Animals Essays (Examples)

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Animal and Plant Domestication One

Words: 1396 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3595861

The geneticist must first identify the wild crop, to be utilized as a comparative, (99) stressing that such information to be considered accurate in time and space must be gleaned from archaeological record and only based on the genetic process determined from the modern research in plant and/or even animal genetics.

In regards to the animal domesticate the issues become much more complicated, sometimes offering a richer picture of the effects of domestication upon animals but more often offering a more laborious process with more missing pieces of information. The difference between the plant and animal studies is largely do to the complicated nature of the animal as compared to the plant. The variables associated with animal selection are far greater in number and far less predictable than with those of plants as within the genetic record of an animal far more variations occur and surprises are historically evident in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emshwiller, E. 2006 Genetic data and plant domestication. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.99-122. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Smith, Bruce D. 206 Documenting domesticated plants in the archaeological record. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.15-24

Bradley, D.G 2006 Documenting domistication: reading Animal genetic texts. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.273-278 University of California Press, Berkeley.

Zeder, M.A. 2006 Archaeological approaches to documenting animal domestication.In, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.171-180 University of California Press, Berkeley.
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Animal Cell Division Colchicine and

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24806253

The main side effect of colchicines on animals is nausea. The use of colchicines on animals has also generated numerous concerns regarding the toxicity of bone marrow because of the ability of these substances to interfere with cell division. Furthermore, these substances are also likely to cause urine dip stick to wrongly read positive for blood. Colchicines can not only enhance the level of alkaline phosphatase as recorded on a blood chemistry panel but also diminish the body of vitamin B-12 in certain cases.

Since cytochalasins bind actin monomers and prevents their congregation into microfilaments, the already formed microfilaments slowly depolymerize. The main effect of these substances on animal cell division is that they inhibit cytoplasmic division but do not interfere with nuclear division or DNA synthesis. As a result, these substances contribute to the accumulation of large multi-nucleate cells (Gurdon & Fairman, p. 78.). In addition to the probability…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

"Colchicine." Mar Vista Animal Medical Center. Publishing Professionals, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. .

GURDON, J.B., and S. FAIRMAN. "Muscle Gene Activation by Induction and the Nonrequirement for Cell Division." Development - Dev.biologists.org. The Company of Biologists Limited, 1986. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. .
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Animal-Drawn Cart the Purpose of

Words: 2595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36403867

Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.

Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:

These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carts." Nation Master Encyclopedia. Nationmaster.com. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cart

The Golovan one-ox cart," in Land, June 1997 from Dept. Of Agriculture, sought Africa  http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Infopaks/golovancart.pdf 

Light Single Drum Water Carrier." Animal Cart Programme. Development Technology Unit, Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, England http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/eng/research/dtu/pubs/tr/animals/tr30.pdf

Oram. CE. "The development of low-cost animal-drawn carts." Meeting the challenges of animal traction Starkey P. And Kaumbutho P (eds), 1999 Harare, Zimbabwe. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
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Animal Production

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44705114

Animal Production: Biotechnology

Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
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Animal Testing the Use of

Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76159435

This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.

References

Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.

De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,

from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm

Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-

oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html… [Read More]

Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
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Animal Rights - Medical Research

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13774084

Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).

The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).

Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).

orks Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
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Animal Behavior Interspecies Enemy Identification Depends on

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92359230

Animal Behavior

Interspecies Enemy Identification Depends on Facial ecognition

The formation of social groups is believed to confer a survival advantage to individual members of the group (reviewed by Marzluff, Walls, Cornell, Withey, and Craig, 2010). For humans, these advantages include the sharing of resources, information, skills, and childrearing tasks. Social groups are not limited to humans, but are also evident in species as diverse as ants, yellowfin tuna, and coyotes. However, our understanding of interspecies social interactions and the potential survival advantages that they confer are not understood to the same degree.

