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Ancient Egypt's Economic Growth
Ancient Egypt became renowned as a major export / import region and a major center of trade. Hatshepsut's expedition to Punt as well as Thutmose III's trades for loot in outhwest Asia and the Mediterranean Region caused Egypt to become a highly attractive country amongst its neighbors for much of the Ancient period.
Ancient Egypt had its up and downs with trading during its successive string of Dynasties. Apparently, when the country was most secured under a strong and stable dominion of its own pharaohs, the country showed prosperity and was able to cement friendly dealings with its neighbors and exploit its own wealth for its country's prosperity. Ancient Egypt's decline over and again occurred due to internal, rather than external pressures, where clergy and noblemen became too powerful and caused the royal family to splinter and move in two directions.
History showed that whenever the…
Bagnall, Roger S. & Frier, Bruce W.; The Demography of Roman Egypt, Cambridge University Press, 1994 ?Birch, S. Records of the Past, Series 1, Vol.VIII, Samuel Bagster and Sons, London, 1876, ?Grant, N. Spotlights The Ancient Egyptians. New York, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996
Economy of Ancient Egypt.
http://home.earthlink.net/~marond/economy_pink.html. Egypt Tour info http://www.egypttourinfo.com/ancient-egypt-blog_files/trade_in_ancient_egypt.html
The ancient Egyptian economy
Ancient Egypt to Present: Costume & Culture
This paper discusses widely various aspects of life in Egypt from ancient times to the present. Ideally, daily life for common citizens as well as life for royalty in Egypt will be compared with the different methods of dress and textiles used for Egyptian peoples. Also, a great deal of focus will be brought onto the culture, laws, and rights of the people. A significant portion of this paper will discuss various items of jewelry, adornments such as headdresses and tattoos; as well as various wigs and hairstyles, along with other methods of body care and treatments.
Although ancient Egyptians had very little variety to the style and type of clothing worn, the exception to this rule was Egyptian royalty (sptimes.com). However, in modern Egypt, since the acceptation of the Muslim faith, a small percentage of women choose to wear the traditional hijab…
Abaza, Mona. "Shifting Landscapes of Fashion in Contemporary Egypt." Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body & Culture 11.2/3 (2007): 281-297. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.
Batten, Alicia J. "Clothing and Adornment." Biblical Theology Bulletin 40.3 (2010): 148-159. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.
Chaudhri, S.K., and N.K. Jain. "History of cosmetics." Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics 3.3 (2009): 164-167. Academic Search Complete. EBSCO. Web. 4 Apr. 2011.
"Egypt: Daily Life." sptimes.com. St. Petersburg Times, 1999. Web. 5 Apr 2011. .
Two figurines from ancient Egypt illustrate the changes in Egyptian art that occurred between the Second Intermediate Period (1630-1539 BCE) and the Third Intermediate Period (1075-656 BCE). Both pieces, which appear as part of the Smithsonian Institute's Freer Sackler Gallery, are relatively small: the older piece is 16.3 centimeters in height and the younger is only 10.3 centimeters tall. Several features link the two figurines in terms of geographic place of origin, as both depict a female body in a stiff stance, typical of ancient Egyptian art. However, the latter piece, which is an amulet of the leonine goddess Sakhmet, appears far more relaxed than the earlier figurine. The older female figurine, which is not technically classified as an amulet, is almost geometric in its severity: the woman's shoulders are exaggeratedly broad and her long arms form a triangular image with her long and stiff legs. The Sakhmet…
'Amulet of a Goddess, Perhaps Sakhmet." Freer Sackler Galleries of the Smithsonian Institute. Online at .
"Female Figurine." Freer Sackler Galleries of the Smithsonian Institute. Online at .
Ancient Egypt was a long-lasting and at times powerful civilization. Though there were groupings of Egyptians before and after Ancient Egypt, it is generally thought to span the period from circa 3050 BC to circa 332 BC. Describing daily life across approximately 3,000 years would be practically impossible, so the period during the reign of Ramses II, around 1280 BC, is chosen.
Classes and Daily Life in Ancient Egypt
There were basically five classes in Ancient Egypt, excluding slaves and the Pharaoh: farmers, who made up the majority of society and are the most like "Blue Collar" America; artisans and craftsmen, who were a little higher in the social order; nobles, who were basically landowners; priests, physicians, and engineers, who were the second highest class; scribes, religious leaders, and administrators, who were the highest class. Some aspects of Ancient Egyptian life crossed class lines; for example, Egyptians were polytheistic, believing…
Art and music of Ancient Egypt
The music and art of the Egyptians have been an integral part of their society, their culture and their worship systems from the times immemorial. It is apparent that the music of Egyptians existed from the prehistoric period but the evidence of it became preserved in writing just during the historical period also referred to as the pharaonic or dynastic periods after the 3100 BC. The musicians in Egypt took up various positions in the society and music was held in high esteem in various places like the temples, farms, workshops, the tombs and even the battlefields. The religious worship held music very close to the occasion more than any other sector hence there were gods that were associated with music like the Bes and Hathor (Minneapolis Institute of Art, n.d).
There were several categories of musical instruments like the wind, percussion…
Dunn J., (2011). An Introduction to Ancient Egyptian Music. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/music.htm
Minneapolis Institute of Art, (n.d). The Ancient Egyptian Gods and Symbols. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.artsconnected.org/uploads/102680/Ancient%20Egyptian%20Gods%20and%20Symbols.pdf
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (2015). The Art of Ancient Egypt. Retrieved February 23, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CBwQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresources.metmuseum.org%2Fresources%2Fmetpublications%2Fpdf%2FThe_Art_of_Ancient_Egypt_A_Resource_for_Educators.pdf&ei=73TtVLieHs_Q7Aauw4HwBQ&usg=AFQjCNHLVbx-w1VJmL14ICHZav5uOwO2cA&sig2=2c7hSE8RYoWYUHRODq-UVw&bvm=bv.86956481,d.ZGU
The most exact data he was able to collect is on the ration of fish available to necropolis workmen in Deir el-Medina. At a certain period a workman was allowed to receive for himself and his family 92 deben (18.5 pounds) of fish every month. Janssen further notes: "There are also references to a similar quantity of vegetables, but since they are throughout measured in 'bundles' of an unknown size, and it is never stated what kind of vegetables are meant, the implications of the figures are uncertain" (166). For other periods or regions, the materials available may be even less.
Not only the amount but also the kind of food given to workers in wages reflected the receivers' social status. hile some workers were paid in fish, others were paid in oil, and they could also be paid in bread, beer, and various fruits and vegetables. Members of higher…
Crawford, Dorothy, J. "Food: Tradition and Change in Hellenistic Egypt." World Archaeology 11.2 (1979): 136-146. JSTOR. Web. 9 Oct. 2011.
Dunn, Jimmy. "Slaves and Slavery in Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt, n.d. Web. 9 Oct. 2011
Gumerman, George. "Food and Complex Societies." Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 4.2 (1997): 105-139. JSTOR. Web. 9 Oct. 2011.
