For this reason, this section is of vital importance…… [Read More]
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…… [Read More]
Another area where these two authors differ significantly is with respect to their views as conqueror and conquered. Cole illustrates the French point-of-view upon entering Alexandria as one of profound disappointment. The people's worth, for the French, was measured by the shabbiness of the city. The French then felt a noble duty to make the situation better for these people. Al-Jabarti, not surprisingly, takes umbrage with this. The righteous outrage embodied in his criticism of Napoleon's letter may seem over the top, harping on points of grammar, but it illustrates effectively the outrage at the French pompousness. Al-Jabarti does not accept the right of the French to rule Egypt, nor does he accept any of their half-baked arguments for the invasion. His outrage taints much of his narrative, but it is hardly unreasonable. He demonstrates contempt towards the French for being unlike Muslims; but the French are clearly demonstrating contempt…… [Read More]
civilization in the ancient Near East (3500-1000 B.C.E.) and the Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) shared a great number of similarities as well as numerous differences. These points of comparison covered the political, economic, and social realms, cultural and intellectual ideas, as well as values and institutions. Further, each civilization differed in their specific impact on the creation of estern civilization, and the degree of that impact.
Civilization in the ancient Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) arose out of a number of important causes. First, the location of the Mediterranean area between three continents, and the influence of civilizations like Mesopotamia, India and China nearby. Further, the excellent communication by sea, the mild climate, and the invention of writing were important factors in encouraging the development of civilization in the area (Poiycratis).
The history of civilization in the Mediterranean is not one of a single cultural, political, social,…… [Read More]
Geography as a Determinant of History In Egypt, Israel and Greece
Geography is important in history. For an individual to properly examine and understand history, he/she must learn or understand geography. This implies that without geography, it is relatively difficult and nearly impossible to understand history given the role of geography in history. Actually, geography has shaped history in various diverse ways, which reflects its importance in understanding nations. The significance of geography in history is demonstrated in how it matters to Egypt, Israel, and Greece. The history of these countries is understood through geography, which played an important role in the formation of these nations. Apart from being an important aspect, there are various limits of geography as a determinant of history in Egypt, Israel, and Greece.
How Geography Matters to Egypt, Israel and Greece
As previously mentioned, the history of Egypt, Israel, and Greece was largely shaped by…… [Read More]
This exchange of cultural ideas and manifestations sounds suspiciously like that propagated by Bernal under his Revised Ancient Model. Yet, for some reason, Lefkowitz feels the need to spend the bulk of her article antagonizing Bernal and polarizing him as if he is advocating some sort of Afrocentric stance. This fact is evinced by the preceding passage, in which she references another author -- one who is decidedly pro-Afrocentric -- in what is supposed to be her critique or commentary about ideas advocated by Bernal. Still, the fact remains that even Lefkowitz agrees with Bernal in the notion of the Revised Ancient Model
A review of the works of all three authors demonstrates how necessary competitive plausibility is for the study of history. Since none of the authors were present during the historical events they are discussing, they can only surmise (in as logical a fashion as possible) what they…… [Read More]
Acupuncture is an ancient practice of the East with a long history, which has been incorporated into modern Western use, and has been met with mixed reviews by the public and scientific communities.
The History of Acupuncture
The Origins of Acupuncture
Early tools and methods
Evolution of Acupuncture
F. Development of schools and comprehensive Texts
Eastern Medicine Meets the Modern West
Medical Missionaries to China
Adoption of Western Practice
The Decline of Acupuncture
Communist Support for Acupuncture
Regrowth and new methods
Acupuncture in Use Today
FDA Approved Needles
Universities and Physicians
New variations on Acupuncture
E. Why Western Medicine Fails
Arguments Against Acupuncture
A. The skeptics
C. How to avoid Risks
Scientific Proof and Conclusion
A. Studies have varying conclusions
. Remains widely used by prestigious medical institutions and private practitioners
C. Acupuncture makes people feel better, therefore it works
Although there…… [Read More]
One of the strengths of the collections at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art is collection of works from the ancient Near East. This paper examines two of those artifacts, discussing both their aesthetics properties as well as the historical, political and cultural context in which the two works were created. These works - although they provide only the barest glimpse into the complexities of cultural and religious dynamics of the region - nevertheless help us to understand the intimate and powerful way in which religion and culture are linked even today in the Middle East. (Images of the two works are appended to the end of this paper.)
The first work is two leaves taken from the Koran, the holy book of Islam made during the Abbasid caliphate during the ninth or tenth centuries. Even for a viewer who cannot read Arabic and who knows little…… [Read More]
Establishment of the epublic of Cyprus
Establishment of the UNFICYP
Turkey Bombs Cyprus
Turkey ejects UN s Mediator on Solution of Cyprus Problem
New ound of Intercommunal Talks
Military Junta Takes Over in Greece
einforced Talks with Constitutional Experts
Formation of the EOKA B. And Civil Strife
Junta Coup d'Etat and Turkish Invasion
estoration of Communal Order
EU and the Cypress Problem
Struggle for Justice and Compromise
Where Should the Solution Line be Drawn?