Domesticated animals, like dogs and cats, can readily distinguish friend or foe based on past interactions. Non-domesticated animals like the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) seems to have the same capability. To better understand the parameters of 'enemy' recognition in crows, a group of researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle studied this phenomenon during a trap…… [Read More]

References

Marzluff, John M., Walls, Jeff, Cornell, Heather N., Withey, John C., and Craig, David P. (2010). Lasting recognition of threatening people by wild American crows. Animal Behavior, 79, 699-707.
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Animal Experience

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70658186

Animal Experience - Abstract

Though Rise of the Planet of the Apes (yatt, 2011) is classified in the Sci-Fi genre, this film portrays the reasonably foreseeable possibility of intelligent apes successfully revolting against humankind. The main character, Caesar, is a chimpanzee injected with an experimental Alzheimer's-treatment drug that surprisingly develops Caesar's humanlike intelligence and emotions. Though initially well-treated by the drug's inventor and a primatologist, Caesar is eventually relegated to an ape sanctuary, where he grows to resent the cruel conditions to which apes are subjected. As a result, a defiant Caesar administers the same experimental drug to other apes, creating an ape army that escapes from the sanctuary, wages war on Homo sapiens and eventually crosses the Golden Gate Bridge as humans are decimated by a deadly virus.

In its depiction of the intelligent apes' interactions with humans, the film explores at least three scientifically supported human/animal experiences. First,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borenstein, S. (2012, June 25). Rise of the planet of the apes? Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.iol.co.za Web site: http://www.iol.co.za/scitech/science/news/rise-of-the-planet-of-the-apes-1.1326671

Manisha, R. (2011). Monkey business: Emotion and consciousness in primates. Berkeley Scientific Journal, 15(2), 1-5.

Marsh, J. (Director). (2011). Project Nim [Motion Picture].

Panaman, R. (2008). How to do animal rights - great apes. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.animalethics.org.uk Web site: http://www.animalethics.org.uk/great-apes.html
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Animal Liberation -- Peter Singer

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66529792

4). Singer references the essay in the book by Richard Ryder, who criticizes (with great justification) animal experiments ("now a large industry"). Of course there have been laws passed in the U.S. Congress subsequent to when this book was published, laws that provide guidelines for any animal research, but Ryder provides Singer with some gruesome experiments on animals and Singer reports them in his essay.

How moral is a company or organization or university when it injects chemicals into the brains of cats? At the National Institute for Medical Research in London they did just that, and while it is doubtful they could get away with such cruelty in 2011, they certainly did then. The injection into the brain of a cat with a large does of "Tubocuraine" caused the cat to jump into its cage and start calling "noisily whilst moving about restlessly and jerkily… jerking in rapid clonic…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Singer, Peter. "Animal Liberation." The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 2, 2011,

from http://www.nybooks.com/articles/.
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Animal Imagery in Lafontaine and

Words: 3070 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17902811



The Heifer, the Goat, and the Sheep, in Company ith the Lion illustrates the absolute power of the feudal lord (the lion) over the peasantry (the goat and sheep). This fable may be referring to the division of taxes and possessions, or it may be a direct reference to the hunting rights of feudal lords. The feudal lord (lion) declares that a stag killed by the goat is his, by the right of the strong.

Again, as the bravest, the third must be mine.

To touch but the fourth whoso makes a sign,

I'll choke him to death

In the space of a breath!" (Shapiro, p. 9).

This attitude represents the attitudes of the wealthy towards the peasantry. They would rather see them dead than share even a small portion of their wealth with them. This fable is where the phrase "a lions' share" originates (Shapiro, p. 9). A similar…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aesop's Fables. The Mules and the Robbers. Aesopfables.com. last Updated October 1, 2006. http://www.aesopfables.com/cgi/aesop1.cgi-srch&fabl/TheMulesandtheRobbers Accessed April 15, 2008.

