Animal Communication Essays (Examples)

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Communications and Women's Studies While

Words: 1557 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56290202

Wolf's book, based on a number of scholarly articles she wrote during the last several years, looks at the manner in which women have been portrayed in the Broadway musical, and the references and relevance of those portraits to society's expectations of the time.


Communication Studies. (2012). etrieved from:

Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.

Cresswell, J. (2003). esearch Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.

8 (1): 247-63.

Gehrke, P. (2009). The Ethics and Politics of Speech: Communications and hetoric in the 20th Century. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press

Hesse-Biber, S., ed. (2011). Handbook of Feminist esearch: Theory and Praxis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Leung, K., (2008). Global Trends in Communication Education and esearch. Boston, MA: Hampton Press.

Levinson, W., (2010). Developing Physician Communication Skills…… [Read More]


Communication Studies. (2012). Retrieved from: 

Cary, S. (2003). A Beginner's Guide to the Scientific Method. New York: Wadsworth.

Cresswell, J. (2003). Research Design. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Ferguson, M. (2010). Choice Feminism and the Fear of Politics. Perspectives on Politics.
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Animal Senses

Words: 2268 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83801674

Animal Senses

Herman, Pack and Hoffman-Kuhnt performed relatively rigorous experiments to determine the source of dolphin recognition of objects; they wanted to discover, among other things, whether "dolphins attained the shape discriminations (of objects) through associative learning or direct perception" (Herman et al. 1998 292). Fukuzawa, Mills and Cooper sought to determine the mechanism by which domestic dogs responded to commands. Greenberg wanted to discover the facts about depth perception in two species of Asian rodents, the Mongolian Gerbil and two varieties of Spiny Mice.


The experiments run by Herman et al. involved a single dolphin, a female named Elele, and were designed to determine whether echolocation or visual cues were central to dolphin recognition of objects that appeared in their environment. The researchers were extremely rigorous in setting up each experiment, avoiding contamination between visual and echolocation fields; the objects used for the dolphin's recognition tests were never…… [Read More]


Fukuzawa, M.D.S. Mills and J.J. Cooper. (2005) Brief Communication: The effect of human command phonetic characteristics on auditory cognition in dogs (Canis familiaris). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119(3), 117-130.

Greenberg, G. (1986) Depth perception in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Spiny Mice (Comys russatus and A. cahirinus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100(1), 81-84.

Herman, L.M., A.A. Pack and M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt. (1998) Seeing through sound: Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) perceive the spatial structure of objects through echolocation. Journal of Comparative Psychology 117(3), 292-305.
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Communication Abilities Comparison of My Personal Relationships

Words: 2328 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54553234

Communication Abilities

Comparison of my personal relationships with two people.

Man is a social animal and every individual is involved in different kinds of relationships with other individuals throughout their lives. Some of these relationships are close and permanent, e.g., blood relationships with our parents and children or temporary, fleeting relationships like our relationships with fellow travelers during a train or an air journey. The quality and type of relationship is determined to a large extent by the degree of 'self-disclosure' that we are willing to put into our communication and on the 'feedback' that we get in our interaction with others. Two of my personal relationships are described and analyzed below with reference to the Johari Window Model and the self-disclosure theory.

A a). My elationship with my Father have a very close and loving relationship with my father. He has been more of a friend and confidante throughout…… [Read More]


Covey, Stephen R. (1990) "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People." New York: Simon and Schuster

Robbins, Stephen, R. (1996). "Organizational Behavior: Concepts, Controversies, Applications." Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall Inc.

Ronald E. Dulek & John S. Fielden. (1990) "Principles of Business Communication" New York: Macmillan Publishing Company

Devito, J., O'Rourke, S., O'Neill, L. (2000). "Human Communication." New Zealand: Longman
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Communication Individual and Group Skills

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74925162

acism in the United States is often seen as the methodical oppression of African-Americans and other people of color and the related ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. These two aspects of racism have influenced the U.S. society from the early 1600's until the present (Bohmer 1998). It all comes down to everyone being different and people being unable to accept these differences.

I have often found myself when choosing people to date letting the fact of whether these people had any college education or not influence my decision on who to go out with and who not to. After evaluating that way of thinking, I have come to the realization that this is just silly and that this factor should not be something that I take into the equation when deciding who to go out with.

Task 3

Effective communication occurs mainly at an unconscious level and this…… [Read More]

Reference List

Bohmer, P., 1998, Marxist Theory of Racism and Racial Inequality, Available at: 

Effective Communication Skills, 2009, Available at:

Horton, J, 2008, Why Looking Different Upsets Many People: Evolution, Available at:
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Communication Prompt 1 -Transforming Conflict

Words: 910 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77320262

B: No you didn't.

A: You just weren't listening.

Nonviolent Communication:

A. The trash still has not been taken out. Would you like to do that?

B. Oh, uh, no but I will if you want me to.

A: Thank you

Prompt (2) Stereotypes:

Stereotyping comes from a deeply rooted survival mechanism for self-protection that helps us to identify friends from foe. It is based in the synthesis of sensory awareness. There are three sub-process of perception that help us to understand what our senses are telling us.

The three sub-processes of perception include subliminal perception, external attention factors, and interpretation.

Impressions lead to an implicit personality theory. Describe.

We develop an implicit personality theory by generalizing about certain traits, or assuming that the presence of one trait necessitates the presence of another trait.

Stereotyping leads to totalizing. Describe Stereotyping leads to totalizing, or the act of blurring out any…… [Read More]


Center for Nonviolent Communications. "Founder." Retrieved online:
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Communication Skills Memories Childhood Birthdays

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38290949

This was followed by cries of "I'll trade you," and oohs and aahs over who had chosen 'the best ones.' Members of the red team received a consolation choice of prizes.

Then it was time to eat. Everyone was so hot and tired from running around, yet everyone was hungry. Great steaming vats of ground beef and spiced chicken emerged from the kitchen, along with crackly yellow tacos and papery pale quesadillas. The girls squealed as they shoveled the spitting hot meat onto the flat savory disks, heaped with cooling avocado, tomato, lettuce and cheese to calm down the rush of spices. "Don't eat too fast or you'll get sick." There was much talking, giggling, and speculation about what teachers would be mean and what teachers would be nice next year as everyone ate from the Garfield-themed plates, and there was a basket of favors of little blow toys that…… [Read More]

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Communication Through New Media

Words: 1439 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17328852

Communications New Media

Care2 -- Social Network Tool

Care2 was started by Randy Paynter in 1998 however it was a dream that he developed when he was a young adolescent (Paynter). He was traveling in South America with his father studying environmental issues and realized that there was a great imbalance in society in regards to how people treat the planet as well as how people treat each other. Paynter desperately wanted to be a force for positive change in the world and when the internet became main stream he identified this as one vehicle to reach millions of people. He started the organization out of his apartment and today the organization has more than fifty employees, fifteen million members, four hundred non-profit partners, and hundreds of responsible advertisers who are committed to making a difference (Paynter).

Care2 is a profitable, privately funded company and a B-Corporation. The company's business…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Care2. "About Our Advertisers." 2011. Care2. Web. 1 October 2011.

Feildstein, A. "Analyzing Online Communities: A Narrative Approach ." 24 April 2009. MIT. Web. 27 September 2011.

Future Press. "2011-05-19 The #Spanishrevolution starts in Madrid as an experiment in participatory democracy #acampadasol #yeswecamp #democraciarealya." 20 May 2011. WL Central. Web. 27 September 2011.

