Animals Essays (Examples)

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Animal Testing There Are Individuals

Words: 1907 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35644870

By using animals in research, and through animal research science learns how certain chemicals "interact with living systems"; this knowledge can be "translated into protection of humans, animals, and the environment from toxic levels of natural -- as well as man-made -- exposures (SOT, 6).

Legal and professional accountability

In Canada there are Research Ethics Boards (REBs) that have the power to authorize or reject funding for experiments with animals; when animal research proposals do not meet with proper ethical requirements, the REBs can put a halt to the experiments (Tremayne-Lloyd, et al., 2007, p. 56-57). The law in Canada -- which should be imitated in other countries that do not now have laws protecting animals -- allows that an overseeing regulatory agencies like the College of Chiropractors of Ontario (CCO) can "reprimand members and/or suspend or revoke licenses to practice" (Tremayne-Lloyd, 57). Cruelty to animals, assault on animals, or "criminal negligence" can lead to legal ramifications for the organizations conducting research using animals. An "assault" is committed when there has been no legal authorization by an REB and "force is intentionally applied" to an animal (Tremayne-Lloyd, 59). Moreover, section 446 of the Criminal Code in Canada makes it a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. (2008). Animal Research FAQ.

Retrieved April 21, 2012, from

Archibald, Kathy. (2005). Test People, Not Animals. New Scientist, 187(2518), 1-2.

Kolar, Roman. (2006). Animal Experimentation. Science and Engineering Ethics, 12(1), 111-
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Animal Rights and Experimentation Animal Rights Are

Words: 2142 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42587277

Animal Rights and Experimentation

Animal rights are being constantly violated in this day and age. They are being subjected to endless experimentation in order to ensure a healthy life for humans. This is known as vivisection. The local industries use tests, which kill around 50% of the animals during the tests. It is sad to know that tests are still being conducted on animals in spite of having results. Experts have found out that animal testing is unnecessary.

According to PETA, the FDA is to blame for animal rights violation in the U.S. They have made animal testing mandatory for testing of all pharmaceutical drugs. There are no laws to prevent animal experimentation. There are a lot of loopholes in the Animal Welfare Act, as it does not protect the rights of mice, birds and rats. The research facilities have been given a carte blanche to carry out their merciless testing. They have been allowed to make their own choices.

Animal rights activists argue that animals should not be left at the mercy of these research facilities as they feel that the only purpose for animals is that they serve as biological play toys for scientists. There are a number…… [Read More]


1. Brecher, M.D., Arie, speech given at a conference of the International Congress of Doctors Against Vivisection, Italian Parliament, November 8, 1989

2. The Independent, 18 November 2001, Millions of animals condemned to death in EU ruling on testing

3. The Earth Island Journal, January 1997

4. Lab animals die from heat', Billings Gazette13 February 2004,
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Animal Rights Introduction Glance at

Words: 2298 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10578976

.. it's healthy, it's somebody's way of life, it's somebody's livelihood, it's somebody's business.(ibid)

This is a strongly worded statement and indictment of an uncaring humanity. However, bearing in mind the daily evidence of cruelty to animals one cannot but feel that there is an element of truth to this argument.

Commercial reasons for abuse

One of the central reasons or "justifications" for animal abuse and possibly why so many turn a blind eye to animal cruelty, is commerce and the profit motive.

The plain fact is that this country and other industrial countries are deeply dependent on animal exploitation to sustain their present economic structures. The plain fact is that we are more dependent on animal exploitation than were the states of the southern United States on human slavery. (Francione, G.)

Animals are essentially seen as property. While there are many laws designed to protect these animals these laws are also prejudiced towards the interests of the owners before the welfare of the animals. An example of the way animals are often treated only as commercial commodities is the following.