Shapiro, N. (trans.) the Complete Fables of Jean de La Lafontaine, University of Illinois Press. Chicago, Illinois. October 2007.
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Animal Liberation A Triangular Affair by J Barid Callicott

Words: 959 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37460457

Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair

In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."
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Animal Conservation Importance to Human Society to

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41135544

Animal conservation [...] importance to human society to conserve endangered animals, and will include some examples of organizations that help in animal conservation.

The conservation of endangered animals is extremely important to our society in many ways. The ecology of the Earth has worked for millions of years, but as our planet loses many types of animals and other life, we are slowly changing the ecological balance, and because of this, we could slowly be destroying the planet. Humans have destroyed many species, including the dodo bird, the passenger pigeon, and we nearly destroyed the California condor. Each of these species plays a specific role in their ecological niche, and when we destroy one, it creates a chain reaction that can eventually destroy any animal that depends on another for its survival. For example, in Hawaii there is a very special type of lily that depends on a certain kind…… [Read More]

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Animal Liberation by Peter Singer

Words: 721 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96560144

In particular, Singer could have explained that moral concern for animals does not necessarily require that humans become vegetarians.

On the other hand, there is a tremendous moral difference between raising animals for consumption in conditions that provide for their reasonable comfort and humane slaughter and doing so without any regard at all for their comfort in life or trauma during slaughter. In many instances, morally questionable practices, especially in the farming industry, could be resolved simply by valuing the goal of avoiding the unnecessary infliction of pain a little more and the maximization of profits a little less.

Similarly, Singer does not explain that appropriate moral concern for animals does not necessarily preclude all experimental uses, but only requires a good-faith effort to minimize their suffering and to consider whether the potential benefits of the experiments to humans justifies their cost to animal subjects where it is not possible…… [Read More]

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Animal Experiments and Testing Pcrm

Words: 1765 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53241280

Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan

BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274

Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)

6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…… [Read More]

16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment

Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm

This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
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Animal Assisted Therapy Within Society Is it Helpful to Those Who Seek Its Services

Words: 2596 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80753384

Society Feels About Animals

As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…… [Read More]

References

Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."

Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.

Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related

Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
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Animal Nutrition and Feed Evaluation

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46462731

Agriculture

Animal Nutrition and Feed Evaluation

Qualitative, scientific-based evaluations of animal feed and the resultant nutrition of the animal are crucial for maintaining optimal animal health and responding to problems that develop as a result of diet. In the case of ruminants, this can be particularly important as their unique digestive system can complicate providing optimal nutrition from traditional feed sources and techniques. A balanced nutrient approach to ruminant diet must take into account not only the feed that is being given to the animal, but also, crucially, the way in which the animal's digestive system will process that feed and provide (or not) nutrition to the animal. Creating this type of qualitative knowledge about the digestive system and nutrition needs of rumens with regard to different feeds "developed most rapidly when isotope dilution techniques became easy to apply, facilitated by improved instrumentation and mathematical approaches" (1). From this information,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Leng, R.A. "Quantitative Ruminant Nutrition -- A Green Science." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 1993. 16 Dec. 2009 .
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Animal Tissue DNA

Words: 971 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80676560

Chromatin Lab Report

The use of DNA in today's world is very obvious, and the ability of the researcher and scientist to successfully manipulate this source of information to contribute to learning and understanding is great and powerful. DNA is found amongst chromatin which is found in certain types of fatty cells. Chromatin is key to the design of cells as it provides blueprints on how individual cells can be constructed. Since the packing structure of DNA is very dense this chemical reaction provides an understanding of how cellular relationships unfold and manifest.

