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Ancient Greece developed eastern side Mediterranean a series loosely connected City-States. Here seeds modern science. Greek philosophers / scientists, Plato Aristotle (Hellenic Era) wealth devote time study natural phenomena, abstract ideas mathematics, astronomy..ID
Ancient Greece: Overview
Ancient Greece is often called the cradle of civilization because the city-states of Greece, most notably Athens, gave birth to concepts that still inform modern life, such as the significance of empirical, rationalist science and the importance of democracy. In contrast to the hereditary monarchy of Egypt, which exercised considerable centralized control over the entire empire of the Pharaoh, Greece was organized into a series of disparate city-states. Athens was run as a democracy of free-born men, who voted by majority rules on the decisions of the city. "Although there were exceptions, many of the city-states operated on the principle that rulers served the people and did not necessarily rule for life, but could…… [Read More]
The Impact of Alexander and the Development of Democracy
The development of democracy in Greece came about due to many factors, each playing a significant role in a slow process. It can be traced back to the election of Solon and his impact on the polis of Athens. He created a four-tier class system, awarding political privileges to those in each class (Ober, 1998). While more say was given to the people, it was not until the polis of Athens went to war with Sparta did great change commence. The growth of the Athenian navy was pivotal in the creation of democracy, as Athens became a predominant military power (Ober, 1998). Thereafter, equal powers were dispersed among the people, as their role in defending the state grew greater.
According to author Josiah Ober (1998), "the rise of the navy was contemporary with the flowering of Athenian…… [Read More]
At any stage in the proceedings, "judgment could be entered by default, but it could also be set aside "…except in the case of perjury established by judgment of court" (Calhoun, 309-10). The incidents mentioned above pertain to civil law only, and reflect the intelligence of the ancient Greeks when it was obvious that trivial cases could be handled in "cheap and speedy" kind of justice (Calhoun, 310).
In the case of criminal law in ancient Athens, it also has similarities with modern estern law strategies and procedures. It was what Calhoun calls "logical, coherent," and it entailed a complete "body of statutory law, enforced by the processes very similar" to those described in the paragraphs above (310). Seven centuries before Christ, in ancient Greece, the Council of the Areopagus created a "customary criminal jurisdiction of nearly as advanced a type as that exercised much later in Rome," Calhoun explains…… [Read More]
When Plato was constructing his ideal civilization in the epublic, those citizens fittest to rule were of the philosophers' class, while the lowest orders of society were deemed to be the craftsmen and tradesmen. Although Greek was in actuality a democracy, these common men, in Plato's estimation, were considered unworthy to participate in government. This reflects a type of snobbery typical of ancient Greece. Even scientific disciplines that emphasized thought rather than experimentation and application were esteemed more than pursuits such as architecture. This is also why astronomy, more than the hands-on sciences, was considered to be the highest art.
oman architecture, including the aqueducts, the domed Pantheon, and its impressive network of roads were important 'firsts' in the history of the world. They would not have been possible without the use of Greek principles, but many of the principles had never been put into action.
Lecture 7: Hellenistic…… [Read More]
irth control which is also known as fertility control and contraception, describes the devices or methods that are used to prevent an egg from getting fertilized by the sperm and thus preventing pregnancy[footnoteRef:2]. Provision of birth control and planning a pregnancy is referred to as family planning. Safe sex implies the use of condoms; both male and female, does not only prevent unwanted pregnancies, but also prevent the spread of sexually transmitted diseases through the use of condoms. In the contemporary world, the use of contraceptives has increased in the developing countries and therefore the number of maternal deaths has decreased by about 44%. However, this figure can be decreased by 73% if the demands for birth control are met completely. Teenage pregnancies have the tendency to result in complications including low birth weight, preterm birth and infant mortality. Therefore, many health specialists believe that adolescents should be given complete…… [Read More]
Ancient Greece was a place of incredible artistry in terms of architecture, playwriting, and sculpture. At the start of Grecian culture, artists and craftsman were seen as relatively unimportant members of society because they did not contribute anything of perceived importance. They worked in aesthetic mediums which although appreciated were not given as much value as politicians or philosophical thinkers. In around the year 480 BC, art became far more important as it became clear that through artistic media, stories could be written and legacies forged. In the present moment, by looking at the artworks which have been discovered that date back to the period of the Ancient Greeks, modern scholars can interpret what differences occurred in the various epochs of the era, such as the types of artwork created, the subjects which were given the most importance, and the mediums employed. The subject of the sculpture in particular…… [Read More]
At the top were the native Spartans who could trace their ancestry back to the original inhabitants of the city. These were the individuals who could serve within the army and enjoyed the full political and legal rights of the state. The second class of citizens was the perieici, who were foreign people who worked within the city and for the Spartans and served as a buffer to the Helots. These individuals acted as the commercial class within Athenian society, running the majority of trade and shops within the city. They were granted a great deal of liberty within the Spartan system and also received the protection of the Spartan military. The final class was the conquered Messenians or Helot class. This class lived as virtual slaves and they farmed the lands for the Spartan military class. Exploitation within this arena was taken the extreme level as the majority of…… [Read More]
Olympic Games of Ancient Greece
The legends surrounding the beginning of the Olympic games are many, but it is generally believed that Heracles, the son of Zeus, founded the ancient Greek Olympic games. There is some evidence that the games had been going on for longer than we have written records for. The first records of the games at Olympia are from 776 BC.