IO'Keefe, E. "Postal Service employees rallying nationwide to support reform bill." 27 September 2011. The Washington Post. Web. 27 September 2011.
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Communications Several Years Ago I

Words: 2689 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93982921

But to me, a young woman standing alone on a busy street in a still strange country, the word gaijin changed the tone of this encounter. For the group of teenagers waving and shouting at me, the word gaijin was merely a way of identifying their rare and exciting discovery. For me, a citizen of a country whose history has its share of prejudice and violence, the impersonal identification of me, based solely on my appearance, sounded like the racial and ethnic epithets hurled at Italian immigrants, African-Americans, Asians, Native Americans, Irish immigrants, Jews and millions of other people in the United States.

The word gaijin simply means "foreigner." It is not a derogatory term. But in Italy and the United States, two countries rich with immigrants from all over the world, the act of impersonally identifying a person's racial or ethnic background based solely on the person's appearance, is…… [Read More]

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Do You Think Animals Meet the Definition of Using Language

Words: 841 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60654014

feature of language and why?

The most important key feature of any language is grammar. Grammar provides structure and meaning to sounds. Without a grammatical framework, it is unclear if a word is referring to a noun or an adjective; an adverb or a verb. Even a computer language must have a grammatical construction to be read and to be comprehensible. Many words between different languages sound very similar (such as Latin and Portuguese, for example) but without grammatical rules the distinctions in use between those sounds is unclear. Grammar also is part of the social 'situation' of a language. For a language to be effective, it cannot exist in a vacuum. "No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call 'grammar' is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time" (What is grammar, 2014, English Club). Over time certain grammatical rules may become…… [Read More]


Factors that influence the acquisition of a second language. (2014). ESL. Retrieved from: 

Language learning by adults. (2013). Linguistics 201. Retrieved from: 

What is grammar? (2014). English Club. Retrieved from:
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Communication and How it Is

Words: 2320 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27858262

He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?

Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.

QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one…… [Read More]

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Animal Species Studied for This Report Include

Words: 2701 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10515392

animal species studied for this report include the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the American lack ear (Ursus americanus). The plant species studied are the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and the Prickly Pear cactus (Opuntia humifusa). Each of these species has been observed at the local zoo, and further research has been conducted to learn about the environment in which each species would live in a natural setting. The behavior which have been observed within the zoo have also been combined with the noted behaviors of these species from a natural setting to give a more complete range of information. From this study, I have learned that there are many similarities between the behavior that can be observed in both plants and animals in a captive setting and their natural behavior. However, there are also many notable differences, based largely on to what degree the zoological habitat varies from that…… [Read More]


ContiE et al. "Wolf." Wikipedia. March 2004.

Hilty, John. "Eastern Prickly Pear." Insect Visitors of Prairie Wildflowers in Illinois. 2003.

Marshman, et al. "Opuntia." Wikipedia. March, 2004.

Naddy, et al. "American Black Bear." Wikipedia. March, 2004.
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Communication In General Communication Refers to the

Words: 583 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41257015


In general, communication refers to the sharing of ideas by transmitting those ideas from at least one individual to at least one other individual. Communication can involve several different mediums: it includes verbal transmission of ideas, visual transmission of ideas, and it can involve both deliberate and unintentional or even unconscious transmission of ideas. Communication is not necessarily limited to same species either: individuals from different species often communicate using postures, mannerisms, and sounds that are universally associated with particular concepts, such as aggression and dominance or submission and fear, among many others.

What is the purpose of communication?

Communication has many different purposes. Most generally, it is intended to allow another individual to understand the state of mind of another individual. That state of mind may include myriad different ideas such as aggression, non-aggression, interest, non-interest, possessiveness over resources, and even deception, such as in the case of…… [Read More]

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Communication the Author Defines Communication

Words: 1149 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76138224

c) I would avoid something obviously inappropriate like wearing pyjamas to K-Mart or things like that. I would also avoid wearing ill-fitting clothes or clothes that are inappropriate for the environment. I would not wear my jogging sweats to a church function, for example. At the same time, I would not wear my Sunday best simply to go out for some KFC and fries. Wearing wildly inappropriate clothes in any situation would create the impression that I do not care enough about myself or what I am doing to think about what I wear.


Cornelius LaPide appears to be saying that all a person is in his or her heart can be seen in the face and eyes; even those who deceive others about this cannot hide the truth consistently from appearing on their faces. I agree with this. The mouth and eyes are, for me, the most expressive…… [Read More]

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Animal Assisted Therapy Within Society Is it Helpful to Those Who Seek Its Services

Words: 2596 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80753384

Society Feels About Animals

As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…… [Read More]


Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."

Healthy Pets. [online] available: / archive/2013/0.

Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related

Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
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Communication Theory

Words: 2156 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8636037

media equation theory and its applications. The author of this paper uses the movie The Truman Show to develop an understanding for the reader of what the Media Equation Theory is and how it can be applied to media examples such as the movie. There were six sources used to complete this paper. The paper is in MLA format.


The technological explosion of the last three decades has taken us to places we never dreamed before were possible. ith each passing year, the technology becomes more linked to human thought and emotions than ever before. Today, there are studies being conducted worldwide to understand the phenomena of people treating their media tools in the same manner that their human interactions are treated. For several years, the habits and protocol of people who work with these questions have been narrowly defined by the rigid demands of research…… [Read More]


Reeves, Byron. Nass. Clifford. The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places (C SLI Publications 1997)

This source was a major source for the paper in that it explains the theory itself as well as applies it to several real life media scenarios. The highlights detail the belief of the authors tht we are becoming more ingrained with media tools than ever before and assigning them human like qualities.

Luskin, Bernard J., Toward an understanding of media psychology. (educational CDs) (Technology Information). Vol. 23, THE Journal (Technological Horizons In Education), 02-01-1996, pp 82(3).

This source was a solid source of information for the paper. Its highlights included the discussion of media psychology and the way humans today, interact and feel about their media tools. Many of the facts presented in the paper dovetail with the belief we are integrating more and more with media as if it has feelings, intellect and emotions. The source was viable for the foundational explanation of the theory itself.
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Communication Sponsorship and Future Product Developments for Pooch Pantry

Words: 1317 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60564677

Pooch Pantry - Unit VII - Communications, Sponsorship, and New Products

Communications Channels

The communications objectives for the firm and the product will impact on the way the messages are created and the channels used to make those communications. The communications objectives may be divided into two main categories; the retailers who the firm will want to stock the product, and the consumers who will be the end users.

The communication to the consumers may be argued as most important, as this will impact directly on consumers' knowledge and intention to purchase. etailers will also consider the marketing support that is provided by the firm, as they will want to stock products that are likely to sell, so they can use their shelf space effectively (Kotler & Keller, 2011)

Looking first at the consumer marketing the initial objectives will be to create product and brand awareness, so that consumers know…… [Read More]


Brennan, J, (2014), IBISWorld Industry Report 45391, Pet Stores in the U.S., IBISWorld

Egan, J, (2007), Marketing Communication, Cengage Learning

Kotler Philip; Keller Kevin, (2011), Marketing Management, Prentice Hall

Raab, Gerhard; Goddard, G; Jason; Riad Ajami A; Unger Alexander, (2010), The Psychology of Marketing, Gower
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Communication Aid Evaluation Request the

Words: 1272 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15363653

The communication aid would need to be durable so that Darmoth could not accidentally break it (he is not always very gentle with his "toys" and often does not realize his own strength) as well as easily portable so that he could carry it around with him. Perhaps having the tool be connected to a strap that kept it "hands free" when he is moving around would be ideal. It would have to be simple enough for him to learn how to operate, but also have a wide range of functions. The device must be able to translate Darmoth's thoughts into something that others -- even those who are not specifically trained -- can understand. The evaluation of a specialist would be extremely helpful so that the best kind of tool can be identified for Darmoth's needs.