DNA must be removed from the Chromatin which is stored as nucleosomes as the DNA strands wrap around these cellular structures. Saline provides an excellent solution to help separate these bonds and provide the isolating power to extract DNA for further examination. To salinize the targeted substance a constant and increasing amount of saline solution is added…… [Read More]

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Animal Feeding Operations Cafos for

Words: 1028 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11532029

, 2000, p. 686). Virtually all swine CAFOs must cope with a significant amount of waste materials on-site that have been linked with serious odors and contain antimicrobials, nutrients, organics, and pathogenic microbes (Cole et al., 2000). For instance, raw swine manure can contain as much as 100 million fecal coliform bacteria per gram (Crane, Moore & Gismer, 1983). Futhermore, it has been estimated that 100 million lions tons of feces and urine are produced annually by the 60 million hogs raised in the United States (Meadows, 1995). According to Cole et al. (2000), the detection of specific exposures and diseases in the communities surrounding swine CAFOs has presented a challenge for the industry and healthcare officials alike because of the additional complexities of environmental dispersion of agents and human exposure pathways. In addition, the susceptibility of community residents to contaminants and pathogens may be substantially different from that of…… [Read More]

References

Buttel, F.H. (1992). Environmentalism: Origins, Processes, and Implications for Rural Social Change. Rural Sociology, 57(1), 1-27.

Cole, D., Todd, L., & Wing, S. (2000). Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations and Public Health: A Review of Occupational and Community Health Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(8), 685.

Crane, S.R., Moore, J. a, Grismer, M.E., & Miner J.R. (1983). Bacterial pollution from agricultural sources: a review. Trans ASAE 26:858 -- 866 in Cole, Todd & Wing (2000), p. 687.

Edward, B. & Ladd, a.E. (2002). Corporate Swine and Capitalist Pigs: A Decade of Environmental Injustice and Protest in North Carolina. Social Justice, 29(3), 26.
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Animal Extinction

Words: 1127 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23113659

Extinction

Punctuated Equilibrium

Evolutionists for generations after Darwin imagined a slow and steady process of adaptation, in which daily culling and breeding success very gradually adapted a population from one form into another. Such a process would not be dissimilar to unnatural selection, such as that done with domesticated animals, that gradually worked to change a wolf into a little Cairn Terrier or Shih Tzu. However, some have suggested that there might be a more sudden sort of change involved, in which evolution moves suddenly and with great speed. This theorized form of evolution, called punctuated equilibrium, has been widely debated, but seems to be increasingly accepted by scientists. There appears to be evidence for punctuated equilibrium from laboratory experiments, from field and fossil evidence, from theory and even from Darwin's original work.

It is a common misconception that evolution cannot be experimentally studied in laboratories -- actually, a number…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Broyles, R.C. 1997. Punctuated Equilibrium. http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Lab/1366/pe.html

Kerr, R.A. 1995. Did Darwin get it all right? Science, v267 n5203 p1421(2)

Mlot, Christine. 1996. Microbes hint at a mechanism behind punctuated evolution. Science, v272 n5269 p1741(1)

Theobald, D. 2003. All you need to know about Punctuated Equilibrium (almost): Common misconceptions concerning the hypothesis of Punctuated Equilibrium. University of Colorado at Boulder. http://ucsu.colorado.edu/~theobal/PE.html
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Psychology Animal Learning

Words: 716 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3739790

Animal Learning

Comparative cognition is a psychological approach to learning that studies how animals process information. S.T. Boysen (1998) in his article presents the summary and review of different issues concerning this approach specifically in relation to animal learning. Pervious studies and researches were discussed and their findings were carefully explained to show how cognitive learning approach has evolved over the years and what it tells us about "information-processing, reasoning, memory, and the phylogenetic emergence of mind" in nonhuman species. Imitative behavior and the influence of imitation on learning capabilities of an animal have occupied the most important place in comparative cognitive research. However imitation has been a contentious subject with varying definitions as key researchers have failed to agree on one specific pattern of learning through imitation even though the earliest studies in this connection appeared during late 19th century. For example omanes (1884) found that imitation required "intelligent…… [Read More]

References

S.T. Boysen (1999) CURRENT ISSUES AND EMERGING THEORIES IN ANIMAL COGNITION Annual Review of Psychology Annual

Zentall, Thomas R, (2002) A cognitive behaviorist approach to the study of animal behavior., The Journal of General Psychology
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Zoo Animal Technology Program I Want to

Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70082961

Zoo Animal Technology Program

I want to enter the Zoo Animal Technology Program at BLANK University for a number of reasons. First, I have always loved animals since I was very young, and I've always felt I wanted to help take care of them in some capacity as my career. In the past, I've had tropical fish, dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, birds, and other animals in my family for as long as I can remember. I have always been involved in training, maintaining, and caring for these animals, and I have loved every one of them. I would like to continue in my life.