The first Olympic games were not the games of today that represent a worldwide competition between the best athletes of the world. The ancient Olympic games were dedicated to the Gods and only involved Greek athletes. There are mythological origins of the games. One myth is that Pelops, the son of Tantalus (who defied the Gods), wanted to marry Hippodamia. Hippodamia was the daughter of Oenomaus, the king of Pisa. The king lusted after his own daughter and strived to kill all of her potential mates…… [Read More]
Philosophy and Ancient Greece
The ancient Greek civilization was one of the most advanced civilizations of their time. They were innovators in their own class as they were one of the first civilizations to develop a functioning society, economy as well as a political system. Setting up a political system was one of the most innovative and bold things to do. In those times the Greek lived in small states rather than one nation. This was the establishment of the polis or better known as the city-state. Despite introducing a political system, the polis had to go through several teething problems. Politics was an experimental system with no definite foundation. The problems could be traced back to the time when autocratic rulers ruled the city-states. Due to the transformation of societies a definite political system could not be established. Even though a democracy was established, it…… [Read More]
human form: Paleolithic art through ancient Greece
Over the course of human history, the artistic representation of the human form gradually became both more 'realistic' and 'idealistic.' Although this may sound like a contradictory statement, when viewing the shift from the highly stylized, anonymous figures in Paleolithic art to the anatomically correct, near-perfect representations of the human form in Classical Athens, a gazer can see a clear change in the intentions of the artists. Instead of attempting to render the human form in spare and symbolic terms, artists instead grew intent upon celebrating the unique nature of the human spirit and anatomy.
Art of the Paleolithic era "concerned itself with either food (hunting scenes, animal carvings) or fertility (Venus figurines). Its predominant theme was animals" (Esaak 2010). The meaning of Paleolithic art was purposeful, to either gain food through creating a symbolic representation of an animal, or to gain control…… [Read More]
Idealism and Naturalism
Art in ancient Greece approached beauty through the concepts of naturalism, idealism, and a combination of the two. In the case of the diskobolos (also spelled discobolos), it is viewed as naturalistic because it accurately represents the way a human male body looks. The discus in hand indicates that diskobolos does human things, and the way in which his muscles are poised - realistically -- adds to the naturalistic theme. An argument can also be made that the sculpture is idealistic because it has a pose that is so perfect it idealizes the act of throwing a discus (and because the man's body is idealized). This paper points to the literature that identifies diskobolos as naturalism and idealism -- and a blend of both.
Diskobolos -- The Literature
It is apparent that Myron has caught the discus thrower in mid-swing; the thrower has gone as far back…… [Read More]
Odysseus is an ideal of manly conduct and resourcefulness in ancient Greek society, as is shown in Homer's The Odyssey. For example, it is the idea of Odysseus to have his men tie him to the mast of their ship and to pour wax in their ears when they are sailing past the sirens: Odysseus wants to hear the music but he is smart enough to know that if he does hear, he will guide his men to sail towards the rocks where the sirens are and then they will wreck. So he uses foresight as a means of self-discipline. And, indeed, when he does hear the voices of the sirens, he wants to go to them -- but, of course, he has guarded against this catastrophe. This would be an example of how Odysseus is resourceful.
An example of the way in which Odysseus displays manly conduct could be…… [Read More]
The Greeks were one of the most religious societies in the ancient world. With roots in Minoan culture, West Asian beliefs, and Central Asian gods, religion permeated virtually every aspect of Greeks' life -- from politics and culture to family, morals, agriculture, festivals, games, as well as beliefs about nature and the origin of life (Carr). The Greeks strongly believed that there were invisible, all-powerful gods and goddesses that controlled every occurrence. As a society, therefore, it was important to maintain a good relationship with the gods through prayer, sacrifice, and leading a good (morally upright) life. The prayers and sacrifices were made in sacred sites and temples where the gods were erected in their personified forms (Cartwright). Gods were also believed to reside in mountains.
