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The well-being of an animal, preservation of species and biological diversity is always given first priority when it comes to deciding upon the appropriateness of research to be undertaken (Lin, 2013).
It reaches a point in time when some animals have to be released to the wild from the zoos. This is normally conducted in accordance with IUCN/SSC/eintroduction Specialist group guidelines. Before the animals are released to the wild, they normally undergo a thorough veterinary examination to ascertain if they are fit for such release. Their welfare after release is always taken into consideration. After their release, a thorough monitoring program ensues.
In case an animal dies while in care they are normally subjected to post-mortem examination where the cause of their death is ascertained. Animals that die while being released to the wild from the zoo are also normally taken for post-mortem examination.
Zoo keepers co-operate with government institutions…
Hediger, H. (1964). Wild Animals in Captivity. New York: Dover.
Lin, D. (2013). Arguments for and Against Zoos. Retrieved April 6, 2013 from http://animalrights.about.com/od/animalsinentertainment/a/Arguments-for-and-Against-Zoos.htm
Leahy, H. (1991). Against Liberation: Putting Animals in Perspective. New York:
Imagine that you are in Japan after the recent, tragic earthquake. The rubble surrounds you and you see thousands of homeless people. If you look and listen closely, you also hear the sounds of suffering animals. They also have been impacted by this natural disaster. They also have lost their homes. They also are in danger. In some ways, animals react differently to natural disasters and, in other ways, they have similar trauma after an event like this. I will talk about animals in earthquakes and how we can help them.
The earthquake that struck Japan in March of this year damaged buildings and destroyed many homes. It affected not only the people of Japan, but its animals as well. Although many animals may have died during the natural disaster, a large number of animals may have escaped to safety. This is because many people believe that animals can…
Animal Shelter: http://www.animalshelter.org/
National Geographic: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2003/11/1111_031111_earthquakeanimals.html
US Geological Survey: http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/topics/animal_eqs.php
It also stands out from other leopard subspecies because of its fur that has large rosettes and a vibrant color and it can grow to approximately 7 cm long during the winter time.
Due to the fact that deer and other prey species have started to fall in numbers, the leopard and the tiger have began to search for prey inside villages and farms. This gave people another reason to intervene in the process of endangering the species as a farmer would care less of an endangered species than of his profit.
The Amur leopard's most important enemies are men, who take advantage of every chance they get of harming the animal through pollution, the cutting of forests and through poaching for fur and bones. A great mistake that people make while considering the issue of the Amur leopard as an endangered species is that they tend to compare it…
Black, R. 2005. Rare leopard 'faces extinction'. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from BBC News Web site: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/4197737.stm
Fomenko, P. Amur leopard- the cat that stalks alone: an endangered solitary hunter.Retrieved October 6, 2008, from WWF Web site: http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/what_we_do/species/about_species/species_factsheets/amur_leopard/index.cfm
Amur leopard. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from Arkive Web Site: http://www.arkive.org/species/GES/mammals/Panthera_pardus_orientalis/more_info.html
Disappearing in the shadow of the tiger. Retrieved October 6, 2008, from Amur leopard Web Site: http://www.amurleopard.org
Animal Communication may be defined as the transmission of a signal from one animal to another such that the sender benefits, on average, from the response of the recipient (Pearce). According to Robert Mannell this definition allows for the inclusion of many types of behavior and permits communication to be applied to a great range of animals. Natural animal communication can include chemical signals, smell, movement, posture, facial gestures, visual signals and sound. The intent of these signals is to attract, repel, signal aggression or submission, advertise species, warn of predators, or communicate about the environment or the availability of food. These signals may be instinctive or learned from others.
Animals have many ways to communicate, whales song, wolves howl, frogs croak, and birds chirp. Honey bees wangle dance and dogs wag their tails. These are all ways animals transmit information to one another as well as other species. Animals…
"Dolphin Communication." Beach-Netcom. Atlantic Bottle-Nosed Dolphin. (2012) Web. 9 June 2012. < http://www.beach-net.com/dolphins.html
"Great Ape Language." Science Daily. (nd.) Web. 9 June 2012.
Hockett, Charles F. "The Origin of Speech." Columbia.edu. September 1960. Web. 9 June 2012.
Mannell, Robert. "Animal Communcation and Language." Macquarie University, Department of Linguistics. (1999). Web. 9 June 2012.
Siberian Huskies do not bark the way most other domestic canines do, but howl amongst their pack members much more the way wolves do.
As pets, they are known to vocalize by whining or yowling, which must be addressed through corrective training to avoid becoming a persistent behavioral annoyance. Because they do not bark, they are largely incapable of performing satisfactorily as watchdogs because they will not alert to the presence of strangers in the manner desirable for watchdogs (Coppinger 2001).
Similarly, Siberian Huskies are not as threatened by strangers as are many domestic dogs; therefore, even if they were able to bark, they are as likely to greet a stranger on the property with a sniff and a wag of the tail (or perhaps, more likely, with indifference) and will not perceive stranger as a danger to themselves or their families.
The Siberian Husky also exhibits a hunting prey…
Budiansky, S. (2000) the Truth About Dogs: An Inquiry Into the Ancestry, Social Conventions, Mental Habits, and Moral Fiber of Canine Familiaris.
New York: Viking
Conniff, R. Africa's Wild Dogs. National Geographic Society (vol. 195, No. 5, May, 1999)
Coppinger, L., Coppinger, R. (2001) Dogs: A Startling New Understanding of Canine Origins, Behavior and Evolution.
There are a number of physical responses that occur in the a mammal's body when it is exposed to heat. It is important to not only understand what thermoregulation is, but the physiological and/or anatomical thermoregulatory responses that allow sustained exercise in horses.
Thermoregulation is the control of body temperature within certain limits even when the surrounding temperature is very different. This enables the body to function effectively and is known as maintaining homeostasis, which is a dynamic state of stability between an animal's internal environment and its external environment.
A relatively constant body temperature is necessary for the efficient functioning of the complicated brain of higher animals. Extreme temperatures alter biological molecules and disrupt body functions resulting in illness such as hyperthermia or hypothermia, which if not treated can lead to death. Mechanisms have subsequently evolved in mammals to enable body temperatures to stay within…
Andersson, BE. (1984). "Temperature regulation and environmental physiology," in: Dukes'
Physiology of Domestic Animals, Dukes, HH (ed.), Comstock Pub. Associates, Ithaca,
Austin, H. And Sillence, M. (2004). "Animal physiology: study guide," Charles Sturt University,
Animals & Their Place Inside the Fast Food Nation
Animals and Their Place inside the Fast Food Nation
The 1950's ere a time of elegance, charm, and ere truly the apex of American poer. When one listens to music from this era or looks at photographs, one can almost feel the happiness that people felt during that time, especially after the ar-torn decade preceding the 1950's. Hoever, hen looking at old photographs of family, one ill also notice very thin, even fit young men and omen laying on beaches and smiling up at the sun ithout, seemingly, a care in the orld. No, hoever, hen on a beach in the United States, most often, one ill notice the contentment of people all around, but ill also see quite a fe sunbathers ho are not at all fit, and perhaps a small percentage of overeight beach-goers. This is an independent statement,…
works cited, which have been referenced throughout:
1906: Upton Sinclair." The Capital Century -- 100 Stories of New Jersey History. Web. 07 June 2011. .