I also strongly believe in animal conservation and husbandry, and the zoo technology program would allow me to learn more about these important areas of zookeeping. I know that many animals are endangered in the wild today, and the only way to help preserve…… [Read More]

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Psychology Animal Behaviour the Hypothesis

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29486635

The same variables of the cranial and caudal sacs would be observed in order to determine if the sounds being produced where indeed coming from these organs or not. It may be that these two organs are either the source of the sound or are in someway related to the sound that these researchers heard during the tank experiment coming from the swimbladder.

Did the newspaper article describe the research article correctly? Explain.

The newspaper article "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish" by Bhanoo (2011) did a good job in describing the research article correctly. It described how the researchers used piranhas to study and how they used a hydrophone to record underwater sounds coming from the piranhas. It described how the sounds made were recorded during fighting, charging and frontal display. The author explained how it was previously believed that piranhas produced only a single barking sound,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bhanoo, S.N. 2011. "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish." Web. Available at:

http://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/18/science/18piranha.html?_r=1&scp=1&sq=repert oire%20of%20fish&st=cse

Millot, S., Vandewalle, P. & Parmentier, E. 2011. "Sound production in red-bellied piranhas

(Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study." The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 3613-3618.
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Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89130367

Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty

Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.

Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arluke, Arnold. Just a Dog: Understanding Animal Cruelty and Ourselves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 2006.

Cohn, Priscilla. In John M. Kistler's People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.

Kolber, Adam. "Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes." Stanford Law Review, 54.1 (2001): 163-204.
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Against Animal Experimentation

Words: 2186 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46621391

Nineteenth century physiologist Claude ernard first started practicing experimental medicine on animals. ernard thought it was immoral to conduct laboratory experiments on humans, if these test were not proven first proven to be safe on animals (LaFollette and Shanks, 1994). Man, as the most intelligent species of the animal kingdom, is constantly discovering new and innovative ideas to improve his life style and the quality of life. A proof of this advancement is evident in the average increase in the life span of the man from 45 years at the turn of the 19th century to 73 years in 21st century. Although a number of medical breakthroughs in recent history are due to the intensive research using animals as test subjects for the initial clinical trials, the number of experiments that have ended in failure -- consequently, at the cost of the sacrificing the life of the animal -- far…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Animal Experimentation: Sadistic Scandal." 18 April 2002. http://www.peta-online.org/mc/facts/fsae1.html

Brecher, Arie. Speech at the International Congress of Doctors Against Vivisection, Italian Parliament, November 8, 1989. Reprinted in the International Foundation Report no.8, Hans Ruesch's CIVIS, Winter 1989-1990. 18 April 2002.

Coghlan, Andy. "Lab Rats Rejoice." From New Scientist, 9 December 2000. 18 April 2002. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/animalexperiments/animalnews85.jsp

Cohen, Murry J., Kaufman, Stephen R., Ruttenberg, Rhoda, and Fano, Alix. "A Critical Look At Animal Experimentation." Medical Research Modernization Committee, 1998. 18 April 2002.  http://www.mrmcmed.org/critcv.html
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Mastery Over Nature Exotic Animal Trade

Words: 1388 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92993858

Mastery Over Nature and the Exotic Animal Trade

Humankind has always had a fascination with nature and specifically animals in nature and even more specifically with conquering the animal or gaining mastery over the animal. The exotic animal has been the focus of great aspiration of humankind to attain mastery over. The reasons for this are varied in nature with some individuals obtaining exotic animals for their own pleasure and as examined in this particular informative study there is desire for obtaining exotic animals so that human beings can experience the animals of nature.