Religion in ancient Greece was strongly tied to natural phenomena like rain, storms, plagues, earthquakes, and volcanoes (Carr). There were gods for each of…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta were two most powerful states in Ancient Greece. Athens was known for its undying focus on infrastructural development while Sparta had an unmatched military prowess. As such, Sparta was the most powerful Greek state. Although the two states are very close geographically, they do have contrasting lifestyles, governance structures, military strength and economic systems (Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Greece. 1998).
Unlike Athens, which was a democracy government, Sparta was an Oligarchy system of government. This means the state was ruled by a few individuals. Two kings acted as leaders who were accompanied by five Ephors. The Kings passed on their crowns to their sons. The Ephors and Kings would attend the general assembly to develop and pass motions, decrees legislations and make civil decisions (Blackwell, 2003).
In Sparta, the goal of education is to yield a well-disciplined and well-drilled marching army. These people believe in…… [Read More]
Women of Ancient Greece: The Plays of Euripides
The plays of Euripides reveal how poorly women were viewed in ancient Greece. From Medea to Sthenoboea to Phaedra, Euripides' women cover a wide range of forms: the vengeful, jilted lover; the plotting wife; the incestuous, lustful mother. As Chong-Gossard points out, Euripides does not shy away from "tapping into men's anxieties and frightening them with Medeas and Phaedras...women keeping silent about their devious plots."[footnoteRef:1] If anything, Euripides plays serve to reinforce the notion that in a patriarchal society, a man can never let down his guard against a woman -- because, judging from the works of Euripides, women are some of the most treacherous beings to ever walk the face of the earth. This paper will show how female power was depicted so monstrously in the works of Euripides and what it meant to Greek viewers. [1: James Harvey Kim On…… [Read More]
The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…… [Read More]
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…… [Read More]
Ancient Ballgame of Mesoamerica
There are many ancient art forms that are acknowledged today as culturally enriching. The dramatic plays of ancient Greece are revered as great artistic accomplishments. The development of writing and ship building by the Phoenicians is recognized as a ground breaking achievement that changed the course of society. Yet some cultures do not receive this kind of acknowledgment for their customs, inventions, and creations which have nonetheless steered the course of humanity to a great degree. While the Olympics of Greek ancestry have gained high acclaim worldwide for the impact they have had on athletics and culture, other ancient sporting traditions have been glossed over by mainstream history. Games and sports were an integral part of the cultures of Central America and Mexico, including Volador (high pole), patolli (dice), stilts, hunting, and jai alai. One instance of a seriously underrepresented athletic influence is the most important…… [Read More]
This was true for example in the northern countries of Europe where Protestantism had firmly embedded itself an thrown off Church teaching. ars were the result as the Holy Roman Empire attempted to put down the Protestant Rebellions -- but the Peace of estphalia in 1648 finally and politically gave the Protestant countries in the north of Europe the right to exercise their new religions. Humanism, indeed, was spreading as a result of the Renaissance and many societies were willing to adopt it.
Bennett, Judith. Queens, hores and Maidens: omen in Chaucer's England.
University of London. 5 March 2002. Royal Halloway, Hayes Robinson Lecture Series No. 6. eb. 23 March 2011.
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Greece. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Jusserand, J.J. English ayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: &J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950.…… [Read More]
3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?
The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.
4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.
The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.
1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…… [Read More]
Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.
Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…… [Read More]
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…… [Read More]
Ancient Art / Comparing Two Works
Two ancient works of art were viewed for discussion in this paper. The first is called "Vessel Terminating in the Forepart of a Stag" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The second is an Etruscan engraved mirror, which can be viewed at the Louvre. Although the objects are from different time periods and cultures and depict different images, they have in common the fact that they are both utilitarian objects made beautiful with adornment.
The stag vessel [http://www.metmuseum.org / Collections/search-the-collections/30006086] was discovered in Central Anatolia (a region of Turkey) and is attributed to the Hittite Empire, circa the 14th -- 13th centuries BCE. It is a drinking vessel made of silver with gold inlay. It is a representational piece that stands eighteen centimeters tall. According to the Museum's website, the stag's front legs and torso, which opens into a cup, was hammered from a…… [Read More]
In both ancient Greece and ancient Rome, women were idealized or demonized in storytelling. Tales of "glamorous mistresses" and "adultresses" characterize some of the ancient Roman literature (Dixon). Like ancient Greek literature, ancient Roman literature also portrayed domesticated women as being highly virtuous to convey social norms and ideals for female behavior.
omen's work was defined and restricted by their gender. omen in both ancient Greece and ancient Rome did household work. In both societies but especially ancient Rome, "women were expected to be involved in cloth production: spinning, weaving and sewing," (Dixon). In ancient Greece, the only public role for women was reserved for a select few: the priestess (Rymer). Only one "authentic voice" of a female poet has survived: that of Sappho (Blundell 66). In ancient Rome, "a few examples of women in higher-status positions such as that of a doctor, and one woman painter is known," (Dixon).…… [Read More]
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is true that the aspect of trade of wine and quality, as well as publication of the paintings, used the grapes and wine themes for the marketing brand associated and the underlying culture within the painter's lives.