In Australia, lambs are put through a gruesome procedure called mulesing, in which huge chunks of skin are sliced…… [Read More]


Animals in Research. Retrieved December 20, 2004 from The Human Society of the United States. Web site:"

ANIMAL RIGHTS FAQ FILE.Retrieved December 20, 2004 from Animal Rights Com. Web site: 

Columbia University Fined for Cruel Puppy Killings. Retrieved: December 20, 2004 from Columbia University Cruelty. Web Site:

Francione, G. Animal Rights and the Future. Retrieved December 19, 2004 from Purify Our Mind. Web site:
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Animal Welfare Assurance Programs

Words: 1107 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4916228

Animal Welfare Assurance Organizations

Animal welfare: Assurance organizations

Organization 1: Manes and Tails Mission (Hoboken, NJ)

Manes and Tails Mission, located in Hoboken, NJ is a locally-based organization that oversees a variety of efforts to reduce cruelty against horses. Given the faltering economy, many horses have been abandoned and/or abused, as fewer and fewer people have the ability to care for their animals properly. Horses from the racetrack or who have been used in vocations like the Mounted Police often have difficulties finding good homes after they retire. This organization resolves to "rescue, rehabilitate, retrain, and re-home the most commonly slaughtered breeds of horses - Quarter horses, Thoroughbreds, and Standardbreds." (Mission statement, 2011, Manes and Tails.). It does not sell horses, although it does lease them. It also provides retirement homes for Mounted Police horses. It educates the public about equine slaughter. It also provides community service through reduced rate boarding, maintenance of rare breeds, and promotes holistic horse care education.

The program is fairly balanced in terms of how it promotes preserving horses physically and mentally, and also attempts to keep horses in as natural a state as possible, regardless of where they are housed (including promoting keeping horses…… [Read More]


Annual report. (2010). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).

Retrieved September 20, 2011 at 

Mission statement. (2011). Manes and Tails. Retrieved September 20, 2011 at

Policy positions. (2011). American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).
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Animal Cruelty

Words: 802 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33037581

Animal Cruelty

Persuasive Argument

The purpose of this paper is to present a persuasive argument against the practice of animal cruelty:

Animal cruelty activists state that when an individual is a witness to animal cruelty that the offense should be reported to the agency in the area in which they live. There are laws against cruelty to animals and the laws differ from state to state inside the United States. Many organizations have been formed for assisting the government in stopping the practice of animal cruelty by both individuals as well as that committed by businesses and larger corporate organizations.

Animal Cruelty Reported by News:

Recently reported is the fact that animals used by companies such as "Menu Foods" regularly treat animals with cruelty in regards to the research done by the companies in testing of dog and cat food before marketing it. According to one report an investigator from PETA

was witness for many dogs with "their legs caught in bars of slated steel cage floors."

Further the report stated that the investigator for PETA found that the cats were not receiving the proper care and that several had died from lack of treatment. According to the report the…… [Read More]


"Linking Animal Cruelty to Human Violence" [Online] located at: backgrounder4.htm

"Report Animal Cruelty" (nd) PAWS People Helping Animals [Online] located at: / 'Pain and Suffering, All in a Day's Work" (nd) "Other "Pet Food" Companies: Menu Foods [Onine] at: http://www.iamscruelty.asp 'Animal Cruelty Statutes" (nd) Animal Rights Law [Online] at:

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

"Other 'Pet Food' Companies: Menu Foods" [Online] located at:
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Animal and Plant Domestication One

Words: 1396 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3595861

The geneticist must first identify the wild crop, to be utilized as a comparative, (99) stressing that such information to be considered accurate in time and space must be gleaned from archaeological record and only based on the genetic process determined from the modern research in plant and/or even animal genetics.