Adelaide Zoo, Adelaide, South Australia

The setting examined in this study is that of the Adelaide Zoo, located Adelaide, South Australia. The work of Kay Anderson entitled "Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontier of Human Geography" reports that in the suburban backyard, people unknowingly "make their more routine interventions in nature by…… [Read More]

References

Adams, G., Fisher, L., Le Blond, D., Mazur, N., McMahon, C., Peckover, T., Schmiechen, J. And Sharrad, N. 1991, The role of the Adelaide Zoo in conservation, Report prepared for the Royal Zoological Study of South Australia, Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, The University of Adelaide.

Anderson, K (1994) Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontiers of Human Geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. N.S. 20(3) 275-294. Retrieved from: http://www.uws.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/150953/Anderson95_CultureNatureAdelaideZoo_CCRCopyFinal.pdf

Tarpy, C. 1993, 'New zoos -- taking down the bars', National Geographic, July: 2-38.

Thomas, K. 1983, Man and the natural world: changing attitudes in England 1500-1800, Allen Lane, London.
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Human Nature Difference Between Man and Animal Mortimer J Adler

Words: 1824 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68992375

Human Nature, Difference Between Man and Animal

ith respect to human nature, some philosopher argue that humans and animals are the same, while others reject it; but the strangest conflict is the conflict of Aristotelian and Thomist view point, which despite appearing to be the same are at lock heads with each other.

hen describing the impalpable in terms of the Aristotelian point-of-view, in regards to the visible dissimilarities among animals, contrary to human beings, it is highly noticeable how Aristotle characterized the nature of an animal to be the very basic sense of mobility guided by perception. Such simple observation mimics the exact nature of the animality that is definable on mother earth, where the animal builds an adumbration of her surrounding by the means of apprehension and the subsequent illustration together with her congenital calculative disposition. Such innate behavior allows the animal to avoid the detection from howling…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Adler, Mortimer Jerome. The Difference of Man and the Difference It Makes. New York: Fordham University Press, 1993.

Aquinas, Saint Thomas. On human nature. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.

Crowley, Charles B. And Peter A Redpath. Aristotelian-Thomistic philosophy of measure and the international system of Units (SI system). Maryland: University Press of America, 1996.

Hoekema, Anthony. Created in God's Image. Wm. B. Eerdmans publishing, 1994.
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Methods in Animal Proteomics

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29001699

Animal Proteomics

Proteomics is the study of proteins, and focuses on the role that proteins play in the organism, including how those proteins are structured. Animal proteomics focuses on proteins in animals. It is a very interesting component of reproductive biology because proteins can be modified in various organisms through genetic manipulation. In fact, the term proteomics reflects the combination of protein and genomes and demonstrates that proteins are subject to genetic modification. Some of these modifications may be accidental; stress and time can lead to changes in protein structure and function. However, many of these modifications are an intentional part of modern animal husbandry, where genetic manipulation and reproductive biology techniques are frequently more responsible for the creation of new animals than actual sexual reproduction. Understanding animal proteomics helps further the modern agricultural industry, which relies upon mass production of animal meat in a tightly controlled environment. Proteomics is…… [Read More]

References

Bendixen, E., Danielsen, M., Hollung, K., Gianazza, E., & Miller, I. (2011). Farm animal proteomics- a review. J Proteomics, 74(3), 282-93.