Why the artists from Classical Antiquity to Modernism have been using particularly this theme?
From the Classical Antiquity to the modernism era, people developed an attitude that keeps certain groups of painters making a name through the themes they apply in their paintings. Therefore, the grapes and wine theme is already in deep roots within the basis of sales possible. Every painting that applies the use of the grapes and wines theme receives significant support and acceptance within the society; hence, the reason it has such wide application by the classical antique and modernism-painting activists.
Why the modern artists have been continuing to use themes particularly from Classical antiquity and from…… [Read More]
The Roman people regarded themselves as highly religious. They linked their success as a powerful force in the world to their cordial relations with the gods. The victory by the Romans was essentially a religious occasion in which the generals exhibited their piety and zeal to serve society by dedicating a fraction of their fortunes to the gods. Jupiter was particularly called to attention in such circumstances because he was the god of justice in leadership. Following the Punic wars fought between 264 BC and 146 BC in which Rome fought hard to assert its power as a dominating authority, magistrates built many temples in honor of a deity who they depended on to guarantee success in the war (Religion in ancient Rome) (Roman mythology).
How Ancient Rome Practiced Religion
Ancient Romans recognized and offered prayer too many gods and goddesses. Some of the gods were of Roman origin but…… [Read More]
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…… [Read More]
Among the great features of Gothenburg is the Gothenburg Opera House, the Liseberg amusement park and Universeum, a great place to take the family because kids will love the discovery and science center at Universeum.
Boat trips are available that take visitors out into the harbor and into the archipelago further north. Marstand in the archipelago and is well-known as a great place for yachting and yacht racing, and it is easily located from Gothenburg.
A couple of great Swedish traditions include "The Day of the Herring" (in June) during which Swedes make it a point to eat herring; many chefs have seminars teaching people how to make a "Midsummer herring dish." There is a floating hotel and restaurant (the Salt & Sill), and while on board a visitor can devour a three-course dinner and a night's stay in the Bed and Breakfast for 65 British pounds.
The Port of…… [Read More]
In Ancient Israel, the use of fire is also part of the tradition of warfare. For example, we are not sure whether the prophet Elijah is stating that the fire hurled against the Moabites is divine, or simply falls down upon the enemy from Israelite war machines: "If I am a man of God," Elijah replied, "may fired come down from heaven and consume you and your fifty men!" Then the fire of God fell from heaven and consumed him and his fifty men (2 Kings 1:12, New International Version).
Similarly, since most ancient gates were nothing but fortified wood, when the armies of Israel set out to use siege warfare, the rules for such are outlined in Deuteronomy 20: 10-20; however, use of flaming arrows, lit pots of oil shot from frames arranged on the outsides of walls -- more like a slingshot than a catapult, in fact,…… [Read More]
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…… [Read More]
Greeks in Western Civilization. There are five references used for this paper.
It is felt that 'Captive Greece made ome captive'. It is important to examine what is meant by this belief in terms of literature, art and philosophy.
Two Captive Countries
When ome conquered the Levant at the end of the Hellenistic era, and "ruled the civilized world, conquered Greece took captive her rude conqueror (Gutzman, 2004)." The poet Horace noted that "the omans conquered Greece only themselves to be enslaved by the superior culture of their captives (Morris, 2002)."
During the era of the "poets Homer and Hesiod, the ancient Greeks associated their polytheistic, anthropomorphic deities with their cities, states, and regions (Matthews, 2000)." The Greeks often symbolized cities on coins with a god or goddess on one side, and their representation on the other. An example of this was the representation of Athens with Athena and her…… [Read More]
learn so little about these ancient Eastern civilizations?
Ancient Greece and Rome are often called the cradles of modern, Western civilization. Greece 'gave birth' to democracy and major philosophic and scientific ideas spanning from the concept of atoms to geometry. Once upon a time, all roads famously lead to Rome, reflecting the importance of Rome in shaping the landscape of the modern globe. But simply because these civilizations were so important in shaping our own worldview does not mean we should discount the contribution of the East.