In regards to the animal domesticate the issues become much more complicated, sometimes offering a richer picture of the effects of domestication upon animals but more often offering a more laborious process with more missing pieces of information. The difference between the plant and animal studies is largely do to the complicated nature of the animal as compared to the plant. The variables associated with animal selection are far greater in number and far less predictable than with those of plants as within the genetic record of an animal far more variations occur and surprises are historically evident in the record, both genetic and archaeological. Therefore the study of how morphological changes occur, upon domestication requires a set of guidelines that can be judged through the process by archaeology and genetics to determine what occurred naturally and what occurred as a result of human and animal interaction. (Zeder 171)…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Emshwiller, E. 2006 Genetic data and plant domestication. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.99-122. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Smith, Bruce D. 206 Documenting domesticated plants in the archaeological record. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.15-24

Bradley, D.G 2006 Documenting domistication: reading Animal genetic texts. in, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.273-278 University of California Press, Berkeley.

Zeder, M.A. 2006 Archaeological approaches to documenting animal domestication.In, Documenting Domestication: New Genetic and Archaeological Paradigms, edited by M.A. Zeder, D.G.Bradley, E.Emshwiller, and B.D.Smith, pp.171-180 University of California Press, Berkeley.
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Animal Cruelty

Words: 1087 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17265585

Animal Cruelty

Once upon a time, there was a young girl named Sarah who lived in a small house with her parents. Close to her hut was a deep thick forest that was home to many animals including Sheeba, the deer, Reno, the hippopotamus, Tania the sheep and Bounty, the Lion. Sarah knew all of them since they were her only friends in the neighborhood. Everyone else was much older than herself. Sarah would wake up early each day to feed her friends some breadcrumbs, biscuits and water. Sheeba and Tania would spend the whole day with her. Life was merrier on this side of the forest. Everyone lived happily and people were kind and compassionate. They always treated animals benevolently and not even a single soul in the animal world had ever been hurt by humans. Their rights were respected wholeheartedly in fact animals took them for granted since they had never been robbed of what they considered their privileges by birth. Freedom, right to live and right to adequate food and water were things that no animals ever gave much thought to since they were granted these rights on a silver platter. Life for them was beautiful.

But…… [Read More]

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Animal Testing Is a Much

Words: 1652 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77733729

However, it is also characteristic for them to be in total agreement with the procedure when it involves their well-being or the welfare of someone close to them. Ed Owen's (2005) testimony regarding his daughter and how she manages to stay alive due to the large amount of medicine that she takes is certainly breathtaking. Even more amazing is the fact that most of the medicine that she uses had been created with the help of animal testing (Owen).

The fact that that many animals suffer as a result of animal testing is indisputable. Nevertheless, their suffering is not in vain, as even more people (and even animals) benefit from the exploit. As long as people do not come up with a serious alternative to animal testing, humankind is forced by its very condition to perform tests on animals.

Works… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Gallagher, M. Rapp, P.R. The Use of Animal Models to Study the Effects of Aging on Cognition, Annual Review of Psychology.

2. Mitchell R.W. Allen C. Rollin B.E. Mullen S. Tobias M. Scholtmeijer M. Regan T. Sztybel D. Francione G.L. Broida J.P. Finsen S. (1998) Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare. ed. Marc Bekoff and Carron a. Meaney. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

3. Orlans, F.B. (1990). Policy Issues in the Use of Animals in Research, Testing and Education, the Hastings Center Report 20.3

4. Owen, E. (2005, 12 Sept.) the Dangers of Cuddly Extremism: By Their Emotive Rejection of All Animal Testing, the Mainstream Animal Rights Organisations Are Providing Encouragement for the Violent Fringe, Argues Ed Owen. New Statesman.
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Animal Testing

Words: 1585 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70169427

Animal testing or animal experimentation is a necessary evil. At least that is what some say. Others believe animal testing should cease as society evolves past the need to experiment on living creatures. The topic remains a hot button issue.

It rings especially true for those who adopt a vegan lifestyle and believe animals should have the same rights as people in terms of value of life and so forth. Although animal testing has ceased in some cosmetic companies and label their goods as not animal tested, most companies, especially pharmaceutical companies, rely on animals to test drugs and vaccines in order to promote evolution of medicine but refrain from putting human lives at risk. This essay will show the pro and con sides of animal testing/animal experimentation. Does it remain as unavoidable or can society move past animal testing and find new ways to test products and medicines?