"About the Film." Official Food, Inc. Movie Site - Hungry For Change? Web. 07 June 2011. .
"America's Biggest Food Companies." Analysis & Opinion. Web. 07 June 2011. .
"Evolution of Factory Farming." Factory Farming. Web. 07 June 2011. .
In another instance, scientist and primate researcher Anne Engh collected fecal samples from baboons in the African country of Botswana; Engh gathered those fecal samples following the killing of a baboon by a predator (Moss, p. 2).
Those samples were tested for "…increased levels of glucocorticoid (GC) stress markers" and Engh discovered that the stress in those baboons was elevated for nearly a month after the one baboon had been brutally attacked and killed (Moss, p. 2). The baboon feces that tested out for the highest amount of stress were from those baboons that had either family or other close ties to the baboon that had been killed. Hence, it is reasonable to assume that the baboons were hurt emotionally by the killing and they showed that through their stress following the death.
Meanwhile there is a growing movement of citizens worldwide who believe that animals have feelings and that…
Langley, Courtney. "W&M professor explores how animals grieve." The Virginia Gazette.
Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://www.vagazette.com . 2012
Moss, Laura. "Do animals mourn their dead?" Mother Nature Network. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://www.mnn.com . 2013
PETA. "Why Animal Rights?" Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://www.peta.org . 2012.
In addition, the practice of testing cosmetics and other personal items on animals was accepted practice for many years. For example, countless rabbits were blinded to test the safety of mascaras and eye products (Carbone 24) before animal rights activists spoke up and asked the haunting question, "How many rabbits does evlon blind for the sake of beauty?'" (Carbone 24). This use of animals for vanity seems unusually cruel and needless, and it seems there must be some other way to test new ideas, drugs, and treatments without wasting the lives of innocent animals.
Many scientists and health care professionals argue that medical research with animals is absolutely necessary to cure disease and make human life better and healthier. They maintain that animal research is absolutely necessary because in the end it saves human lives. Clearly, researchers have learned much from animal research, and have made great strides in science…
Carbone, Larry. What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
DeGrazia, David. Animal Rights: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2002.
Animals Have Rights?" Tabor R. Machan concludes that animals do not deserve the same consideration as human beings because they are incapable of making moral decisions themselves. Machan argues that animals are distinct beings and it is a mistake to categorize them as being equal to humans. In fact, Machan states that animals should be exploited in some cases, if to do so will improve human quality of life. The author unabashedly places human beings at the top of the life spectrum, asserting that human beings are more important than animals because of our moral faculties. However, Machan does feel that animals should be treated judiciously and not cruelly.
Machan is largely utilitarian in his approach to the animal rights issue. The author argues that because animals can be used to benefit human beings, that they should not be "liberated," or protected. The author also argues that the rights conferred…
This was inexcusable. He got his rifle, and he began to shoot them, one by one. Somehow, though, he couldn't hit the last woodchuck, the wiley one. That night, he dreamed about that woodchuck, the one that got away. He dreamed he shot that woodchuck. laming the whole debacle on the woodchucks, he told himself, "If only they'd all consented to die unseen, gassed underground the quiet Nazi way." (Kumin, poemhunter.com)
Non-animal testing methods that are more reliable than animal testing and a lot cheaper have been developed. Some are computer and mathematical models. Others use cell and skin tissue or corneas from eye banks -- providing information from human genes. Some companies simply avoid testing by using all non-toxic ingredients or ingredients that the Cosrmetics, Toiletry, and Fragrance Association has already approved as safe.
According to groups on both sides of the argument, the American public -- particularly the…
McConville, Christine. "Laboratory Animals, Animal Rights." Boston Herald Oct. 2009: 29.
Poetryhunter.com/poem/the fish. April 22, 2010
Poetryhunter.com/woodchucks. April 22, 2010
www. Using Animals for Testing: Pro's Versus Con's. April 22, 2010
Since animals do not have a large brain capacity to accommodate such acts, normally the types of behaviors taught to these animals are usually simple and straightforward to master (Heyes, 1996).
Use of teaching as a mode of behavioral transmission among animals is where an animal trainer takes time with the animal showing them how things are done such as requesting of food or even developing routes or ways to obtain the food among other trainings. As mentioned earlier, learning is somehow restrictive towards a given group of animal species, those with a higher capacity to master what they are taught. Some of these cultures are self-taught as a survival tactic, they are usually passed from the parent to the sibling. For instance, siblings of the killer whales are taught to fend for their food through pushing of the Pinnipeds to the shore intentionally for them to be able to…
Heyes, Cecelia M., and Jr. Bennett G. Galef. Social Learning in Animals: The Roots of Culture. 1996.
Laland, Kevin N, and Bennett G. Galef, eds. The Question of Animal Culture. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard UP, 2009. Print.Roots of Culture
Whitehead, H.. "Conserving and managing animals that learn socially and share cultures. " Learning & Behavior (pre-2011) 38.3 (2010): 329-336. ProQuest Biology Journals, ProQuest. Web. 21 Feb. 2012.
animals -- whether they are carnivorous, omnivorous, or herbivorous -- depend upon the mechanisms of photosynthesis as a source of food. Carnivorous and omnivorous animals eat other animals as a source of food, but prey animals such as herbivores consume plants as a source of energy. And oxygen, the by-product of plant photosynthesis, enables all animal life on land and in the water to breathe. The chlorophylls and carotenoids, the pigments present in the plant's cellular structure, absorb sunlight and convert it into energy, producing oxygen as a byproduct. Sunlight is transformed into ATP in plants. ATP enables the synthesizing of glucose from carbon dioxide and water within the plant's cellular membranes. "Glucose subunits are joined together, forming starch and other molecules," and producing oxygen for animal life as a by-product (Photosynthesis and aerobic respiration, 2010, Aquarium project website). Depending on where the plants are located, the oxygen is released…
Fermentation and anaerobic respiration. (2010). AP Study Guide. Retrieved January 5, 2010 at http://advice.tutors-connect.com/216/ap-biology-study-guide-part-9-fermentation-and-anerobic-respiration/
Kimball, John. (2010, May). Enzymes. Kimball's Biology Pages. Retrieved January 5, 2010 at http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/E/Enzymes.html
Photosynthesis and aerobic respiration. (2010). Aquarium project website.
Retrieved January 5, 2010 at http://webpages.charter.net/kwingerden/erhs/aquarium/photosyn.htm
eferring to the fact that signing children acquire a lexicon first, it is argued that grammar in its largest sense is the latest acquisition in communication. The whole process is based on an underlying cognitive structure (so-called semantic memory) that is already in place. Grammar is responsible for two domains of representation: propositional and discourse pragmatics. The priority of the lexicon is also sustained by so-called pregrammatical communication as it is found, for example, in child pidgin and agrammatical aphasia. "
Human language is distinguished by these factors, however only time will tell if other animal communication evolves to math the abilty that humans currently have. While it has not happened yet, it is believed that some animals have highly advanced communication abilities as compared to other animals. Dolphins and primates both come to mind in the discussion of advanced animal communication abilities. Without being able to study the beginning…
Droste, Flip G.
Talmy Givon: Bio-Linguistics; the Santa Barbara Lectures. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Benjamins, 2002. xviii + 383 pp. ISBN 90-272-2590-7.
Corballis, Michael C. The gestural origins of language. American Scientist; March 1, 1999;
Face, Timothy. Southwest Journal of Linguistics; June 1, 2002;
Pulling in for gas it seems like the prices jumped from Sunday too. Gas prices are higher most often on Mondays (Davis, 113) which just make this day one of the most disliked of the week.
Everyone should go on a vacation occasionally.
I love to travel and take vacations, and my family does too. We scour the Internet for travel deals and have found hotel rooms in very nice resorts for 30% to 50% off and been able to go on some very nice vacations as a result. In fact, since 2009 the discount travel sites have seen a major increase in discounted hotel rates at major resorts (Tegmeyer, et.al.). While on vacation I like to go exploring around the coastlines and rivers, often on day tours with smaller cruise operations. This form of vacation has also been increasing in recent years (Pasquariello, et.al.). I like to explore the…
Lana Berkowitz. "Parrot is no birdbrain. " McClatchy - Tribune Business News 19 January 2010
Davis, M.. "On Which Days Do Gasoline Stations Raise Prices? " Atlantic Economic Journal 38.1 (2010): 113
Pasquariello, A.. "Four Boating Vacations You Shouldn't Miss. " Business Week 19 Jul 2010
Diane Tegmeyer. "Luxury for Less. " Fortune 8 Jun 2009:
There is therefore little doubt that animals, particularly mammals, are conscious.
Despite all of the preceding evidence, it is necessary to analyze it in the terms of one of the principle dissenters regarding the notion of animal consciousness, Dennett, who claims that true consciousness is "a certain sort of informational organization that endows" creatures "with a wide set of cognitive powers (such as the powers of reflection and re-representation)" (Dennett 0). Although Dennett believes that this sort of organizational capacity only exists within people, it is important to point out the numerous examples in the animal kingdom that adhere to the author's definition. Griffin's detailing of a chimpanzee remembering the specific type of rock necessary to crack a tough nut which it used "several days earlier" implies reflection and recollection on the part of the chimpanzee (Griffin 10). The systems of communication used by the monkeys in Asia who founded…
Schonfeld, Martin. "Animal Consciousness: Paradigm Change in the Life Sciences." Perspectives on Science (2006) 14.3: 654-75.
Baars, Bernard J. "On the difficulty of distinguishing between conscious brain functions in humans and other mammals, using objective measures." http://cogprints.org/912/1/UFAW_PAPER_final_version_July_12_2000.txt 2/28/2011.
Griffin, Donald R. Animal Minds: Beyond Cognition to Consciousness Chicago: Chicago UP, 2001. (Excerpts from pages 1-17).***
Dennett, Daniel C. "Animal Consciousness: What Matters and Why." Social Research, (Fall 1995) 62.3: p. 691(20).
Yet, the studies on animal consciousness show that they are conscious, and they are capable of thought, and so, whatever they feel, they are feeling something and reacting to that feeling. Their brains are involved, and brains involve thought, in addition to mere stimulus. As author Saigel says about petting his cat, "Certainly, it seems that my rubbing my cat's head has no advantage to it other than the way it might make her feel. She may not recognize this, she may not be able to think about it, but surely, the purr is evidence that there is some phenomenal experience the cat is having, whether she is aware of it or not" (Saigel). Animals may not be capable of higher-order thought as humans are, and make intelligent decisions based on that thought, but evidence does indicate they are capable of thought, and use thought processes throughout their lives.
Allen, Colin. "Animal Consciousness." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. 8 Dec. 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consciousness-animal/
Nagel, Thomas. "What is it Like to be a Bat." Philosophical Review 83, no.4 (Oct. 1974), pp.435-50. http://members.aol.com/NeoNoetics/Nagel_Bat.html
Saigel, Eric. "Consciousness Without Awareness." Psyche. 1999. 8 Dec. 2006. http://psyche.cs.monash.edu.au/v5/psyche-5-16-saidel.html
ANIMAL IGHTS- SHOULD ANIMALS BE TEATED WITH MOE KINDNESS?
Animal rights or animal-human relationship is as controversial a subject as abortion and genetic research. This is because despite endless debates, several philosophical theories, numerous viewpoints and research findings, there appears to be no end in sight for this issue. How should be treat animals? Do they deserve our love and mercy? Can they be used for human consumption and benefit? How legal or morally justified is the use of animals in medical and cosmetic research? These are just some of the questions that arise when we discuss the ever-controversial subject of animal rights. The emergence of animal rights movement in late twentieth century sparked a huge controversy about treatment of animals and whether or not they deserved to be treated with the same respect we assign a human being.
We condemn totally the infliction of suffering upon our brother animals,…
Animal Rights -- A Symposium,' London: Centaur Press, 1979, p.viii.
Harold D. Guither, Animal Rights: History and Scope of a Radical Social Movement. Southern Illinois University Press. Carbondale, IL. 1998.
Kant, I., 1785, The Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals.. [Available online, Hypertext Library electronic text of the translation by Thomas Kingsmill Abbott (Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Wales/Swansea)]
Regan, T., 1985, "The Case for Animal Rights," in P. Singer (ed.), In Defence of Animals, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Scientists should not perform testing of drugs, chemicals and cosmetics on animals. No matter how many animals they use, they cannot prove the new substances are perfectly safe and effective. If the substances pass animal testing and don't show any ill effects on animals, it doesn't mean the substances are a hundred percent safe for humans. Terrifyingly, the substances can cause serious side effects in humans. Because the physical structures between humans and animals are different, the result from the animal testing does not always apply to humans. This fact indicates that animal testing is not reliable, and not useful; it is only a way of slaughtering animals. In addition, the experimentation methods are immoral and inhumane even in the few instances where they are actually useful. A human also belongs to the animal kingdom and is a kind of animal. Accordingly, a human is not in a position to…
Archibald, Kathy. "Animal Testing: Science or Fiction? Ecologist. May 2005. http://www.theecologist.co.uk/current_issue/animal_testing.htm
Biever, Celeste. "Can Computer Models Replace Animal Testing?" New Scientist. 16 May 2006. http://www.newscientisttech.com/article/mg19025514.000
Coghlan, Andy. "Animal Experiments on Trial." New Scientist. 23 Nov. 2002. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=mg17623701.400
Curnutt, Jordan. Animals and the Law: A Sourcebook. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2001: 448-53
service animals (guide dogs, therapy dogs, etc.) are discriminated against by businesses, housing authorities, and public policy. Service animals perform a vital and emotional service to thousands of individuals in this country. They are the eyes, ears, and lips of many disabled people who could not exist on their own without them. Unfortunately, many people and businesses still do not understand the critical need for service animals, and so, they discriminate against the animals and their owners.
Service animals perform a wide variety of services and tasks for people with disabilities, and many disabled people would not be able to function effectively without their animals. Initially, service animals were trained to help lead their blind owners through everyday tasks, from walking to work to negotiating around their homes. Called "guide dogs," many were trained by "Seeing Eye," Inc., and those dogs were known as "seeing-eye" dogs. Today, animals, not just…
"A Dog's Life in the Senate, Etc." The Washington Times 19 Apr. 1997: 12.
Henderson, Kelly. "No Dogs Allowed?" USDA.gov. Summer 1996. 26 Oct. 2004.
Tilton, Floyd. "Service Animals and the Law." About.com. 2000. 26 Oct. 2004.
European Images Animals
Some of the practical reasons Europeans may have had for paying attention to the animals of the New Word may have been, first of all, so that they could get an idea about what kind of place they were traveling to and, second, that they maybe could have gotten an idea about the type of people inhabiting the land by looking at the animals. It can be argued that people associate if a place is going to be brutal or wild by the types of animals living in an environment. For example, when one thinks about Africa they may think of lions, jaguars and alligators -- among other more vicious types of animals. They may look at the terrain and think that an animal must be powerful in order to survive in a certain environment. If the Europeans looked at pictures of the animals in the New…
Guns: Artistotle's History Of Animals
Aside from philosophy and the more psychological arts, Aristotle's greatest contribution to modern science is probably his writings on zoology. Indeed, the philosopher's powers of observation were keen and in many cases startlingly accurate when the knowledge base of the time is considered. Many of his conclusions regarding the nature, habits and evolution of animals were indeed conducive to the conclusions that led to the science we know today.
In the nine books of his History of Animals then, Aristotle observes animals in their habitat, and uses dissection to discover the mysteries inside the animal body as well. He begins his description in ook I of the physical properties of the animal body, and distinguishes various genera of animals. These are the main types of animals, such as fish, birds, etc. He furthermore goes on to describe the habits, habitat and social structure of groups…
Aristotle. The History of Animals. Trans. D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson. 2004. http://classics.mit.edu//Aristotle/history_anim.html
The geneticist must first identify the wild crop, to be utilized as a comparative, (99) stressing that such information to be considered accurate in time and space must be gleaned from archaeological record and only based on the genetic process determined from the modern research in plant and/or even animal genetics.
In regards to the animal domesticate the issues become much more complicated, sometimes offering a richer picture of the effects of domestication upon animals but more often offering a more laborious process with more missing pieces of information. The difference between the plant and animal studies is largely do to the complicated nature of the animal as compared to the plant. The variables associated with animal selection are far greater in number and far less predictable than with those of plants as within the genetic record of an animal far more variations occur and surprises are historically evident in…
Emshwiller, E. 2006 Genetic data and plant domestication. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.99-122. University of California Press, Berkeley.
Smith, Bruce D. 206 Documenting domesticated plants in the archaeological record. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.15-24
Bradley, D.G 2006 Documenting domistication: reading Animal genetic texts. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.273-278 University of California Press, Berkeley.
Zeder, M.A. 2006 Archaeological approaches to documenting animal domestication.In, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.171-180 University of California Press, Berkeley.
The main side effect of colchicines on animals is nausea. The use of colchicines on animals has also generated numerous concerns regarding the toxicity of bone marrow because of the ability of these substances to interfere with cell division. Furthermore, these substances are also likely to cause urine dip stick to wrongly read positive for blood. Colchicines can not only enhance the level of alkaline phosphatase as recorded on a blood chemistry panel but also diminish the body of vitamin B-12 in certain cases.
Since cytochalasins bind actin monomers and prevents their congregation into microfilaments, the already formed microfilaments slowly depolymerize. The main effect of these substances on animal cell division is that they inhibit cytoplasmic division but do not interfere with nuclear division or DNA synthesis. As a result, these substances contribute to the accumulation of large multi-nucleate cells (Gurdon & Fairman, p. 78.). In addition to the probability…
"Colchicine." Mar Vista Animal Medical Center. Publishing Professionals, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. .
GURDON, J.B., and S. FAIRMAN. "Muscle Gene Activation by Induction and the Nonrequirement for Cell Division." Development - Dev.biologists.org. The Company of Biologists Limited, 1986. Web. 23 Nov. 2012. .
Herman, Pack and Hoffman-Kuhnt performed relatively rigorous experiments to determine the source of dolphin recognition of objects; they wanted to discover, among other things, whether "dolphins attained the shape discriminations (of objects) through associative learning or direct perception" (Herman et al. 1998 292). Fukuzawa, Mills and Cooper sought to determine the mechanism by which domestic dogs responded to commands. Greenberg wanted to discover the facts about depth perception in two species of Asian rodents, the Mongolian Gerbil and two varieties of Spiny Mice.
The experiments run by Herman et al. involved a single dolphin, a female named Elele, and were designed to determine whether echolocation or visual cues were central to dolphin recognition of objects that appeared in their environment. The researchers were extremely rigorous in setting up each experiment, avoiding contamination between visual and echolocation fields; the objects used for the dolphin's recognition tests were never…
Fukuzawa, M.D.S. Mills and J.J. Cooper. (2005) Brief Communication: The effect of human command phonetic characteristics on auditory cognition in dogs (Canis familiaris). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119(3), 117-130.
Greenberg, G. (1986) Depth perception in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) and Spiny Mice (Comys russatus and A. cahirinus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100(1), 81-84.
Herman, L.M., A.A. Pack and M. Hoffmann-Kuhnt. (1998) Seeing through sound: Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) perceive the spatial structure of objects through echolocation. Journal of Comparative Psychology 117(3), 292-305.
Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.
Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:
These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design…
Carts." Nation Master Encyclopedia. Nationmaster.com. http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Cart
The Golovan one-ox cart," in Land, June 1997 from Dept. Of Agriculture, sought Africa http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/Infopaks/golovancart.pdf
Light Single Drum Water Carrier." Animal Cart Programme. Development Technology Unit, Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, England http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/sci/eng/research/dtu/pubs/tr/animals/tr30.pdf
Oram. CE. "The development of low-cost animal-drawn carts." Meeting the challenges of animal traction Starkey P. And Kaumbutho P (eds), 1999 Harare, Zimbabwe. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
Animal Production: Biotechnology
Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…
Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).
Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)
Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.
Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.
De Boer, Bonita. (2009). IV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,
from Avert Web site: http://www.avert.org/hiv-animal-testing.htm
Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-
oudebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve uman ealth and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal
Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.
Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site: http://www.livescience.com/health/080212-bad-animal-testing.html
Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).
The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).
Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).
Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC. http://www.abpi.org.uk/amric/introduction.asp
Interspecies Enemy Identification Depends on Facial ecognition
The formation of social groups is believed to confer a survival advantage to individual members of the group (reviewed by Marzluff, Walls, Cornell, Withey, and Craig, 2010). For humans, these advantages include the sharing of resources, information, skills, and childrearing tasks. Social groups are not limited to humans, but are also evident in species as diverse as ants, yellowfin tuna, and coyotes. However, our understanding of interspecies social interactions and the potential survival advantages that they confer are not understood to the same degree.
Domesticated animals, like dogs and cats, can readily distinguish friend or foe based on past interactions. Non-domesticated animals like the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) seems to have the same capability. To better understand the parameters of 'enemy' recognition in crows, a group of researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle studied this phenomenon during a trap…
Marzluff, John M., Walls, Jeff, Cornell, Heather N., Withey, John C., and Craig, David P. (2010). Lasting recognition of threatening people by wild American crows. Animal Behavior, 79, 699-707.
69). Petting a dog lowered blood pressure and respiratory rate -- even if the dog was somebody else's. Pet owners that have heart surgery recover faster and stand a better chance of full recovery. Touching a warm furry animal gives them relief.
Moreover, pet ownership is a predictor of survival after hospitalization for any serious illness (Gunter & Furnham, 1999).
Demello (1999) found that the "mere presence of an animal" could lower blood pressure and that the effect persisted even after the animal was gone. Visual contact with an animal, although it helped, was not as good as touching. Heart rates decreased significantly in a three-minute period of physical contact with the animal (Demello, 1999).
A story in Time magazine (2001) tells how a brain-injured man needed help to get back his sense of balance. Ginger, an Australian shepherd, liked to fetch, so physical therapy for this man was to…
Brodie, S., Biley, F.C., and Shewring, M. (2002). An exploration of the potential risks associated with using pet therapy in healthcare settings. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 11 (4), 444-456.
Demello, L. (1999). The effect of the presence of a companion-animal on physiological changes following the termination of cognitive stressors. Psychology & Health, 14 (5), 859.
Gunter, B. And Furnham, a. (1999). Are pets good for our physical well-being? In Pets and People: The Psychology of Pet Ownership, Chapter 5, 6. London: Wherr Publishing, 66-81/
Hooker, S.D., Freeman, L.H., and Stewart, P. (2002). Pet therapy research: A historical review. Holistic Nursing Practice, 16 (5), 17-23.
Animal Experience - Abstract
Though Rise of the Planet of the Apes (yatt, 2011) is classified in the Sci-Fi genre, this film portrays the reasonably foreseeable possibility of intelligent apes successfully revolting against humankind. The main character, Caesar, is a chimpanzee injected with an experimental Alzheimer's-treatment drug that surprisingly develops Caesar's humanlike intelligence and emotions. Though initially well-treated by the drug's inventor and a primatologist, Caesar is eventually relegated to an ape sanctuary, where he grows to resent the cruel conditions to which apes are subjected. As a result, a defiant Caesar administers the same experimental drug to other apes, creating an ape army that escapes from the sanctuary, wages war on Homo sapiens and eventually crosses the Golden Gate Bridge as humans are decimated by a deadly virus.
In its depiction of the intelligent apes' interactions with humans, the film explores at least three scientifically supported human/animal experiences. First,…
Borenstein, S. (2012, June 25). Rise of the planet of the apes? Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.iol.co.za Web site: http://www.iol.co.za/scitech/science/news/rise-of-the-planet-of-the-apes-1.1326671
Manisha, R. (2011). Monkey business: Emotion and consciousness in primates. Berkeley Scientific Journal, 15(2), 1-5.
Marsh, J. (Director). (2011). Project Nim [Motion Picture].
Panaman, R. (2008). How to do animal rights - great apes. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from www.animalethics.org.uk Web site: http://www.animalethics.org.uk/great-apes.html
The Heifer, the Goat, and the Sheep, in Company ith the Lion illustrates the absolute power of the feudal lord (the lion) over the peasantry (the goat and sheep). This fable may be referring to the division of taxes and possessions, or it may be a direct reference to the hunting rights of feudal lords. The feudal lord (lion) declares that a stag killed by the goat is his, by the right of the strong.
Again, as the bravest, the third must be mine.
To touch but the fourth whoso makes a sign,
I'll choke him to death
In the space of a breath!" (Shapiro, p. 9).
This attitude represents the attitudes of the wealthy towards the peasantry. They would rather see them dead than share even a small portion of their wealth with them. This fable is where the phrase "a lions' share" originates (Shapiro, p. 9). A similar…
Aesop's Fables. The Mules and the Robbers. Aesopfables.com. last Updated October 1, 2006. http://www.aesopfables.com/cgi/aesop1.cgi-srch&fabl/TheMulesandtheRobbers Accessed April 15, 2008.
Shapiro, N. (trans.) the Complete Fables of Jean de La Lafontaine, University of Illinois Press. Chicago, Illinois. October 2007.
Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair
In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning…
Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."
animal species studied for this report include the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the American lack ear (Ursus americanus). The plant species studied are the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and the Prickly Pear cactus (Opuntia humifusa). Each of these species has been observed at the local zoo, and further research has been conducted to learn about the environment in which each species would live in a natural setting. The behavior which have been observed within the zoo have also been combined with the noted behaviors of these species from a natural setting to give a more complete range of information. From this study, I have learned that there are many similarities between the behavior that can be observed in both plants and animals in a captive setting and their natural behavior. However, there are also many notable differences, based largely on to what degree the zoological habitat varies from that…
ContiE et al. "Wolf." Wikipedia. March 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wolf
Hilty, John. "Eastern Prickly Pear." Insect Visitors of Prairie Wildflowers in Illinois. 2003. http://www.shout.net/~jhilty/plantx/prickly_pearx.htm
Marshman, et al. "Opuntia." Wikipedia. March, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prickly_pear
Naddy, et al. "American Black Bear." Wikipedia. March, 2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_bear
Mignini, Pradeep Jayaram, and Khalid S. Khan
BMJ 2007 334: 97. Online available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/334/7588/274
Perel, et al. (2007) states that only immediate preclinical testing of new drug therapies, but animal research aids medical science in many more ways Animal studies play a part in the initial development of candidate drugs, and the development and testing of medical devices and surgical procedures. Even more crucial, animal research informs clinical research by building the foundation of biological knowledge." (2007)
6. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment,…
16. Study on Long-Term Effects of Chemicals on the Environment
Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution. 22 Mar 2007. Online available at http://www.rcep.org.uk/chemicals/chemscop.htm
This work states that diverse organizations including the 'Chemical Industries Association', CEFIC, the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions as well as the Department of Health and Friends of the Earth "...raise the impact of chemicals assessment policy on animal testing. Most of the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions' postbag on the European Commission Chemicals Strategy concerns the huge increase in animal testing likely to result. It would seem difficult for the Commission to make recommendations on chemical assessment without addressing the issues of the acceptability of alternatives to animal testing, and the implications of the recommendations for animal testing.
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
Animal Nutrition and Feed Evaluation
Qualitative, scientific-based evaluations of animal feed and the resultant nutrition of the animal are crucial for maintaining optimal animal health and responding to problems that develop as a result of diet. In the case of ruminants, this can be particularly important as their unique digestive system can complicate providing optimal nutrition from traditional feed sources and techniques. A balanced nutrient approach to ruminant diet must take into account not only the feed that is being given to the animal, but also, crucially, the way in which the animal's digestive system will process that feed and provide (or not) nutrition to the animal. Creating this type of qualitative knowledge about the digestive system and nutrition needs of rumens with regard to different feeds "developed most rapidly when isotope dilution techniques became easy to apply, facilitated by improved instrumentation and mathematical approaches" (1). From this information,…
Leng, R.A. "Quantitative Ruminant Nutrition -- A Green Science." Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 1993. 16 Dec. 2009 .
Chromatin Lab Report
The use of DNA in today's world is very obvious, and the ability of the researcher and scientist to successfully manipulate this source of information to contribute to learning and understanding is great and powerful. DNA is found amongst chromatin which is found in certain types of fatty cells. Chromatin is key to the design of cells as it provides blueprints on how individual cells can be constructed. Since the packing structure of DNA is very dense this chemical reaction provides an understanding of how cellular relationships unfold and manifest.
DNA must be removed from the Chromatin which is stored as nucleosomes as the DNA strands wrap around these cellular structures. Saline provides an excellent solution to help separate these bonds and provide the isolating power to extract DNA for further examination. To salinize the targeted substance a constant and increasing amount of saline solution is added…
, 2000, p. 686). Virtually all swine CAFOs must cope with a significant amount of waste materials on-site that have been linked with serious odors and contain antimicrobials, nutrients, organics, and pathogenic microbes (Cole et al., 2000). For instance, raw swine manure can contain as much as 100 million fecal coliform bacteria per gram (Crane, Moore & Gismer, 1983). Futhermore, it has been estimated that 100 million lions tons of feces and urine are produced annually by the 60 million hogs raised in the United States (Meadows, 1995). According to Cole et al. (2000), the detection of specific exposures and diseases in the communities surrounding swine CAFOs has presented a challenge for the industry and healthcare officials alike because of the additional complexities of environmental dispersion of agents and human exposure pathways. In addition, the susceptibility of community residents to contaminants and pathogens may be substantially different from that of…
Buttel, F.H. (1992). Environmentalism: Origins, Processes, and Implications for Rural Social Change. Rural Sociology, 57(1), 1-27.
Cole, D., Todd, L., & Wing, S. (2000). Concentrated Swine Feeding Operations and Public Health: A Review of Occupational and Community Health Effects. Environmental Health Perspectives, 108(8), 685.
Crane, S.R., Moore, J. a, Grismer, M.E., & Miner J.R. (1983). Bacterial pollution from agricultural sources: a review. Trans ASAE 26:858 -- 866 in Cole, Todd & Wing (2000), p. 687.
Edward, B. & Ladd, a.E. (2002). Corporate Swine and Capitalist Pigs: A Decade of Environmental Injustice and Protest in North Carolina. Social Justice, 29(3), 26.
Animal Advocacy Organizations
There are many local, national, and international organizations that advocate for the rights and welfare of animals, domestic and wild. Two of those organisations are PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) and the ASPCA (American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals). In this paper, the two will be compared and contrasted.
PETA & ASPCA
The ASPCA was the very first humane society to exist in North America, according to their website. Henry Bergh founded the ASPCA in 1866, who believed that animals have the right to be respected by humans, and to be treated kindly, and to be protected under the law. In fact the ASPCA was the first humane organization that has been granted "legal authority to investigate and make arrests for crimes against animals… [although the ASPCA] fulfills its mission through nonviolent approaches" (ASPCA).
PETA was founded in 1980, and their…
American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA). (2011). How to Recognize
Cruelty / About the ASPCA. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://www.aspca.org .
Benz, Kathy, and McManus, Michael. (2005). PETA accuses lab of animal cruelty.
CNN.com. Retrieved September 1, 2011, from http://articles.cnn.com.
Comparative cognition is a psychological approach to learning that studies how animals process information. S.T. Boysen (1998) in his article presents the summary and review of different issues concerning this approach specifically in relation to animal learning. Pervious studies and researches were discussed and their findings were carefully explained to show how cognitive learning approach has evolved over the years and what it tells us about "information-processing, reasoning, memory, and the phylogenetic emergence of mind" in nonhuman species. Imitative behavior and the influence of imitation on learning capabilities of an animal have occupied the most important place in comparative cognitive research. However imitation has been a contentious subject with varying definitions as key researchers have failed to agree on one specific pattern of learning through imitation even though the earliest studies in this connection appeared during late 19th century. For example omanes (1884) found that imitation required "intelligent…
S.T. Boysen (1999) CURRENT ISSUES AND EMERGING THEORIES IN ANIMAL COGNITION Annual Review of Psychology Annual
Zentall, Thomas R, (2002) A cognitive behaviorist approach to the study of animal behavior., The Journal of General Psychology
Animal ights & Testing
The author of this report has been asked to contrast, compare and analyze three articles that all relate to basically the same thing, that being the status and rights of animals. As part of the analysis, there will be an agreement on the points with which the author of this report agrees, a critical thinking of how the authors attempt to refute each other, the key elements of those refutations, the significant connections that exist between the three texts, what those connections mean to the author of this report in terms of framing the author of this report's views and a gist of the synthesis conducted will bring up the proverbial rear of the analysis. This report will conclude with a setting up, but not a full execution, of the author's own potential argument that might or might not happen on future reports. While animals are…
Cohen, C. (1986). The Case for the Use of Animals in Biomedical Research. New England Journal Of Medicine, 315(14), 865-870. doi:10.1056/nejm198610023151405
Regan, T., & Singer, P. (1989). Animal rights and human obligations. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
Singer, P. (1989). All Animals Are Equal. Animal Rights And Human Obligations, 1(1), 162-172.
Human interactions with nonhuman animals should be guided solely by the impact of these interactions with other human beings, and not upon any perceived impact upon nonhuman animals themselves. This argument is based largely upon Descartes' understanding of the essential difference between humans and nonhuman animals. Descartes' argues that the body is external to the mind, and that non-human animals do not possess the pure, thinking mind of humans. Thus, Descartes argues that nonhuman animals are simply machines, and that human treatment of animals should only be guided by the impact of such interaction upon other humans. In contrast, thinkers like Anthony eston have argued that similarity of human and animal perception and experience means that human should treat animals as feeling beings. Similarly, Abram argues that the human connection with the natural world should govern our interaction with animals. Descartes' arguments for the uniqueness of human thought essentially counter…
Abram, David. The Spell of the Sensuous: Perception and Language in a More-Than-Human
World. Vintage, 1997.
Descartes, Rene. Animals are Machines. In Environmental Ethics: Divergence and Convergence, eds S.J. Armstrong and R.G. Botzler, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993,
Zoo Animal Technology Program
I want to enter the Zoo Animal Technology Program at BLANK University for a number of reasons. First, I have always loved animals since I was very young, and I've always felt I wanted to help take care of them in some capacity as my career. In the past, I've had tropical fish, dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, birds, and other animals in my family for as long as I can remember. I have always been involved in training, maintaining, and caring for these animals, and I have loved every one of them. I would like to continue in my life.
I also strongly believe in animal conservation and husbandry, and the zoo technology program would allow me to learn more about these important areas of zookeeping. I know that many animals are endangered in the wild today, and the only way to help preserve…
Furthermore, animals are given much more respect within entertainment than otherwise. Animals are viewed with both awe and joy by those who are watching them. They raise the level of awareness we feel for animals and make the audience care more. They would receive no better treatment were they "in the wild" or domesticated. Having animals in entertainment can be equivalent to having a pet at home, both of which is not demeaning as a rule.
Using Animals within entertainment does not hurt animals, on the contrary it helps improve their overall image within audiences, and at the same time they receive special and respectful treatment from their caretakers. It is a win-win situation for both sides.
Anderson, Kay. 1998. Animals, Science and Spectacle in the City, in Jennifer Wolch and Jody Emel (eds) Animal Geographies: Place, Politics, and Identity in the Nature-Culture orderlands. 27-50. New York: Verso.
Beardsworth, Alan and Alan Bryman. 2001. The wild animal in late modernity: The case of the Disneyization of zoos. Tourist Studies 1(1):83-104.
Bostock, S. 1993. Zoos and Animal Rights. London and New York: Routledge.
Croke, Vicki. 1997. The Modern Ark: The Story of Zoos, Past, Present and Future. New York: Scribner.
Hierarchy of Animals
THE ELATIVE HIEACHY OF ANIMALS
Are human beings worthy of being considered the highest form of animal life?
Whether or not human beings can fairly be considered the highest form of animal life depends largely on how one chooses to define the objective hierarchical criteria. If one proposes that relative hierarchical status is determined by the range of sensory modalities with which an organism perceives and interacts with the physical world, then mammalian species that have evolved ultrasonic communication or the cerebral capacity to generate and interpret sonar transmission, such as bats and dolphins, would outrank human beings (Berry, 1996).
If one defines relative hierarchy by life span, then reptiles such as sea tortoises and numerous avian species such as parrots occupy the highest position on the scale of life on Earth. If one defines hierarchical relationships based on duration of existence on Earth, then the highest…
Berry, A. (1996) Galileo and the Dolphins. Wiley & Sons: New York
Moussaieff Mason, J., McCarthy, S. (1995) When Elephants Weep: The Emotional Lives of Animals. Delacorte: New York
Wenke, R. (1999) Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind's First Three Million
Years. Oxford University Press: New York
Structure of Animals
Two animal phyla that can be compared and contrasted are Nematoda and Annelida. Nematoda are roundworms. There are more than 15,000 known species, with scientists estimating there may be as many as half a million species yet to be discovered (Waggoner, 2009). Nematoda have a worm-like appearance outside and a simple internal body structure. The phylum Annelida includes earthworms and their relatives, leeches, and a large number of mostly marine worms known as polychaetes (Waggoner, 2006). Annelids are characterized by their segmented bodies. They also have bristles on their bodies. It is estimated there are approximately 9,000 species of annelids today.
The Animal Phylogenetic Tree ("Mastering Biology," 2012) is a useful visual learning aid that is helpful in demonstrating the similarities and differences between these two phyla. The first diagram shows eight phyla, of which Nematoda and Annelida are two. Only one of the phyla, Porifera, is…
"Mastering biology." (2012). Retrieved from http://media.pearsoncmg.com/bc/bc_campbell_
Waggoner, B. (2009, January 21). Berkeley. Retrieved from http://www.ucmp.berkeley.
unpredictable as animals. They are more unpredictable than animals, unless you include wild animals. Domestic animals are really very predictable. For that matter, if one knows anything about wild animal behavior, their actions are fairly predictable as well. A terrified horse will always run; he has not claws to fight, for example.
But let's investigate the behavior of domestic animals. Consider the cat. The cat will always seek a warm, soft spot to lie down. If it's chilly, the cat will seek the sun coming in the window. If it's too warm, the cat will seek a cool, dark place where it can rest its eyes and be relatively comfortable while it does what it usually does, sleep. When it awakes, it will stretch. It then will do one of a very few things. It might groom itself. Or it might go to its food bowl. Or it might meow…
The same variables of the cranial and caudal sacs would be observed in order to determine if the sounds being produced where indeed coming from these organs or not. It may be that these two organs are either the source of the sound or are in someway related to the sound that these researchers heard during the tank experiment coming from the swimbladder.
Did the newspaper article describe the research article correctly? Explain.
The newspaper article "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish" by Bhanoo (2011) did a good job in describing the research article correctly. It described how the researchers used piranhas to study and how they used a hydrophone to record underwater sounds coming from the piranhas. It described how the sounds made were recorded during fighting, charging and frontal display. The author explained how it was previously believed that piranhas produced only a single barking sound,…
Bhanoo, S.N. 2011. "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish." Web. Available at:
Millot, S., Vandewalle, P. & Parmentier, E. 2011. "Sound production in red-bellied piranhas
(Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study." The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 3613-3618.
Indictment of the Moral Offense of Animal Cruelty
Animals think. Animals feel emotion. Animals experience pain. Yet there are members of our human society that find these facts irrelevant. In fact there are many people that have no problem disregarding these facts entirely as long as they are able to reap some type of personal reward or benefit from an animal. hether that benefit is in the form of food, clothing, or testing the latest new lipstick, it is always at the expense of the animal's well-being. In this paper I argue that the abuse of animals is morally wrong and therefore animals ought to be afforded rights which place the same consideration on their sentience as is placed on human beings.
Sentience is a term used to describe the fact that animals feel pain and emotions in much the same fashion as human beings. It is also used as…
Arluke, Arnold. Just a Dog: Understanding Animal Cruelty and Ourselves. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. 2006.
Cohn, Priscilla. In John M. Kistler's People Promoting and People Opposing Animal Rights: In Their Own Words. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 2002.
Kolber, Adam. "Upright: The Moral and Legal Standing of Humans and Other Apes." Stanford Law Review, 54.1 (2001): 163-204.
Warm-blooded vs. Cold-looded Animals
Most animals can be classified as either warm-blooded or cold-blooded. For example, all mammals and birds are warm-blooded, while all reptiles, amphibians, insects and fish are cold-blooded. As the owner of a leopard gecko, which is cold blooded, and a dog, which is warm-blooded, I chose this topic for my essay because I wanted to understand exactly what it means to be warm-blooded or cold-blooded, and how these creatures differ.
asically, the temperature of an animal's blood is directly related to its body temperature. Warm-blooded creatures keep the inside of their bodies at a consistent temperature by generating their own body heat when they are in a cold environment, and cooling their body heat down when they are in a hot place. In order to create heat, warm-blooded animals transform all consumed food into energy. In comparison to cold-blooded animals, warm-blooded animals must eat a lot…
Daniels, Patricia. Warm-Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck-Vaughn, 1983
Daniels, Patricia. Cold Blooded Animals. Raintree/Steck Vaughn, 1986.
The Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Amphibians. Dimensions, 2002.
Mastery Over Nature and the Exotic Animal Trade
Humankind has always had a fascination with nature and specifically animals in nature and even more specifically with conquering the animal or gaining mastery over the animal. The exotic animal has been the focus of great aspiration of humankind to attain mastery over. The reasons for this are varied in nature with some individuals obtaining exotic animals for their own pleasure and as examined in this particular informative study there is desire for obtaining exotic animals so that human beings can experience the animals of nature.
Adelaide Zoo, Adelaide, South Australia
The setting examined in this study is that of the Adelaide Zoo, located Adelaide, South Australia. The work of Kay Anderson entitled "Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontier of Human Geography" reports that in the suburban backyard, people unknowingly "make their more routine interventions in nature by…
Adams, G., Fisher, L., Le Blond, D., Mazur, N., McMahon, C., Peckover, T., Schmiechen, J. And Sharrad, N. 1991, The role of the Adelaide Zoo in conservation, Report prepared for the Royal Zoological Study of South Australia, Mawson Graduate Centre for Environmental Studies, The University of Adelaide.
Anderson, K (1994) Culture and Nature at the Adelaide Zoo: At the Frontiers of Human Geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. N.S. 20(3) 275-294. Retrieved from: http://www.uws.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/150953/Anderson95_CultureNatureAdelaideZoo_CCRCopyFinal.pdf
Tarpy, C. 1993, 'New zoos -- taking down the bars', National Geographic, July: 2-38.
Thomas, K. 1983, Man and the natural world: changing attitudes in England 1500-1800, Allen Lane, London.
Wild species, which includes that of animals, plants, and of other organisms, constitute the most part of the seafood of the world and of the timber. The Wild species provide a means of earning to the communities apart from providing them with food, medicines, fibers, skins, furs and forage, without which many communities could not have had their living.
Apart from this they also help in the intellectual growth, provide a sense of beauty and also promotes the religious and cultural beliefs of the people. ecause of the importance given to the wild species and of the use made of them by people, many natural and semi-natural ecosystems owe their present existence and even their future would owe to these uses.
Firstly, the use of wild species is that it has direct commercial value in terms of fishing, hunting, harvesting which enables the U.S. economy to earn $200 billion and…
Albuquerque, NM. (1990) Conserving Endangered Species: A Commitment to the Future. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southwestern Region.
Costanza, R. et al. (1997, May 15). The Value of the World's Ecosystem Services and Natural Capital, Nature 387: 253-260.
Hill, H.R. (1994, August 8) Ohio State University Study Finds Genetic Altering of Bacterium Upsets Natural Order, The Oregonian,
Food and Drug Administration 57 Federal Register 22987(1995, December) EPA Approves Bt Corn and Cotton With Conditions, The Gene Exchange,
Welfae in Captive Wild Animals
The Holy Bible gets the elationship between humankind and wild animals out of the way ealy on in Genesis 1:26 when God said, "Let us make mankind in ou image, in ou likeness, so that they may ule ove the fish in the sea and the bids in the sky, ove the livestock and all the wild animals, and ove all the ceatues that move along the gound." Humanity clealy took this divine gift seiously, and the elationship between humankind and wild animals has been lagely one-sided since people climbed to the top of the food chain. Since the second half of the 20th centuy, though, thee have been gowing calls fo impoving the manne in which humans teat animals in geneal and wild animals maintained in captivity in paticula. The ecent closue of Ringling and Banum and Bailey's "Geatest Show on Eath" due to…
Sejian, V and Lakritz, J (2011, August), "Assessment Methods and Indicators of Animal Welfare." Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, vol 6, no. 4, pp. 301-315.
Spallone, C (2014, April 18). "Rescue groups helping former lab animals." One Green Planet. [online] available: http://www.onegreenplanet.org/animalsandnature/5-awesome-rescue-groups-helping-former-lab-animals/ .
Wise, SM (2000). Rattling the Cage: Toward Legal Rights for Animals. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Yarri, D (2005). The Ethics of Animal Experimentation: A Critical Analysis and Constructive Christian Proposal. New York: Oxford University Press.
Should Animals Be Used in Scientific Testing for Medical Research or Commercial Products?
The fear and dread of you will fall on all the beasts of the earth, and on all the birds in the sky, on every creature that moves along the ground, and on all the fish in the sea; they are given into your hands. – Genesis 9:2 (c. 1450 BCE)
Studies published in prestigious medical journals have shown time and again that animal experimentation wastes lives—both animal and human—and precious resources by trying to infect animals with diseases that they would never normally contract. -- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (2019)
As the epigraphs above clearly show that humankind’s views about using animals for their own purposes have changed significantly over the past several millennia, but despite increasing condemnation by animal rights advocates, animal testing for medical research or commercial products continues around the…
Proteomics is the study of proteins, and focuses on the role that proteins play in the organism, including how those proteins are structured. Animal proteomics focuses on proteins in animals. It is a very interesting component of reproductive biology because proteins can be modified in various organisms through genetic manipulation. In fact, the term proteomics reflects the combination of protein and genomes and demonstrates that proteins are subject to genetic modification. Some of these modifications may be accidental; stress and time can lead to changes in protein structure and function. However, many of these modifications are an intentional part of modern animal husbandry, where genetic manipulation and reproductive biology techniques are frequently more responsible for the creation of new animals than actual sexual reproduction. Understanding animal proteomics helps further the modern agricultural industry, which relies upon mass production of animal meat in a tightly controlled environment. Proteomics is…
Bendixen, E., Danielsen, M., Hollung, K., Gianazza, E., & Miller, I. (2011). Farm animal proteomics- a review. J Proteomics, 74(3), 282-93.
Picard, B., Berri, C., Lefaucheur, L., Molette, C., Sayd, T., & Terlouw, C. (2010). Skeletal muscle proteomics in livestock production. Brief Funct Genomics, 9(3), 259-78.
To be an “experiencing subject of a life” means to be something that is here, now, alive, in this world, being part of the grand mystery that is life. So basically anything that exists has life—from people to birds to trees to grass to even water and rocks. There is a grace and power and beauty and soul that is woven through all of it. To disregard something as not worth our concern or as something that can be annihilated or abused is to be disconnected from this grand harmony.
However, I do not think that being the subject of a life means that one has equal inherent value. As a human being, I feel that we can derive a sense of our value from religious teachings—particularly the traditional Christian teachings that hold that we are created in the image and likeness of God. This teaching points to a special…
Animal Dreams by Barbara Kingsolver. Specifically it will discuss how Kingsolver portrays Native American and Hispanic people in the novel. Codi, the main character in "Animal Dreams," returns to her small hometown of Grace, Arizona, after a long absence. She learns to love her past and her family during her return, and she encounters her high school sweetheart, a Native American who wants to settle down with her. Throughout the novel, Kingsolver portrays Hispanic and Native Americans favorably, and even idealistically, but her writing style and devotion to her subjects make these idealistic portrayals succeed in the novel.
Codi and her family are Hispanics, although Kingsolver never really states this in the novel. It becomes clear as the novel progresses and the culture of Grace becomes known. Their real names are Hispanic, many of the townspeople are Hispanic, and their celebrations are all based on Hispanic celebrations, such as the…
Kingsolver, Barbara. Animal Dreams. New York: Harper Collins, 1990.
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.