The recent excavation site of the Dadiwan relics of Qin'an at the Gansu Province is a demonstration of the richness of the early civilizations of the area. The archeological site has yielded some of the earliest findings of agriculture and pottery ever discovered, pushing back the date of the discovery of millet to a far earlier time than originally assumed. New evidence of…… [Read More]
Heroic Ideal Greece, ome
An Analysis of the Heroic Ideal from Ancient Greece to oman Empire
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece begins with Homer's Iliad, which balances the heroic figures of Achilles and Hector, two opposing warriors and men of honor, amidst a war on which not even the gods are in agreement. Hector and Achilles mirror one another in nobility and strength and both represent an ideal heroic archetype of citizenry -- men who do battle to honor both their countries and their names. To illustrate, however, the way the ideal of heroic citizenship changes from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism, it is necessary to leap ahead several centuries and survey the several different bodies of work.
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece somewhat continually dwells on the same themes with regard to heroic citizenship, whether in Homer or in the Golden Age…… [Read More]
Ancient Romans wanted to compensate for their lack of experience in the world of medicine through their dedication to keeping healthy by promoting hygiene and physical exercise. Surprisingly, the technological progress experienced by Ancient Rome did not seem to be of any importance to its people, as they were only attracted to keeping their health through any means possible. The fact that hygiene and physical exercise were interconnected when regarding people in Ancient Rome and their desire to keep healthy can be observed by looking at the way gymnasiums were built next to public baths.
Aqueducts were yet another technological advancement in Ancient Rome, but in spite of their greatness and of the fact that they provided people with fresh water and with an ingenious method of irrigating crops, most Romans were satisfied with exploiting them, and not with analyzing how they worked. There were numerous techniques Romans used with…… [Read More]
Mystery of the Propylaea
The Propylaea (ca.437-432 BCE) is considered one of the mysteries of Ancient Greece. The structure was the gate to the Acropolis which was built during the Periclean building endeavor, the rebuilding program for Athens which began in 437 BCE. The Propylaea were designed as a means of creating a massive and monumental entrance to the plateau of the acropolis, particularly the complex of shrines and sanctuaries there. The gateway itself is truly stunning, as it is indeed tremendous and thundering with precise details carved in dark Elysian marble, but it was never finished. The fact that this dramatic and stunning gateway was never finished is indeed a mysterious prospect, and in the academic field of archeology, a range of theories abound as to why it was never finished. This paper will examine the most dominant theories regarding this fact, and attempt to determine why this was…… [Read More]
mythology and ancient beliefs. Specifically it will compare the myths of heroism in the myth of Achilles to the modern film "Troy." The film "Troy," from 2004, is a remake of the Homer classic "The Iliad," which recounts the legend of the Greek warrior Achilles. In the film, actor Brad Pitt plays Achilles, giving him a larger than life, heroic quality. Achilles is the child of a mortal and a nymph, and his parents attempt to give him immortality by dipping him in the iver Styx, but they miss a tiny spot on his heel, and this leads to his downfall.
Both of these myths center around the idea of the hero in mythology, and in fact, they show the importance of heroes in the Greek society 3500 years ago. The translator of the Iliad writes, "Heroes are born into positions of prominence, which they also reaffirm by their public…… [Read More]
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]
Desire, Emotion, and Knowledge: Greek Society and Culture in the Classical Period (480-338 .C.)
Following the aftermath of Greeks' victory over Persians during 480-479 .C., Greek society has undergone rapid changes and revival in its political, economic, and cultural structures, called the Classical period of Greek society and culture. This period, 480-338 .C., is characterized by the emergence of new reforms in the society, such as the establishment of a new Athenian democratic government, the gradual assertion of women equal treatment in a patriarchal Greek society, and the flourishing of the arts through philosophy, literature, mathematics, and science.
Indeed, the Classical period is more appropriately described as a time wherein human potential and intelligence is at its highest. As Plato had stated, "Human behavior flows from three main sources: desire, emotion, knowledge." This statement from the Greek philosopher brings into lucidity the important works of literature that had…… [Read More]
Ernestine Friedl's 1962 text Vasilika: a Village in Modern Greece discusses an anthropological case study which showcases how one city in Greece was evolved from its ancient origin and compares to other modern cities in the country. Vasilika in Boeotia, Greece has a population of 216 people and consequently the interactions between the individual members of the village are intricately connected to one another, but are also limited by the sociology and architecture of the location. Greece is a nation which has existed for centuries and yet the city of Vasilika is still mostly the same as it was before the advent of modern technologies. One of the most important aspects of community-building that Friedl discusses is the random orientation of the building constructions in the village. Unlike some recently designed cities, the random conflagration ensured that the stone materials used and the random spacing severely limited "the ability…… [Read More]
One of the strengths of the collections at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art is collection of works from the ancient Near East. This paper examines two of those artifacts, discussing both their aesthetics properties as well as the historical, political and cultural context in which the two works were created. These works - although they provide only the barest glimpse into the complexities of cultural and religious dynamics of the region - nevertheless help us to understand the intimate and powerful way in which religion and culture are linked even today in the Middle East. (Images of the two works are appended to the end of this paper.)