The first step I would take in convincing the administration that an outside…… [Read More]


Abilitytech. (2004) Abilitytech: Computer Special Needs Solutions. Retrieved on November 12, 2004 at

ATRC. (2004) Adaptive Technology Research Centre. University of Toronto. Retrieved on November 12, 2004 at

Cook, Albert & Hussey, Susan (2002) Assistive Technologies: Principles and Practice. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO. Mosby. ISBN 0-323-00643-4

CAC. (2004) Speech and Language Therapy Department. Communication Aid Centre. Retrieved on November 12, 2004 at
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Synaptic Communication This Report Will

Words: 1308 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88651219

One such study looked at a general look at what regulates and influence how bold or shy someone is. This manifests in humans but it also manifests in other animals such as fish and rabbits. When looking at fish, it was clear that bold fish had fewer interactions overall while shyer fish were much more conservative and reserved yet held series of reactions with a small group of friends. It is noted that even though animals are much simpler than humans in terms of physiology, they still have very complex social networks (Pike, 2008).

This particular study looked at whether the ratio of bold and shy fish had an overall reaction on the group's composition as a whole. In other words, and to ensure that this is perceived to be applicable to neurons, it is assessed whether the bold fish influence the neuron/synapse pathways and, thus, the overall behavior patterns…… [Read More]


IntroPsych. (2013, March 3). How Neurons Communicate | in Chapter 02: Human Nervous System | from Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey. Table of Contents for Psychology: An Introduction by Russ Dewey. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from 

NIH. (2013, March 3). Communication Between Synapses. NIH. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from

Pike, T. (2008, January 1). Behavioural phenotype affects social interactions in an animal network . Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from 

Sekata, J. (2004, January 1). - Animal Behaviour - Social experience affects territorial and reproductive behaviours in male leopard geckos, Eublepharis macularius. | Search through over 11 million science, health, medical journal full text articles and books.. Retrieved March 3, 2013, from
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Human Interactions With Nonhuman Animals Should Be

Words: 1296 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95238728

Human interactions with nonhuman animals should be guided solely by the impact of these interactions with other human beings, and not upon any perceived impact upon nonhuman animals themselves. This argument is based largely upon Descartes' understanding of the essential difference between humans and nonhuman animals. Descartes' argues that the body is external to the mind, and that non-human animals do not possess the pure, thinking mind of humans. Thus, Descartes argues that nonhuman animals are simply machines, and that human treatment of animals should only be guided by the impact of such interaction upon other humans. In contrast, thinkers like Anthony eston have argued that similarity of human and animal perception and experience means that human should treat animals as feeling beings. Similarly, Abram argues that the human connection with the natural world should govern our interaction with animals. Descartes' arguments for the uniqueness of human thought essentially counter…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human

World. Vintage, 1997.

Descartes, Rene. Animals are Machines. In Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, eds S.J. Armstrong and R.G. Botzler, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993,

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Killer Whale Communication Vocal Communication

Words: 2725 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92154699

Measurements were obtained both in the presence of and the absence of whale watching boats. It was observed that a period of intense boating activity caused the killer whales to adjust their call duration levels to compensate for the background noise. This clearly indicates that anthropogenic noise levels directly interfere with the routine life of the killer whales, which are dependent on vocal communication for successful hunting and survival. [Andrew 2004]

It is well-known that anthropogenic sounds can even have fatal consequences as evidenced by the recent mass strandings of beaked whales that coincided with the mid frequency sonar exercises by the navy. A recent research by (Holt, 2009) focused on the effects of anthropogenic sounds on the vocal behavior of killer whales. The resident killer whales of the waters of the Puget Sound, Seattle, were the subjects of this study. The southern resident killer whales in three…… [Read More]


Whale Songs, 'Killer Whale', Accessed 15th March 2009, available at 

SeaWorld, ' Killer Whales: Communication and Echo Location," Accessed 15th March 2009, available at

Wilfredo Santiago Benitez, 'Echolocation and strategy used by Southern resident Killer Whales (Orcinus orca) during foraging', 2005, Accessed 15th March 2009, available at

Volcker B. Deecke, John KB Ford & Peter JB Slater, 'The Vocal Behavior of Mammal eating killer Whales: Communicating with Costly Calls ' Animal Behavior, 2005, 69, 395-405,
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Mastery Over Nature Exotic Animal Trade

Words: 1388 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92993858

Mastery Over Nature and the Exotic Animal Trade

Humankind has always had a fascination with nature and specifically animals in nature and even more specifically with conquering the animal or gaining mastery over the animal. The exotic animal has been the focus of great aspiration of humankind to attain mastery over. The reasons for this are varied in nature with some individuals obtaining exotic animals for their own pleasure and as examined in this particular informative study there is desire for obtaining exotic animals so that human beings can experience the animals of nature.

Adelaide Zoo, Adelaide, South Australia

The setting examined in this study is that of the Adelaide Zoo, located Adelaide, South Australia. The work of Kay Anderson entitled "Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontier of Human Geography" reports that in the suburban backyard, people unknowingly "make their more routine interventions in nature by…… [Read More]


Adams, G., Fisher, L., Le Blond, D., Mazur, N., McMahon, C., Peckover, T., Schmiechen, J. And Sharrad, N. 1991, The role of the Adelaide Zoo in conservation, Report prepared for the Royal Zoological Study of South Australia, Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, The University of Adelaide.

Anderson, K (1994) Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontiers of Human Geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. N.S. 20(3) 275-294. Retrieved from:

Tarpy, C. 1993, 'New zoos -- taking down the bars', National Geographic, July: 2-38.

Thomas, K. 1983, Man and the natural world: changing attitudes in England 1500-1800, Allen Lane, London.
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Humans Better Than Animals

Words: 650 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16130504

Hierarchy of Animals


Are human beings worthy of being considered the highest form of animal life?

Whether or not human beings can fairly be considered the highest form of animal life depends largely on how one chooses to define the objective hierarchical criteria. If one proposes that relative hierarchical status is determined by the range of sensory modalities with which an organism perceives and interacts with the physical world, then mammalian species that have evolved ultrasonic communication or the cerebral capacity to generate and interpret sonar transmission, such as bats and dolphins, would outrank human beings (Berry, 1996).

If one defines relative hierarchy by life span, then reptiles such as sea tortoises and numerous avian species such as parrots occupy the highest position on the scale of life on Earth. If one defines hierarchical relationships based on duration of existence on Earth, then the highest…… [Read More]


Berry, A. (1996) Galileo and the Dolphins. Wiley & Sons: New York

Moussaieff Mason, J., McCarthy, S. (1995) When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. Delacorte: New York

Wenke, R. (1999) Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind's First Three Million

Years. Oxford University Press: New York
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Tactile Communication in Everyday Life

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46729422

It is totally unacceptable for men or women to touch each other inappropriately or sexually unless they are in a relationship of some sort, and after a certain age, it is inappropriate for boys to touch girls, except in very neutral or general ways. These norms differ in different cultures, and some cultures are much more closed about touching. For example, in our society, hugging is an accepted way to greet or say goodbye to someone, but in other cultures, that would be inappropriate, so norms differ throughout the world.

These norms are established through culture and society. Each culture raises their children differently, so they learn tactile communication differently. Some cultures are extremely open to touching and non-verbal communication, while others are more reserved. In addition, in any culture, there can be people who are non-tactile, and do not like being touched. The norms for these individuals can be…… [Read More]


Andersen, P.A. (2005). The touch avoidance measure. In the sourcebook of nonverbal measures: Going beyond words, Manusov, V. (Ed.) (pp. 57-63). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Andersen, P.A., & Guerrero, L.K. (2005). Measuring live tactile interaction: The body chart coding approach. In the sourcebook of nonverbal measures: Going beyond words, Manusov, V. (Ed.) (pp. 83-91). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Augmentive Communication Many Times a Person Is

Words: 630 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14768640

Augmentive Communication

Many times a person is born with a condition that requires, or acquires the need for, augmentive communication. Due some form of deficit the individual is not able to communicate in a manner normally used to communicate. Due to this inability the individual may need some form of assistance to interact normally with others and express their ideas. This paper defines augmentive communication, and provides examples of how devices are used to enhance the communication abilities of students in special education classrooms.