Cyprus is an island in the Mediterranean which has been at the heart of a dispute since 1963. In 1960, the island was given freedom from British control, but since then there has been very little time that has not been plagued by some form of unrest. Since there are two distinct…… [Read More]
Today, the professions of architect, engineer and construction worker are well-known. Yet, from the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the "master builders," who planned and directed the design and construction of many of the greatest structures, held one of the most prestigious positions in society. The fact that some of these structures -- thousands of years old -- remain standing, and many of these same engineering sciences are still used, pay tribute to the abilities of these master craftsmen who were responsible for all steps in the "design-bid-build" project delivery method.
Before the existence of master builders in design and construction, the Code of Hammurabi referred to building as a simple process. Produced approximately between 1792 to 1750 B.C., this is the first known building code. Its rules and responsibilities and acceptable standards of workmanship were carved on stone tablets. Failure to adhere to these…… [Read More]
Annibale Carracci, "Flight into Egypt" 1603-1604
This painting is a lunette, or a half-moon shape. However, the composition within the painting is triangular in nature, with the point of the triangle facing down at the precise point of Mary's feet. The center point of the composition is a waterfall leading from a castle into the estuary. The eye follows the flow of the water down, to settle on the figure of Mary carrying infant Jesus. The color palette also draws the eye toward Mary, who is bathed in white aural light that corresponds with the white tones in the rushing waterfall. In the foreground are three figures. The horizontal planes of the foreground and background terrain are complemented by the verticality of the trees, but the upper third of the painting is taken up by the sky. The content of Carracci's painting depicts the long journey Mary is undertaking…… [Read More]
History of Christianity -- "The Didache"
hen was the Didache written?
The Didache is also known as "The Teachings of the 12 Apostles," and it is dated as having been written around 50's, 60's, or perhaps 70's AD although those dates are not certain. Jonathan Draper in fact says the latest revision of the possible date that the document was written is 100 AD. Even though the date is not certain, what is certain is that The Didache does in fact consist of instructions about how to be a Christian, and the first six chapters of the book deal with lessons on what is expected of Christians. The second four chapters describe Christian ceremonies -- including the Christian way of fasting, of baptism, and of community -- and the last six chapters deal with the actual organization of the Christian Church.
The documents were found around 1873 (by Philotheos Bryennios)…… [Read More]
In fact, some scholars of the modern era even projected on Akhenaten Christ-like qualities. Akhenaten was described as a messiah figure who was a "precursor of Jesus Christ," (Drake p. 208).
The convergence of these two projections onto the Pharaoh Akhenaten has racial implications. Drake suggests that Breasted would not have been able to have conceived of a man in such a position of great political and spiritual power who was not also white. The prevailing attitude that blacks were "closest to the ape" during the era of social Darwinism had influenced such beliefs (Drake xvii). The revisionist perspective arose in direct reaction to the racialist view presented by Breasted and also by eigall, who described Akhenaten as "the first Pharaoh to be a humanitarian," and "the first man to preach simplicity, honesty, frankness, and sincerity...from a throne," (cited by Drake p 207).
Idealizing Akhenaten most certainly could not coincide…… [Read More]
Statuette of Nedjemu of Ancient Egypt (image retrieved at (http://academic.memphis.edu/egypt/1.htm) illustrates several aspects of Egyptian funerary sculpture that remained typical for almost 3000 years, although not in all of the surrounding ancient kingdoms and nations. This particular statue is thought to date from the Old Kingdom period, probably the Fifth Dynasty around 2500-2350 B.C.E. The strict use of proportionality on the part of the limestone structure as well as the rigid posture and the quiet facial expression "reflect the Egyptian desire to represent the deceased in a manner appropriate for eternity," in a stylized fashion, rather than to capture how the dead were uniquely individuated as people in life. (Art of Egypt, 2004)
This fixation upon honoring the dead is in direct contrast to Greek statues of the period that were more often used in living temple rites, although they were often equally rigid and stylized. (Artlex, 2004) According to…… [Read More]
While the beaker is elegant, the vessel is beautiful to look at and would seem at home in a modern kitchen, which sets it apart from the beaker. Its design is timeless and useful, and it probably enjoyed everyday use in the Egyptian home. It does not seem to carry the same symbolic meaning as the beaker; it is simply a beautiful piece of decorative but useful glass to use in the home, while the beaker is clearly meant for more than a drinking beaker. Both works use detailed decoration as the basis for their design, and both designs are simple and yet elegant in their style and function. Both created around the same time, they show two very different sides of ancient artworks.
2007). Beaker with birds and animals. In Timeline of Art History. etrieved from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/hod_47.100.88.htm26 July 2007.