Janssen, Jac, J. "Prolegomena to the Study of Egypt's Economic History during the New Kingdom." Studien zur Altagyptischen Kultur, Bd. 3 (1975): 127-185. JSTOR. Web. 9. Oct. 2011.
This river provided reliable and predictable water supplies that allowed for agriculture and commercial settlements to develop. Ancient Egyptians learned the flooding of the Nile predictably occurred each year between June and September. They learned to partially control this event by means of irrigation.
The Egyptians would prepare for the annual flooding by safely removing anything of value from the banks of the river and then wait for the waters to recede. The floods brought good rich soil up onto the land good for growing barley and other grains. After the water level went back down they would quickly plant their new crops (Challen, 2005). Animal husbandry was also a key to successful farming. The Egyptians domesticated cattle, sheep, goats, donkeys and poultry. Cattle and donkeys were used for pulling plows as well as threshing. Cattle were also used for milk and meat while sheep and goats provided wool, milk,…
Ashcroft, a. (NDI). The river Nile. The Ancient Egyptians. Retrieved May 25, 2013, from http://www.theancientegyptians.com/RiverNile.htm
Challen, P.C. (2005). Life in ancient Egypt. New York: Crabtree Publishing.
Lloyd, a.B. (ed). (2010). A companion to ancient Egypt. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
"Silent Images: Women in Pharaonic Egypt" By Zahi Hawas looks at the daily life of the ancient Egyptian woman from the perspective of modern Egypt, but this book also focuses on the average woman.
Joyce Tyldesley's "Nefertiti: Egypt's Sun Queen" is a historical biography and covers only the life of Nefertiti.
A work with a similar title, "ady of Two ands" by Elizabeth Delisi is about Hattie Williams, an artist, who is transported back to the time of the pharaohs in ancient Egypt, a time when women had no rights or power. Hatshepsut persuades her to masquerade as queen and help protect Egypt. The story plays off the true facts of the female pharaoh's reign and the suspected romance between her and Senemut. Ms. Delisi writes an intriguing book, but it is based on loosely woven facts, and the historical accuracy is in doubt.
Five Queens of Ancient Egypt is…
Leonard Cottrell is a British author and archaeologist. He was a graduate of King Edward's Grammar School, Birmingham. He was a commentator, writer, and producer for the British Broadcasting Corporation until 1960, when he resigned to devote himself to writing. During World War II he was stationed in the Mediterranean with the Royal Air Force as a war correspondent. Among his many books are The Bull of Minos (1958), The Great Invasion (1958), Realms of Gold (1963), Egypt (1965), and Lost Civilizations (1974).
Lady of the Two Lands: Five Queens of Ancient Egypt by Leonard Cottrell
Howard Carter's Discovery Of The Tomb Of Tutankhamen In 1922
For many years, the lives of the ancient Egyptians have been shrouded in mystery to us. Ancient Egypt is a shadowy place of pharaohs, hieroglyphics and strange gods. Today, we come a little closer to unraveling that mystery as we enter the long-sealed tomb of Tutankhamen. Although the tomb may be small, it is rich as a potential source of knowledge. Little is still known about Egyptian funerary rites and when it is opened we can see what types of implements the dead king was equipped with as he was prepared to enter into the next world.
Ancient Egyptian society is a paradox in many ways to us. On one hand, its political system seems very primitive. Kings such as Tutankhamen ruled like gods, although given the boy king's young age, it is likely that the major decisions of his…
Williams, M. (1923). At the Tomb of Tutankhamen. National Geographic. Retrieved from:
For the most part, he appears to make the most of the sources of evidence that are existent and available to scholars today to reach his findings regarding aspects of Egyptian communal life. Still, the most convincing aspects of that identity are the external ones that exist in relation to tangible markers of culture. The many illustrations, hieroglyphic text, and analyses of Egyptian architecture allows for some relatively simple conclusions to be drawn regarding concepts of Egyptian religion such as themes of rebirth, death, and the individual roles that gods and goddesses play in such a cycle.
The author appears to be on less stable ground when analyzing ancient Egyptian architecture. For the most part, he makes far too many assumptions and presumptions that are not supported by substantial, factual evidence. This is through no fault of the author himself, as there is a definite lack of such factual evidence…
Bard, K. (2007). An Introduction to the Archaeology of Ancient Egypt. Boston: Wiley-Blackwell.
Brewer, D.J. (2005). Ancient Egypt: Foundations of a Civilization. New York: Longman Pearson.
Brewer. D.J. "The Predynastic Period: Egypt in its Infancy."
Grimal, N. (1994). A History of Ancient Egypt. Boston: Wiley-Blackwell.
Ancient Egyptian History
Ancient Egypt is one of the very first societies that is taught in most elementary history (or social studies) classes. It has become so familiar, in many ways because it is both the example of how ancient cultures relate to modern ones and how they are unique. Egypt, like any other world power, rose to great heights, but it also sank to devastating lows. This civilization had periods of wealth, as can be seen through its amazing architecture in temples and burial places, but also periods of poverty such as when the country became the vassal of first the Greeks and then the omans. This paper take Mann's IEMP model and examines the periods when this ancient civilization was at its highest points and its lowest.
Mann's IEMP Model
Many methods for examining cultures exist, but very few are as complete as Mann's IEMP Model…
Bard, K.A. (2008). An introduction to the archeology of Egypt. London: Blackwell Publishing.
Brewer, D.J. (2005). Ancient Egypt: The origins. New York: Pearson Longman.
Kemp, B.J. (2006). Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a civilization. New York: Routledge.
Mann, M. (1986). The sources of social power: A history of power from the beginning to A.D. 1760. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Of the hundreds of Pharaohs who ruled ancient Egypt for three thousand years, only a few are considered truly great and well- remembered (ible History Online 2011, Alchin 2009). The second ruler of the 20th dynasty, Ramesses III, is among these few and was the last to rule. He was born at a time of turbulence in the Mediterranean during the Trojan War, the fall of Mycenae and the massive displacement of people throughout the region that toppled even some empires. His name meant "Re has fashioned him" and his throne name was Usermaatre Meryamun, which meant "Powerful is the justice of Re, beloved of Amun." His father, Ramesses II, was his immediate predecessor Setnakhte. Some Egyptologists believe he originated the 20th dynasty. His mother was Queen Tiy-merenese (Alchin, ible History Online).
Ramesses III had many wives and sons, among them were his successors, Ramesses IV, V and…
Alchin, LK Ramses III. King Tut, 2009. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.king-tut.org.uk/egyptia-pharoahs/ramses-iii.htm
Bible History Online. Ramesses III. Tour Egypt, 2011. Retrieved on March 24, 2012
from http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=46&sub=3448&cat_name=People+-+Ancient+Egypt&subcat_name=Ramesses+III+ (Usermaatremeryamun)+
Dunn, Jimmy. Ramesses III: Egypt's last great pharaoh. Tour Egypt, 2011. Retrieved on March 24, 2012 from http://www.bible-history.com/links.php?cat=46&=3448
Ancient Egyptian Attitudes Towards Foreigners
Author Bruce Trigger, a professor of anthropology at McGill University, explains that during the Late Period of Egyptian history foreigners accounted for "a sizeable proportion of the population of Egypt" (Trigger, 1983, 316). Included in the list of foreigners that were living in Egypt (anyone that could not speak Egyptian was considered a foreigner) were "…merchants, mercenaries, travelers, students, allies and conquerors" (Trigger, 316). hat was the Egyptian response to the presence of foreigners? According to the literature researched by Trigger, there was a "complex interplay of prejudice, ideology, pride and self-interest" -- and pride and self-interest were the attitudes that had the biggest influence.
In terms of Egyptian ethnicity and the authenticity therein, Trigger references Herodotus' writings that pointed out every one was Egyptian "…who lived north of Elephantine and drank the waters of the Nile" (316). Further, Herodotus' descriptions of foreigners did not…
Ancient Egyptian Texts. (2003). The Instruction of Merikare. Retrieved March 26, 2012, from http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/merikare_papyrus.htm.
Poo, Mu-chou. (1999). "Ancient Egyptian Attitudes toward Foreigners," in Politics and Religion in Ancient and medieval Europe and China, Frederick Cheung and Ming-chiu
Lai, Editors. Boston, MA: Brill Publishing.
Pu, Muzhou. (2005). Enemies of Civilization: Attitudes Toward Foreigners in Ancient
Ancient Egyptian Religion
The creation of the world from an Ancient Egyptian perspective
Egyptian tradition relates to the creation of the world as being the result of the universe emerging from an amalgam of chaos and darkness. Before the creation of the world, everything consisted out of dark water that had no form and that could not be described by trying to use concepts that mankind is accustomed to. Egyptian tradition promotes a wide range of stories concerning the moment of creation and with the culture being very complex it is difficult to verify particular accounts. There is a widely accepted form of the story of the creation of the world and by identifying common elements in several accounts one can get a better understanding of Egyptian history.
The idea of Maat is meant to address the order in the universe as an essential concept keeping society together. Maat made…
Allen, J.P. (2005). "The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts." BRILL.
Assman, J. (2001). "The Search for God in Ancient Egypt." Cornell University Press.
Gadalla, M. (2001). "Egyptian Divinities: The All who are the One." Tehuti Research Foundation.
Leeming, D.A. (2010). "Creation Myths of the World: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1." ABC-CLIO.
Egyptian civilization lasted for almost three thousand years, far longer than any of its counterparts in the ancient world. A combination of factors including geography, resource management, economic and political institutions, and social and cultural variables came together to enable the flourishing and longevity of Egypt. Once a collection of city-states scattered along the Nile River, Egypt unified itself into a singular political entity in about 3100 BCE (“Ancient Egypt,” n.d., Tyldesley, 2011). Concurrent with the unification of Egypt was also the transition towards agriculture and the production of surplus goods, as well as a rich tradition of art and design. The unification of Egypt also enabled it to consolidate and centralize political power on a massive scale, and through bureaucratic organization also command vast economic resources instrumental for maintaining regional dominance. Elites in Egyptian society also maintained social control via institutions like religion. Social, economic, and political forces…
Allen, R.C. (1997). Agriculture and the origins of the state in ancient Egypt. Explorations in Economic History 34(2): 135-154.
“Ancient Egypt.” History. https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/ancient-egypt
“Ancient Egyptian Civilization,” (n.d.). https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/world-history/world-history-beginnings/ancient-egypt-hittites/a/egypt-article
“The Ancient Egyptian Economy,” (2010). http://www.reshafim.org.il/ad/egypt/economy/index.html
Kemp, B.J. (2006). Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. New York: Routledge.
Tyldesley, J. (2011). Ancient Egypt and the modern world. BBC History. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/egyptians/egypt_importance_01.shtml
“The World of the Ancient Egyptians,” (n.d.). The Ancient World. http://www.theancientworld.net/civ/egypt.html
ancient Egyptian civilization modern world.
The contribution of ancient Egyptian civilization to the modern world:
Architecture, medicine, and agriculture 'The grandeur that was Greece, the glory that was Rome.' The legacy of Greece and Rome to modern civilization has been well-documented, but the contributions of the ancient Egyptians have often been forgotten. Perhaps it is because their hieroglyphic language is less accessible than that of Greek and Latin or the government and structure of the civilization seems more foreign and autocratic. Regardless, it is important to remember the major influences Egypt had upon Greece, Rome, and other civilizations which shaped the modern world.
Perhaps the most enduring symbol of ancient Egyptian civilization is the pyramids. "The original pyramids serve as a testament to the mathematical skill of the Egyptians, a skill that stimulated Greek mathematicians, including Pythagoras, to perfect their work" (Tyldesley, "Ancient Egypt"). Although Hollywood has often depicted slaves…
"Ancient Egyptian medicine." History Learning Site. 1 Dec 2013.
Harris, Catherine. "Ancient Egyptian agriculture." Tour Egypt. 1 Dec 2013.
At first glance, the presence of the desert might seem like a curse, not a blessing for the Egyptians. Yet it was the desert "that protected Egypt on two sides. These deserts separated ancient Egypt from neighboring countries and invading armies" ("Geography," Ancient Egypt: The British Museum, 2009). The desert "also provided the ancient Egyptians with a source for precious metals and semi-precious stones," that enriched its leaders and further enabled the creation of a massive and thriving cultural landscape ("Geography," Ancient Egypt: The British Museum, 2009).
The cycles of the Inundations clearly enabled the construction of the Pyramids. "During the inundation, though, there was nothing to do for the Egyptian farmer. Rather than doing nothing for a whole season, the Egyptians would do other tasks rather than paying tax. (Tax was usually taken out of the crops that the farmers grew, and during inundation, the farmland was covered by…
"Geography." Ancient Egypt: The British Museum. October 26, 2009
"Geography of Ancient Egypt." Egypt: emuseum. October 26, 2009
The cultures shifted from a primarily agrarian economic base to one that used metal as a means to craft practical and ritual objects. In addition to the ritual cauldrons that were emblematic of the Xia dynasty, other uses of advanced metallurgical techniques include the manufacturing of "jue," vessels used to hold a grain alcohol beverage commonly translated as "wine," (Class unit: 12). In fact, bronze objects were cast en masse during the Xia and Shang dynasties (Class unit: 12). Warfare over metals, especially tin and copper, transformed the balance of power in the region (Class unit: 12). Commoners were frequently conscripted for military service during the Shang dynasty ("The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,": 446). Bronze casting allowed Shang rulers to have access to advanced weaponry. Their bronze weapons, their centralized leadership, and their control over a large number of peasant soldiers enabled the Shang to become the first…
The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,"
3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?
The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.
4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.
The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.
1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…
Belmonte, Juan Antonio. From the Atlas to the Caucasus: The Other Side of the Mediterranean Before Islam. Archaeoastronomy 15.(2000): 78.
de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace, 1980.
Dimock, Wai Chee. The Egyptian Pronoun: Lyric, Novel, the Book of the Dead. New Literary History 39.3 (2008): 619-643.
Maddison, Angus. The Contours of World Development. The World Economy, OECD, 2010.. Web.
At the same time, the presentation of his work, the lives of the community in which he lived and the way in which he succeeded in forming a family must be relevant for the actual depiction of the historical background, the environment, and the customs of the time. For instance, the fact that he was given to marry the elder daughter of the ruler of the land he had chosen as his next home, Amunenshi, represented indeed an appreciation of his qualities and virtues as an Egyptian. Therefore, it can be said that the piece of writing is also an important source of history of the Near East.
Another important perspective of the story is the historical one which offers a view on the current situation of the time in Egypt. Therefore, the story focuses on the way in which king Sesostris was involved in political actions and maneuvers that…
The Story of Sinuhe. (n.d.) Retrieved 19 May 2008, from the Ancient Egypt Online web site: http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/storysinuhe.html
Egyptian history is clouded in doubt and mystery. e do recognize however that the contributions from this great and ancient culture to estern Civilization are numerous and profound. The purpose of this essay is to explore one of the greatest and perhaps least knows rules of Ancient Ruler, Taharka. The purpose of this essay is to explore Taharka's life in an attempt to become more familiarized with his accomplishments in influencing today's world. By examining his life, we may be able to understand more about today's current situation, not only in the Near and Middle East but all around the world.
Silverman (1997) described the region before Taharka's birth around 880 BC, as a "fragmented condition where Egypt began to fall under the influence of a state that had once been its colony, " the Nubian kingdom of Kush. Taharka's father Piye. Kush had become a great power and…
Akintola, O. (2010).Nations of the World. How they Evolved. Hilldew View, New York.
Aubin, H. (2002). The Rescue of Jerusalem. Soho Press, New York.
Draper, R. (2008). The black pharaohs. National Graphic Magazine, February 2008. Retrieved from http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/print/2008/02/black-pharaohs/robert-draper-text
Kahn, D. (2004). Taharqa, king of kush and the assyrians. JESSA 31. 2004. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu/234995/Taharqa_King_of_Kush_and_the_Assyrians
Battle of Kadesh
It is difficult for us to understand the concept of war in ancient days. In our era of modern warfare, computer guided munitions and instant communication with troops on the other side of a city of on the other side of the globe; our ideas of war have significantly changed over the past few decades. Even a war such as World War Two will likely never be fought again. During WWII, it was possible to hide troop movements, and move faster than enemy intelligence. However, today, the presence of airborne and waterborne weapon platforms allows individual nations to be positioned in the event of battle before the first shot is fired.
However, such was not the case in ancient times. Armies of stronger forces and overwhelming numbers could be defeated because of simple tactical mistakes. A single unknown troop could distract a superior force long enough to…
Aldred, Cyril. Egyptian Art. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1994.
Kadesh." Battles of the World. CD-ROM. Cambridge: Compton's New Media, 1996.
Ceram, C.W. The Secret of the Hittites. Trans. Richard Winston and Clara Winston. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1956.
Gurney, O.R. The Hittites. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books,1972.
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…
Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.
Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html
Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm
Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were also the first to use iron, They recovered the metal from meteorites and used it for spear tips and ornaments. Later smelting techniques developed in the area to purify the iron, and these spread to Europe via trade routes. By the Middle Ages, large foundries existed for smelting and forging iron into the many things it was used for. Basic trade rules and organization also passed from the Sumerians to Europe; methods of keeping accounts and even early guilds and merchant groups were part of Sumer, and passed est with trade (Airmet).
Airmet. "The History of Iron orking." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
Airmet. "The History of Iron Working." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…
Abusch, Tzvi. "The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: An Interpretive Essay." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 121.4 (2001): 614+.
Gardner and Maier. FULL CITATION NEEDED www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000950008
Jager, Bernd. "The Birth of Poetry and the Creation of a Human World: An Exploration of the Epic of Gilgamesh." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 32.2 (2001): 131+.
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…
History of the Peloponessian War, Thucydides
Herodotus, Translations of the Histories, by A. de Selincourt
Hobbes, Thomas. "Of Commonwealth." Leviathan. Ed. Nelle Fuller. New York:
Everyman's Library, 1973.
History Of Egypt
Civilization Emerges in the Nile Valley 2-3
The Age of the Pharaohs (3200 CE - 30 CE) 3-4
ritish Colonial Rule (1914-1954) 4-5
Modern Egypt (1954 -- Present Day) 5-6
Conclusion & Suggestions
Egypt has always remained one of the most intriguing areas on the planet, with historians, archaeologists and laymen alike flocking to the country on a steady basis throughout the last two centuries to indulge their curiosity and explore the heart of human civilization. The home of iconic monuments built by the world's first civilizations -- including the Great Pyramids of Giza, the Sphinx and a wide assortment of temples and ruins -- Egypt has come to represent the age of humanity's emergence for modern society. The age old cities of Cairo, Alexandria and Luxor have become modernized during the last century, but visitors and residents to Egypt have come to recognize the nation's seemingly…
Fouberg, Erin H.; Murphy, Alexander B. (4 December 2009). Human Geography: People, Place,
and Culture. John Wiley & Sons. p. 91.
Issawi, Charles. (1961). Egypt since 1800: A study in lop-sided development. The Journal of Economic History, 21(1), 1-25.
Janick, J. (2000, October). Ancient Egyptian agriculture and the origins of horticulture.
Comparison of Modern and Ancient Mythology
Imagination is still an inseparable aspect of his nature regardless of the claims on rationality and logic. Human beings are mythmakers. They have a tendency to imagine worlds that don't immediately exist which gives rise to mythology and religion (Armstong). Since the age of enlightenment; men began to believe in philosophy as the only method of disclosing world and nature. It can be shown that even philosophy stands on myth (Muszynski). Therefore, mythology still exists both at a personal level and a public level, in the form of religion. Mythology arises to explain ideas which cannot be explained with rationality alone - nature, the origin of people, and the existence of the universe. The root and grounds of development of mythology has not changed since the ancient times, therefore, mythology in the new world shares many similarities with the ancient mythology. Nevertheless,…
Armstong, Karen. A short history of myth. Canongate U.S., 2005.
Bartlett, Sarah. The Mythology Bible: The Definitive Guide to Legendary Tales. Great Britain: Godsfield Press, 2009.
Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousan faces. Pantheon Books, 1949.
Muszynski, Joe. "Thinking in Narrative:Seeing Through To the Myth in Philosophy." Mythological Studies Journal 1.1 (2010).
Cairo Egypt.... I elementary
Egypt is largely considered to be one of the cradles of civilization when considering its history, its culture, and the numerous notable figures that it is responsible for holding throughout history. Even with this, its current capital, Cairo, does not have a significant connection to Ancient Egypt. Cairo's greatest connection to the area it is located in when considering the context of Ancient Egypt is the fact that it is located in the vicinity of the ancient of Memphis, an Egyptian inhabitance built by the first Pharaoh, Menes. The city's name originates from the Arabic expression Al-Q-hirah, which means the triumphant or the victorious. Cairo is the largest city on the African continent and is largely a center of cultural life and politics when considering the African region it is located in as a whole.
It would be safe to say that Cairo is both a…
Beattie, A. (2005). Cairo: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books.
Korany, B. & El-Mahdi, R. (2012). Arab Spring in Egypt: Revolution and Beyond. American University in Cairo Press.
"Destination Cairo," Retrieved September 17, 2013, from http://www.egypt.travel/city/index/cairo
Old Kingdom Egypt
Egypt is known for its cultural and intellectual developments, because the Egyptians were focused on the afterlife. This paper will discuss the religious and cultural role of the pyramids. Funerals were very important to old kingdom Egypt and its conception of immortality. Immortality was the most important goal in the life of an Egyptian, whether they were rich or poor. Old kingdom Egypt began around 2686 BC, when King Menes united lower and upper Egypt and ran unbroken for nearly 3000 years (Koeller, 1999). It was generally run by approximately 30 family dynasties (Underwood, 2004). During this time, many pyramids were built for the rulers when they died. Although the pyramids were spectacular feats of architecture, they were also built for cultural and religious reasons. It was believed that the rulers of old kingdom Egypt were god-kings, and they would ascend from the pyramid after death and…
Koeller, David W. (1999). Old Kingdom Egypt. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/Web Chron/Africa/OldKingdom.html
Lamb, Annette, & Johnson, Larry. (2003). The topic: Ancient Egypt. http://www.42explore2.com/egypt.htm
Tangen, Turid. (1996). Pyramid building begins. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/Web Chron/Africa/Pyramids.html
The Great Egyptian Pyramid (2004). http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/7210/pyramid.htm
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
Ever since the time when the Muslims raided the city, it became obvious that Christians would lose their influence in the territory, even with the fact that the latter were given permission to keep most of their churches. During the years in which I stood witnessing the Christian population being assimilated into the more powerful Muslim population, I observed that people belonging to both religions came to the church to worship God. Regardless of their personal convictions, people were united through religion and through their dedication to believing in God.
The finances spent for building such an architectural colossus are surely mind-blowing, taking into account that the structure's magnitude expresses magnificence. However, because the Muslim population thrived during the period, it is not surprising that they were willing to support such a spending, especially given that they too were aware of the consequences such a building would have on their…
1. Flood, F.B. The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Boston: Brill, 2001).
2. Smith, E.B. Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1938).
3. Thackara, W.T.S. "The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Spiritual Biography." Retrieved October 2, 2010, from the Teosophy Northwest Website: http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/mideast/mi-wtst.htm
The masses have always had the tendency to differentiate individuals on account of their particularities. According to Sternberg, it would be irrational for the modern society to continue to discriminate people as a result of their skin color. This would apparently be irrelevant because race is simply a social construct, considering that biology is not important in this matter. People need to understand that they are basically responsible for associating stereotypes with racial concepts and that it is wrong for them to discriminate others because they perceive them as being predisposed to performing certain errors. The diversity present in the contemporary society makes it possible for individuals to acknowledge that variety is present in all environments, regardless of people's backgrounds. It is unethical to generalize and the fact that the modern-day public has access to numerous information regarding the idea of diversity enables these people to hesitate when they have…
The author of this report has been asked to compare and contrast the religious belief systems that existed in the Ancient Near East, the Indian subcontinent and China. Indeed, there will be a recitation of what they have in common and how they differ. The religions in question would include ones like Judaism, those of ancient Egypt and others like Mesopotamia and beyond. The more Eastern religions like Confucianism and Daoism is also in the discussion. hile the religions in the regions cited are alike and similar in many ways, there are still absolutely differences and variations that exist.
Some of the religions in question are Taoism/Daoism, Buddhism and Confucianism. Taoism, Buddhism and Confucianism are often collected in a set that is known as the "three teachings. All of the religions in question date back about fourteen centuries. One thing that they absolutely have in common is that…
ACM. "Asian Civilisations Museum." Acm.org.sg. N.p., 2017. Web. 28 Jan. 2017.
Duiker, William J. and Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History. 7th ed. Australia: Wadsworth Cengage
Learning, 2013. Print.
mythology and ancient beliefs. Specifically it will compare the myths of heroism in the myth of Achilles to the modern film "Troy." The film "Troy," from 2004, is a remake of the Homer classic "The Iliad," which recounts the legend of the Greek warrior Achilles. In the film, actor Brad Pitt plays Achilles, giving him a larger than life, heroic quality. Achilles is the child of a mortal and a nymph, and his parents attempt to give him immortality by dipping him in the iver Styx, but they miss a tiny spot on his heel, and this leads to his downfall.
Both of these myths center around the idea of the hero in mythology, and in fact, they show the importance of heroes in the Greek society 3500 years ago. The translator of the Iliad writes, "Heroes are born into positions of prominence, which they also reaffirm by their public…
Homer. Iliad. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1997.
Troy. Dir. Wolfgang Petersen. Perf. Brad Pitt, Orlando Bloom, Eric Bana, Brian Cox. Warner Brothers, 2004.
Political History Of Egypt
Examining the History of an Ancient Land:
The country of Egypt has been ever developing. The reason why it is so important and interesting to study this country now is in light of the recent political events that the country has undergone. Needless to say, Egypt has always been a fodder for change. Without wasting too much time, thus, this paper will undertake one of the changing aspects of the country, namely, its political arena. The paper will begin by examining the development of politics in Egypt, and will continue this political history through to the present, including the recent and important events that have taken place in Egypt as part of the Arab Spring.
In order to truly understand a country and how it functions and develops, it is necessary to examine its history. For this reason, this section is of vital importance…
"Search Results | The Economist." The Economist - World News, Politics, Economics, Business & Finance. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
"BBC News - Egypt Profile - Leaders." BBC - Homepage. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
Goodman, Amy. "Arab Spring: A Discussion on Libya, Egypt and the Mideast with Palestinian Writer Rula Jebreal, Author of "Miral" & Journalist Issandr El Amrani." A Daily TV/radio News Program, Hosted by Amy Goodman and Juan Gonzalez, Airing on over 900 Stations, Pioneering the Largest Community Media Collaboration in the United States. Web. 15 Nov. 2011. .
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.
Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
Another area where these two authors differ significantly is with respect to their views as conqueror and conquered. Cole illustrates the French point-of-view upon entering Alexandria as one of profound disappointment. The people's worth, for the French, was measured by the shabbiness of the city. The French then felt a noble duty to make the situation better for these people. Al-Jabarti, not surprisingly, takes umbrage with this. The righteous outrage embodied in his criticism of Napoleon's letter may seem over the top, harping on points of grammar, but it illustrates effectively the outrage at the French pompousness. Al-Jabarti does not accept the right of the French to rule Egypt, nor does he accept any of their half-baked arguments for the invasion. His outrage taints much of his narrative, but it is hardly unreasonable. He demonstrates contempt towards the French for being unlike Muslims; but the French are clearly demonstrating contempt…
civilization in the ancient Near East (3500-1000 B.C.E.) and the Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) shared a great number of similarities as well as numerous differences. These points of comparison covered the political, economic, and social realms, cultural and intellectual ideas, as well as values and institutions. Further, each civilization differed in their specific impact on the creation of estern civilization, and the degree of that impact.
Civilization in the ancient Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) arose out of a number of important causes. First, the location of the Mediterranean area between three continents, and the influence of civilizations like Mesopotamia, India and China nearby. Further, the excellent communication by sea, the mild climate, and the invention of writing were important factors in encouraging the development of civilization in the area (Poiycratis).
The history of civilization in the Mediterranean is not one of a single cultural, political, social,…
Ancientnewreast.com. Near eastern history, language and culture. 03 June 2004. http://www.ancientneareast.com/
Carlos, Michael C. Near East. Odyssey Online. 13 June 2004. http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/homepg.html
Poiycratis, G.S. 1992. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN CIVILIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CULTURES. Annals of the MBC,5(1). 03 June 2004. http://www.medbc.com/annals/review/vol_5/num_1/text/vol5n1p5.htm
Geography as a Determinant of History In Egypt, Israel and Greece
Geography is important in history. For an individual to properly examine and understand history, he/she must learn or understand geography. This implies that without geography, it is relatively difficult and nearly impossible to understand history given the role of geography in history. Actually, geography has shaped history in various diverse ways, which reflects its importance in understanding nations. The significance of geography in history is demonstrated in how it matters to Egypt, Israel, and Greece. The history of these countries is understood through geography, which played an important role in the formation of these nations. Apart from being an important aspect, there are various limits of geography as a determinant of history in Egypt, Israel, and Greece.
How Geography Matters to Egypt, Israel and Greece
As previously mentioned, the history of Egypt, Israel, and Greece was largely shaped by…
Chan, Michael J. "Egypt." Oxford Biblical Studies Online. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 15
Dec. 2015. .
Hicks, Derek. "Geography and the Early Greeks." Selinsgrove Area School District. Selinsgrove Area School District, 2013. Web. 15 Dec. 2015. .
Zank, Michael. "Israelite History in the Context of the Ancient Near East." Boston University.
Acupuncture is an ancient practice of the East with a long history, which has been incorporated into modern Western use, and has been met with mixed reviews by the public and scientific communities.
The History of Acupuncture
The Origins of Acupuncture
Early tools and methods
Evolution of Acupuncture
F. Development of schools and comprehensive Texts
Eastern Medicine Meets the Modern West
Medical Missionaries to China
Adoption of Western Practice
The Decline of Acupuncture
Communist Support for Acupuncture
Regrowth and new methods
Acupuncture in Use Today
FDA Approved Needles
Universities and Physicians
New variations on Acupuncture
E. Why Western Medicine Fails
Arguments Against Acupuncture
A. The skeptics
C. How to avoid Risks
Scientific Proof and Conclusion
A. Studies have varying conclusions
. Remains widely used by prestigious medical institutions and private practitioners
C. Acupuncture makes people feel better, therefore it works
Carroll, Robert Todd. "Acupuncture." The Skeptic's Dictionary. 2003. http://www.skepdic.com/acupunc.html
Dold, Catherine. "Needles & Nerves - Evidence of the Effectiveness of Acupuncture." Discover. September 1998.
Ellis, Andrew, Wiseman, Nigel, and Boss, Ken. Fundamentals of Chinese Acupuncture. Boston: Paradigm Publications, 1991.
Findlay, Steven; Podlosky, Doug; and Silberner, Joanne. "Acupuncture." U.S. News & World Report. 23 September 1991.
One of the strengths of the collections at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art is collection of works from the ancient Near East. This paper examines two of those artifacts, discussing both their aesthetics properties as well as the historical, political and cultural context in which the two works were created. These works - although they provide only the barest glimpse into the complexities of cultural and religious dynamics of the region - nevertheless help us to understand the intimate and powerful way in which religion and culture are linked even today in the Middle East. (Images of the two works are appended to the end of this paper.)
The first work is two leaves taken from the Koran, the holy book of Islam made during the Abbasid caliphate during the ninth or tenth centuries. Even for a viewer who cannot read Arabic and who knows little…
Peterson, Andrew. Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. New York: Routledge, 1995.
Wiet, Gaston. Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate. Norman: U. Of Oklahoma, 1971.
Zakiriya, Mohamed. The Calligraphy of Islam: Reflections on the State of the Art. Washington DC: Center for Contemporary Arabic Studies, 1990.
Allan, James. Islamic Ceramics. Oxford: Asmolean, 1995.
Today, the professions of architect, engineer and construction worker are well-known. Yet, from the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the "master builders," who planned and directed the design and construction of many of the greatest structures, held one of the most prestigious positions in society. The fact that some of these structures -- thousands of years old -- remain standing, and many of these same engineering sciences are still used, pay tribute to the abilities of these master craftsmen who were responsible for all steps in the "design-bid-build" project delivery method.
Before the existence of master builders in design and construction, the Code of Hammurabi referred to building as a simple process. Produced approximately between 1792 to 1750 B.C., this is the first known building code. Its rules and responsibilities and acceptable standards of workmanship were carved on stone tablets. Failure to adhere to these…
Annibale Carracci, "Flight into Egypt" 1603-1604
This painting is a lunette, or a half-moon shape. However, the composition within the painting is triangular in nature, with the point of the triangle facing down at the precise point of Mary's feet. The center point of the composition is a waterfall leading from a castle into the estuary. The eye follows the flow of the water down, to settle on the figure of Mary carrying infant Jesus. The color palette also draws the eye toward Mary, who is bathed in white aural light that corresponds with the white tones in the rushing waterfall. In the foreground are three figures. The horizontal planes of the foreground and background terrain are complemented by the verticality of the trees, but the upper third of the painting is taken up by the sky. The content of Carracci's painting depicts the long journey Mary is undertaking…
History of Christianity -- "The Didache"
hen was the Didache written?
The Didache is also known as "The Teachings of the 12 Apostles," and it is dated as having been written around 50's, 60's, or perhaps 70's AD although those dates are not certain. Jonathan Draper in fact says the latest revision of the possible date that the document was written is 100 AD. Even though the date is not certain, what is certain is that The Didache does in fact consist of instructions about how to be a Christian, and the first six chapters of the book deal with lessons on what is expected of Christians. The second four chapters describe Christian ceremonies -- including the Christian way of fasting, of baptism, and of community -- and the last six chapters deal with the actual organization of the Christian Church.
The documents were found around 1873 (by Philotheos Bryennios)…
Crossan, John Dominic. The Birth of Christianity: Discovering what Happened in the Years
Immediately After the Execution of Jesus. New York: HarperCollins. 1998.
Draper, Jonathan. Gospel Perspectives, Volume 5. The Jesus Tradition Outside the Gospels,
Editor David Wenham. 1965.
In fact, some scholars of the modern era even projected on Akhenaten Christ-like qualities. Akhenaten was described as a messiah figure who was a "precursor of Jesus Christ," (Drake p. 208).
The convergence of these two projections onto the Pharaoh Akhenaten has racial implications. Drake suggests that Breasted would not have been able to have conceived of a man in such a position of great political and spiritual power who was not also white. The prevailing attitude that blacks were "closest to the ape" during the era of social Darwinism had influenced such beliefs (Drake xvii). The revisionist perspective arose in direct reaction to the racialist view presented by Breasted and also by eigall, who described Akhenaten as "the first Pharaoh to be a humanitarian," and "the first man to preach simplicity, honesty, frankness, and sincerity...from a throne," (cited by Drake p 207).