The first work is two leaves taken from the Koran, the holy book of Islam made during the Abbasid caliphate during the ninth or tenth centuries. Even for a viewer who cannot read Arabic and who knows little…… [Read More]
Geography as a Determinant of History In Egypt, Israel and Greece
Geography is important in history. For an individual to properly examine and understand history, he/she must learn or understand geography. This implies that without geography, it is relatively difficult and nearly impossible to understand history given the role of geography in history. Actually, geography has shaped history in various diverse ways, which reflects its importance in understanding nations. The significance of geography in history is demonstrated in how it matters to Egypt, Israel, and Greece. The history of these countries is understood through geography, which played an important role in the formation of these nations. Apart from being an important aspect, there are various limits of geography as a determinant of history in Egypt, Israel, and Greece.
How Geography Matters to Egypt, Israel and Greece
As previously mentioned, the history of Egypt, Israel, and Greece was largely shaped by…… [Read More]
The Cycladic Female Figurine- Most of the Cycladic sculptures are similar in tone to many of the Stone Age pieces found in the Aegean, Near East and Western Europe. They represent nude women with their arms folded across their abdomens. They have been found in many sizes ranging from a few inches to almost life-size, in graves, settlements, and even in places suggesting idolatry or religious activities. However, some modern scholars think that the term figurines or idols is not really correct. Idols imply a religious function that has not been confirmed and figurines do not fit with some of the larger figures. However, because of the distribution of these pieces of art, we can tell they were popular among the people of Crete and Mainland Greece as well; and their distribution suggests they were produced not just for the wealthy, but had a broader appeal (Doumas, 1969).
The…… [Read More]
e. The Law of Hospitality, which stressed over the utilization of the expertise and support services towards an individual or community, which has experienced critical and crucial time, similarly, the services and obligations between the master and servant towards each other has been the focused of his teachings and practices (Steven, 2006).
The Odyssey attempted several times to return to his kingdom in Ithaca, whereas the exiled ama never planned any political or military outrage against the ruling authority to ensure his return. The major difference in both the epics has been the deep involvement and influence of the ama's family in his life. Sita, the wife of ama, contributed deeply towards the spiritual objectives of her spouse, their children were equally involved in the quest marked by their parents. The Sita was forcibly victimized by the associates of the ama, and she was alleged for malpractices which eventually resulted…… [Read More]
Bettany Hughes, the Ancient Worlds 5 of 7 the Spartans
Points from the Film:
Unlike the Athenians, Spartans were not known for their philosophical insights or their artistic triumphs. They were known for being frugal and for being fighters. Their society was built on the idea that it could only stand so long as they were physically strong. Thus, Spartans had a strict code of discipline and self-sacrifice: everything was done to protect the State. The weak were viewed as a threat to the State's strength and weak children were killed. While this may seem like a barbaric exercise today, it was a matter of fact practice in ancient Sparta and everyone there accepted it.
Another curious point about Sparta was that male homosexuality was compulsory in Sparta. Women could also take lesbian lovers if they chose. This was because sex between a man and woman was primarily viewed as…… [Read More]
Today, the professions of architect, engineer and construction worker are well-known. Yet, from the earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece and Rome, the "master builders," who planned and directed the design and construction of many of the greatest structures, held one of the most prestigious positions in society. The fact that some of these structures -- thousands of years old -- remain standing, and many of these same engineering sciences are still used, pay tribute to the abilities of these master craftsmen who were responsible for all steps in the "design-bid-build" project delivery method.
Before the existence of master builders in design and construction, the Code of Hammurabi referred to building as a simple process. Produced approximately between 1792 to 1750 B.C., this is the first known building code. Its rules and responsibilities and acceptable standards of workmanship were carved on stone tablets. Failure to adhere to these…… [Read More]
If Oedipus had controlled his temper instead, he might have averted his awful fate. Sophocles uses this parable to make a statement about man's responsibilities. Even today, people are continuously making choices that have negative impacts on their own lives, yet they shirk any blame or responsibility for the fruits of those choices. Sophocles shows us that Oedipus is not a victim of the whims of the gods, but a victim of his own actions. Sophocles uses Oedipus to make social commentary on the self-denial of the common man. In modern times, we see this reflected in the attitudes of the average American- we constantly seek to place the blame for our misfortunes on external sources instead of acknowledging our own contributions to those misfortunes.