Actually, every person uses this type of communication because verbal expressions are just a small part of actual communication. The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA, 2011) defines augmentive communication as "all forms of communication (other than oral speech) that are used to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas." The website says that this is includes all of the nonverbals people use to communicate every day. The ASLHA…… [Read More]


American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASLHA). (2011). Augmentive and alternative communication. Retrieved from 

Burkhart, L.J. (2011). Simplified technology. Retrieved from
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Do Non-Human Animals Have Language

Words: 1204 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81594404

Noam Chomsky's Language Criteria - Do Animals Have Language?

Philosophers and scientists have long wondered whether animals were capable of communicating with each other in the form of language. However, research regarding both the cranial and cognitive capacity of higher mammals suggests that these animals are capable of many cerebral functions that used to be the purview of humans.

This paper argues that higher mammals like primates, dolphins and whales are capable of and have evolved a complex language of their own. Towards this, the paper looks at the recent research done regarding the "whistling" and other auditory communication among dolphins. In arguing that this "whistling" constitutes and fulfills the functions of language, the paper uses the framework on the syntactic structures and the various aspects of language. Through an application of Chomsky's criteria, this paper argues that dolphins have evolved a communication system made of whistling sounds that serve…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chomsky, Noam. Knowledge of Language: Its Nature, Origins, and Use. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.

Dolphin Whistles Offer Signs of Language Ability." New York Times, September 5, 2000: F2. Proquest Database.

Humes, Edward. "Navy Researchers see Marine Mammals' Potential to Perform Deep-sea Duty." Orange County Register, August 7, 1988: K01. Proquest Database

Suplee, Curt. "Dolphins May Communicate Individually; Exchange of 'Signature' Whistles in the Wild Suggests a Form of Language." The Washington Post, August 25, 2000: A3. Proquest Database.
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Ethical to Raise Animals for

Words: 2104 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55572059

Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.

Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig…… [Read More]

Works Cited

East Bay Animals Advocates (EBAA). (2005). Foster Farm Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2009,


Fitzenberger, Jennifer M. (2004). California report criticizes animal cruelty at large cattle

And poultry farms. Sacramento Bee, Retrieved June 22, 2009, from .
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Human Psychology Drives Economy Animal Spirits -

Words: 3421 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41035034

Human Psychology Drives Economy

Animal Spirits - How Human Psychology Drives Economy - the Theory ehavioral Economics Particularly work authors Robert Shiller ( Akerlof) Yale Richard Thaler Chicago. Shiller a web.

The essay is based upon behavioral economics and how human behavior or rather psychology act as an economic driver, thou this theory or opinion hasn't been fully accepted by all economist and authors the essay intends to explore more into behavioral theory or economic and at the end give its own conclusion about the topic.

The essay will first introduce the topic of study then look at some of the economic drivers that have been suggested by other authors and economist to understand more on what an economic driver is. After looking at some of the economic drivers that have been laid out, the essay embarks on the sub-topic which is the theory of behavioral economic in a manner…… [Read More]


Ainslie, G. (1992). Picoeconomics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ainslie, G. (1975). "Specious Reward: A Behavioral / Theory of Impulsiveness and Impulse Control." Psychological Bulletin 82 (4): 463 -- 496.

Alkerlof & Shiller (2009) Animal Spirits: How Human psychology drives economy and why it matters for global capitalism

Arrow, Kenneth and Gerard Debreu. (1954). "Existence of a Competitive Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy." Econometrica 22, no. 3 (1954): 265-90.
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Marketing Communication Programme for the New Product

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73871912

Marketing Communication Programme for the New Product

"The Body Shop" offers a wide range of naturally inspired cosmetics and toiletry products. The brand, originally created in the United Kingdom, distributes its products and expresses its values through a large multi-channel network of exclusive retail shops (1,088 company owned and 1,517 franchisees) in more than 60 countries, as well as through home and online sales. The purpose of this report is developing an international marketing plan for a new product; a special shampoo which mitigates the hair loss problem of people, particularly for men, to be added to the range for international market in Asia for the Body Shop.

An international marketing plan including an analysis of marketing potential and target segment of the new product, a marketing communication programme for the new product is indicated in this report.

This report also provides a SWOT analysis for The Body Shop and…… [Read More]

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Innate Animal Behavior Is the Internalized Congenital

Words: 662 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17911582

Innate animal behavior is the internalized congenital system adapted for the facilitation of survival and reproduction. It is a basic element of ethology. The receptor capability of studying this behavior is due to simplified nervous systems among invertebrates. This ethological research through vision is referred to as overt animal behavior. This animal behavior can be categorized into three major classifications; innate, learned or complex. Learned animal behavior is the possession of behavioral characteristics through experience. This context discusses innate and complex animal behaviors in detail.

Simple Behaviors


Reflexes can be referred to as an automatic instinctive unlearned reaction to a stimulus. They are responses triggered by disturbances in the environment surrounding an organism. The basic unit in connection to innate behavior is the simple reflex arc. The behavior is a neural alleyway that involves few neurons in most cases two neurons, which are the sensory and the motor neurons.…… [Read More]

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History of Communication

Words: 6119 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37691919

History Of Communication Timeline


(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)

35,000 BCE.

First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.

Wikipedia, "Petroglyph."

12,600 BCE.

Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."

3400 BCE.

First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.

OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."

3300…… [Read More]

St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.

Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.
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Intracultural Communication Intercultural Communication in

Words: 905 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94057228

The slaughtering of cows is forbidden by law (Potpourri, 2009).

It is clear that when he made the "don't have a cow" comment, John Smith was not aware of the status of cows in Indian culture -- or he temporarily forgot about it. This situation is the perfect example as to how can different cultural values impede communication. Instead of focusing on the promotional campaign -- the core of the first dispute -- the two parties became engaged in a more intense dispute which prevented them from addressing the work related matter on the table. In a theoretical formulation, the conflict aroused as Smith failed to obey one of the most important rules of intercultural communication -- that of being aware of and respecting the cultural symbols and values of his culturally diverse colleagues (Hahn, 2009). Within the workplace, the effects were those of accentuated conflicts and tensions, as well…… [Read More]


Hahn, M., 2009, Ten Commandments of Intercultural Communication, last accessed on August 21, 2009

Harris, M., 2009, Intercultural Communication in the Workplace, last accessed on August 21, 2009

Potpourri, K., 2009, Indian Culture Q&a,  last accessed on August 21, 2009
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Professional Communication Cultural Sensitivity Among Native Americans

Words: 1623 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5979652

Professional Communication: Cultural Sensitivity Among Native Americans

In nursing school, we are normally taught that we should respect the dignity and rights of all clients. As the "world becomes reduced" and societies and individuals become more mobile, we are progressively able to network with people that are from other cultures. Cultural respect and competence for others becomes particularly significant for us as nurses and patient supporters. Applying the principles and theories of communication is important for sufficient patient care. A lot of various communication methods are executed and have diverse focuses. Small groups use mechanisms such as objectives, standards, cohesiveness, behaviors, and therapeutic issues. Duty, process and midrange groups are separate categories. Orientation, tension, cohesion, working and dissolution are stages groups go through. Successful personal and professional communication profits the patients and other health professionals; however, the lack of applicable communication can lead to poor patient results and a hostile…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barker, A.M. (2009). Advanced practice nursing -- Essential knowledge for the profession. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Doane, G. (2004). Exploring the heart of nursing Ethical Pratices. Nursing Ethics, 11(3), 241-251.

Makaroff, K.S. (210). Do We speak of Ethics. Nursing Ethics and, 17(5), 566-576.