Idealizing Akhenaten most certainly could not coincide…
Drake, St. Clair. Black Folk Here and There.
Statuette of Nedjemu of Ancient Egypt (image retrieved at (http://academic.memphis.edu/egypt/1.htm) illustrates several aspects of Egyptian funerary sculpture that remained typical for almost 3000 years, although not in all of the surrounding ancient kingdoms and nations. This particular statue is thought to date from the Old Kingdom period, probably the Fifth Dynasty around 2500-2350 B.C.E. The strict use of proportionality on the part of the limestone structure as well as the rigid posture and the quiet facial expression "reflect the Egyptian desire to represent the deceased in a manner appropriate for eternity," in a stylized fashion, rather than to capture how the dead were uniquely individuated as people in life. (Art of Egypt, 2004)
This fixation upon honoring the dead is in direct contrast to Greek statues of the period that were more often used in living temple rites, although they were often equally rigid and stylized. (Artlex, 2004) According to…
Art of Egypt. (2004)
Artlex. (2004) Retrieved on October 10, 2004 at http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/h/hellenistic.html
Statuette of Nedjemu." (1996) Retrieved on October 10, 2004 at http://academic.memphis.edu/egypt/1.htm
While the beaker is elegant, the vessel is beautiful to look at and would seem at home in a modern kitchen, which sets it apart from the beaker. Its design is timeless and useful, and it probably enjoyed everyday use in the Egyptian home. It does not seem to carry the same symbolic meaning as the beaker; it is simply a beautiful piece of decorative but useful glass to use in the home, while the beaker is clearly meant for more than a drinking beaker. Both works use detailed decoration as the basis for their design, and both designs are simple and yet elegant in their style and function. Both created around the same time, they show two very different sides of ancient artworks.
2007). Beaker with birds and animals. In Timeline of Art History. etrieved from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/hod_47.100.88.htm26 July 2007.
2007). Beaker with birds and animals. In Timeline of Art History. Retrieved from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/hod_47.100.88.htm26 July 2007.
2007). Four-handed vessel. Retrieved from the Smithsonian Institution Web site: http://www.asia.si.edu/collections/singleObject.cfm?ObjectId=491126 July 2007.
Most of the people would define a myth as a story. But this is not the correct meaning of a myth. The debate over the accurate meaning of myth has been going through since last 2000 years. The most generally accepted definition of a myth is that, myths are stories regarding the gods. They are sacred stories and they give an explanation about the way the world is. They are traditional stories that contain knowledge and information. (Pinch 1-5)
Mythological stories have been told by the Egyptians for thousands of years. They, however, properly started recording and writing these mythological stories from 2000 BC. In the ancient times the Egyptians had a number of gods. People belonging to different regions had different gods whom they worshiped. ith the development of society, people of different regions started living together, and the stories regarding the culture, traditions, religion and way…
Bbc.co.uk. "BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Ancient Egypt and the Modern World." 2010. Web. 1 May 2013. .
Center for Future Consciousness. "Ancient Myth, Religion, and Philosophy." 2013. Web. 1 May 2013. .
David A., Warburton. "Myth as the Link between Event and History." IBAES X. 283-292. Web. 1 May. 2013. .
Dijk, Jacobus. Myth and Mythmaking in Ancient Egypt. Groningen: University of Groningen, 2008. 1697-1700. Web. .
extra lines paragraphs. Use footnotes endnotes ( author, title book, page number needed).
The contemporary society largely owes its advancements to ancient peoples such as the Egyptians, considering the technological progress experienced in Egypt in times when the rest of the world was struggling to survive given the harsh conditions available. hile Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome were diverse civilizations and spread over several territories, Ancient Egypt concentrated on a particular geographical area. Even with this, the complex nature of this particular civilization makes it difficult for one to describe it similar to how he or she would describe the other two.
In order to have a better understanding of Ancient Egypt one would first have to consider its location. Most people associate it with the African continent as a whole while others are inclined to associate it with the northern part of the territory, considering that these people generally…
Donadoni, Sergio, "The Egyptians," (University of Chicago Press, 1997)
Loken, Israel P. "The Old Testament Historical Books:
An Introduction," (Xulon Press, 30.05.2008)
Modrzejewski, Joseph, "The Jews of Egypt: From Rameses II to Emperor Hadrian," (Princeton University Press, 27.10.1997)
Overview/Biography -- In many academic circles, the man Imhotep (He who comes in peace) exemplifies the rich tradition of Ancient Egypt. He was an Egyptian royal, but not a ruler, who served under the Third Dynasty King Djoser as his Chancellor and then High Priest to the sun god Ra in the city of Heliopolis. His accomplishments were quite numerous; many consider him to be the first recorded expert planner in architecture, engineering, and physicians (Osler).
hat is particularly interesting about Imhotep is that he was one of the very few mortals to be honored by being depicted as part of a pharaoh's statue. This was extremely rare in Egyptian history, and shows the tremendous importance Imhotep had to the political and cultural hegemony of the time period. He was also given divine status after his death, with the center of the Imhotep cult centered around the city of…
Davidovits, J. They Built the Pyramids. Sant-Quentin, France: Institute Geopolymere, 2008. Print.
Dunn, J. "Imhotep, Doctor, Architect, High Priest, Scribe and Vizier to King Djoser." 24 October 2011. Touregypt.net. Web. December 2011. .
"Imhotep." January 2011. NNDB. Web. December 2011. .
Kemp, B. Ancient Egypt: Anatomy of a Civilization. New York: Routledge, 2006. Print.
History Of Pharaoh Hatshepsut
Hatshepsut was a name used in the 1508-1458 BC by the fifth pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty of ancient Egypt, which meant "Foremost of Noble Ladies." Hatshepsut is widely recognized by Egyptologists to be one of the most successful pharaohs who reigned for a longer period as compared to any other woman from indigenous Egyptian dynasty. Even though Neferusobek/Sobekneferu, a middle kingdom female pharaoh, had already descended on power prior to the coming of Hatshepsut, it was hard for a woman to rule, as a result Hatshepsut had to dress like a man. She managed to rule as a pharaoh for about 15-20 years, however, the dating is vague since according to Josephus, quoting Manetho (the father of Egyptian history "her reign lasted for about 22 years.
The father of Hatshepsut was Pharaoh Thuthmosis Akheperkare (Thuthmosis I) and had a great wife called Queen…
Clayton, Peter, Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Thames & Hudson., 1994, p. 104.
Dennis C. Forbes, Maatkare Hatshepset: The Female Pharaoh, KMT, Fall 2005, pp. 26 -- 42.
Gardiner, Alan. Egypt of the Pharaohs. p. 198. Oxford University Press, 1964.
Tyldesley, Joyce, Hatchepsut: The Female Pharaoh (Hardback ed.). Penguin Books, 1996, p. 99.
King and Queen Hatshepsut
Located on the wall of a cave in Deir el-Bahari is a bit of graffiti showing "a man having 'doggie-style' intercourse with a woman wearing a royal headdress." (Tyldesley 2006, 99) Historians have interpreted this vulgar piece of art as ancient Egypt's 18th dynasty's Queen Hatshepsut and a governmental official named Senenmut. At a time when men ruled and women were subservient, it was unusual for a woman to gain power, let alone become a Pharaoh. But this is exactly what Hatshepsut did, she assumed the role of Pharaoh; but in doing so she sentenced herself to virtual non-existence. hile the reign of Hatshepsut is generally though to have lasted about 22 years, from 1479 BC to 1458 BC, the man she usurped from the throne eventually got his revenge. After her death, the next Pharaoh, Thutmose III, all but erased her reign from history…
Kean, Sam. "The scent of a woman pharaoh." American Scholar 80.2 (2011): 17. Academic OneFile. Web. 9 May. 2011.
Lorenzi, Rossella. "Pharaoh Hatshepsut Died in Pain." Discovery News. Web. 8 May 2011. http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2007/07/02/sickmummy_arc_02.html?category=ar chaeology&guid=20070702133030
Ray, John. "Hatshepsut: the female pharaoh." History Today 44.5 (1994): 23+. Academic OneFile. Web. 9 May. 2011.
Roehrig, Catherine, Renee Dreyfus, and Cathleen Keller. Hatshepsut, from Queen to Pharaoh. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2005. Print.
Hymn to Aten
In Ancient Egypt the king Akhenaten completely altered the lifestyles of all his subjects by demanding that they give their singular devotion to the sun god Aten. Before him, Egyptians had a different system of beliefs with many gods whereas Atenism held that Aten was the central god. Egypt had been a polytheistic society wherein each god had a specified set of abilities and limitations to their powers. Each person chose a god to whom they would dedicate themselves and to which they would give most of their devotion. The god was the choice of the individual, a choice which was no longer available when the pantheon of gods deteriorated to a single all-powerful deity. All Egyptian peoples were forced to embrace the new religion and with it forgo the traditions and customs of their ancestors. The changing religion was only one of the aspects of the…
"The Great Hymn to the Aten." The Western Humanities Vol. 1. Ed. Roy Matthews & DeWitt
Platt. McGraw Hill, 2010. Print.
Other women, such as this slave girl, do not have any rights. On the grave is only Haegeso's father's name. In fact, this box of jewels probably represents part of the dowry Proxenos gave to his daughter's husband when she left her father's home to begin her life in her husband's. Marriages are arranged and a woman gives up all her belongings and rights when she is married. This is a patriarchal society with the woman as a second-class citizen (142).
In most cases, except for the Minoan culture, the women's status continued to decline as the culture became more structured and urban. Except for the earliest times, therefore, women have had a subservient role. This has not only been in Western society, but Eastern cultures as well. Women did not fare well in early Japan or China either. It has only been in the recent century that women have…
Kleiner, Fred S., and Mamiya, Christin. Gardner's Art through the Ages. New York: Thomson, 2005.
But later, Aquinas joined the two approaches of philosophy and theology to present a theory of the cosmos. "Reason was no longer conceived as the nemesis of Faith...Aquinas [claimed] that both were paths to a single truth: 'God exists'" (Kreis, 2000). Philosophy and reason in general were no longer seen as hostile to faith.
The Late Middle Ages was characterized by interest in anatomy, as is reflected in the more individuated representations of the human form in art as opposed to the anonymously authored and undefined figures in Gothic churches. Once again, the individual was valued in culture and in life. This was partly the result of economic improvements in agriculture such as crop rotation, the liberation of the peasantry from serfdom and their ties to the land, and the creation of urban centers of trade. "Many members of the nobility across Europe sought greater refinement of life. "Feudal lords…
Kreis, Steven. (2000). "Lecture 2: The Medieval World View." Lectures in Modern European Intellectual History." Last revised 16 Oct 2006. Retrieved 17 Jul 2007 http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture2a.html
Seaman, Gerald. (1996). "Literature and the Middle Time." Essays on Medieval Europe.
Retrieved 17 Jul 2007. http://eawc.evansville.edu/essays/seaman.htm
Waggoner, Ben. (18 Jan 1997). "Medieval and Renaissance Concepts of Evolution and Paleontology." UCMP: Berkeley. Retrieved 17 Jul 2007 http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/medieval.html
..may establish schools for the education and care of the disabled and schools for special education in a way that matches their abilities and aptitudes." This article takes us back to the idea of isolation not integration, by establishing special schools for the disabled. This is a possibility, not an obligation, in accordance with the Minister of Education's inclinations and preferences." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) It is stated in Article 14 that conditions of medical fitness "...should be required for acceptance in all age stages." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) Specifically stated are the following:
(1) Article no. 1 states "The provisions of the child law shall be applicable and any other provision contradicting with the provisions of the said law shall be abrogated."
(2) Article no. 54 indicates "Free education in the schools of the state is a right of all children."
(3) Article no. 133 states "The…
Mittler, Peter (2003) International Experience in Including Children with Disabilities in Ordinary Schools. Inclusion Theory and Practice. Enabling Education Network. 3 Mar 2003. Online available at: http://www.eenet.org.uk/theory_practice/internat_exp.shtml
Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.
Gaad, Eman (2004) Cross-cultural perspectives on the effect of cultural attitudes towards inclusion for children with intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 1 July 2004.
Wormnaes, Siri (2008) Cross-cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An arena for facilitating reflection? International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol. 55, No. 3, September 2008, 205 -- 225
Egyptian Hieroglyphics and Other Ancient Symbols on 18th, 19th and 20th Century Surface Pattern Design and Their Influences on Contemporary Design
Hieroglyphics are a system of picture-writing, from the Greek, literally meaning "sacred carvings"; these symbols were used extensively on the walls of Egyptian tombs and temples, as well as columns and in written texts (Cavendish 1970). This paper will provide an analysis of the influence of Egyptian hieroglyphics and other ancient symbols on 18th, 19th and 20th century surface pattern design and their influences on contemporary design, taking account of the impact on design practice of digital techniques today. A discussion of designers from these periods illustrating their work will be followed by suggestions for critical analysis, and an examination of possible philosophical questions to be considered related to a future professional practice. A summary of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion.
Brunner, Hellmut. (2004). Decipherment of hieroglyphic writing: Champollion's decipherment.
In Encyclopedia Britannica [premium service].
Cavendish, Richard. Man, Myth & Magic: An Illustrated Guide to the Supernatural, Vol. 10.
New York: Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 1970.
This differentiation refers to the management and administration of the agricultural resources of the kingdom. This in turn involved an organized network of royal foundations. (Wilkinson 116) the second area of administrative concern was the processing of government revenue and "…its redistribution to the various state operations…" (Wilkinson 116) Wilkinson in his book also deals extensively with managements issues in relation to the Egyptian treasury. (Wilkinson 125)
In understanding the background to management in ancient Egypt one has to continually take into account the wide range of concerns and activities that required ordered control and administration. As Erman states in his work Life in Ancient Egypt (1894), "The enormous properties belonging to the temples required of course complicated machinery for their administration & #8230;certain members of the priestly college were deputed to manage the affairs of the treasury, the commissariat and the correspondence…" (Erman 303)
Taking into account the above…