As much as Oedipus is a victim of his own actions, he is a victim of his emotions. He carries the anger and resentment of…… [Read More]
Some Ancient Greeks even went as far as to think that women started to have deeper voices consequent to the moment when they lost their virginity (King 28).
Euripides also acts as one of the principal Ancient Greek scholars who damaged the role of women in his society, given that his writings relate to the role of women as individuals who are generally persecuted by the masses. omen were practically promoted as being responsible for society's problems as characters like Hippolytus put across their opinion concerning females and actually insisted that gods inflicted great damage on humanity through introducing women (Euripides 18).
Ancient Greeks seem to express no interest in acknowledging the role of women as housewives and mothers and focus on presenting them as useless individuals who spend most of their time consuming and generally having a negative influence on the public. Hipponax perfectly (although he somewhat exaggerates) describes…… [Read More]
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…… [Read More]
They are instructive but do not attempt to provide information about origination or purpose beyond informing the population of potential consequences for not abiding by the cultural customs. Malinowski suggested that instead of natural or explanatory reasons, a more logical explanation for the prevalence of mythology in Ancient Greece and Rome had to do with the reinforcement of customs and traditions already existing in the society. The myths would be created to justify accepted social customs as opposed to the actions of the society being dictated by the myths (Kirk 1974). The myth does not try to provide an explanation for why the custom must be performed but instead creates a precedent for the custom to insist that it is continually performed. An example of this would be proper burial rituals of Ancient Greece. It is written for example that bodies are to be properly buried and if they are…… [Read More]
g., the finding last year at Athens of the hand of Zeus of the east pediment)" the Parthenon continues to yield intellectual fruit through archeological excavation and discovery (Bruno xiv). As age replaces age with new speculations, scholars reappraise this epic piece of architecture, for "speculations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are already mostly out of date, and original source materials are rare" (Bruno xiv). hat historians do, as a rule, have to go on are the stories preserved by Plutarch, who reflects a "spirit that undoubtedly prevailed at Athens as a plan took shape to reconstruct the sanctuary which had been left in ruins by the Persians" (Bruno xiv). This plan was so Athenian to the core that even (as Plutarch mentions) the animals seemed to throw their very being into the operation.
In conclusion, Greek architecture has produced some of the world's finest marvels, and was…… [Read More]
Furthermore, those people who did not speak Greek were referred to as barbar, the root of our word barbarian."[footnoteRef:5] [4: Ibid] [5: Ibid]
There are many aspects of Greek culture and artistic traditions that have left their mark on civilization. These contributions included, their architecture, theatre and athletic competition.
Each one of these aspects requires a student of history to investigate and understand how these ideas have impacted human development.
Greek architecture stands out as a visual representation of how the Greeks preferred their living conditions. Greeks spent much time on the design of their buildings. Temples, a Greek staple, were adorned with many flourishes and exact proportions. Giant stone structures were placed in locations important to the region and as a source of pride. esides temples, theaters and gyms were developed to provide a unique sense of community.
Ancient Greek theater is a lasting contribution of this…… [Read More]
Democracy: Ancient Athens and Today
The democratic process of ancient Athens as compared to today was much different. The most obvious difference is simply the scale of the process. Ancient Athens was a relatively small city-state compared to the enormous country that is the United States. There are many millions more people in today's U.S. than there were in ancient Athens. Today's elections are also much less direct than they were in Athens. The U.S. uses an electoral and representative system of democracy -- but Athens practiced direct democracy: every participating citizen was able to vote directly for or against a law or policy. In today's world, citizens are very far removed from the process for the most part and must rely on their elected representatives to represent them fairly. Given the sheer number of people in the U.S. and the many differences of our people, fair representation…… [Read More]
Greek History World Civilizations
What made the Greek civilization so great? What made the Greeks so great?
Greeks are the most famous and advance people around the world. There are so many areas and variety of things that makes this country and nation so rich and lively. The Greeks has a great history due to having great philosophers, socialist, wars, kings, food, outfits, culture, and great thinkers.
The history of Greek civilization is very rich and deep, it can be dated back to 300 B.C. The nation is entirely long and vast.
It was the first civilization in Europe. This part of the world was developed near the eastern side of the Mediterranean Sea. It is also considered as the birthplace of democracy as per several popular scholars, nations and authors of the world in the history.