Ryan, M. (2000). Learning to Care for Clients In Their World not Mine. Journal of Nursing Education, 3(9), 25-79.
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Personality and Communication Styles in the Workplace

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78303262

71) points out, "Excessive concern for economic development and materialism during a major part of the last century in most of the countries of the world relegated values having bearing on the qualitative aspect of life to the background." He notes that organizations are now taking a greater interest in the relevance of the quality of work life. Parker was delighted with her higher salary but felt the money would not be worth it unless she felt good about her work and her workplace. Ilies, Scott & Judge (2006, p. 561) point out that there is an increasing amount of research being done with respect to work behavior that goes beyond traditional measures of job performance. They found that people with positive affect and agreeable personalities exhibited greater levels of citizenship than people deemed less agreeable, or even disagreeable.

Parker's co-workers would probably all agree that she has a positive…… [Read More]

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The Problem of Animal Consciousnes

Words: 635 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87572789

Animal Consciousness. Do Horses Gallop in Their Sleep? By Matt Cartmill

The article is an incisive look at the issue of consciousness and the human and animal brain. It attempts to show how the human consciousness is construed by human beings themselves and how the animal lack of the same it argued out. The writer presents a case scenario where the human brain section that deals with conscious memory is numbed out by some special drug that has been discovered such that he will not have a recollection of what they did in the past, then he poses to ask if such will change the human to animal. The article goes on to draw attention to the activities that animals often do like a dog rummaging through the many toys to retrieve a given favorite toy and bringing it to the owner for them to play. The writer then asks…… [Read More]

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Cafo's the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91144923


The Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations

In the past century there has been a substantial change in the way human beings raise and keep animals meant for food. hile in the past there were great numbers of widely spaced small individual farms, now there are relatively few, but extremely large industrialized farms. And as the numbers of animals kept and slaughtered for human consumption increases, these industrialized farms, known as Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations or CAFO's, are having more and more of an impact on the environment and people around them. The concentration of animals causes a major problem with the waste products they produce, as well as the gases, chemicals, and other types of byproducts. And the increased use of antibiotics in the animals is beginning to have a profound effect on the health of not only the environment but the communities that exist around these industrialized…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Energy Use and Climate Change." GRACE Communications Foundations. Web. 15

April 2013.

"Pollution from Giant Livestock Farms Threatens Public Health." NRDC. Web. 15

April 2013.
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Jensen Communications Studies Professor and

Words: 1342 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78951435

After World War Two, Carson realized the extent to which the government was permitting the use of toxic chemicals and wrote a book to expose the practice. That book was called Silent Spring, and it "challenged the practices of agricultural scientists and the government, and called for a change in the way humankind viewed the natural world."[footnoteef:8] Jensen includes an excerpt from Silent Spring to show that Carson was up against one of the most lucrative industries in the world, and that although her work is unfinished, Carson made a huge impact on raising awareness and eventually her work got DDT banned. [8: "The Life and Legacy of achel Carson," Accessed May 3, 2013,]

Malcolm X's autobiography was arguably not a project undertaken as a form of muckraker journalism. The author started writing when he was in prison, and he comes to learn the power of the written word…… [Read More]


Carson, Rachel. "Silent Spring." Excerpt in Stories that Changed America, edited by Carl Jensen, 117-123.

Daily Censored. "Carl Jensen." Accessed May 3, 2013, 

The Daily Show. "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart," Accessed May 3, 2013,

Jensen, Carl. Stories that Changed America. New York: Seven Stories, 2002.
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Human Language

Words: 680 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65319029

properties of human language (displacement, arbitrariness, productivity, cultural, transmission, discreteness, duality) discuss how human language differs from animal communication.

Unlike animal language, human language can possess the property of displacement. Displacement "allows the users of language to talk about things and events not present in the immediate environment." (21) A human need not cry out in pain in the moment, but one can describe the silent pain one felt later on, displacing the experience into the future rather than when it was actually experienced. 'Let me tell you what a day I had,' is a very human, displaced expression. There is also a less arbitrary nature to human language, because human language is contextual. For instance, for although same beast would be a dog in England or a perro in Spain, yet the same dog would still give the same barking sound in both lands, if it were the same…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Yule, George. "The Study of Language." Second edition. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996
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Language Instinct How Are the

Words: 1647 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92591422

Pinker maintains that evolution follows a branching, rather than linear pattern. Many species develop concurrently, each with their own survival instincts. Humans, and their survival instinct of language, are just one branch of the evolutionary process rather than a pinnacle rung.

Holding the belief that we can, or might someday communicate with animals creates empathy, which leads to humane treatment of animals. A belief that animals cannot communicate with us due to inferiority leads to a sense of dominion over them.

This is also a pattern of belief and behavior that is seen with regard to humans who are perceived to have inferior languages or grammars. They are somehow less human, and therefore less deserving of humane treatment.

Pinker states that it is ridiculous to attempt to teach human language to animals. They are not biologically configured for human speech or sign. They have no need for human language as…… [Read More]


Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1994.
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Human Dev Symbols the Mind and the

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48725047

Human Dev

Symbols, the Mind, and the Animal State

In Chapter 7 of Maps of Time, David Christian (2011) discusses how human language is built not only of "icons" and "indices," which are types of recognition, correlation, and communication that many organisms from bacteria to dogs can use, but primarily of symbols -- a more complex and higher-order level of communication (p. 172). This is only part of a larger discussion on the development of human history, however it is worthy of consideration simply as its own advancement and unique feature. An understanding of how language is a definitive feature of humanity, and of the implications of a division between man and nature, creates valuable insights for understanding human development.

As explained by Christian (2011), certain associations can be made by many organisms between similar or concurrent experiences in a way that might appear to be symbolic learning or communication,…… [Read More]


Christian, D. (2011). Maps of Time. Berkley: University of California Press.

Emmerich, R. (2004). The Day After Tomorrow. Twentieth Century Fox Films.

Levi, P. (1975). Carbon. Accessed 4 March 2012.
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Appended Meaning According to the Routledge Dictionary

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13587871

appended meaning according to the outledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics.


Scientific discipline developed from the cooperation of linguistics and sociology that investigates the social meaning of the language system and of language use, and the common set of conditions of linguistic and social structure. Several areas of sociolinguistic investigation are differentiated.

(a) A primarily sociologically oriented approach concerned predominantly with the norms of language use. (When and for what purpose does somebody speak what kind of language or what variety with whom?) Here language use and language attitudes as well as larger and smaller social networks are in the foreground. These facets are studied mainly by using quantitative methods; connections between socioeconomics, history, culture, ethnic differentiation, social class structure, and language varieties are included in the investigation (diglossia, code theory).

(b) A primarily linguistically oriented approach that presumes linguistic systems to be in principle heterogeneous, though structured, when…… [Read More]


Bussmann H., (1996). Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. New York: Routledge.
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Stop Eating Meat Now

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62364160

Animals Rights Rhetorical Analysis

Philip ollen's "Animals Should Be Off the Menu" is a 10 minute speech that champions animal rights. During the course of this speech ollen sparsely utilizes statistics, stories, and a number of references to the impact of disparate industries if meat was eliminated as a form of human food. He also advocates ending the process of humans killing and grinding up animals to serve as the food for livestock, and notices that at both ends of this practice, animals are actually suffering (since the livestock will eventually get slaughtered to provide a steak for someone).

In helping to prove his point, ollen approaches this topic from a number of different angles. The one that he utilizes first (and which perhaps might be the most convincing) is the health ramifications regarding the human consumption of animals. The author alludes to the fact that consuming meat and a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Wollen, Philip. "Animals Should Be Off The Menu." Web.
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Red Wolf and Different Aspects Related to

Words: 1943 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50828426

red wolf and different aspects related to this species. I have included information about its taxonomy, morphology & anatomy, distribution, habitat, feeding, predators, behavior, reproduction, development and economic value. Over all, I have given thorough information regarding the life and habits of the red wolf that is now an endangered animal.