2007). Four-handed…… [Read More]
Most of the people would define a myth as a story. But this is not the correct meaning of a myth. The debate over the accurate meaning of myth has been going through since last 2000 years. The most generally accepted definition of a myth is that, myths are stories regarding the gods. They are sacred stories and they give an explanation about the way the world is. They are traditional stories that contain knowledge and information. (Pinch 1-5)
Mythological stories have been told by the Egyptians for thousands of years. They, however, properly started recording and writing these mythological stories from 2000 BC. In the ancient times the Egyptians had a number of gods. People belonging to different regions had different gods whom they worshiped. ith the development of society, people of different regions started living together, and the stories regarding the culture, traditions, religion and way…… [Read More]
extra lines paragraphs. Use footnotes endnotes ( author, title book, page number needed).
The contemporary society largely owes its advancements to ancient peoples such as the Egyptians, considering the technological progress experienced in Egypt in times when the rest of the world was struggling to survive given the harsh conditions available. hile Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were diverse civilizations and spread over several territories, Ancient Egypt concentrated on a particular geographical area. Even with this, the complex nature of this particular civilization makes it difficult for one to describe it similar to how he or she would describe the other two.
In order to have a better understanding of Ancient Egypt one would first have to consider its location. Most people associate it with the African continent as a whole while others are inclined to associate it with the northern part of the territory, considering that these people generally…… [Read More]
Overview/Biography -- In many academic circles, the man Imhotep (He who comes in peace) exemplifies the rich tradition of Ancient Egypt. He was an Egyptian royal, but not a ruler, who served under the Third Dynasty King Djoser as his Chancellor and then High Priest to the sun god Ra in the city of Heliopolis. His accomplishments were quite numerous; many consider him to be the first recorded expert planner in architecture, engineering, and physicians (Osler).
hat is particularly interesting about Imhotep is that he was one of the very few mortals to be honored by being depicted as part of a pharaoh's statue. This was extremely rare in Egyptian history, and shows the tremendous importance Imhotep had to the political and cultural hegemony of the time period. He was also given divine status after his death, with the center of the Imhotep cult centered around the city of…… [Read More]
History Of Pharaoh Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut was a name used in the 1508-1458 BC by the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt, which meant "Foremost of Noble Ladies." Hatshepsut is widely recognized by Egyptologists to be one of the most successful pharaohs who reigned for a longer period as compared to any other woman from indigenous Egyptian dynasty. Even though Neferusobek/Sobekneferu, a middle kingdom female pharaoh, had already descended on power prior to the coming of Hatshepsut, it was hard for a woman to rule, as a result Hatshepsut had to dress like a man. She managed to rule as a pharaoh for about 15-20 years, however, the dating is vague since according to Josephus, quoting Manetho (the father of Egyptian history "her reign lasted for about 22 years.
The father of Hatshepsut was Pharaoh Thuthmosis Akheperkare (Thuthmosis I) and had a great wife called Queen…… [Read More]
King and Queen Hatshepsut
Located on the wall of a cave in Deir el-Bahari is a bit of graffiti showing "a man having 'doggie-style' intercourse with a woman wearing a royal headdress." (Tyldesley 2006, 99) Historians have interpreted this vulgar piece of art as ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty's Queen Hatshepsut and a governmental official named Senenmut. At a time when men ruled and women were subservient, it was unusual for a woman to gain power, let alone become a Pharaoh. But this is exactly what Hatshepsut did, she assumed the role of Pharaoh; but in doing so she sentenced herself to virtual non-existence. hile the reign of Hatshepsut is generally though to have lasted about 22 years, from 1479 BC to 1458 BC, the man she usurped from the throne eventually got his revenge. After her death, the next Pharaoh, Thutmose III, all but erased her reign from history…… [Read More]
Hymn to Aten
In Ancient Egypt the king Akhenaten completely altered the lifestyles of all his subjects by demanding that they give their singular devotion to the sun god Aten. Before him, Egyptians had a different system of beliefs with many gods whereas Atenism held that Aten was the central god. Egypt had been a polytheistic society wherein each god had a specified set of abilities and limitations to their powers. Each person chose a god to whom they would dedicate themselves and to which they would give most of their devotion. The god was the choice of the individual, a choice which was no longer available when the pantheon of gods deteriorated to a single all-powerful deity. All Egyptian peoples were forced to embrace the new religion and with it forgo the traditions and customs of their ancestors. The changing religion was only one of the aspects of the…… [Read More]
Other women, such as this slave girl, do not have any rights. On the grave is only Haegeso's father's name. In fact, this box of jewels probably represents part of the dowry Proxenos gave to his daughter's husband when she left her father's home to begin her life in her husband's. Marriages are arranged and a woman gives up all her belongings and rights when she is married. This is a patriarchal society with the woman as a second-class citizen (142).
In most cases, except for the Minoan culture, the women's status continued to decline as the culture became more structured and urban. Except for the earliest times, therefore, women have had a subservient role. This has not only been in Western society, but Eastern cultures as well. Women did not fare well in early Japan or China either. It has only been in the recent century that women have…… [Read More]