Animal testing


The current literature shows pros and cons to animal testing and perhaps helps illustrate the need or aversion to animal testing. For example, the pro-side argues animal testing helps avoid loss of human life by enabling experimentation and discovery of vaccines and medicines that could help cure…… [Read More]


Balls, Michael. 'The Conflict Over Animal Experimentation: Is The Field Of Battle Changing?'. ATLA 40 (2012): 189-191. Print.

Latham, Stephen R. 'U.S. Law and Animal Experimentation: A Critical Primer'.Hastings Center Report 42.s1 (2012): S35-S39. Web.

Pal, TK. 'Animal Experimentations: Part I: General Considerations'. J Int Clin Dent Res Organ 7.1 (2015): 7. Web.

Saraf, ShyamK, and Vinay Kumaraswamy. 'Basic Research: Issues with Animal Experimentations'. Indian Journal of Orthopaedics 47.1 (2013): 6. Web.
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Animal Abuse and Crime Does

Words: 4756 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95193786

A study by the Chicago Police Department found that persons who had been arrested for animal cruelty often had a history of other crimes as well (Chicago Police Department 2008). These offenses included homicides, narcotics charges, battery, firearms charges, sex crimes, and gang related activities (Chicago Police Department 2008).

A similar study found that animal cruelty was more common among incarcerated individuals with aggressive tendencies, then for non-aggressive individuals (Keller and Felthous 1985). The study found nine distinct motivations for animal cruelty. It also found a higher incidence of family violence, particularly paternal abuse, and alcoholism (Keller and Felthous 1985). Merz-Perex, Heide, and Silverman, (2001) also found a relationship between childhood animal cruelty and later violence towards other human beings.

The graduation hypothesis contends that children who are cruel to animals progress, or "graduate," to more serious crimes towards humans (Wright and Hensley, 2003). This theory contends that animal cruelty is a link that set eventual serial killers apart from the rest of society (Wright and Hensley, 2003). That is not to say the all that are cruel to animals will become serial killers. It is just to say the serial killers have a tendency towards animal cruelty as a…… [Read More]


Arluke, a., Levin, J., Luke, C., Ascione, F. (1999). The relationship of animal abuse to violence and other forms of antisocial behavior. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14, pp. 963- 975.

Ascione, F.R., Weber, C.V. Thompson, T.M., Heath, J., Maruyama, M., & Hayashi, K (2007). Battered pets and domestic violence: Animal abuse reported by women experiencing intimate violence and by non-abused women. Violence Against Women, 13: 354-373.

Carlisle-Frank, P., Frank, J., and Nielson, L. 2004. Selective battering of the family pet. www.ingentaconnect.comAnthrozoos:a Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People & Animals, 17 (1): 26-42.

Chicago Police Department (2008). Statistical Summary of Offenders Charged with Crimes against Companion Animals, July 2001-July 2004. Chicago Police Department, Chicago, IL.
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Animal-Drawn Cart the Purpose of

Words: 2595 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36403867

Steel can create a very durable and rugged car that will often outlast the animals that are drawing it. However aluminum is as durable and element resistant as well as being extremely lightweight and is often the material of choice for many countries. Pneumatic or inflatable tires also have been a boon to carts by helping to absorb some shock as well as to distributing the weight over a wider surface without significantly increasing drag on the vehicle.

Aluminum casting is already a technique that is widely used in many parts of Africa and other developing countries. Africa, usually to make cooking utensils and the like. "Aluminium wheels with integral roller bearings could be made by these artisans and would provide a very low cost solution to the wheel and bearing problem." (Oram173) See figure 6 below:

These designs element the ordinary friction involved in a typical axle joint design made from wood as well as the quick wear and tear on the material over a shorter period of time.

There have also been considerable important in the foundation of journal bearings. Journal bearings are fundamental engineering component that supports and positions an object while allowing that object to rotate.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Carts." Nation Master Encyclopedia.