The red wolf is a species of wolf that is smaller in size and its color varies from reddish gray to almost black. It is commonly known as red wolf. The red wolf is considered as the most beautiful of all the wolves on the planet (Sutton, 1998). However, it has been given the scientific name of Canis rufus. It belongs to the Family Canidae and Order Carnivora (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247). As far as the status of red wolf is concerned, it has been categorized as an endangered living creature as this species of wolf…… [Read More]


Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA

Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.

Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.

Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from
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Communicating in Conflict Resolution the

Words: 2768 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27800998

Krauss and Morsella say that under the dialogic paradigm individual speakers act with respect to the individuals they are addressing, but they are acting as individual entities (p. 152). This is because we can only attempt to understand the mind of others, to decode their words, even their body language, and try to put that into a perspective of meaning to us as individuals. Krauss and Morsella provide points on how to improve our skills as communicators. Listening is tangential to being a good communicator. Listening trains us to hear more than words, but concepts too, and the concepts that others are trying to convey to us are essential to our understanding of their position in a conflict. Before we can resolve conflict, we must understand the nature of the conflict, and the nature of conflict can seldom be expressed in a few words or sentences. They are expressed in…… [Read More]

Reference List

Deutch, M. And Coleman, P. (2000). The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, Josey-Bass Publishers.
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Marketing Plan for Opening a

Words: 6854 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32314033

Likewise, McCain (2003) reports that, "The United States is a dog-loving nation. The American Veterinary Medical Association says about 36% of U.S. households own dogs, compared with 31% that own cats. The most popular breeds, the American Kennel Club says, are Labrador retrievers, golden retrievers and German shepherds" (2). According to the Southwest Boston Dog Owners' Group (2007), "The number of licensed dogs in Boston is 8,500; Animal Control estimates the total number of dogs in the city is 40,000" (Petition to Boston City Council and Mayor's office 4).

The results of the 2000 census of Boston showed that the city enjoys a healthy percentage of middle- to upper-middle class residents as shown in Table ____ below.

Table ____.

2000 Census Breakdown of Household Incomes in Boston.





Less than $10,000

10,000 to $14,999

15,000 to $24,999

25,000 to $34,999

35,000 to $49,999

50,000 to $74,999

75,000…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barker, Randolph T. (2005). "On the Edge or Not? Opportunities for Interdisciplinary Scholars in Business Communication to Focus on the Individual and Organizational Benefits of Companion Animals in the Workplace." The Journal of Business Communication 42(3):299.

Boston Housing Authority: Elderly & Disabled Housing Program Pet Policy. (October 1, 2000). Boston Housing Authority. [Online]. Available:

Dennick, Reg and Kate Exley. Small Group Teaching. New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2004.

Goldberg, Jonah. (2002, December 9). "Man Bites Dog: The Axis of Evil Takes on Canines," National Review 54(23):37.
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Zoos the History of Zoos

Words: 1591 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 689537

Zoos are a problematic institution. They provide for the common good by preserving species and offering facilities for research. Zoos allow for human-animal encounters that could not take place otherwise, and zoos are becoming increasingly pleasant places for individual animals. Many zoos offer extensive spaces for wild animals to roam, barring the ability of those animals to hunt or be hunted. For species preservation, zoos also serve a purpose. Zoos may even inspire visitors to pursue a career in the zoological sciences or a related field of inquiry.

Individual animals are safer in zoos than they are in the wild, in the same way that a house cat is safer inside than out. The animal is not in its natural environment and it depends on human beings for its basic survival needs. Therefore, the animal encounters at zoos are unlike those in wilderness because in a zoo the animal is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baratay, Eric and Hardouin-Fugier, Elisabeth. Zoo. Reaktion Books, 2004.

Kisling, Vernon N. Zoo and Aquarium History. CRC Press, 2000.

Robinson, Phillip T. Life at the Zoo. Columbia University Press, 2004.

Smith, Athena. "Zoo Ethics." The Collegian. 2000. Retrieved April 25, 2009 from
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Cultural Anthropology

Words: 480 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81061667

communicative processes of humans to those of non-humans, taking as a primary example the member of the primate family the chimpanzee with follow up examples from birds, members off the canine family and cats. Bibliography cites no sources.

Human and non-human communication, a comparison of interspecies speak

Humans and animals are very different creatures, however if we look at the differences in communication we can see that although humans have the ability to form words in their form of communication, animals also have their own unique way of communication, birds chirp and whistle, primates hoot and stamp the ground and wolves or those of the canine family growl, use their ears and tails in their own form of sign language.

Moreover if we compare the system of communication with that of those that are closest to the human race but are not human, this is the primate family, for this…… [Read More]

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Poisoning Our Planet if it

Words: 8834 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68794962

From the point-of-view of the variation and flexibility of the species such cultivated woody crops rank as no more than cornfields. While the tree farms are conveniently be stretched on the private lands, national forests those are considered priceless reservoirs of most of the biological diversity of the nation cannot expand so easily. The commercial logging is considered as the greatest danger for survival of the national forest system. The timber sales are growingly concealed beneath the post fire recovery and fire prevention missions, forest health initiatives and restoration programs. (Endangered Forests: Endangered Freedoms)

Wetlands disappearing

Declining wetlands and reservoir construction are having spectacular influences on a global scale. (the Importance of Wetlands and the Impacts of eservoir Development) the data of USF & WS reveals that the United States added 2.3 million acres in ponds and inland mudflats during the period of mid 1950s and mid1970s. The country added…… [Read More]


Acid Rain -- a Contemporary World Problem. Retrieved at Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Acid Rain: Do you need to start wearing a rain hat? Retrieved at Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Barney, Gerald O. The Whole World in Our Hands. SF Chronicle. 31 December, 2000. Retrieved at Accessed on 3 February, 2005

Bryant, Peter J. Biodiversity and Conservation: A Hypertext Book. Retrieved at Accessed on 3 February, 2005
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Conflict Between Human and Non-Human

Words: 1792 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15280902

"The monkey's larynx, while quite distinct from that of the human being, is not as much so as that of parrots, which clearly can speak. As to their brains, the comparison with that of the latter banishes all doubts." As the narrator tries to teach the title ape to speak, he swears that Yzur takes on a more contemplative expression. The narrator compares the ape to "ancient men of the forest, who were forced into silence and submission" as well as the mentally deficient. But because the monkey is not fully human and does not speak like him, the man sees him as inferior and ultimately drives the monkey man.

The tendency to see 'the other' as inferior is manifest in prejudice against native people as well as animals. esnick's allegorical story shows how human violence and prejudice is an endless cycle. The relationship between humans and animals is more…… [Read More]


Lugones, Leopoldo. (2007). Yzur. ERBZine. 1869. Retrieved December 13, 2010 at 

Naess, Arne & George Sessions. (2010). Deep Ecology Platform. Foundation for Deep Ecology.

Retrieved December 13, 2010 at 

Resnick, Mike. (2001). The Elephants on Neptune. Asimov's Science Fiction.
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Vervet Monkey or Chlorocebus Is Part of

Words: 1187 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72923214

Vervet Monkey, or Chlorocebus, is part of the Old-orld monkey classification of medium sized primates. There are typically six species that science recognizes, but there is disagreement as to whether this is one species of a species and subspecies. For the entire species of Chloroceus, the terms "vervet" and "green" monkey are used interchangeably even though there refer to some other species as common names (Groves).