The Greek is the first democratic country over the earth. The idea of…… [Read More]
Mediterranean agriculture therefore turned out as extraordinarily market-oriented.
Slavery turned out to be a further key component of the Mediterranean world economy. Aristotle was among the Philosophers who came up with the justifications for requisite of slavery to a proper society, for exclusive of slaves it would have been challenging for aristocrats to learn what was required to maintain culture or have the time to nurture political virtue. Slaves were obtained as a consequence of wars, bizarrely common in the Mediterranean world. Athenians relied on slaves for household jobs as well as workers in their enormous silver mines, which accelerated the development of Athens's empire as well as money-making operations, even though working environment were awful. Slavery also assisted elaboration on why Greece was never particularly engrossed in technological modernism appropriate to either agriculture or manufacturing. The Greeks established significant advances in building ship as well as routing, which proved…… [Read More]
Greek Project 1272
ART204 Formal Research Project Summer Term 2012
Ancient Greek sculpture is one of the most famous historical forms of art. Three main forms of life are represented by this sculpture; war, mythology, and rulers of the land of ancient Greece. The main aim of the paper is to revisit the history of the art of sculpturing in ancient Greece and different steps of its development within different time periods. Some of the main developments in Greek sculpture included depiction of changes in forms, depiction of female and male figures, degrees of present realism, and how sculpturing was used to achieve these effects.
Developments in Greek Sculpturing techniques
There are four main periods in which main developments and changes in the Greek sculpturing took place. The first period is referred to as the geometric period; second period is the archaic period, the third one being the classic and…… [Read More]
While the beaker is elegant, the vessel is beautiful to look at and would seem at home in a modern kitchen, which sets it apart from the beaker. Its design is timeless and useful, and it probably enjoyed everyday use in the Egyptian home. It does not seem to carry the same symbolic meaning as the beaker; it is simply a beautiful piece of decorative but useful glass to use in the home, while the beaker is clearly meant for more than a drinking beaker. Both works use detailed decoration as the basis for their design, and both designs are simple and yet elegant in their style and function. Both created around the same time, they show two very different sides of ancient artworks.
2007). Beaker with birds and animals. In Timeline of Art History. etrieved from the Metropolitan Museum of Art Web site: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/hod_47.100.88.htm26 July 2007.
2007). Four-handed…… [Read More]
However, those that study ancient history would not be the only ones that would be interested in this information. Those that study culture, communication, and interaction would also be interested in this type of information and description, since much of the information found in this context can help provide valuable information as to how people interacted with one another in older times, and whether their methods of cultural interaction have changed with the times or remained virtually the same in the face of technology and other issues.
3. hat is the main concern of the author in this passage?
The author's main concern is that those that read the passage understand what the Periplus is and the different ports that had been visited. Also important to the author is what these ports have to offer, since various ports have different items that they can offer to traders. Knowing how to…… [Read More]
Athens and Sparta were the two opponents of ancient Greece that clattered most and bestowed us with the majority of customs and traditions. Despite the fact that the two poleis were close together geographically, both differed greatly in their values and ways of living1.
Athens and Sparta: History
The enriching, intellectual and artistic heritage of ancient Athens to the world is immense and immeasurable. The indications to the Greek legacy that flourish in the civilization of Western Europe are attributed to Athenian civilization. Athens was made the strongest Greek city-state after the Persian Wars. Though it was a good deal smaller and less dominant than Sparta at the beginning of the wars, Athens was more energetic, efficient and effectual in the warfare against Persian Empire. Miltiades, Themistocles, and Cimon were the Athenian heroes who were mainly responsible for making the city strong. Athens reached the pinnacle of its cultural and…… [Read More]
[footnoteRef:24] in the Archaic Period, Ancient Greece's initial maritime power was critical but also "sporadic."[footnoteRef:25] During the Classical Period, Athens in particular "pursued a policy of naval imperialism"[footnoteRef:26] and this Period saw the development of "siege warfare" in which the Greeks -- particularly the Athenians -- developed the skills to wage war on the open sea.[footnoteRef:27] in the Hellenistic Period, the scope of warfare was enlarged considerably, as whole areas of land were now in dispute. Consequently, there was an "ancient naval arms race"[footnoteRef:28] in which various kings extending beyond Greece fought for control of mainland Greece, islands of the Aegean, western Turkey and southern Syria.[footnoteRef:29] [21: EH.Net and C. Michael Hogan. "Economy of Ancient Greece." www.eoearth.org Web site. May 1, 2010. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Economy_of_Ancient_Greece (accessed January 17, 2013).] [22: Chester G. Starr. The Influence of Sea Power on Ancient History. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1989, 7.] [23: Ibid.,…… [Read More]