Picard, B., Berri, C., Lefaucheur, L., Molette, C., Sayd, T., & Terlouw, C. (2010). Skeletal muscle proteomics in livestock production. Brief Funct Genomics, 9(3), 259-78.
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Kingsolver's Animal Dreams and Native Americans

Words: 1102 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81582108

Animal Dreams by Barbara Kingsolver. Specifically it will discuss how Kingsolver portrays Native American and Hispanic people in the novel. Codi, the main character in "Animal Dreams," returns to her small hometown of Grace, Arizona, after a long absence. She learns to love her past and her family during her return, and she encounters her high school sweetheart, a Native American who wants to settle down with her. Throughout the novel, Kingsolver portrays Hispanic and Native Americans favorably, and even idealistically, but her writing style and devotion to her subjects make these idealistic portrayals succeed in the novel.

Codi and her family are Hispanics, although Kingsolver never really states this in the novel. It becomes clear as the novel progresses and the culture of Grace becomes known. Their real names are Hispanic, many of the townspeople are Hispanic, and their celebrations are all based on Hispanic celebrations, such as the…… [Read More]

References

Kingsolver, Barbara. Animal Dreams. New York: Harper Collins, 1990.
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Wicca Animal Use Shelley Rabinovitch Has Asserted

Words: 2191 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98402505

icca Animal Use

Shelley Rabinovitch has asserted that modern iccans see themselves as part of a world that includes all living beings in Nature (69), which generally prevents exploitative 'use.' This is not universal, but animal abuse would probably exclude a practitioner from the group "iccans." This has not been the case throughout history, and some modern Neo-Pagans include use of animals in ritual they claim falls within the harmonious balance of a non-dualistic participation in Nature (below). The result is a change in modern iccan relationship to animals compared to historical relationships as far as the available evidence shows. This requires defining the group "iccans," and also 'use' and 'animals,' because some groups typically classified alongside icca under the class "Neo-Pagans" are beginning to differentiate themselves through ritual animal use in ways iccans may perhaps want to dissociate themselves from.

"The language of self-identification to outsiders differs from that…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Church Of The Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc., et al. v. City Of Hialeah No. 91-948. 508 U.S. 520

(1993).United States Supreme Court, 11 June, 1993. < www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/91-948.ZS.html>

Faculty of Oriental Studies, the University of Oxford. "Gilgames and Aga." The Electronic Text

Corpus of Sumerian Literature. n. pag. <  http://etcsl.orinst.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/etcsl.cgi?text=t.1.8.1.1# >
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Decision to Expand Large Animal

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30412563



SC = X3* 20% + X3* 30% where,

SC - supply capacity

X3 - the number of other veterinary practices

DG = (X2/X1)*X5 + (X2/X1)*X4 - SC where,

DG - demand gap

X2 - population income levels

X1 - Size of andolph County

X2 / X1 = Average income per individual in andolph County

X5 - number of the population that owns food animal

X4 - number of population that owns pets

After determining the demand gap and if this one turns out to be positive, the entrant has to determine the location strategy. Generally, the practice should be close to the client, but if the clients are randomly spread across the territory, there are some location models that could help the company serve an optimal level of clients. Thus, if the competitors are equally spread across the territory, an entrant could choose to locate itself in the middle of…… [Read More]

Reference List

BLS - Bureau of Labour Statistics, Accessed June 2007,  http://www.bls.gov/oes/current/naics3_541000.htm 

WVBEP - West Virginia Bureau of Employment Programs, Accessed June 2006, http://www.wvbep.org/bep/lmi/EW2006/q4/ew06x083.htm
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Human Condition in Orwell's Animal

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35420768

It is simply human nature. These pigs will be the ones attempting to gain all of the power and control the rest of the population. The image of the humans and the pigs being indistinguishable points to the frailty of the human condition and it declares that this condition cannot be "fixed" and it will lead to humanity's downfall in one way or another. Power and greed only make people more power hungry and greedy. There can be no equals in this kind of society because people, regardless of we like it or not, are simply not equal. There will always be those with more and there will always be those with less. Additionally, there will always be those that want to control everything and those who allow that control to occur.

Animal Farm pokes fun at humanity but it does so with a serious stick. There are messages and…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Orwell, George. Animal Farm. New York: Harcourt Brace. 1977.