Suborder: Haplorrhini

Infraorder: Simiiformes

Superfamily: Cercopithecoidea

Family: Cercopithecidae

Subfamily: Cercopithecinae

Genus: Chlorocebus

Species: Ch. aethiops, Ch. cynosuros, Ch. djamdjamensis, Ch. pygerythrus, Ch. sabaeus, Ch. tantalus

Subspecies: Ch. p. excubitor, Ch. p. hilgerti, Ch. p. nesiotes, Ch. p. pygerythrus, Ch. p. rufoviridis, Ch. t. budgetti, Ch. t. marrensis, Ch. t. tantalus

Other names: Ch. aethiops: Cercopithecus aethiops, Cercopithecus aethiops, or Chlorocebus aethiops; grivet or savanna monkey; singe vert (French); grunmeerkatze (German); mono verde (Spanish); gron markatta or vervett (Swedish); Ch. cynosuros: malbrouck; Ch. djamdjamensis:…… [Read More]


Cheney, D, and R. Seyfarth. How Monkeys See The World. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1990. Print.

Groves, C. "Genus Chlorocebus." Mammal Species of the World. Ed. D. Wilson and D. Reeder. 3rd. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005. 158-60. Print.

National Research Council. International Perspectives on the future on nonhuman primate resources. Washington, DC.: National Research Council, 2002. Print.

"Vervet Chlorocebus." 21 November 2011. Primate Info Net. Web. February 2012. .
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People Generally Think That We Can Detach

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2494384

people generally think that we can detach ourselves from the world around us and objectively evaluate and reason through our experiences. This is the classical line of thought initially proposed by philosophers such as Aristotle, Socrates, and, later, Descartes who fashioned his Cartesian principle to the purpose that we can step back, evaluate our internalized knowledge, think it through and from thence, decide which to accept, which to erase in order to formulate a foundation of 'sure and safe beliefs. ationalism persisted through Kant and then to Husserl who fashioned his phenomenology proposing that performing 'epoche' i.e. bracketing our assumptions can lead us to better seeing the essence of the phenomena and to perceiving an objective world.

Others are less certain.

Benjamin Whorf and Edward Sapir, for instance, believe that it is our vocabulary -- our language -- that shapes our perceptions. Sapir argued that:

Human beings do not live…… [Read More]


Bovee, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (1992). Business Communication Today. NY, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Burnett, M.J., & Dollar, A. (1989). Business Communication: Strategies for Success. Houston, Texas: Dane.

Language and thought processes 

Internet slang
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Marine Bioluminescence

Words: 3296 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12473168

Marine Bioluminescence

Bioluminescence can be discovered across an extensive selection of some of the key categories of organisms. This includes classifications such as bacteria and protists and also squid as well as ?she's, with numerous phyla amid them. In many of these organisms, luminescence is made by these organisms themselves and never by bacterial symbionts. A few organisms in this category that are not considered to be self-illuminescents are (1) terrestrial vertebrates, such as birds, mammals and amphibians (2) ?owering plants. Luminescence is usually higher in deep-living species along with planktonic ones than in shallow organisms (Haddock et al., 2010).

A summary of known luminous organisms had been documented by Herring (1987). However, since that time there have been a number of new discoveries of luminous organisms. In some instances, it is very difficult to determine that the species are nonluminous. Amid ?lter-feeding species, luminescence is very difficult to inspect.…… [Read More]


Bush SL, Robison BH, Caldwell RL. 2009. Behaving in the dark: locomotor, chromatic, postural, and biolu- minescent behaviors of the deep-sea squid Octopoteuthis deletron Young 1972. Biol. Bull. 216:7 -- 22

Carnevale G. 2008. Miniature deep-sea hatchet-sh (Teleostei: Stomiiformes) from the Miocene of Italy. Geol. Mag. 145:73

Fleisher KJ, Case JF. 1995. Cephalopod predation facilitated by dino-agellate luminescence. Biol. Bull. 189:263 -- 71

Fristrup KM, Harbison G. 2002. How do sperm whales catch squids? Mar. Mammal Sci. 18:42 -- 54
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Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and

Words: 4199 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2973543

e., they became helpless). Furthermore, other behaviors of the dogs were adversely affected (e.g., the dogs appeared apathetic and had poor appetites) (Hitzemann, 2000). In his essay, "Animal Models of Psychiatric Disorders and Their elevance to Alcoholism," Hitzemann (2000) reports that, "Both fear and anxiety are alerting signals that warn the individual against impending danger and enable the individual to take defensive measures. For animals, the distinctions between fear and anxiety are vague" (p. 149). The distinctions between fear and anxiety are clearly irrelevant for humans who encounter such stressed animals, though.

According to Hodge and Stull (2000), dog bites cause an average of 17 human deaths, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 330,000 emergency room visits every year in the Untied States and a like number of people probably do not seek treatment or report the incident, but may nevertheless experience psychological trauma, anxiety, and missed work or school. Furthermore, dog bites…… [Read More]


Becker, M.G., Chew, G.L., Correa, J.C., Hoepner, L.A., Jusino, C.M., Kinney, P.L., Miller, R.L., & Perzanowski, M.S. (2003). Distribution and determinants of mouse allergen exposure in low-income New York City apartments. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(10), 1348.

Boone, J.S., & Tyler, J.W. (2001). Transferable residues from dog fur and plasma cholinesterase inhibition in dogs treated with a flea control dip containing chlorpyrifos. Environmental Health Perspectives, 109(11), 1109.

Chang, Y., Cohen, J.H., Hennon, D.L., LaPorte, R.E., & McMahon, J.E. (1997). Dog bite incidence in the City of Pittsburgh: A capture-recapture approach. American Journal of Public Health, 87(10), 1703-5.

Duke, M.L., & Swain, J.L. (2001). Recommendations for research on ethics in public policy from a public administration perspective: Barking dogs and more. International Journal of Public Administration, 24(1), 125.
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Teacher Perceptions of Student Achievement

Words: 4946 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87569866

Everywhere we look, individuals use body language and non-verbal signals. We've seen evidence of politicians and the media using signals to improve their veracity (or the contrary), but non-verbal clues have even been studied by anthropologists as a way to recognize subtleties of communication. In fact, anthropologist ay Birdswhistell found that most humans can recognize over 250,000 facial expressions that impart meaning (Pease 2006, 10).

Sources of Nonverbal Communication- Psychologists believe that nonverbal communication is both part of individual behavior and the result of that behavior. The environment plays a huge part in how we as individuals "feel" and therefore express ourselves. The difference, say, between a well lit hotel atrium with classical music playing, numerous plants, and earth tones vs. A dark and dingy hallway in a public building will certainly provide different nonverbal impetus. In addition, the following are part of the entire nonvernal universe:



Physical…… [Read More]


Alleyne, L.P. (2003). Black Educators' Views on Middle School Students' Dress. Journal of Negro Education, 72(4), 418-26.

Darwin, C. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. New York: Oxford University

Press, 2009.

Dress Codes - Pros and Cons. (2004, March). Retrieved October 2010, from the Public School Parent's Network:
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Telepathy and How it Does or Does

Words: 3012 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94896622

telepathy and how it does or does not really exist in the world we live. There are various schools of thought discussed in this paper to highlight the concept of this term that has een there for many centuries.

The term "telepathy" was coined in 1882 y W.H Myers, who was also one of the founding memers of the society for Psychical Research. Telepathy is a Greek term, tele means 'distant' and pathe means 'feeling'. Many different researchers egan to take interest in telepathy when many enthralled y the phenomenon of mesmerism.