The Golovan one-ox cart," in Land, June 1997 from Dept. Of Agriculture, sought Africa 

Light Single Drum Water Carrier." Animal Cart Programme. Development Technology Unit, Department of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry, England

Oram. CE. "The development of low-cost animal-drawn carts." Meeting the challenges of animal traction Starkey P. And Kaumbutho P (eds), 1999 Harare, Zimbabwe. Intermediate Technology Publications, London.
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Animal Farm Orwell's Colorful Cast

Words: 1431 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48271359

The pigs formulate a rudimentary constitution by condensing the tenets of Animalism into Seven Commandments. Animalism is a doctrine centering on freedom and liberation, and especially on resisting human tyranny. Most of the animals on the farm become involved with the revolution and support it directly or indirectly.

Animals like Boxer the horse especially toil for the common good of the farm. A pro-labor worker ethic becomes the core philosophy of Animal Farm. Fellow Animal Farm residents refer to each other as "comrades" in direct reference to the communist revolution. The animals' solidarity proves strong, at least on a military front because they stave off Mr. Jones' attempt to take back the farm in the Battle of the Cowshed. Moreover, the Animal Farm leaders present their community as a nation-state using symbols like the flag and Mr. Jones' rifle. Community meetings are regular like parliament or congress.

However, the animals struggle with leadership conflicts and political issues that eventually tear apart the community. The power struggle between two pigs: Snowball and Napoleon, comes to a head when Napoleon disagrees with Snowball's suggestion to build an electricity generator. Differences among the diverse animal community exacerbate the power struggles between Snowball and…… [Read More]

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Animal Welfare Assurance Programs

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45803247

Animal Welfare Assurance Programs

Temple Grandin's program concerning livestock behavior, design of facilities and humane slaughter is present in a series of meat plants across the American continent, Europe, Australia, and in several other locations from around the world. Her objectives are also related to the welfare of animals as they are transported, prepared for slaughter, and as they are treated in general. Grandin's involvement the well-being of animals is most certainly worthy of being praised because of the contribution that she brought to making society more humane. Similar to Grandin's plan,'s approach at reducing stress in animals as they are raised, transported, and prepared to be turned into food is surely laudable, especially given that the website's promoters are focused on ensuring that animals are managed with increased understanding of their needs. These Connecticut-based animal supporters are principally concerned about having the masses, meat consumers, and the meat industry comprehend that animals need to be treated in a particular way before being put to death.

Grandin has developed many regulations that meat-producers need to take into consideration in order to safely and legally have success in their enterprise. Ranging from corrals designed to have animals experience reduced stress…… [Read More]


Grandin, Temple, " Recommended Animal Handling Guidelines Audit Guide: A Systematic Approach to Animal Welfare," Retrieved September 23, 2011, from the Animal Handling Website:

"Dr. Temple Grandin's Web Page," Retrieved September 23, 2011, from the Grandin Website:
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Animal Production

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44705114

Animal Production: Biotechnology

Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied on farms, others are still being developed in research stations. Animal production is important to agriculture, and biotechnology has improved range management, food safety and animal health as well as reproduction.

Biotechnology can increase the digestibility of low-quality roughage, and genetically modify plants to improve their feed value, such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
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Animal Farm

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12027300

Animal Farm

The plot of 'This report is a short summary of George Orwell's "Animal Farm." The novel was set in Hertfordshire which was the community where Orwell was known to have lived and where he wrote frequently. Orwell was an avid poultry farmer so his understanding of rural and farm living seems obvious but his insights in the oppression and governmental abuse is not as obvious. The layout of his south of England home served well as the background of the Old Major's dreams. The novel was originally a children's story because the book follows the style of a children's books. But like modern day cartoons that must take into consideration that parents will be watching along with the kids, Animal Farm has sophisticated humor and wit and can satisfy an adult audience. Animal Farm can also be considered a fable because the characters are talking animals with human characteristics. Since the animals think and talk they are subject to the problems that men face on a day-to-day basis.

Animal Farm was an excellent example of Political Satire. Orwell presents the necessary attitudes, wit and humor that generally can be seen as mocking some political institutions. Orwell was effective…… [Read More]

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Animal Testing the Use of

Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76159435

This is what makes drug testing on animals so very important in the pharmaceutical industry.


Cami, Jordi. (1991). Perspectives and future on testing for abuse liability in humans. British Journal of Addiction. 86(12), p1529-1531.

De Boer, Bonita. (2009). HIV Drugs, Vaccines and Animal Testing. Retrieved March 19, 2010,

from Avert Web site:

Greaves, Peter, Williams, Andrew and Eve, Malcolm. (2004). First dose of potential new medicines to humans: how animals help. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 3(3), p226-… [Read More]

Houdebine, L.-M. (2005). Use of Transgenic Animals to Improve Human Health and Animal

Production. Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 40(4), p269-281.

Wanjek, Christopher. (2008). Why Lab Animals are Still Used. Retrieved March 19, 2010, from Live Science Web site:
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Animal Rights - Medical Research

Words: 310 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13774084

Society at large does not and would not permit risking harm to humans in order to avoid using animals for research (Animals pp).

The pharmaceutical industry uses animals only when research cannot be accomplished in other ways, and always with care (Animals pp). If society wants to relieve conditions such as epilepsy, asthma, multiple sclerosis, and heart disease, then animals will continue to be need for research (Animals pp).

Although it is important and morally right to minimize the use of animals for research, it would be morally wrong to place the concern for animals above the concerns and needs of people who are dying from and/or living with incurable and untreatable conditions that could benefit from such research (Animals pp).… [Read More]

Works Cited

Animals in Medicines Research Information Centre - AMRIC.
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Animal Dreams by Barbara Kingsolver Theme the Importance of Ecology

Words: 2408 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60001740

Animal Dreams: Real Life Reflections of the Effects of Pollution on the World's Fertility

Continued inadequate attention to the world's rivers, lakes and streams will ultimately result to mankind's demise. To ensure the productivity and viability the earth in the future, mankind must start working together to protect the physical environment and ecological processes or face destruction. Government legislation and community action related to this issue up until this point in time have largely been inadequate. More proactive measures are necessary both from governmental officials and community members to significantly change the course of history in a positive manner.

From an ecological viewpoint, of key concern are humankind's natural bodies of water, which historically have nourished and supported human life. In recent years however continual pollution and exposure to environment toxins have diminished the supply and quality of water and life available in the worlds' natural bodies of water. There are no signs that water pollution is significantly declining despite previous legislation and efforts by some community members. Brough (1998) shows that over-consumption and pollution continue to accelerate, which is contributing the destruction of the world's natural water resources. The World Wide Fund for Nature recently reported that whole seas…… [Read More]


Anderson, Terry L. (1994). "Enviro-Capitalism vs. Enviro-Socialism, " Kansas Journal

of Law and Public Policy 4: 35 -- 40.

Arnold, Frank S. (1995). Economic Analysis of Environmental Policy and Regulation, New York: Wiley.

Billow, L. (2002). "Right as rain: Control water pollution with your own rain garden." E,
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Animal Behavior Interspecies Enemy Identification Depends on

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92359230

Animal Behavior

Interspecies Enemy Identification Depends on Facial Recognition

The formation of social groups is believed to confer a survival advantage to individual members of the group (reviewed by Marzluff, Walls, Cornell, Withey, and Craig, 2010). For humans, these advantages include the sharing of resources, information, skills, and childrearing tasks. Social groups are not limited to humans, but are also evident in species as diverse as ants, yellowfin tuna, and coyotes. However, our understanding of interspecies social interactions and the potential survival advantages that they confer are not understood to the same degree.

Domesticated animals, like dogs and cats, can readily distinguish friend or foe based on past interactions. Non-domesticated animals like the American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos) seems to have the same capability. To better understand the parameters of 'enemy' recognition in crows, a group of researchers at the University of Washington in Seattle studied this phenomenon during a trap and release encounter. Essentially, Marzluff and colleagues (2010) proposed that crows remembered the faces of the people who trapped them as the enemy.


The researchers who trapped the crows wore masks (independent variable) (Marzluff, Walls, Cornell, Withey, and Craig, 2010, 700-702). Being captured was interpreted by the crows as…… [Read More]


Marzluff, John M., Walls, Jeff, Cornell, Heather N., Withey, John C., and Craig, David P. (2010). Lasting recognition of threatening people by wild American crows. Animal Behavior, 79, 699-707.
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Animal Experience

Words: 389 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70658186

Animal Experience - Abstract

Though Rise of the Planet of the Apes (Wyatt, 2011) is classified in the Sci-Fi genre, this film portrays the reasonably foreseeable possibility of intelligent apes successfully revolting against humankind. The main character, Caesar, is a chimpanzee injected with an experimental Alzheimer's-treatment drug that surprisingly develops Caesar's humanlike intelligence and emotions. Though initially well-treated by the drug's inventor and a primatologist, Caesar is eventually relegated to an ape sanctuary, where he grows to resent the cruel conditions to which apes are subjected. As a result, a defiant Caesar administers the same experimental drug to other apes, creating an ape army that escapes from the sanctuary, wages war on Homo sapiens and eventually crosses the Golden Gate Bridge as humans are decimated by a deadly virus.

In its depiction of the intelligent apes' interactions with humans, the film explores at least three scientifically supported human/animal experiences. First, the surprising level of intelligence in apes is so well-documented that "It's not a question of whether they think - it's how they think" (Borenstein, 2012), as research scientists increasingly uncover the human-like abilities (Borenstein, 2012), consciousness and empathy of apes (Manisha, 2011). Secondly,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borenstein, S. (2012, June 25). Rise of the planet of the apes? Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from Web site:

Manisha, R. (2011). Monkey business: Emotion and consciousness in primates. Berkeley Scientific Journal, 15(2), 1-5.

Marsh, J. (Director). (2011). Project Nim [Motion Picture].

Panaman, R. (2008). How to do animal rights - great apes. Retrieved on September 24, 2012 from Web site:
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Animal Liberation -- Peter Singer

Words: 1428 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66529792

4). Singer references the essay in the book by Richard Ryder, who criticizes (with great justification) animal experiments ("now a large industry"). Of course there have been laws passed in the U.S. Congress subsequent to when this book was published, laws that provide guidelines for any animal research, but Ryder provides Singer with some gruesome experiments on animals and Singer reports them in his essay.

How moral is a company or organization or university when it injects chemicals into the brains of cats? At the National Institute for Medical Research in London they did just that, and while it is doubtful they could get away with such cruelty in 2011, they certainly did then. The injection into the brain of a cat with a large does of "Tubocuraine" caused the cat to jump into its cage and start calling "noisily whilst moving about restlessly and jerkily… jerking in rapid clonic movements" like an epileptic convulsion, and dying 35 minutes after the injection (Singer, p. 5).

Springer noted that notwithstanding the fact that these kinds of hideously cruel experiments are taking place "on university campuses throughout the country" there has not been "the slightest protest from the student movement" (p. 5).…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Singer, Peter. "Animal Liberation." The New York Review of Books. Retrieved April 2, 2011,

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Animal Imagery in Lafontaine and

Words: 3070 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17902811

The Heifer, the Goat, and the Sheep, in Company With the Lion illustrates the absolute power of the feudal lord (the lion) over the peasantry (the goat and sheep). This fable may be referring to the division of taxes and possessions, or it may be a direct reference to the hunting rights of feudal lords. The feudal lord (lion) declares that a stag killed by the goat is his, by the right of the strong.

Again, as the bravest, the third must be mine.

To touch but the fourth whoso makes a sign,

I'll choke him to death

In the space of a breath!" (Shapiro, p. 9).

This attitude represents the attitudes of the wealthy towards the peasantry. They would rather see them dead than share even a small portion of their wealth with them. This fable is where the phrase "a lions' share" originates (Shapiro, p. 9). A similar version to this story can be found in the Greek version of Aesop's fables, once again bringing into question the intention of Lafontaine in his writing.

Messages to the Poor and Purpose in Writing

Lafontaine was not of lower class upbringing and was highly educated. He was not of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aesop's Fables. The Mules and the Robbers. last Updated October 1, 2006. Accessed April 15, 2008.

Shapiro, N. (trans.) the Complete Fables of Jean de La Lafontaine, University of Illinois Press. Chicago, Illinois. October 2007.
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Animal Liberation A Triangular Affair by J Barid Callicott

Words: 959 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37460457

Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair

In his essay "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair," J. Baird Callicott discusses the animal liberation movement in relation to Aldo Leopold's "land ethic" as a means of demonstrating that although the two strains of thought appear at first glance to share more than a passing similarity, when considered more closely, the theoretical and practical underpinnings of animal liberation and environmental ethics are so fundamentally different that the two may ultimately be considered contradictory. These contradictions result in the "triangular affair" the title refers to, because Callicott determines that the animal liberation movement is not only locked in a conflict with conservative philosophizers maintaining a fundamental break between humans and animals, but also with environmental ethicists who propose a much broader scope for the application of ethics to realms beyond human interaction. Hopefully by examining Callicott's essay in greater detail, the validity of his argument concerning the unnecessarily reductive nature of animal liberation will become clear.

Before covering Callicott's critique of the animal liberation movement in more detail, it will be useful to briefly discuss Aldo Leopold's "land ethic," because it serves as the "exemplary type" to which subsequent formulations of environmental ethics may be compared…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Callicott, J. Baird. "Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair."
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Animal Conservation Importance to Human Society to

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41135544

Animal conservation [...] importance to human society to conserve endangered animals, and will include some examples of organizations that help in animal conservation.

The conservation of endangered animals is extremely important to our society in many ways. The ecology of the Earth has worked for millions of years, but as our planet loses many types of animals and other life, we are slowly changing the ecological balance, and because of this, we could slowly be destroying the planet. Humans have destroyed many species, including the dodo bird, the passenger pigeon, and we nearly destroyed the California condor. Each of these species plays a specific role in their ecological niche, and when we destroy one, it creates a chain reaction that can eventually destroy any animal that depends on another for its survival. For example, in Hawaii there is a very special type of lily that depends on a certain kind of moth to pollinate it. This moth has been destroyed because its habitat has been developed into cities and suburbs. The lily is now endangered because is it not multiplying, because there is no insect to pollinate it. To make sure the lily does not die off, conservationists are now…… [Read More]

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Animal Liberation by Peter Singer

Words: 721 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96560144

In particular, Singer could have explained that moral concern for animals does not necessarily require that humans become vegetarians.

On the other hand, there is a tremendous moral difference between raising animals for consumption in conditions that provide for their reasonable comfort and humane slaughter and doing so without any regard at all for their comfort in life or trauma during slaughter. In many instances, morally questionable practices, especially in the farming industry, could be resolved simply by valuing the goal of avoiding the unnecessary infliction of pain a little more and the maximization of profits a little less.

Similarly, Singer does not explain that appropriate moral concern for animals does not necessarily preclude all experimental uses, but only requires a good-faith effort to minimize their suffering and to consider whether the potential benefits of the experiments to humans justifies their cost to animal subjects where it is not possible to eliminate it entirely. In that analysis, certain uses of animals for research capable of curing human disease may justify experimental uses of animals that is not justified in conjunction with experiments designed to help develop cosmetic products for profit. By distinguishing morally permissible uses of animals from morally insensitive…… [Read More]