This new scientific suject egan to pick up momentum when other psychologists and psychiatrists were oserving the same phenomena in their patients. Sigmund Fraud also oserved telepathy in his own son and felt that this issue needed to e delved into in greater depth. After studying telepathy he came to the conclusion that this is a phenomena that…… [Read More]

bibliography. These articles have all been used to write this paper because they contain not only scientific information but also information on how there is evidence for the existence of such a phenomenon and the various experiments carried out by scientists from previous generations till today. The information is reliable because most of the sites are from various universities and research centers or written by those who have the knowledge to tell us too. The main objective of this paper is to highlight the fact that this does not really exist but then there is evidence that proves to us that it does, it is one issue that still has a lot to be researched on. On reading the paper, I am sure the reader will be in a better position to understand what telepathy is and how much evidence is there to believe that it does or does not exist in this world that we live in..

Telepathy, available at 

Telepathy, available at 


Why are we not Telepathic?, available at
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Conversation Pamela a Virtue Rewarded Written Samuel

Words: 1980 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10727862


Pamela a Virtue Rewarded written Samuel Richardson

ext conversion

ext Message from Pamela

Hi mum and Dad, we travelled well and reached our destination safely. We are grateful to God for bringing us to our new home safely. My Husband has gone through a great deal in making our new home. He is hesitant at changing the design of the house. He argues that the house looks its best the way it is. Am not so sure as to whether we should change the decor and design or leave it as it is. Anyhow, we hope to come to a consensus soon.

Good news though, my husband proposes that we have the work start on refurbishing the house. Last evening he shared with me his desired designs that he already has figured out. How I wish that the new house would sever between the sounds from the noisy hornbill…… [Read More]

The length of letters makes them boring and monotonous. The use of text messages makes the message shorter and less monotonous. Text messages allows for a dialogue of sorts between the parties conversing. Letters embody a monologue type of communication allowing only one party to communicate at a time. Text messages are similar to phone conversation only that in their case the message is not passed via sound.


Text messages, or SMS as they are commonly known, have risen to replace letters in modern day conversation. According to Robinson (2008), conversation is a language used in social worlds. Effective conversation is important for the message to be received and remembered when need be. Letters formed the old modes of conversation. The long time that took between dispatch and receipt of missives made the mode less desirable for the passing of urgent messages and those messages that need urgent reply.
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American Myths Nature Environment Unlimited Growth and

Words: 1789 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31829670

American Myths Nature Environment

Unlimited Growth and Finite Resources

Western Civilization is currently coming to terms with some very important and unsettling realities. Capitalism, and modern economics thinkers, have idolized economic growth without limit. In most economic textbooks and theories, economic growth is considered an end good, and a lack of economic growth a problem.

Though we can argue about whether economic growth is a good in all situations, it is indisputable that economic growth has natural limits. These natural limits are created by our own natural environment. For this reason, the culture of "more" which dominates Western Civilization and drives all of our reasoning, is not sustainable.

The effect of Western industrial capitalist civilization on the environment has been huge. The culture of Western civilization, currently driven by an ethic of individualism and materialism, empowered by science and technology, has done irreversible damage to the natural environment and continues…… [Read More]


Hobson, K. (January 01, 2006). Environmental responsibility and the possibilities of pragmatist-orientated research. Social & Cultural Geography, 7, 2, 283-298.

Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human World. New York: Vintage Books, 1997. Print.

Sessions, G. (January 01, 1991). Ecocentrism and the anthropocentric detour. Revision, 13, 3.)

Colombo, Gary, Robert Cullen, and Bonnie Lisle.Rereading America: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing. Boston: Bedford Books of St. Martin's Press, 1992. Print.
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Gray Wolves the Gray Wolf Which Is

Words: 2166 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98339608

Gray Wolves

The Gray Wolf, which is also sometimes referred to as the tundra or timber wolf, belongs to the canidae species-also known as the dog family. Among its kind it is the largest member and can weigh up to 100 pounds. The gray wolf typically originates from areas in North America, Europe and North Africa. Although these wolves are called gray wolves, they are not necessarily gray in colour. They can range from being black to white or anywhere in between. Colour depends on the age of the wolf and also the area from where the wolf belongs. These wolves have an average life span of 12 to 20 years.

Gray wolves live in the open forests and before they occupied European areas they were commonly found in areas of North America. These wolves travel in packs and the number of individuals in the packs may go up to…… [Read More]


Bangs, E. (2012). The reintroduction of gray wolves to Yellowstone national park and central Idaho; final environmental impact statement.

Ewing, C. (2012). Gray wolves and the endangered species act. Nova Science Pub Inc.

Lopez, B. (2004). Of wolves and men. Scribner Mech, D. (2007). Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation. University Of Chicago Press.

V, A. (2009). Recovery of gray wolves in the great lakes region of the United States: An endangered species success story.
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Luminous Bacterium Vibrio Fischeri Vibrio

Words: 2011 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30709179

The chemical was found to turn on quorum sensing in V. fischeri, whereas it inhibited pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the slow-release was shown to be far more effective than by applying the chemical directly as an aqueous solution. Since quorum sensing is also important for pathogen establishment this application could be important for inhibiting pathogenic bacteria from colonization of internal medical devices.

In summary, the V. fischeri and squid symbiotic relationship is an important model host-bacteria system. Aspects of colonization of host-symbiont and host-pathogen have been shown, using the V. fisheri and squid model, to be the same. Therefore, understanding the mechanism and complex transcriptional regulatory systems of V. fischeri could lead to potential new therapies and pharmaceutical applications. Likewise, understanding the environmental factors necessary for successful host-bacteria interactions could lead to novel drug targets. In addition to being important in understanding other harmful host-bacteria relationships the V. fischeri and…… [Read More]


Breitbach, a.S., Broderick, a.H., Jewell, C.M., Gunasekaran, S., Lin, Q., Lynn, D.M., & Blackwell, H.E. 2010. Surface-mediated release of a synthetic small-molecule modulator of bacterial quorum sensing: Gradual release enhances activity. Chem Comm.

Chun, C.K, Troll, J.V., Koroleva, I., Brown, B., Manzella, L., Snir, E., Almabraz, H, Scheetz, T.E., Bonaldo, M.F., Casavant, T.L., Soares, M.B., Ruby, E.G., & McFall-Ngai, M.J. 2008. Effects of colonization, luminescence, and autoinducer on host transcription during development of the squid-vibrio association. PNAS 105(32): 11323-11328.

Lyell, N.L., Dunn, a.K., Bose, J.L., Stabb, E.V. 2010. Bright mutants of Vibrio fischeri ES114 reveal conditions and regulators that control bioluminescence and expression of the lux Operon. J. Bacteriol. 192(19): 5103-5114.

Murray, P.R., Rosenthal, K.S., Kobayashi, G.S., Pfaller, M.A. 1998. Vibrio, Aeromonas, and Plesiomonas. In M. Brown (Ed.), Medical Microbiology Third Edition (pp. 245-250). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
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Redefining Culture -- Chimpanzees and

Words: 2745 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77506409

When the driver looked in the hole, he found a dog sleeping inside -- and only when the dog was chased away would the elephant place the log into the hole (Holdrege, 2001).

Octopi -- Suprisingly, octopi have been shown to use tools. The will retrieve discarded coconut shells, manipulate them, and then reassemble them to use as a makeshift shelter (Coghlan, 2009). Other octopi will use Jellyfish and Portugese Man o War tenticles that they shear as their own weapon. They are the only invertebrates known to use tools and show surprising cognitive ability in mazes, food training, and even handler recognition (Jones, 1963).

Implications - esearch into this new discovery is important because it redefines what it means to be "human," as well as implications about the evolution of violence and hominid predation. Finally, an understanding of non-human "culture" may help in answers questions about other intelligent species…… [Read More]


Coghlan, A. (2009, December 14). Octopuses Use Coconut Shells as Portable Shelters. Retrieved October 2010, from The New Scientist:

Cohen, J. (2010). Almost Chimpanzee: Searching for What Makes Us Human. Chicago: Times Books.

De Waal, F. (2007). Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

"Emerging Explorers," (2010). The National Geographic Society. Cited in: